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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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Training

Abello, M., M. Velasco, and F. Esteban (1999). A training programme for a male gorilla at the Barcelona Zoo. International Zoo News 46(7): 418-420. ISSN: 0020-9155.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I58
Descriptors: semen collection, animal training program, gorillas in zoos, Gorilla gorilla, Barcelona Zoo, Spain.

Baker, K., M. Bloomsmith, K. Neu, C. Griffis, and M. Maloney (2010). Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 19(3): 307-313. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training (PRT), behavioral management, single housing, unstructured human interaction, training as enrichment.

Baker, K.C., M. Bloomsmith, K. Neu, C. Griffis, M. Maloney, B. Oettinger, V.A.M. Schoof, and M. Martinez (2009). Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(3): 236-252. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863313/
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, monkeys, laboratory animals, animal behavior, behavior modification, training (animals), conditioned behavior, environmental enrichment, human-animal relations, gender differences, cages, human interacation, abnormal behavior.

Ball, R.L. and A. Frazier (2002). Operant conditioning as a tool for improved veterinary care in zoo animals. Advances in Ethology 37: 22. ISSN: 0301-2808.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z35B
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, preventative health care programs, psychological health, stress reduction, training and desensitization, role of the veterinarian in training programs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th International Symposium on Physiology and Behaviour of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; September 29-October 2, 2002.

Bassett, L., H.M. Buchanan Smith, J. McKinley, and T.E. Smith (2003). Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 221-233. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Using positive reinforcement, J. McKinley trained 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to provide urine samples on request. The study then exposed the marmosets to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The nonhuman animals spent less time inactive poststressor as opposed to prestressor. L. Bassett collected matched behavioral data from 12 nontrained marmosets who were less accustomed to human interaction. These animals spent significantly more time self-scratching and locomoting as well as less time inactive, poststressor. Collapsed data from the 2 populations showed increased scent marking, poststressor. These results suggest that locomotion, self-scratching, and scent marking are useful, noninvasive behavioral measures of stress and, thus, reduced welfare in the common marmoset. Overall, nontrained animals showed more self-scratching than did their trained counterparts. It was not possible to collect urine from nontrained marmosets. In response to the stressor, however, trained animals showed no significant change in excreted urinary cortisol. These results suggest that training marmosets may allow them to cope better with routine laboratory procedures. Comment On: J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2003;6(3):209-20
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, common marmosets, training effects, operant conditioning, monkey diseases, animal welfare, hydrocortisone in urine, stress.

Bell, B. and P. Khan (2001). Training multi-task medical behaviors in the bonobo (Pan paniscus). In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Zoological Society: Brookfield, Illinois, USA, p. 128-130. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACBell.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: training for medical behavior, bonobos, Pan paniscus, ultrasound measurements, squeeze restraint, routine blood draws, Milwaukee County Zoo, USA.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and K.C. Baker (2005). Training as environmental enrichment: Does training moderate abnormal behavior in nonhuman primates? In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 118-119.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, animal training, environmental enrichment, effects on abnormal behavior, operant condition, training as enrichment, environmental controllability.

Bloomsmith, M., K. Baker, C. Griffis, M. Maloney, K. Neu, V. Schoof, M. Martinez, K. Bakee, and V. Schoop (2005). Comparing training to human interaction as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 6(Suppl.): 178-179. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: interactions with human caregivers, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training, comparison study, Macaca mulatta, singly-housed, rhesus monkeys.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The American Society of Primatologists, Portland, OR, USA, August 17-20, 2005.

Bloomsmith, M.A., K.C. Baker, S.K. Ross, and S.P. Lambeth (1999). Comparing animal training to non-training human interaction as environmental enrichment for chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 35-36. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal care, animal training, environmental enrichment, non-training human interactions, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Bloomsmith, M.A., M.J. Marr, and T.L. Maple (2007). Addressing nonhuman primate behavioral problems through the application of operant conditioning: Is the human treatment approach a useful model? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 205-222. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.028
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal training, operant conditioning, nonhuman primates, stereotypic behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), captivity, behavioral management, treatment of behavioral problems.

Bloomsmith, M.A., S.J. Schapiro, and E.A. Strobert (2006). Preparing chimpanzees for laboratory research. ILAR Journal 47(4): 316-325. ISSN: 1084-2020.
Online: http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/47_4/pdfs/v4704Bloomsmith.pdf
Descriptors: chimpanzees, desensitization, habituation, Pan troglodytes, animal training, animal welfare, acclimatization, animal health, animal housing.

