U.S. Laws, Regulations and Guidelines for Environmental Enhancement of Nonhuman Primates
In the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act), Congress included mention of "psychological well -being" for nonhuman primates. Included below are the text from the Animal Welfare Act and the final version of the regulations as they appear in the Code of Federal Regulations.
In addition to the Animal Welfare Act, those who receive funding from the Public Health Service or are accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) must also comply with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which is based on a performance standards approach. The Guide is intended to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The 2010 Guide (Eighth Edition) contains standards related to environmental enrichment in the section "Environment, Housing and Management" and links to selected sections are included below. Excerpts from the 1996 Guide (Seventh Edition) are also provided.
Animal Welfare Act as amended
7 U.S.C. § 2143 - Standards and certification process for humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals
(a)(1) The Secretary shall promulgate standards to govern the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals by dealers, research facilities, and exhibitors.
(2) The standards described in paragraph (1) shall include minimum requirements--
(B) for exercise of dogs, as determined by an attending veterinarian in accordance with the general standards promulgated by the Secretary, and for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.
Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter A – Animal Welfare
Part 3 Standards, Subpart D Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, Section 3.81
Sec. 3.81 Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.
Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. This plan must be made available to APHIS upon request, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent funding agency. The plan, at a minimum, must address each of the following:
(a) Social grouping. The environment enhancement plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species known to exist in social groups in nature. Such specific provisions must be in accordance with currently accepted professional standards, as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. The plan may provide for the following exceptions:
(1) If a nonhuman primate exhibits vicious or overly aggressive behavior, or is debilitated as a result of age or other conditions (e.g., arthritis), it should be housed separately;
(2) Nonhuman primates that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony as directed by the attending veterinarian. When an entire group or room of nonhuman primates is known to have or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent, the group may be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.
(3) Nonhuman primates may not be housed with other species of primates or animals unless they are compatible, do not prevent access to food, water, or shelter by individual animals. and are not known to be hazardous to the health and well-being of each other. Compatibility of nonhuman primates must be determined in accordance with generally accepted professional practices and actual observations, as directed by the attending veterinarian, to ensure that the nonhuman primates are in fact compatible. Individually housed nonhuman primates must be able to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being.
(b) Environmental enrichment. The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities. Species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment. Examples of environmental enrichments include providing perches, swings, mirrors, and other increased cage complexities; providing objects to manipulate; varied food items; using foraging or task-oriented feeding methods; and providing interaction with the care giver or other familiar and knowledgeable person consistent with personnel safety precautions.
(c) Special considerations. Certain nonhuman primates must be provided special attention regarding enhancement of their environment, based on the needs of the individual species and in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian. Nonhuman primates requiring special attention are the following:
(1) Infants and young juveniles;
(2) Those that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance;
(3) Those used in research for which the Committee-approved protocol requires restricted activity;
(4) Individually housed nonhuman primates that are unable to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species; and
(5) Great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg). Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must include in the environment enhancement plan special provisions for great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg), including additional opportunities to express species-typical behavior.
(d) Restraint devices. Nonhuman primates must not be maintained in restraint devices unless required for health reasons as determined by the attending veterinarian or by a research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Maintenance under such restraint must be for the shortest period possible. In instances where long-term (more than 12 hours) restraint is required, the nonhuman primate must be provided the opportunity daily for unrestrained activity for at least one continuous hour during the period of restraint, unless continuous restraint is required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)
(1) The attending veterinarian may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in the environment enhancement plan because of its health or condition, or in consideration of its well-being. The basis of the exemption must be recorded by the attending veterinarian for each exempted nonhuman primate. Unless the basis for the exemption is a permanent condition, the exemption must be reviewed at least every 30 days by the attending veterinarian.
(2) For a research facility, the Committee may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in some or all of the otherwise required environment enhancement plans for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. The basis of the exemption shall be documented in the approved proposal and must be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.
(3) Records of any exemptions must be maintained by the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility and must be made available to USDA officials or officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Eighth Edition, 2010
National Research Council (2010). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Eighth Edition. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 248 p. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12910.
The following are selected sections about environmental enrichment, housing, and training of nonhuman primates.
Chapter 3: Environment, Housing, and Management
- Terrestrial Management
- Behavioral and Social Management
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Seventh Edition, 1996
National Research Council (1996). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 127 p. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5140.
