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Anesthesia and Analgesia

Meeting Abstracts: Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists 26th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 11-12 October 2001. (2002). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29(2): 97-112. ISSN: 1467-2987.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Descriptors: acepromazine, acupuncture, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, atropine, blood chemistry, blood gases, body temperature, butorphanol, carbon dioxide, cardiovascular system, castration, conduction anesthesia, detomidine, diazepam, dosage effects, endorphins, fentanyl, foals, hypovolemia, induction, inhaled anesthetics, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, isoflurane, ketamine, laparoscopy, morphine, nitrousoxide, ovariectomy, pain, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, propofol, pulse, respiration, resuscitation, sterilization, surgery, surgical operations, uptake, wounds, xylazine.

Ansah, O.B., O. Vainio, C. Hellsten, and M. Raekallio (2002). Postoperative pain control in cats: clinical trials with medetomidine and butorphanol. Veterinary Surgery 31(2): 99-103. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analgesic effects of medetomidine (MED) and butorphanol (BTO) in cats after ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, blinded monocenter clinical study. ANIMALS: Healthy adult female client-owned cats. METHODS: Sixty-four cats weighing 3.15 +/- 0.6 kg, presented to the University of Helsinki's Small Animal Teaching Hospital for routine elective ovariohysterectomy, received MED at 15 microg/kg (n = 18), BTO at 0.1 mg/kg (n = 23), or saline (PL) (n = 23) intramuscularly immediately after ovariohysterectomy. Level of pain perception, degree of restlessness, and extent of sedation were scored subjectively before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after test-drug administration. RESULTS: BTO provided the best pain relief, followed by MED. Saline provided the least pain relief. Both MED and BTO effectively and identically prevented postoperative restlessness. MED and BTO produced an identical degree of sedation that was better than the PL. CONCLUSIONS: Both MED (at 15 microg/kg) and BTO (at 0.1 mg/kg) prevent postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy. Clinical Relevance-MED and BTO are useful for preventing postoperative pain in cats.
Descriptors: nonnarcotic analgesics, opioid analgesics, animals, butorphanol, cats, hysterectomy, veterinary, intramuscular injections, medetomidine, pain measurement, postoperative pain.

Balmer, T.V., D. Irvine, R.S. Jones, M.J. Roberts, L. Slingsby, P.M. Taylor, A.E. Waterman, and C. Waters (1998). Comparison of carprofen and pethidine as postoperative analgesics in the cat. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 39(4): 158-164. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: The postoperative analgesia and sedation in cats given carprofen (4.0 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection preoperatively) was compared to that in cats given pethidine (3.3 mg/kg bodyweight by intramuscular injection postoperatively) in a controlled, randomised, blinded, multicentre clinical trial. Further dosing with the particular analgesic was allowed if a cat was exhibiting unacceptable pain. In total, 57 carprofen cases and 59 pethidine cases were evaluated. Significantly fewer cats in the carprofen group required additional doses of analgesic, and mean pain scores were significantly lower from four hours after ovariohysterectomy, and at 18 to 24 hours after castration, compared to the pethidine group. In conclusion, carprofen provided as good a level of postoperative analgesia as pethidine, but of a longer duration (at least 24 hours) and was well tolerated. It thus provides an option for 'pre-emptive analgesia' in cats about to undergo surgery.
Descriptors: opioid analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, carbazoles, cats, comparative study, hysterectomy, veterinary, injections, meperidine, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, pain measurement, prevention and control of postoperative pain, premedication.

Bednarski, R.M., L.S. Bednarski, and W.W.3. Muir (1984). Cost comparison of anesthetic regimens in the dog and cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 185(8): 869-872. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Comparative costs of anesthetic regimens for the dog and cat were calculated. Various combinations of currently popular sedatives, tranquilizers, and anti-muscarinics (preanesthetic drugs), and anesthetic induction and maintenance drugs were studied. The preanesthetic drug affected overall anesthetic cost through its own cost, its effect on the amount of anesthetic drug necessary for intubation, and its effect on the amount of anesthetic necessary to maintain anesthesia. The combination of acetylpromazine-thiamylal-halothane was the least expensive regimen for both the dog and cat, whereas drug combinations that included isoflurane as the maintenance drug were the most expensive. In the cat, induction of anesthesia by use of N2O, O2, and halothane in a plexiglas chamber was more expensive than by the use of thiamylal.
Descriptors: anesthesia, animal, castration, cats, comparative study, costs and cost analysis, dogs, hysterectomy, preanesthetic medication.

Bednarski, R.M. and W.W. Muir 3rd (1991). Closed system delivery of halothane and isoflurane with a vaporizer in the anesthetic circle. Veterinary Surgery 20(5): 353-356. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: Forty-four healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane delivered with an in-circuit vaporizer with closed system flow rates or an out-of-circuit vaporizer with semi-closed system flow rates. When dogs were anesthetized with halothane, there were no differences in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate, or lingual venous pH, PCO2, or PO2 during induction and maintenance. Lingual venous PO2 was significantly less but still within a clinically acceptable range when isoflurane was used in an in-circuit vaporizer. Recovery times tended to be longer with in-circuit vaporizers. The amount of anesthetic used was not affected by vaporizer location. In-circuit vaporizers were suitable for delivery of halothane or isoflurane to healthy dogs.
Descriptors: acepromazine, aerosols, inhalation anesthesia, dogs, halothane, heart rate, hysterectomy, isoflurane, nebulizers and vaporizers, ovariectomy, respiration.

Benson, G.J., T.L. Grubb, C. Neff-Davis, W.A. Olson, J.C. Thurmon, D.L. Lindner, W.J. Tranquilli, and O. Vanio (2000). Perioperative stress response in the dog: effect of pre-emptive administration of medetomidine. Veterinary Surgery 29(1): 85-91. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of medetomidine on the stress response induced by ovariohysterectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. ANIMALS: Twelve healthy adult female purpose-bred dogs, weighing 16.8 to 25 kg. METHODS: Two treatments were randomly administered to each of twelve dogs at weekly intervals: (1) Saline injected IM followed in 15 minutes by isoflurane anesthesia (ISO) induced by mask and maintained at an end-tidal concentration of 1.8% for 60 minutes; and (2) Medetomidine, 15 ug/lkg IM followed in 15 minutes by isoflurane anesthesia (ISO&MED) induced by mask and maintained at an end-tidal concentration of 1.0% for 60 minutes. One week after completion of these two treatments, all dogs were ovariohysterectomized. six receiving each treatment (SURG and SURG&MED). Central venous blood samples (10 mL) were obtained immediately before medetomidine or saline (baseline) and at 30, 75, and 195 minutes and 24 hours after administration of medetomidine or saline in ISO and ISO&MED. In SURG and SURG&MED, samples were obtained immediately prior to injection of medetomidine or saline (baseline) and at 30 (before skin incision), 45 (after severence of the ovarian ligament), 75 (after skin closure), 105 (30 minutes after skin closure, dog recovered and in sternal recumbency), 135, 195, 375 minutes, and 24 hours after the initial sample. Samples were analyzed for epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, and glucose. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and where significant differences were found, a least significant difference test was applied. RESULTS: Premedication with medetomidine prevented or delayed the stress response induced by ovariohysterectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. CONCLUSIONS: The stress response induced by ovariohysterectomy, although significant, is of short duration. Medetomidine safely and effectively reduced surgically-induced stress responses. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Surgically induced stress responses can be obtunded or prevented by administration of medetomidine.
Descriptors: inhalation anesthetics, animals, corticotropin, dogs, epinephrine, hypnotics and sedatives, hysterectomy, intramuscular injections, isoflurane, medetomidine, ovariectomy, prevention and control of stress.