Bloomsmith, M.A., A.M. Stone, and G.E. Laule (1998). Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed chimpanzees within their enclosures. Zoo Biology 17(4): 333-341. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: primates, chimpanzees, positive reinforcement animal training, motivation, physical activity, incentives, animal welfare, mammals, operant conditioning.

Buchanan Smith, H.M., J. McKinley, V. Bowell, A. Rennie, and M.J. Prescott (2004). Positive reinforcement training as a refinement for laboratory-housed primates. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 131. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: animal welfare, captive laboratory primates, husbandry, scientific validity, training to cooperate in routine procedures, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Buchanan Smith, H.M. (2003). The benefits of positive reinforcement training and its effects on human nonhuman animal interactions. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, UK, p. 21-26.
Online: http://www.biaza.org.uk
Descriptors: operant conditions, husbandry, animal training, zoos, overview, human-animal relationships.

Carrasco, L., M. Colell, M. Calvo, M.T. Abello, M. Velasco, and S. Posada (2009). Benefits of training/playing therapy in a group of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Animal Welfare 18(1): 9-19. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla, captive animals, play, animal well-being, environmental enrichment, females.

Clay, A.W., M.A. Bloomsmith, M.J. Marr, and T.L. Maple (2009). Habituation and desensitization as methods for reducing fearful behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 71(1): 30-39. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20622
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavior modification, desensitization, fearful behavior, avoidance reactions, habituation, rhesus macaques, animal welfare, animal housing.

Clay, A.W., M.A. Bloomsmith, M.J. Marr, and T.L. Maple (2009). Systematic investigation of the stability of food preferences in captive orangutans: implications for positive reinforcement training. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(4): 306-313.
Abstract: Using preference-assessment tests with humans in conjunction with behavioral modification sessions has been a regular component of almost all operant conditioning programs with mentally challenged humans. This has been very effective in improving the efficiency of behavioral training in these settings and could be similarly effective in zoological and research environments. This study investigated the preferences of 9 captive orangutans for different food items. The study used a pairwise presentation to record each nonhuman animal's preferences for 5 different foods on 6 different occasions over the course of 6 months. Results of a Friedman's 2-way ANOVA indicated that the orangutans showed a clear overall preference for apple. However, there was significant variability among different orangutans in preference ranking for the 5 foods, as shown by a Kendall's tau. In addition, there was variability in preference rankings across time for each orangutan. Because the orangutans' preferences change over time and vary according to individual, regular assessments should identify items to be used as rewards in behavioral husbandry training or as part of feeding enrichment strategies.
Descriptors: orangutans, positive reinforcement training (PRT), operant conditionig, food preferences, change in preference, rewards, feeding enrichment.

Colahan, H. and C. Breder (2003). Primate training at Disney's Animal Kingdom. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 235-246. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: A training program has been in place at Disney's Animal Kingdom since the nonhuman animals first arrived at the park. The Primate Team and the Behavioral Husbandry Team have worked together closely to establish a philosophy and framework for this program. This framework emphasizes setting goals, planning, implementing, documenting, and evaluating. The philosophy focuses on safety, staff training, and an integrated approach to training as an animal management tool. Behaviors to be trained include husbandry and veterinary as well as behaviors identified for specific species, individuals, or situations. Input from all the teams was used to prioritize these behaviors. Despite the challenges to maintaining such a program, the benefits to animal care and welfare have been enormous.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal behavior, operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, safety, animal welfare, Disney's Animal Kingdom training program, Florida, USA.

Coleman, K. and A. Maier (2010). The use of positive reinforcement training to reduce stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 124(3-4): 142-148. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.02.008
Abstract: Stereotypic behavior is a pervasive problem for captive monkeys and other animals. Once this behavior pattern has started, it can be difficult to alleviate. We tested whether or not using positive reinforcement training (PRT) can reduce this undesired behavior. Subjects for this study were 11 adult, female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a history of locomotor stereotypy (e.g., pacing, bouncing, and somersaulting). We assessed baseline levels of stereotypic behavior and then utilized PRT to train six animals to touch a target and accept venipuncture. The other five monkeys served as controls. We assessed stereotypic behavior 1 week a month for 4 months, on days in which the monkey was not trained. Trained animals showed a significant reduction in stereotypic behavior after 1 month of training, compared to control monkeys (Mann Whitney U=28.00, P=0.02). These group differences did not persist after the first month (Month 2: Mann Whitney U=19.50, P=0.40, Month 3: Mann Whitney U=17.0, P=0.71, Month 4: Mann Whitney U=17.00, P=0.72). Still, the majority of the trained monkeys (n=4) engaged in less stereotypic behavior at the end of the study compared to baseline. Thus, training may be an effective way to reduce stereotypic behavior, at least for some individuals.
Descriptors: stereotypic behavior, positive reinforcement training (PRT), adult female rhesus macaques, venipuncture.