The following is exerpted from Chapter 2: Animal Environment, Housing and Management
Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. A good management program provides the environment, housing, and care that permit animals to grow, mature, reproduce, and maintain good health; provides for their well-being; and minimizes variations that can affect research results. Specific operating practices depend on many factors that are peculiar to individual institutions and situations. Well-trained and motivated personnel can often ensure high-quality animal care, even in institutions with less than optimal physical plants or equipment.
Many factors should be considered in planning for adequate and appropriate physical and social environment, housing, space, and management. These include
1. The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual characteristics, such as sex, age, size, behavior, experiences, and health.
2. The ability of the animals to form social groups with conspecifics through sight, smell, and possibly contact, whether the animals are maintained singly or in groups.
3. The design and construction of housing.
4. The availability or suitability of enrichments.
5. The project goals and experimental design (e.g., production, breeding, research, testing, and teaching).
6. The intensity of animal manipulation and invasiveness of the procedures conducted.
7. The presence of hazardous or disease-causing materials.
8. The duration of the holding period.
Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. For social species, this normally requires housing in compatible pairs or groups. A strategy for achieving desired housing should be developed by animal-care personnel with review and approval by the IACUC. Decisions by the IACUC in consultation with the investigator and veterinarian, should be aimed at achieving high standards for professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for the health and well-being of the species and consistent with the research objectives. After the decision-making process, objective assessments should be made to substantiate the adequacy of animal environment, husbandry, and management.
The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. For some species, it might be appropriate to approximate the natural environment for breeding and maintenance. (Chapter 2, pages 21-22)
Areas like pastures and islands afford opportunities to provide a suitable environment for maintaining or producing animals and for some types of research. Their use results in the loss of some control over nutrition, health care and surveillance, and pedigree management. These limitations should be balanced against the benefits of having the animals live in more natural conditions. Animals should be added to, removed from, and returned to social groups in this setting with appropriate consideration of the effects on the individual animals and on the group. Adequate supplies of food, fresh water, and natural or constructed shelter should be ensured. (Chapter 2, page 25)
The structural environment consists of components of the primary enclosure-cage furniture, equipment for environmental enrichment, objects for manipulation by the animals, and cage complexities. Depending on the animal species and use, the structural environment should include resting boards, shelves or perches, toys, foraging devices, nesting materials, tunnels, swings, or other objects that increase opportunities for the expression of species-typical postures and activities and enhance the animals' well-being. Much has been learned in recent years about the natural history and environmental needs of many animals, but continuing research into those environments that enhance the well-being of research animals is encouraged. Selected publications that describe enrichment strategies for common laboratory animal species are listed in Appendix A and in bibliographies prepared by the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC 1992; NRC In press).
Consideration should be given to an animal's social needs. The social environment usually involves physical contact and communication among members of the same species (conspecifics), although it can include noncontact communication among individuals through visual, auditory, and olfactory signals. When it is appropriate and compatible with the protocol, social animals should be housed in physical contact with conspecifics. For example, grouping of social primates or canids is often beneficial to them if groups comprise compatible individuals. Appropriate social interactions among conspecifics are essential for normal development in many species. A social companion might buffer the effects of a stressful situation (Gust and others 1994), reduce behavioral abnormality (Reinhardt and others 1988, 1989), increase opportunities for exercise (Whary and others 1993), and expand species-typical behavior and cognitive stimulation. Such factors as population density, ability to disperse, initial familiarity among animals, and social rank should be evaluated when animals are being grouped (Borer and others 1988; Diamond and others 1987; Drickamer 1977; Harvey and Chevins 1987; Ortiz and others 1985; Vandenbergh 1986, 1989). In selecting a suitable social environment, attention should be given to whether the animals are naturally territorial or communal and whether they should be housed singly, in pairs, or in groups. An understanding of species-typical natural social behavior will facilitate successful social housing.
However, not all members of a social species can or should be maintained socially; experimental, health, and behavioral reasons might preclude a successful outcome of this kind of housing. Social housing can increase the likelihood of animal wounds due to fighting (Bayne and others 1995), increase susceptibility to such metabolic disorders as atherosclerosis (Kaplan and others 1982), and alter behavior and physiologic functions (Bernstein 1964; Bernstein and others 1974a,b). In addition, differences between sexes in compatibility have been observed in various species (Crockett and others 1994; Grant and Macintosh 1963; Vandenbergh 1971; vom Saal 1984). These risks of social housing are greatly reduced if the animals are socially compatible and the social unit is stable.
It is desirable that social animals be housed in groups; however, when they must be housed alone, other forms of enrichment should be provided to compensate for the absence of other animals, such as safe and positive interaction with the care staff and enrichment of the structural environment. (Chapter 2, pages 36-38)