Brennan, T.J. (1999). Postoperative models of nociception. ILAR Journal 40(3): 129-136. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Even though it is a costly, poorly understood problem, very little effort has been dedicated toward research on the mechanisms of acute postoperative pain. Presumably, if we learn more about the etiology of acute incisional pain and the sensory processes that intensify pain after surgery, new treatment methods can be advanced. Since the mid-1990s, our group and others have developed and characterized models for postoperative pain. In one model, a hind paw plantar incision is made. Persistent reduced withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimulis suggesting hyperalgesia are present. No tonic or spontaneous pain is apparent, but diminished weight bearing is noted on the incised hind paw. Pain-related behaviors remain remarkable for several days and then gradually decrease. The model therefore has similarities to the time course for pain in postoperative patients. Ovariohysterectomy, a clinically relevant procedure, has been used to study postoperative pain. Both rat and dog models have been studied, and a variety of pain-related behaviors including pain at rest and wound sensitivity have been examined. These models will improve our understanding of unique pain mechanisms caused by particular injuries. As we understand postoperative pain and determine the unique mechanisms for acute tissue injury pain, better treatments will evolve and perioperative morbidity will decrease.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, models, sensory processes, plantar incision, ovariohysterectomy, dog, rat, wound sensitivity, pain related behaviors.

Campbell, V.L., K.J. Drobatz, and S.Z. Perkowski (2003). Postoperative hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration and receiving butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(3): 330-336. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine frequency and severity of postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. DESIGN: Prospective trial. ANIMALS: 0 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb). PROCEDURE: Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine, glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after extubation. RESULTS: In dogs that received hydromorphone, mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that administration of hydromorphone to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively and that administration of hydromorphone or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained within reference limits.
Descriptors: analgesics, anoxemia, butorphanol, hydromorphone, hypercapnia, postoperative complications, blood gas analysis, dogs, hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, adverse effects.

Caulkett, N., M. Read, D. Fowler, and C. Waldner (2003). A comparison of the analgesic effects of butorphanol with those of meloxicam after elective ovariohysterectomy in dogs. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 44(7): 565-570. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: This study was designed to compare the analgesic effects of butorphanol with those of meloxicam following ovariohysterectomy. Fifteen dogs were premedicated with 0.05 mg/kg body weight (BW) of acepromazine by intramuscular (IM) injection, plus 0.2 mg/kg BW of meloxicam by subcutaneous (SC) injection. Fifteen dogs were premedicated with 0.05 mg/kg BW of Acepromazine, IM, plus 0.2 mg/kg BW of butorphanol, IM. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental, and dogs were maintained on halothane. All pain measurements were performed by 1 experienced individual, blinded to treatment. Pain scores and visual analogue scales (VAS) were performed at 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours postpremedication. An analgesiometer was used to determine the pressure required to produce an active avoidance response to pressure applied at the incision line. Pain scores, VAS, and analgesiometer scores were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equations method. A significance level of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Animals that received meloxicam demonstrated significantly lower pain scores and VAS than did animals that received butorphanol in the first 12 hours after surgery. Results of this study suggest that meloxicam will produce better postoperative analgesia than will butorphanol. Mucosal bleeding times were performed on cooperative animals in the study group (11 butorphanol, 13 meloxicam). Bleeding times were performed prior to premedication, 6 hours following premedication, and 24 hours after premedication. The 6- and 24-hour readings were compared with baseline bleeding times by using a paired t-test with a Bonferroni correction (a significance level of P < 0.025). Bleeding times did not change significantly over time.
Descriptors: analgesics, butorphanol, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, pain measurement, postoperative pain, dogs, meloxicam.

Dobbins, S., N.O. Brown, and F.S. Shofer (2002). Comparison of the effects of buprenorphine, oxymorphone hydrochloride, and ketoprofen for postoperative analgesia after onychectomy or onychectomy and sterilization in cats. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38(6): 507-514. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: In this prospective, randomized, blinded study, 68 clinically healthy cats that had onychectomy (n = 20), onychectomy and castration (n = 20), or onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy (n = 28) were randomly assigned to one of four postoperative analgesic treatment groups: buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly [IM]), oxymorphone hydrochloride (0.05 mg/kg body weight, IM), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg body weight, IM), and placebo (physiological saline). Sedation scores, visual analog pain scores, cumulative pain scores, serum cortisol concentration, and appetite were used to assess postoperative analgesic effect. Buprenorphine demonstrated the highest efficacy with the lowest cumulative pain scores and serum cortisol levels.
Descriptors: opioid analgesics, buprenorphine, castration, cats, postoperative pain, pain measurement.

Dobromylskyj, P. (1996). Cardiovascular changes associated with anaesthesia induced by medetomidine combined with ketamine in cats. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 37(4): 169-172. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Fifteen cats had anaesthesia induced by intramuscular injection of medetomidine combined with ketamine. By five minutes after drug administration, heart rate had decreased by 31 per cent, respiratory rate had decreased by 70 per cent and systolic blood pressure had increased by 69 per cent. Atipamezole administration was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart and respiratory rates. Time to first head lift was eight minutes and to sternal recumbency 12 minutes after atipamezole administration. Postoperative analgesia was provided by methadone, administered when the cats adopted sternal recumbency.
Descriptors: anesthesia, dissociative anesthetics, castration, blood pressure, cats, heart rate, drug combinations, hemodynamics, imidazoles, ketamine, medetomidine.