Coleman, K., L. Pranger, A. Maier, S.P. Lambeth, J.E. Perlman, E. Thiele, and S.J. Schapiro (2008). Training rhesus macaques for venipuncture using positive reinforcement techniques: A comparison with chimpanzees. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 47(1): 37-41. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2652623/
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Abstract: As more emphasis is placed on enhancing the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, many research facilities have started using positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques to train primates to voluntarily participate in husbandry and research procedures. PRT increases the animal's control over its environment and desensitizes the animal to stressful stimuli. Blood draw is a common husbandry and research procedure that can be particularly stressful for nonhuman primate subjects. Although studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees can be trained for in-cage venipuncture using PRT only, fewer studies have demonstrated success using similar techniques to train macaques. It is often assumed that macaques cannot be trained in the same manner as apes. In this study, we compare PRT data from singly housed adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) with data from group-housed adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 4). All subjects were trained to place an arm in a 'blood sleeve' and remain stationary for venipuncture. Both facilities used similar PRT techniques. We were able to obtain repeated blood samples from 75% of the macaques and all of the chimpanzees. The training time did not differ significantly between the 2 species. These data demonstrate that macaques can be trained for venipuncture in a manner similar to that used for chimpanzees.
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training (PRT), training nonhuman primates, blood sampling, venipuncture, comparison study, success of training, time to train a behavior, macaques compared to chimpanzees.

Coleman, K., L.A. Tully, and J.L. Mcmillan (2005). Temperament correlates with training success in adult rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 65(1): 63-71. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20097
Descriptors: behavioral inhibition, positive reinforcement training, temperament, primates, comparative study, learning, Macaca mulatta.

Craig, J. (2004). Training an older orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) for voluntary injection. In: Animal Behavior Management Alliance (ABMA) Conference Proceedings 2004,April 4, 2004-April 9, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Animal Behavior Managment Alliance: Baltimore, Maryland, p. 68. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: chemical immobilization, shaping behavior, presentation of body parts, zoos.

Drews, B., L.M. Harmann, L.L. Beehler, B. Bell, R.F. Drews, and T.B. Hildebrant (2010). Ultrasonographic monitoring of fetal development in unrestrained bonobos (Pan paniscus) at the Milwaukee County Zoo. Zoo Biology [Epub ahead of print]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20304
Descriptors: prenatal growth, positive reinforcement training, bonobos, Pan paniscus, zoo animals, Milwaukee County Zoo, ultrasound, pregancy test.

Fernström, A.L., H. Fredlund, M. Spångberg, and K. Westlund (2009). Positive reinforcement training in rhesus macaques-training progress as a result of training frequency. American Journal of Primatology 71(5): 373-379. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20659
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, rhesus macaques, training frequency, animal husbandry management, animal behavior.

Franklin, J.A. and S.R. Taylor (2000). The health management of orangutans through training. In: American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings,American Zoo and Aquarium Association: Wheeling, West Virginia, USA, Vol. 2000, p. 1-2.
NAL Call Number: QL76.5.U6A47
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, care in captivity, health management through training.

Friscino, B., C. Gai, A. Kulick, M. Donnelly, R. Rokar, L. Anderson, and S. Iliff (2003). Positive reinforcement training as a refinement of a macaque biliary diversion model. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 80. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: macaques, refinement techniques, bile duct diversion, animal models, positive reinforcement training, blood and bile collection, jacket-training, biliary cannula system, pouch presentation, time taken to train animals, effect on stress, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2003 AALAS National Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA; October 12-16, 2003.

Gillis, T.E., A.C. Janes, and M.J. Kaufman (2012). Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training. American Journal of Primatology 74(8): 712-720. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22015
Descriptors: clicker training, cperant conditioning, positive reinforcement training, squirrel monkeys.

Good, S. (2000). A survey of operant conditioning in AZA institutions. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings,American Zoo and Aquarium Association: Wheeling, West Virginia, USA, Vol. 2000, p. 27-31.
Descriptors: use of operant conditioning in zoos, North America, survey.

Graham, M.L., E.F. Rieke, L.A. Mutch, E.K. Zolondek, A.W. Faig, T.A. Dufour, J.W. Munson, J.A. Kittredge, and H.-J. Schuurman (2012). Successful implementation of cooperative handling eliminates the need for restraint in a complex non-human primate disease model. Journal of Medical Primatology 41(2): 89-106. ISSN: 0047-2565.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2011.00525.x
Descriptors: animal training, macaques, cooperation, research studies, immunosuppression research, elimination of chair restraint, reduction in sedartion need.

Gresswell, C. and G. Goodman (2011). Case study: Training a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to use a nebulizer to aid the treatment of airsacculitis. Zoo Biology 30: 1-9. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20388
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: desensitization, positive reinforcement to administer antibiotics, chimpanzee, use of a nebulizer, number of training sessions, time invested in training, implications for management of captive animals.

Hage, S.R., T. Ott, A.-K. Eiselt, S.N. Jacob, and A. Nieder (2014). Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research. Laboratory Animals 48(1): 82-87.
DOI: 10.1177/0023677213514043
Descriptors: water restriction, operant conditioning, species-typical behavior, macaques.

Koban, T.L., M. Miyamoto, G. Donmoyer, and A. Hammar (2005). Effects of positive reinforcement training on cortisol, hematology and cardiovascular parameters in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 66(Suppl.): 148. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: cortisol, hematology analysis, heart rate, environmental enrichment, cardiovascular parameters, hematological parameters, cynomolgus macaques, Macaca fascicularis.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts of Presentations, Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The American Society of Primatologists, Portland, OR, USA, August 17-20, 2005.

Kuehn, B.M. (2002). Zoo animal welfare boosted by environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1532. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: effects of captivity, animal well-being, protected contact, social interactions, densensitization, enrichment strategies, training of animals.

Lambeth, S.P., J. Hau, J.E. Perlman, M. Martino, and S.J. Schapiro (2006). Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 68(3): 245-256.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20148
Abstract: Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.
Descriptors: animal behavior, blood cell count, blood glucose, hematocrit, Pan troglodytes, psychological stress, positive reinforcement training (PRT).

Lambeth, S.P., J.E. Perlman, and S.J. Schapiro (2000). Positive reinforcement training paired with videotape exposure decreases training time investment for a complicated task in female chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 79-80. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, training complicated tasks, time investment, videotape use, animal behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Laule, G.E. (2003). Positive reinforcement training and environmental enrichment: enhancing animal well-being. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(7): 969-973. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal husbandry, zoo animals, animal behavior, enriched environment, operant conditioning, animal welfare.

Laule, G.E., M.A. Bloomsmith, and S.J. Schapiro (2003). The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 163-173. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive, nonhuman animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform these procedures with as little stress for the animals as possible. Positive reinforcement training can use targeted activities and procedures to achieve the voluntary cooperation of nonhuman primates. The benefits of such work include diminished stress on the animals, enhanced flexibility and reliability in data collection, and a reduction in the use of anesthesia. Training also provides the means to mitigate social problems, aid in introductions, reduce abnormal behavior, enhance enrichment programs, and increase the safety of attending personnel. This article describes the application of operant conditioning techniques to animal management.
Descriptors: nonhuman primate husbandry, laboratory animals, operant conditioning, voluntary cooperation, positive reinforcement training, animal welfare, animal behavior.

Laule, G.E., R.H. Thurston, P.L. Alford, and M.A. Bloomsmith (1996). Training to reliably obtain blood and urine samples from a diabetic chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 15(6): 587-591. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Descriptors: blood collection, diabetes, positive reinforcement, urine collection, heel puncture, venipuncture, chimpanzee.

Laule, G. and M. Whittaker (2007). Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 31-38. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Abstract: Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, literature reviews, socialization, training of animals, positive reinforcement training, nonhuman primates.
Notes: Meeting Information: Primate behavior studies: essential to primate welfare. Proceedings of the special Animal Behavior Society session, 2006.

Laule, G. and M. Whittaker (1999). Positive reinforcement training and medical management of captive animals. Erkrankungen Der Zootiere 39: 277-282. ISSN: 0138-5003.
Descriptors: behavioral techniques, husbandry and medical management using animal training, animal handling, zoos.
Language of Text: Summaries in English and German.

McKinley, J., H.M. Buchanan Smith, L. Bassett, and K. Morris (2003). Training common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to cooperate during routine laboratory procedures: ease of training and time investment. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 209-220. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: The first author trained 12 laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in pairs to assess the practicality of positive reinforcement training as a technique in the management of these nonhuman animals. Behaviors taught were (a) target training to allow in homecage weighing and (b) providing urine samples. Between 2 to 13, 10-minute training sessions established desired behaviors. Training aggressive animals only after they had been fed eliminated aggression during training. Trained animals proved extremely reliable, and data collection using trained animals was considerably faster than collection using current laboratory techniques. The results suggest that positive reinforcement training is a practical option in the management of laboratory-housed marmosets. Comment In: J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2003;6(3):221-33
Descriptors: animal behavior, Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, animal welfare, husbandry, laboratory animal management.