Dohoo, S.E. and I.R. Dohoo (1996). Factors influencing the postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 37(9): 552-556. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 categories of surgeries, and their opinion toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. An analgesic user was defined as a veterinarian who administers analgesics to at least 50% of dogs or 50% of cats following abdominal surgery, excluding ovariohysterectomy. The veterinarians responding exhibited a bimodal distribution of analgesic use, with 49.5% being defined as analgesic users. These veterinarians tended to use analgesics in 100% of animals following abdominal surgery. Veterinarians defined as analgesic nonusers rarely used postoperative analgesics following any abdominal surgery. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings (on a scale of 1 to 10) following abdominal surgery, or the value for dogs or cats if the veterinarian worked with only 1 of the 2 species. Maximum concern about the risks associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid agonists was defined as the highest ranking assigned to any of the 7 risks evaluated in either dogs or cats. Logistic regression analysis identified the pain perception score and the maximum concern regarding the use of potent opioid agonists in the postoperative period as the 2 factors that distinguished analgesic users from analgesic nonusers. This model correctly classified 68% of veterinarians as analgesic users or nonusers. Linear regression analysis identified gender and the presence of an animal health technologist in the practice as the 2 factors that influenced pain perception by veterinarians. Linear regression analysis identified working with an animal health technologist, graduation within the past 10 years, and attendance at continuing education as factors that influenced maximum concern about the postoperative use of opioid agonists.
Descriptors: abdominal surgery, analgesics, cats, dogs, continuing medical education, pain measurement, postoperative pain, questionnaires.

Dohoo, S.E. and I.R. Dohoo (1996). Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 37(9): 546-551. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: postoperative use of analgesics, cats, dogs, pain perception, orthopaedic surgery, castration, opioid analgesics, butorphanol, complications related to analgesics, survey, opinions of veterinarians, Canada.

Egger, C.M., L.E. Glerum, S.W. Allen, and M. Haag (2003). Plasma fentanyl concentrations in awake cats and cats undergoing anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy using transdermal administration. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 30(4): 229-236. ISSN: 1467-2987.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To measure the plasma fentanyl concentrations achieved over time with transdermal fentanyl patches in awake cats and cats undergoing anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Twenty-four purpose-bred cats. METHODS: Cats were randomly assigned to three groups for Part I of a larger concurrent study. Group P received only a 25 micro g hour-1 transdermal fentanyl patch. Group P/A received the patch and anesthesia. Group A received only anesthesia. After a minimum 1-week washout period, the cats were randomly reassigned to two groups for Part II of the larger study. Group P/A/O received the patch, anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy. Group A/O received anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy. Patches were left in place for 72 hours and plasma samples were obtained for fentanyl analysis while the patches were in place, and for 8 hours after patch removal for cats in Group P, P/A, and P/A/O. RESULTS: The 25 micro g hour-1 transdermal fentanyl patches were well tolerated by the cats in this study (mean body weight of 3.0 kg) and no overt adverse effects were noted. Mean plasma fentanyl concentrations over time, mean plasma fentanyl concentrations at specific times (8, 25, 49, and 73 hours after patch placement), time to first detectable plasma fentanyl concentration, time to reach maximum plasma fentanyl concentration, maximum plasma fentanyl concentration, mean plasma fentanyl concentration from 8 to 73 hours, elimination half-life, and total area under concentration (AUC) were not statistically different among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane anesthesia and anesthesia/ovariohysterectomy did not significantly alter the plasma fentanyl concentrations achieved or pharmacokinetic parameters measured, when compared with awake cats. There was a high degree of individual variability observed both within and between groups of cats in parameters measured. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The high degree of variability observed suggests that careful observation of cats with fentanyl patches in place is required to assess efficacy and any potential adverse effects. Anesthesia and anesthesia/ovariohysterectomy do not appear to alter plasma fentanyl concentrations achieved by placement of a 25 micro g hour-1 transdermal fentanyl patch when compared to cats not undergoing these procedures.
Descriptors: opioid analgesics, anesthesia, behavior, cats, fentanyl, ovariectomy, prevention and control of pain, pain measurement.

Faggella, A.M. and M.G. Aronsohn (1993). Anesthetic techniques for neutering 6- to 14-week-old kittens. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(1): 56-62. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Forty-eight male and 48 female 6- to 14-week-old kittens were neutered by use of 4 anesthetic protocols. Preanesthetic disposition, depth of sedation, loss of resistance to handling, induction quality, induction time, sternal and stand times, and recovery quality were evaluated. Analgesia and muscle relaxation without supplemental inhalational anesthetics were evaluated in male kittens, and the time until extubation was recorded in female kittens. Intramuscular administration of tiletamine/zolazepam (TZ), midazolam/ketamine, atropine/midazolam/ketamine/butorphanol (AMKB), and atropine/midazolam/ketamine/oxymorphone (AMKO) produced rapid sedation and smooth induction into anesthesia. In male kittens, there were no significant differences in sedation, relaxation, induction time, or quality. Tiletamine/zolazepam administration induced the best analgesia, and midazolam/ketamine administration induced the least analgesia for castration. The recovery time in male kittens was longest with TZ and shortest with the opioid groups (AMKB, AMKO). In females, TZ produced significantly faster induction times, but the degree of sedation and relaxation after administration of injectable agents was not significantly different among the groups. More females given TZ could be intubated without supplemental inhalational agents than females in other groups. Extubation time was rapid in all groups, but the times until sternal and standing were significantly longer, and recovery quality was significantly poorer in females given TZ. In kittens given opioids, reversal of the opioid did not shorten recovery time or improve recovery quality.
Descriptors: analgesia, anesthesia, butorphanol, castration, cats, drug combinations, drug effects on heart rate and respiration, ketamine, midazolam, oxymorphone, preanesthetic medication, tiletamine, zolazepam.

Faggella, A.M. and M.G. Aronsohn (1994). Evaluation of anesthetic protocols for neutering 6- to 14-week-old pups. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205(2): 308-14. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Ninety-nine 6- to 14-week-old pups were given anesthetic agents according to 10 anesthetic protocols. Mean quality rating scores were determined to compare anesthetic protocols. In male pups, IV administration of propofol (6.5 mg/kg of body weight) 15 minutes after IM administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg) and oxymorphone (0.22 mg/kg) provided the best quality anesthesia. Intramuscular administration of midazolam (0.22 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.44 mg/kg) instead of oxymorphone provided little sedation, but induced good analgesia. Atropine/oxymorphone/midazolam/xylazine, atropine/butorphanol/midazolam/xylazine, and tiletamine/zolazepam were unsatisfactory combinations for use in castration of 6- to 14-week-old male pups. In female pups, IV administration of propofol (3.4 mg/kg) 15 minutes after IM administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg) and oxymorphone (0.11 mg/kg) was the most effective anesthetic protocol. Administration of the drugs according to this protocol enabled a pup to be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. If inhalational induction was preferred, IM administration of 13.2 mg of tiletamine/zolazepam/kg, 0.04 mg of atropine/kg and 0.11 mg of oxymorphone/kg, or 0.22 mg of midazolam/kg and 0.44 mg of butorphanol/kg may be used prior to mask delivery of inhalational anesthetics. In female pups, it was not advantageous to combine midazolam with oxymorphone, and use of high dosages of oxymorphone (0.22 mg/kg) or midazolam/butorphanol provided little sedation. Time of recovery after use of tiletamine/zolazepam was the longest for the combinations used, but did not adversely affect pups. Male pups were castrated via scrotal incisions, using hemostatic clips. Ovariohysterectomies were performed via a ventral abdominal midline approach, using hemostatic clips for ligation, five females developed signs of inflammation at the surgical site within 1 to 2 weeks after surgical, and were treated conservatively with warm compresses.
Descriptors: anesthesia, dogs, hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, analgesia, adverse effects of anesthetics, muscle relaxation, postoperative complications.