Mcmillan, J., A. Galvan, T. Wichmann, and M. Bloomsmith (2010). The use of positive reinforcement during pole and collar training of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49(5): 705-706. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Descriptors: pole and collar training method, positive reinforcement techniques, desensitization, negative reinforcement, coercion, animal welfare.
Notes: Meeting Information: AALAS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2010.

Melfi, V.A. (2013). Is training zoo animals enriching?. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3-4): 299-305. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.04.011
Descriptors: zoo animals, husbandry training, value of training, training as enrichment.

Melfi, V.A. and S. Thomas (2005). Can training zoo-housed primates compromise their conservation? A case study using Abyssinian colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza). Antrhozoos 18(3): 304-317. ISSN: 0892-7936.
DOI: 10.2752/089279305785594063
Descriptors: nonhuman primate training, animal behavior, Abyssinian colobus monkeys, Colobus guereza, positive reinforcement, level of keeper-colobus interactions, captive primate management.
Notes: This paper is based on a talk given at the International Society for Anthrozoology Annual Conference "Advances in the Science and Application of Animal Training," held on October 13, 2004.

Mimer, D., L. Tatum, and B. Mccowan (2010). Human-directed contra-aggression training using positive reinforcement for indoor-housed rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 72(Suppl. 1): 53. ISSN: 0275-2565 (print); 1098-2345 (electronic).
Descriptors: anxiety behavior, fear response, positive reinforcement training (PRT), human animal interaction, contra-aggression training.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Louisville, KY, USA; June 16 -19, 2010.

Minier, D.E., L. Tatum, D.H. Gottlieb, A. Cameron, J. Snarr, R. Elliot, A. Cook, K. Elliot, K. Banta, A. Heagerty, and B. McCowan (2011). Human-directed contra-aggression training using positive reinforcement with single and multiple trainers for indoor-housed rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132(3-4): 178-186. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.04.009
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: human-animal relationships, positive reinforcement training (PRT), reduction of human-directed aggression in rhesus monkeys, generaliztion, animal well-being.

Nelsen, S., D. Bradford, and P. Houghton (2010). Laser lixitTM training: An alternative form of target training that can be utilized in the daily husbandry care of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 72(Suppl. 1): 27. ISSN: 0275-2565 (print); 1098-2345 (electronic).
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: laser lixit training method, target training, positive reinforcment, rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Louisville, KY, USA; June 16 -19, 2010.

O'Brien, J.K., S. Heffernan, P.C. Thomson, and P.D. McGreer (2008). Effect of positive reinforcement training on physiological and behavioural stress responses in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas). Animal Welfare 17(2): 125-138. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas, behavioral responses, salivary cortisol, positive reinforcement training (PRT), decline in undesirable behaviors, animal welfare.

Owen, Y. and J.R. Amory (2011). A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 14(2): 124-137. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2011.551625
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: capture techniques, acute stress, animal welfare, operant conditioning, training nonhuman primates, positive reinforcement training.

Perlman, J.E., M.A. Bloomsmith, M.A. Whittaker, J.L. McMillan, D.E. Minier, and B. McCowan (2012). Implementing positive reinforcement animal training programs at primate laboratories. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3-4): 114-126. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.11.003
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal training, behavioral management, negative reinforcement, animal training programs, nonhuman primates.

Perlman, J.E., B.A. Boudreau, and S.J. Schapiro (1999). Affiliative behaviors of group housed rhesus macaques are altered by positive reinforcement training. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 86. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: group housing, positive reinforcement training, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, correlation between affiliative behavior and social and physiological parameters, female laboratory primates, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-second Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Perlman, J.E., T.R. Bowsher, S.N. Braccini, T.J. Kuehl, and S.J. Schapiro (2003). Using positive reinforcement training techniques to facilitate the collection of semen in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 60(Suppl. 1): 77-78. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: semen collection techniques, positive reinforcement training, Pan troglodytes, chimps, laboratory primates, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Perlman, J., F.A. Guhad, S. Lambeth, T. Fleming, D. Lee, M. Martino, and S. Schapiro (2001). Using positive reinforcement training techniques to facilitate the assessment of parasites in captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 56. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: using animal training to assess the presence of pinworms, laboratory housed chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal care, parasitology, training as a tool for research and veterinary management, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Perlman, J., S. Lambeth, V. Horner, A. Martin, K. Neu, J. Mcmillan, and M. Bloomsmith (2010). Videotaped demonstrator improves efficiency of training chimpanzees to urinate on cue. American Journal of Primatology 72(Suppl. 1): 52. ISSN: 0275-2565 (print); 1098-2345 (electronic).
Descriptors: behavioral management, videotaped demonstration, urinating on command, chimpanzees.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Louisville, KY, USA; June 16 -19, 2010.

Pomerantz, O. and J. Terkel (2009). Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71(8): 687-695. ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20703
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training (PRT), captive wild animals, chimpanzees, zoos, animal behavior, social rank.

Prescott, M.J., V.A. Bowell, and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (2005). Training laboratory-housed non-human primates, Part 2: Resources for developing and implementing training programmes. Animal Technology and Welfare 4(3): 133-152.
Online: http://www.psychology.stir.ac.uk/staff/staff-profiles/academic-staff/?a=26831
NAL Call Number: SF757 .A62
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, developing training programs, training protocols, primate use and management.

Prescott, M.J. and H.M. Buchanan Smith (2003). Training nonhuman primates using positive reinforcement techniques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 157-161. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Online: http://www.psychology.stir.ac.uk/staff/staff-profiles/academic-staff/?a=26819
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: operant conditioning, nonhuman primates, animal welfare, animal behavior, primate psychology.

Prescott, M.J. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (2007). Training laboratory-housed non-human primates, Part 1: A UK Survey. Animal Welfare 16(1): 21-36.
Online: http://www.psychology.stir.ac.uk/staff/staff-profiles/?a=26829
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, developing training programs, training protocols, primate use and management.

Prescott, M.J., H.M. Buchanan-Smith, and A.E. Rennie (2005). Training of laboratory-housed non-human primates in the UK. Anthrozoos 18(3): 288-303. ISSN: 0892-7936.
DOI: 10.2752/089279305785594153
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, training, laboratory-housed animals.

Raper, J.R., M.A. Bloomsmith, A. Stone, and L. Mayo (2002). Use of positive reinforcement training to decrease stereotypic behaviors in a pair of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 70-71. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, zoo animal behavior, positive reinforcement training, well-being, reproductive behavior, social behavior, stereotypic behaviors, primates in zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Reinhardt, V. (2004). Common husbandry-related variables in biomedical research with animals. Laboratory Animals 38(3): 213-235. ISSN: 0023-6772.
DOI: 10.1258/002367704323133600
Descriptors: animals in biomedical research, environmental enrichment, animal husbandry, refinement, restraint, animal housing, cage environment, immobilization stress, music, training.

Reinhardt, V. (2002). The myth of the aggressive monkey. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(4): 321-330. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, laboratory monkeys, aggression, animal stress, cages, restraint of animals, training animals, group housing, animal technicians, animal welfare, pair housing.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Training nonhuman primates to cooperate during handling procedures: A review. Animal Technology 48(2): 55-73. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Abstract: There is ample published evidence (46 reports) that nonhuman primates do not need to be forcefully restrained during common handling procedures. Twenty-six reports provide detailed information of how primates can be trained to voluntarily cooperate--rather than resist--during blood collection, injection, topical drug application, blood pressure measurement, urine collection, and capture. Such training techniques minimize distress reactions, thereby safeguarding the subjects' welfare and increasing the validity of research data collected.
Descriptors: laboratory primates, handling and training of nonhuman primates, injection training, animal welfare, training as a veterinary management toolanimal experiments, blood collection, blood pressure measurement, urine collection, literature reviews.

Reinhardt, V. (2003). Working with rather than against macaques during blood collection. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 189-197. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Training macaques to cooperate during blood collection is a practicable and safe alternative to the traditional procedure implying forced restraint. It takes a cumulative total of about 1 hr to train an adult female or adult male rhesus macaque successfully to present a leg voluntarily and accept venipuncture in the homecage. Cooperative animals do not show the significant cortisol response and defensive reactions that typically occur in animals who are forcibly restrained during this common procedure.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, blood specimen collection, cooperative behavior, physical restraint, animal welfare, stress.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2000). Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: A neglected variable in biomedical research. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(4): 321-333. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Cercopithecus aethiops, laboratory housed primates, blood sampling, restraint of animals, mental stress, hormone secretion, ketamine injection, experimental design, animal welfare, animal use refinement.

Rennie, A.E. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (2006). Refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific research. Part I: The influence of humans. Animal Welfare 15(3): 203-213. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: animal welfare, human-animal bonds, positive reinforcement training, refinement, staff education, animal housing, animal husbandry, primates.

Rennie, A. and H. Buchanan Smith (2006). Refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific research. Part III. Refinement of procedures. Animal Welfare 15(3): 239-261. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Online: http://www.psychology.stir.ac.uk/staff/?a=26833 (PDF)
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, blood sampling, husbandry, refinement of procedures, restraint.