Firth, A.M. and S.L. Haldane (1999). Development of a scale to evaluate postoperative pain in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(5): 651-659. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate a scale for measurement of postoperative pain in dogs. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, prospective study, with positive- and negative-control groups. ANIMALS: 36 dogs undergoing general anesthesia for ovariohysterectomy and 12 dogs undergoing general anesthesia without surgery. PROCEDURE: A pain assessment scale was developed for dogs, which incorporated physiologic data (heart and respiratory rates) and behavioral responses (response to palpation, activity, mental status, posture, and vocalization). This pain scale was then applied to a study in which dogs were allocated to 2 groups, depending on the type of medication administered (acepromazine maleate only or acepromazine and butorphanol) before induction of general anesthesia. The 36 dogs that had ovariohysterectomy were allocated to 3 groups, members of which received butorphanol, carprofen, or no analgesic after surgery. Dogs were scored for signs of pain and videotaped at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 18 hours after surgery by an assessor who was blinded to the groups. Results were analyzed for significant differences in pain scores for single categories and total pain scores among groups. Video segments were scrambled and then scored by a second external assessor to test the repeatability of the results, using the pain assessment scale. RESULTS: Mean total pain scores were significantly different between the group of dogs that underwent general anesthesia only and each group of dogs that underwent general anesthesia and surgery. Pain scores for the analgesic-treatment groups reflected the known onset and duration of action of the analgesic used. Agreement between the internal and external assessors was excellent and indicated high precision between the 2 assessors for the population of dogs as a whole. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Behavioral and physiologic measurements can be used reliably to evaluate degree of pain in dogs during the postoperative period and their response to analgesics.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, pain measurement, ovariohysterectomy, anesthesia, pain scale, behavioral measures, phyiological measures, dogs, heart rate, respiration, posture, vocalization, activity level.

Forsyth, S.F., W.G. Guilford, and D.U. Pfeiffer (2000). Effect of NSAID administration on creatinine clearance in healthy dogs undergoing anaesthesia and surgery. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 41(12): 547-550. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: dogs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, ketoprofen, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, anesthesia, surgery, hemorrhage, castration.

Fox, S.M., D.J. Mellor, E.C. Firth, H. Hodge, and C.R. Lawoko (1994). Changes in plasma cortisol concentrations before, during and after analgesia, anaesthesia and anaesthesia plus ovariohysterectomy in bitches. Research in Veterinary Science 57(1): 110-118. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Plasma cortisol concentrations were determined before, during and after analgesia, anaesthesia and anaesthesia plus ovariohysterectomy in six New Zealand border collie cross bitches. The treatments were: control, analgesia with butorphanol, anaesthesia with thiopentone sodium, halothane and oxygen and anaesthesia plus surgery. In addition, each bitch was given an ACTH challenge. All the bitches showed transient increases in plasma cortisol concentrations and the integrated cortisol responses (calculated as the area under the cortisol curve above the pre-treatment concentration) for 6.25 hours after treatment increased in the order: control, anaesthesia, analgesia, surgery. The control group had increased cortisol concentrations attributable to the excitement from handling. The plasma cortisol concentrations of the group subjected to surgery were greater than the other groups for at least 6.25 hours, with an approximately four-fold increase above pre-treatment values, but they had returned to pre-treatment levels after 24 hours.
Descriptors: analgesia, anesthesia, dogs, blood, hydrocortisone, hysterectomy, ovariectomy.

Fox, S.M., D.J. Mellor, C.R. Lawoko, H. Hodge, and E.C. Firth (1998). Changes in plasma cortisol concentrations in bitches in response to different combinations of halothane and butorphanol, with or without ovariohysterectomy. Research in Veterinary Science 65(2): 125-133. ISSN: 0034-5288.
DOI: 10.1016/S0034-5288(98)90163-1
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Changes in plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed in bitches in response to nine treatments: control, anaesthesia, analgesia, analgesia followed by anaesthesia, anaesthesia followed by analgesia at intubation, anaesthesia followed by analgesia at extubation, anaesthesia plus surgery, analgesia followed by anaesthesia plus surgery, and anaesthesia plus surgery followed by analgesia. The anaesthetic was halothane, the analgesic was butorphanol (0.4 mg kg(-1)) and the surgery was ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples, for plasma cortisol assays, were taken regularly from before treatment for five hours and then again after 24 hours. A small transient rise in plasma cortisol concentration in the control group was attributed to mild distress associated with novel experiences. A more pronounced and protracted rise in cortisol concentration in the analgesia group was ascribed to a dysphoric state of bitches under the influence of the agonist-antagonist butorphanol. Halothane anaesthesia alone resulted in no change in plasma cortisol concentration. When butorphanol was given after anaesthesia was induced or while the animal was still under the influence of anaesthesia (immediately after tracheal extubation), there was no immediate rise in plasma cortisol concentration and low concentrations were maintained for up to 60 minutes after halothane withdrawal. A marked rise in plasma cortisol concentration, which was sustained above pretreatment values for at least five hours, occurred in all surgery groups. Giving intravenous butorphanol 30 minutes prior to surgery had no effect on the surgically-induced rise in plasma cortisol concentration and no effect on the postsurgical plasma cortisol concentration. In contrast, butorphanol given at extubation did reduce plasma cortisol concentrations during the postsurgical period. These observations did not support the hypothesis that preoperative use of butorphanol would reduce the cortisol response after surgery under halothane anaesthesia.
Descriptors: analgesia, anesthesia, animal, butorphanol, dogs, female, halothane, hydrocortisone, hysterectomy, kinetics, ovariectomy.

Franks, J.N., H.W. Boothe, L. Taylor, S. Geller, G.L. Carroll, V. Cracas, and D.M. Boothe (2000). Evaluation of transdermal fentanyl patches for analgesia in cats undergoing onychectomy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(7): 1013-1018. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: surgery complications, castration, onychectomy, ovariohysterectomy, heart rate, pain severity, respiratory rate.

Gaynor, J.S., E.M. Wertz, L.M. Kesel, G.E. Baker, C. Cecchini, K. Rice, and C.M. Mallinckrodt (1996). Effect of intravenous administration of fluids on packed cell volume, blood pressure, and total protein and blood glucose concentrations in healthy halothane-anesthetized dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(12): 2013-2015. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects of IV administration of fluids on PCV, serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations, and systolic arterial pressure in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective surgical procedures. DESIGN--Prospective, randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS--70 clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURE--Dogs received i.v. administration of 0, 5, 10, or 15 mL/kg of body weight/h of a polyionic crystalloid solution or 5% dextrose in water. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of medication, prior to anesthetic induction, after anesthetic induction, at the end of the surgical procedure, and 2 hours after surgery to determine PCV and serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations. Blood pressure was measured before and after anesthetic induction and at the end of the surgery. RESULTS--There were not any significant differences in PCV, total protein concentration, or systolic arterial pressure among treatment groups. Hyperglycemia developed in dogs receiving 5% dextrose in water, but resolved 2 hours after discontinuing administration of fluids. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS--Intravenous administration of fluids may not be necessary to maintain normal blood pressure in young, healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery.
Descriptors: inhalation anesthetics, blood glucose, blood pressure, dogs, halothane, fluid therapy, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, orchiectomy.