Rogge, J., K. Sherenco, R. Malling, E. Thiele, S. Lambeth, S. Schapiro, and L. Williams (2013). A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: Time required to train to reliability. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(3): 211-220. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.798223
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training (PRT), owl monkeys, squirrel monkeys, time to train.

Savastano, G., A. Hanson, and C. McCann (2003). The development of an operant conditioning training program for new world primates at the Bronx Zoo. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 247-261. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: This article describes the development of an operant conditioning training program for 17 species of New World primates at the Bronx Zoo. To apply less invasive techniques to husbandry protocols, the study introduced behaviors-hand feeding, syringe feeding, targeting, scale and crate training, and transponder reading-for formal training to 86 callitrichids and small-bodied cebids housed in 26 social groups. Individual responses to training varied greatly, but general patterns were noted among species. With the exception of lion tamarins, tamarins responded more rapidly than marmosets, Bolivian gray titi monkeys, and pale-headed saki monkeys in approaching trainers and learning behaviors. Marmosets, in comparison to most tamarins, had longer attention spans. This meant that fewer, lengthier sessions were productive whereas shorter, more frequent sessions were most successful for tamarins. Among the cebids, pale-headed saki monkeys needed relatively few sessions to perform basic and advanced behaviors whereas Bolivian gray titi monkeys were less responsive and progressed at a deliberate pace. Marked changes in the animals' behavior during daily husbandry procedures, their voluntary participation in training activities, and the disappearance of aggressive threats toward care staff indicated that training reduced stress and improved the welfare of the animals. During daily training displays, zoo visitors experienced interactive animals while learning the importance of low-stress animal husbandry.
Descriptors: Cebidae, 17 species of New World primates, comparison study, positive reinforcement training, zoo housing and husbandry, animal welfare, animal behavior, Bronx Zoo, New York, USA.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, and G.E. Laule (2003). Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: Quantitative assessments of effectiveness. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 175-187. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied positive reinforcement training techniques (PRT) on breeding/research colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and measured their effectiveness. Empirical analyses quantified the amount of time required to train rhesus monkeys to come up, station, target, and stay. Additionally, a study found that time spent affiliating by female rhesus was changed as a function of training low affiliators to affiliate more and high affiliators to affiliate less. Another study successfully trained chimpanzees to feed without fighting and to come inside on command. PRT is an important behavioral management tool that can improve the care and welfare of primates in captivity. Published empirical findings are essential for managers to assess objectively the utility of positive reinforcement training techniques in enhancing captive management and research procedures.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, animal welfare, animal behavior, operant conditioning, learning, laboratory housed primates, meta analysis, social behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., J.E. Perlman, and B.A. Boudreau (2001). Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques. American Journal of Primatology 55(3): 137-149. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Social housing, whether continuous, intermittent, or partial contact, typically provides many captive primates with opportunities to express affiliative behaviors, important components of the species-typical behavioral repertoire. Positive reinforcement training techniques have been successfully employed to shape many behaviors important for achieving primate husbandry goals. The present study was conducted to determine whether positive reinforcement training techniques could also be employed to alter levels of affiliative interactions among group-housed rhesus macaques. Twenty-eight female rhesus were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 14) affiliators based on a median split of the amount of time they spent affiliating during the baseline phase of the study. During the subsequent training phase, half of the low affiliators (n = 7) were trained to increase their time spent affiliating, and half of the high affiliators (n = 7) were trained to decrease their time spent affiliating. Trained subjects were observed both during and outside of training sessions. Low affiliators significantly increased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during nontraining sessions. High affiliators on the other hand, significantly decreased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during training sessions. These data suggest that positive reinforcement techniques can be used to alter the affiliative behavior patterns of group-housed, female rhesus monkeys, although the two subgroups of subjects responded differently to the training process. Low affiliators changed their overall behavioral repertoire, while high affiliators responded to the reinforcement contingencies of training, altering their proximity patterns but not their overall behavior patterns. Thus, positive reinforcement training can be used not only as a means to promote species-typical or beneficial behavior patterns, but also as an important experimental manipulation to facilitate systematic analyses of the effects of psychosocial factors on behavior and potentially even immunology.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, female rhesus monkeys, group housing of laboratory primates, animal welfare, positive reinforcement animal training, social behavior, levels of affiliative interactions, promotion of beneficial behavior patterns.