Glerum, L.E., C.M. Egger, S.W. Allen, and M. Haag (2001). Analgesic effect of the transdermal fentanyl patch during and after feline ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Surgery 30(4): 351-358. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the transdermal fentanyl patch in relieving perioperative pain and stress associated with ovariohysterectomy in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective laboratory trial. ANIMALS: Twenty-four female, purpose-bred cats. METHODS: Each cat was randomly assigned to groups 1-3. Group 1 received a 25-microg/h transdermal fentanyl patch only. Group 2 received the patch and anesthesia. Group 3 received anesthesia only. Patches were left in place for 72 hours. Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, indirect blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cortisol concentration, plasma fentanyl concentration, pain score, and excitement/sedation score were monitored at prescribed intervals over an 81-hour period. Cats from groups 1-3 were reassigned to groups 4 and 5. Group 4 received the patch, anesthesia, and an ovariohysterectomy. Group 5 received anesthesia and an ovariohysterectomy only. The study period and monitored parameters were the same as for groups 1-3. RESULTS: Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly lower in group 4 than group 5 during the surgical and early postsurgical time periods. A similar effect was noted in blood glucose concentrations during the surgical period. Rectal temperature was significantly higher in group 2 when comparing all anesthetized groups during the early postsurgical period. Pain scores were significantly higher in groups 4 and 5 than in groups 2 and 3 during the early postsurgical period. There was no significant difference in pain scores between groups 4 and 5 during this period, however. CONCLUSIONS: The transdermal fentanyl patch affects biochemical markers of perioperative pain and stress associated with ovariohysterectomy in cats, attenuating rises in serum cortisol and blood glucose concentrations during the surgical and early postsurgical periods. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The transdermal fentanyl patch is effective in alleviating perioperative pain and stress associated with ovariohysterectomy in cats as evidenced by attenuated rises in cortisol and blood glucose concentrations in cats that were operated on and treated with the patch.
Descriptors: analgesics, fentanyl patch, pain and stress, ovariohysterectomy, cats, cortisol levels, blood glucose concentrations, pain management.

Grandy, I. and C. Dunlop (1991). Anesthesia of pups and kittens. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1244-1249. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: pups, kittens, anesthesia, anesthetics, age differences, pharmacokinetics, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys, thermoregulation.

Greene, S.A. (1995). Anesthetic considerations for surgery of the reproductive system. Seminars in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Small Animal) 10(1): 2-7. ISSN: 0882-0511.
NAL Call Number: SF911.S45
Descriptors: anesthesia, cats, cesarean section, dogs, hemodynamic processes, lung physiology, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, pregnancy, female, male.

Grimm, K.A., J.C. Thurmon, W.A. Olson, W.J. Tranquilli, and G.J. Benson (1998). The pharmacodynamics of thiopental, medetomidine, butorphanol and atropine in beagle dogs. Journal Of Veterinary Pharmacology And Therapeutics 21(2): 133-137. ISSN: 0140-7783.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Descriptors: anesthesia, hemodynamic effects, castration, blood pressure, dogs, medetomidine, thiopental, butorphanol, atropine.

Hall, L.W., E. Lagerweij, A.M. Nolan, and J.W. Sear (1994). Effect of medetomidine on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs. American Journal Of Veterinary Research 55(1): 116-120. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Pharmacokinetic variables of propofol were investigated in 6 mixed-breed dogs, and the effect of medetomidine (10 micrograms/kg of body weight) on these kinetics was investigated using a two-way crossover design. On 2 occasions, dogs received either a bolus dose of propofol sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation, followed by an infusion of propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min) for 120 minutes, or medetomidine (10 micrograms/kg, IM), 15 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia as described, followed by infusion of propofol (0.2 mg/kg/min). Dogs given medetomidine received atipamezole (50 micrograms/kg, IM) at the end of the 120-minute propofol infusion. Blood propofol concentration was measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean elimination half-life, blood clearance, mean residence time, and mean volume of distribution at steady state, were 486.2 minutes, 34.4 ml/kg/min, 301.8 minutes, and 6.04 L/kg, respectively, in the absence of medetomidine, and 136.9 minutes, 36.2 ml/kg/min, 215.1 minutes, and 3.38 L/kg, respectively, in the presence of medetomidine. Mean time to walking without ataxia was 174 minutes in the nonpremedicated dogs (with a median blood propofol concentration of 2.2 micrograms/ml) and was 160 minutes in the premedicated dogs in which median blood propofol concentration was 1.03 microgram/ml.
Descriptors: adrenergic alpha-antagonists, comparative study, dogs, imidazoles, medetomidine, metabolic clearance rate, motor activity, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, propofol.

Hellebrekers, L.J. and N. Reens (1993). Castreren van katers. [Castration of male cats]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118(9): 314-315. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: anesthesia, castration, cats, adverse effects of anesthesia, myocardium metabolism, oxygen consumption, drug effects.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Hellebrekers, L.J. and R. Sap (1997). Medetomidine as a premedicant for ketamine, propofol or fentanyl anaesthesia in dogs. The Veterinary Record 140(21): 545-548. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This study evaluated the quality of anaesthesia and the cardiorespiratory effects induced by the combination of medetomidine with either ketamine, propofol or fentanyl. Medetomidine premedication (1000 or 1500 micrograms/m2 body surface area) was followed by intravenous induction of anaesthesia with ketamine (3.0 mg/kg), propofol (2.0 mg/kg) or fentanyl (2.0 micrograms/kg) in bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Anaesthesia was prolonged by incremental doses of the induction agents as necessary. The mean (sem) overall doses (including induction) were 0.09 (0.01) mg/kg/min for ketamine, 0.06 (0.01) mg/kg/min for propofol and 0.07 (0.005) microgram/kg/min for fentanyl during procedures which lasted 88 (6) minutes, 72 (3) minutes and 79 (7) minutes, respectively. At the end of the procedure, medetomidine was antagonised with atipamezole. The quality of anaesthesia, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded continuously and arterial blood gases were measured at intervals. At the end of the procedure, the animals received 10 micrograms/kg buprenorphine intramuscularly for postoperative analgesia. From the adequacy of anaesthesia, the lack of significant adverse side effects and the reliable and rapid recovery it is concluded that, in healthy dogs anaesthetised with ketamine or propofol, medetomidine is a satisfactory sedative-analgesic premedicant. The differences in haemodynamics and the quality of recovery suggest that the combination of medetomidine with propofol provided the better quality anaesthesia. The combination of medetomidine with fentanyl was unsuitable for obtaining surgical anaesthesia in spontaneously breathing animals owing to the severity of the respiratory depression at dosages needed for general anaesthesia.
Descriptors: adrenergic alpha-agonists, dissociative anesthetics, dogs, drug administration schedule, fentanyl, hemodynamics, imidazoles, ketamine, medetomidine, ovariectomy, preanesthetic medication, propofol.