Scott, L., P. Pearce, S. Fairhall, N. Muggleton, and J. Smith (2003). Training nonhuman primates to cooperate with scientific procedures in applied biomedical research. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 199-207. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Online: http://www.animalsandsociety.org/assets/library/162_jaws060305.pdf
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: This report provides a brief overview of aspects of training nonhuman primates who have been, and continue to be, used in this laboratory. The research context involves applied behavioral studies in which animals are trained to perform complex operant behavioral sequences, often in their homecage environment. In such studies, animals have freedom to choose whether to engage in appetitively reinforced behavioral tests that employ neither food deprivation nor fluid management. This background of operant conditioning has provided an insight to, and a context for, animal training both as an adjunct to general laboratory management and as a way to expedite scientific procedures. Thus, training has potential implications for both well-being and scientific quality, although it must be considered an adjunct to the provision of socialization with conspecifics in high quality diverse housing systems and not as an alternative to such provision. The importance of discussion and consideration of alternative procedures cannot be overemphasized.
Descriptors: Callithrix sp., operant conditioning, positive reinforcement training, housing, laboratory animal husbandry, animal welfare.

Seiver, D., P. Walsh, B. Weber, and M. MacPhee (2001). Operant conditioning of apes to facilitate medical procedures and immobilizations. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 137-139. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACSeiver.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: apes, positive reinforment training, animal behaivor, husbandry training, immobilizations, administration of medication, Disney's Animal Kindgom, Florida, USA.

Smith, T.E., J.M. Mccallister, S.J. Gordon, and M. Whittikar (2004). Quantitative data on training new world primates to urinate. American Journal of Primatology 64(1): 83-93. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20063
Descriptors: operant conditioning, positive reinforcement training (PRT), urine sample collection, Callithrix geoffroyi, Leontopithecus rosalia, marmosets, Saguinus imperator.

Smith, J., S. Mills, S.J. Hayes, S. Fairhall, and C. Dickson (2005). Rhesus transportation box training protocol. Animal Technology and Welfare 4(3): 153-155. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: SF757 .A62
Descriptors: training program, transportation box, jump box training, laboratory animals, rhesus macaques.

Sullivan, T. (2000). Behavioral problem solving using operant conditioning. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings,American Zoo and Aquarium Association: Wheeling, West Virginia, USA, Vol. 2000, p. 167-169.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal behavior, using training to solve behavior problems, zoo environments.

Taglioni, A., G. Perretta, and K. Westlund (2009). Training laboratory primates: Using positive reinforcement. Folia Primatologica 80(6): 382. ISSN: 0015-5713.
Descriptors: positive reinforcements training, animal welfare, animal temperament, European Primate Network, nonhuman primate, animal research, husbandry.
Notes: Meeting Information: 19th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Association, Asti, Italy; April 1-3, 2009.

Veeder, C.L., M.A. Bloomsmith, J.L. McMillan, J.E. Perlman, and A.L. Martin (2009). Positive Reinforcement Training to Enhance the Voluntary Movement of Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(2): 192-195.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679662/
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys atys, group housed animals, quantifying training success.

Videan, E.N., J. Fritz, J. Murphy, R. Borman, H.F. Smith, and S. Howell (2005). Training captive chimpanzees to cooperate for an anesthetic injection. Lab Animal 34(5): 43-48. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: Captive animals trained to cooperate with routine medical procedures, such as injections, may experience less aggression and anxiety than those forced to comply through the use of restraints. The authors used positive reinforcement training to teach captive chimpanzees to present a body part for anesthetic injection and determined the time investment necessary for initial training and duration of maintenance of the behavior after completion of the training.
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimps, medical procedures, positive reinforcement training, training for injections, time investment in training animals, stress.

Ward, S.J. and V. Melfi (2013). The implications of husbandry training on zoo animal response rates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(1-2): 179-185.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.05.008
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, Sulawesi crested black macaques, zebra, black rhinoceros, personality traits, response rates, group living animals.

Westlund, K. (2012). Can conditioned reinforcers and Variable-Ratio Schedules make food- and fluid control redundant? A comment on the NC3Rs Working Group's report. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 204(1): 202-205. ISSN: 0165-0270.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.03.021
Descriptors: conditioned reinforcer, food or water control, macaques, motivation, variable-ratio schedule, animal welfare, commentary.

Whittaker, M. and G. Laule (2012). Training techniques to enhance the care and welfare of nonhuman primates. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice 15(3): 445-454. ISSN: 1094-9194.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cvex.2012.06.004
Descriptors: animal training, nonhuman primates, animal welfare, positive reinforcment training.

Whittaker, M., G. Laule, J. Perman, S. Shapiro, and M. Keeling (2001). A behavioral management approach to caring for great apes. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 131-134. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACWhittaker.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: great apes, enrichment, animal welfare, positive reinforcement training, captive management, behavioral management program.

 

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