Hughes, J.M. (1998). Comparison of disposable circle and 'to-and-fro' breathing systems during anaesthesia in dogs. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 39(9): 416-420. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Low-flow anaesthesia is beneficial in terms of reducing atmospheric pollution with waste anaesthetics and improving economy. This study compared a disposable circle and a 'to-and-fro' breathing system at low fresh gas flows (10 ml/kg/minute) in 19 dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Ten dogs were assigned to the circle and nine to the to-and-fro breathing system. Fractional inspired halothane, end-tidal carbon dioxide and halothane were higher and mean blood pressure was lower in dogs using the to-and-fro system, possibly indicating an increased anaesthetic depth in this group. Use of both systems resulted in an elevated inspired carbon dioxide level, although this was significantly lower in the circle system. Further work will be required to determine the clinical relevance of this difference and whether rebreathing can be eliminated by higher fresh gas flows. The disposable circle studied may be used safely in dogs.
Descriptors: inhalation anesthesia, obstetrical anesthesia, capnography, comparative study, dogs, halothane, heart rate, respiration.

Joubert, K.E. (2000). Routine veterinary anaesthetic management practices in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 71(3): 166-172. ISSN: 0301-0732.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Abstract: A survey of the routine anaesthetic management of dogs and cats during sterilisation by veterinarians in South Africa was conducted. This report describes the premedication, induction and maintenance agents most commonly used in dogs and cats. Information about monitoring of patients during the procedure and who is responsible for induction of anaesthesia and monitoring was obtained. Questionnaires were analysed with regard to demographic data, practice size, continuing education, the number of surgical procedures and sterilisations performed per week and an estimate of yearly mortality. Acetylpromazine is the most commonly used premedication in dogs and xylazine in cats. Thiopentone in dogs and alphaxalone/alphadolone in cats were the induction agents most commonly used. Alphaxalone/alphadolone in cats and halothane in dogs are the most commonly used maintenance agents. Records of anaesthesia are poorly kept and monitoring of patients is poorly performed. Respiratory rate is the parameter most commonly monitored (90.7%), and in most cases is the sole parameter. On average 10.34 +/- 8.25 cats were operated per week, of which 5.45 +/- 5.60 were sterilised; 17.79 +/- 11.61 dogs were operated per week, of which 8.65 +/- 7.10 were sterilised. In total, 190 patients died under anaesthesia, a mortality rate of 1:1,243. Just over 50% of practitioners had attended continuing education courses during their careers.
Descriptors: anesthesia, cats, dogs, veterinary medicine, mortality, statistics and numerical data, castration, education, questionnaires, South Africa

Kim DuckHwan, You MyungJo, Cho SungHwan, Lee SeongHo, Lee SeongOk, Kim InBong, Kwon GeonOh, Kim DH, You MJ, Cho SH, Lee SH, Lee SO, Kim IB, and Kwon GO (2001). Studies on canine electroacupuncture anaesthesia: 2. Investigation of the effect of dorsal acupoints. Journal of Veterinary Clinics 18(4): 311-314. ISSN: 1598-298X .
Descriptors: acupuncture, anesthesia, surgery.

Ko, J.C., R.E. Mandsager, D.N. Lange, and S.M. Fox (2000). Cardiorespiratory responses and plasma cortisol concentrations in dogs treated with medetomidine before undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(4): 509-514. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of medetomidine on anesthetic dose requirements, cardiorespiratory variables, plasma cortisol concentrations, and behavioral pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective study. ANIMALS: 12 healthy Walker-type hound dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs received medetomidine (40 micrograms/kg [18.2 micrograms/lb] of body weight, i.m.; n = 6) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 ml, i.m.; 6) prior to anesthesia induction with thiopental; thiopental dose needed for endotracheal intubation was compared between groups. Ovariohysterectomy was performed during halothane anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at various times before drug administration until 300 minutes after extubation. Various physiologic measurements and end-tidal halothane concentrations were recorded. RESULTS: In medetomidine-treated dogs, heart rate was significantly lower than in controls, and blood pressure did not change significantly from baseline. Plasma cortisol concentrations did not increase significantly until 60 minutes after extubation in medetomidine-treated dogs, whereas values in control dogs were increased from time of surgery until the end of the recording period. Control dogs had higher pain scores than treated dogs from extubation until the end of the recording period. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Administration of medetomidine reduced dose requirements for thiopental and halothane and provided postoperative analgesia up to 90 minutes after extubation. Dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy by use of thiopental induction and halothane anesthesia benefit from analgesia induced by medetomidine administered prior to anesthesia induction. Additional analgesia is appropriate 60 minutes after extubation.
Descriptors: adrenergic alpha-agonists, non-narcotic analgesics, anesthetics, blood pressure, body temperature, dogs, dose-response relationship, halothane, heart rate, hydrocortisone, hysterectomy, medetomidine, ovariectomy, postoperative pain, preanesthetic medication, respiration, thiopental, time factors.

Ko, J.C.H., J.C. Thurmon, G.J. Benson, and W.J. Tranquilli (1993). An alternative drug combination for use in declawing and castrating cats. Veterinary Medicine 88(11): 1061-1065. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: cats, anesthesia, drug combinations, anesthetics, intramuscular injection, castration, claws, surgical operations.

Kovalev, M.I. (1979). Use of etaperazine. Veterinariia (1): 71-72. ISSN: 0042-4846.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V6426
Descriptors: anesthetics, castration, animals, dose response relationship, drug evaluation, perphenazine, time factors, male.

Kyles, A.E., E.M. Hardie, B.D. Hansen, and M.G. Papich (1998). Comparison of transdermal fentanyl and intramuscular oxymorphone on post-operative behaviour after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 65(3): 245-251. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The effects of transdermal fentanyl and i.m. oxymorphone on behavioural and physiological responses, after ovariohysterectomy in dogs, were investigated. The study involved three groups of 10 dogs: fentanyl/surgery (FS), oxymorphone/surgery (OS), fentanyl/control (FC). A transdermal fentanyl delivery system (50 microg hour(-1)) (FS and FC) was applied 20 hours before surgery, or i.m. oxymorphone (OS) was administered. After ovariohysterectomy (FS and OS) or anaesthesia alone (FC), dogs were continuously videotaped for 24 hours and a standardised hourly interaction with a handler performed. The videotapes were analysed, and interactive and non-interactive behaviours evaluated. In addition, pain and sedation scores, pulse and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, plasma cortisol and plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured. This study showed that transdermal fentanyl and i.m. oxymorphone (0.05 mg kg(-1)) produced comparable analgesic effects over a 24 hour recording period. I.m. oxymorphone produced significantly more sedation and lower rectal temperatures than transdermal fentanyl. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory and heart rates, and arterial blood pressures.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, pain score, respiration, heart rate, cortisol, administration and dosage of fentanyl, animal behavior, ovariohysterectomy, arterial blood pressure, dogs, oxymorphone.

Lambardt, A. (1975). Akupunkturanalgesieversuche bei katzen. (Vorlaufige Mitteilung) [Experimental acupuncture anaesthesia in the cat (preliminary communication)]. Praktische Tierarzt 56(1): 33-36. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: acupuncture, ovariectomy, caesarean section, anesthesia, surgery, cats.

Lascelles, B.D., P. Cripps, S. Mirchandani, and A.E. Waterman (1995). Carprofen as an analgesic for postoperative pain in cats: dose titration and assessment of efficacy in comparison to pethidine hydrochloride. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 36(12): 535-541. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: The aim of this study was to titrate the optimal dose of carprofen for single dose usage, for alleviating postoperative pain, under a double-blind and randomised protocol, using both negative and positive controls. Renal tolerance was assessed by screening plasma urea and creatinine. Pre- and postoperative assessment of pain and sedation was made using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scoring system in 60 cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. The cats were randomly assigned to one of six groups: (1) carprofen at 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously (sc); (2) carprofen at 2.0 mg/kg sc; (3) carprofen at 4.0 mg/kg sc; (4) pethidine at 5.0 mg/kg intramuscularly (im), (5) pethidine at 10.0 mg/kg im: and (6) no analgesics (injection of saline). All injections were given postoperatively on tracheal extubation and administered in a double-blind manner. Assessments were made up to 20 hours post extubation. Prior to induction and at 20 hours post extubation, blood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of the urea and creatinine content to check for any adverse effect on renal function. Cats given pethidine did not appear more sedated than the groups receiving carprofen or saline. Cats receiving carprofen were in less pain postoperatively overall, with 4.0 mg/kg being the most effective dose rate (significantly better than the other doses of carprofen at four and eight hours post extubation). The highest dose of pethidine provided significantly better analgesia than the highest dose of carprofen up to two hours post extubation, but from two to 20 hours post extubation carprofen at 4.0 mg/kg provided significantly better analgesia than the pethidine. None of the analgesic regimens appeared to affect renal function adversely, as measured by urea and creatinine levels.
Descriptors: analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, cats, injections, carbazoles, meperidine, postoperative pain.

Lascelles, B.D., P.J. Cripps, A. Jones, and A.E. Waterman (1997). Post-operative central hypersensitivity and pain: the pre-emptive value of pethidine for ovariohysterectomy. Pain: The Journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain 73(3): 461-471. ISSN: 0304-3959.
NAL Call Number: RB127.P34
Abstract: The effect of timing of analgesic drug administration on the severity of post-operative pain was investigated in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy using both subjective visual assessment scoring systems (VAS) and objective mechanical nociceptive threshold measurements using a novel handheld anti-nociceptiometric device. Forty dogs undergoing routine elective ovariohysterectomy were included in a randomised and double-blind study and assigned to one of three groups: (i) pre-operative analgesics; (ii) post-operative analgesics; (iii) no analgesics (saline injections). The analgesic used was pethidine (a short acting predominantly mu-opioid agonist), at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (intramuscular). The post-operative administration of pethidine resulted in significantly higher sedation scores and significantly lower pain scores in the early post-operative period, but the dogs given pethidine pre-operatively had significantly lower pain scores than both the other groups at 8, 12 and 20 h post-extubation (P < 0.01, ANOVA). Mechanical thresholds measured at the distal tibia demonstrated the development of allodynia at 12 and 20 h post-extubation, and this was significantly prevented by the pre- (P < 0.01 at 12 h, P < 0.05 at 20 h, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's), but not by the post-operative administration of pethidine. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds measured at the ventral midline (site of surgery) demonstrated post-operative hyperalgesia in all groups; this hyperalgesia was least in the pre-operative pethidine group. In summary, this study clearly shows pethidine to be an effective analgesic in dogs, albeit of short duration of action, when administered post-operatively, and, importantly, that it has a positive benefit in terms of post-operative outcome measures, when administered pre-operatively, possibly as a result of blocking or preventing the development of central sensitisation following surgical stimulation.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, ovariectomy, analgesics, timing of analgesics, pain threshold, dogs, stress, pethidine, visual assessment scoring system, anti-nociceptiometric device.

Lascelles, B.D., P.J. Cripps, A. Jones, and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (1998). Efficacy and kinetics of carprofen, administered preoperatively or postoperatively, for the prevention of pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Surgery 27(6): 568-582. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine what effect the timing of carprofen administration has on the severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy and to investigate the pharmacokinetics of carprofen under these conditions. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. ANIMALS: Sixty-two adult bitches weighing between 10 and 25 kgs, undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Examinations were performed for 20 hours postoperatively using subjective visual assessment scoring systems (DIVAS) and objective mechanical nociceptive threshold measurements. Forty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: (1) preoperative carprofen; (2) postoperative carprofen; and (3) no analgesics (saline injections). The dose of carprofen was 4.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. In another 22 bitches, the pharmacokinetics of carprofen given preoperatively or postoperatively at the same dose were examined. RESULTS: The dogs given carprofen preoperatively had lower pain scores than the other groups, significantly so at 2 hours postextubation (P < .01 and P < .05, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's). Mechanical pain thresholds measured at the distal tibia showed the development of hyperalgesia at 12 and 20 hours postextubation; this was prevented by both the preoperative (P < .05 at 12 and 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) and postoperative (P < .05 at 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) administration of carprofen. Mechanical pain threshold testing at the wound showed a significant analgesic effect of carprofen. Plasma concentrations of carprofen were not directly related to analgesia; maximum plasma concentration, the area under the curve to the last data point, and area under the first moment curve up to the last data point were all significantly higher in the dogs given carprofen postoperatively (P < .05, Mann-Whitney). CONCLUSION: Preoperative administration of carprofen has a greater analgesic effect than postoperative administration in the early postoperative period in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Plasma levels of carprofen are not related to the degree of analgesia achieved. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Carprofen provides effective analgesia after canine ovariohysterectomy. The timing of analgesic administration is important to optimize the control of postoperative pain.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, ovariohysterectomy, anti-inflammatory agents, dogs, carbazoles, pain measurement, pain threshold, analgesia, timing.

Lascelles, B.D.X., C.A. Capner, and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (1999). Current British veterinary attitudes to perioperative analgesia for cats and small mammals. The Veterinary Record 145(21): 601-604. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: survey, questionnaire, perioperative analgesia, pain, surgical procedures, ovariohysterectomy, orthopaedic surgery, laparotomy, castration, postoperative care.

Lemke, K.A., C.L. Runyon, and B.S. Horney (2002). Effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on anesthetic requirements and signs of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(9): 1268-1275. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: ketoprofen, pain score, dogs, gonadectomy, anesthetic requirements, premedication, behavioral scores, activity levels, pain measurement.

Lemke, K.A., C.L. Runyon, and B.S. Horney (2002). Effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on whole blood platelet aggregation, buccal mucosal bleeding time, and hematologic indices in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(12): 1818-1822. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on whole blood platelet aggregation, buccal mucosal bleeding time, and hematologic indices in dogs after elective ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, masked clinical trial. ANIMALS: 22 healthy dogs. PROCEDURE: 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia, 11 dogs were given 0.9% NaCl solution (control), and 11 dogs were given ketoprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM). Thirty minutes before induction of anesthesia, glycopyrrolate (0.01mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb]), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb]), and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg 10.09 mg/lb]) were given IM to all dogs. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental (5 to 10 mg/kg [2.3 to 4.5 mg/lb], IV) and maintained with isoflurane (1 to 3%). Ovariohysterectomy was performed and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) was given 15 minutes before completion of surgery. Blood samples for measurement of variables were collected at intervals before and after surgery. RESULTS: In dogs given ketoprofen, platelet aggregation was decreased 95 +/- 10% and 80 +/- 35% (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery and 24 hours after surgery, respectively, compared with preoperative values. At both times, mean values in dogs given ketoprofen differed significantly from those in control dogs. Significant differences between groups were not observed for mucosal bleeding time or hematologic indices. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Preoperative administration of ketoprofen inhibited platelet aggre gation but did not alter bleeding time. Ketoprofen can be given before surgery to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy, provided that dogs are screened for potential bleeding problems before surgery and monitored closely after surgery.
Descriptors: anti-inflammatory agents, bleeding time, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, dogs, female, hysterectomy, ketoprofen, ovariectomy, platelet aggregation, postoperative period, premedication, preoperative care, time factors.

Lerche, P., W.W. Muir, and T.L. Grubb (2002). Mask induction of anaesthesia with isoflurane or sevoflurane in premedicated cats. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 43(1): 12-15. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: A comparison was made of the time to and quality of induction of anaesthesia when sevoflurane (n=14) or isoflurane (n=14) was delivered by mask in premedicated healthy adult cats presented for elective surgery. Times to induction and intubation were significantly shorter with sevoflurane (210 +/- 57 seconds and 236 +/- 60 seconds, respectively) than with isoflurane (264 +/- 75 seconds and 292 +/- 73 seconds). The quality of induction was similar for both agents. Two cats in each group developed opisthotonus of less than 45 seconds' duration. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane produced mask induction of anaesthesia of a similar quality in this species. Sevoflurane provided more rapid induction of anaesthesia and establishment of a controlled airway than isoflurane.
Descriptors: acepromazine, inhalataion anesthesia, cats, heart rate, isoflurane, laryngeal masks, methyl ethers, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, respiration.

Lester, P.A., J.S. Gaynor, P.W. Hellyer, K. Mama, and A.E. Wagner (2003). The sedative and behavioral effects of nalbuphine in dogs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 27-31. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: We compared the degree of sedation and frequency and intensity of adverse behaviors in dogs associated with nalbuphine when combined with acepromazine or xylazine compared with those of acepromazine or xylazine alone. Twenty-four dogs (13 female, 11 male) undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group NX received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine subcutaneously (s.c.). Group X received 0.5 mg/kg xylazine s.c. Group NA received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. Group A received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. All dogs received 0.01 mg/kg glycopyrrolate s.c. All doses were administered preoperatively. Preoperative resting measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and body weight were obtained. Sedation was scored both inside and outside a kennel prior to drug administration and at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration. Dogs were assessed for behavioral responses (leg withdrawal, shivering, rigidity, orienting, panting, struggling, vocalization, wide-eyed facial expression, breath holding, salivating, hiding, biting, or requiring a muzzle) during three time periods: placing the dog on the table, clipping and prepping of forelimb, and intravenous catheterization. Postoperative recovery behaviors were scored. Expired halothane concentrations were recorded at 15, 30, and 45 min postinduction. Significant differences occurred in the level of sedation at 30 min between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine or xylazine only compared with dogs receiving acepromazine. There was a significant difference in behavioral scores with respect to leg withdrawal and orienting during clipping/prepping between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine compared with dogs receiving xylazine. The combination of nalbuphine and xylazine is a useful premedicant which provided greater sedation than acepromazine and reduced some anxiety behaviors more than did xylazine alone. Nalbuphine is an inexpensive opioid and currently is not a controlled substance in the U.S.
Descriptors: acepromazine, opioid analgesics, drug effects on behavior, conscious sedation, glycopyrrolate, hypnotics and sedatives, subcutaneous injections, nalbuphine, preanesthetic medication, xylazine.

Lobetti, R. and N. Lambrechts (2000). Effects of general anesthesia and surgery on renal function in healthy dogs. American Journal Of Veterinary Research 61(2): 121-124. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate renal function in healthy dogs undergoing general anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy without concurrent IV administration of fluids. ANIMALS: 35 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were medicated with promazine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, SC) approximately 45 minutes before induction of anesthesia with thiopental sodium (10 to 15 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was maintained with 2% halothane in oxygen. Ovariohysterectomies were performed by senior veterinary students under the direct supervision of a veterinary surgeon. Renal function was assessed (serum urea and creatinine concentrations, fractional clearance of sodium, urine alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] activities, urine specific gravity, and enumeration of renal tubular epithelial cells in urine sediment) prior to and 24 and 48 hours after surgery. RESULTS: Duration of general anesthesia ranged from 80 to 310 minutes. Urine specific gravity and ALP activity and serum urea and creatinine concentrations did not change over time. Fractional clearance of sodium decreased 24 and 48 hours after surgery, whereas urine GGT activity and the ratio of urine GGT activity to urine creatinine concentration increased 24 hours after surgery, compared with presurgery values. Renal tubular epithelial cells increased in number in urine sediment from 11 of 35 (31.4%) dogs and 5 of 35 (14.3%) dogs 24 and 48 hours after surgery, respectively. However, this increase was not clinically relevant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Intravenous administration of fluids to healthy dogs undergoing general anesthesia and elective surgery may not be necessary for maintenance of renal homeostasis.
Descriptors: general anesthesia, blood creatinine, dogs, epithelial cells, female, hysterectomy, kidney function tests, ovariectomy, promazine, reference values, thiopental, urea, gamma-glutamyltransferase.

Lobetti, R.G. and K.E. Joubert (2000). Effect of administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs before surgery on renal function in clinically normal dogs. American Journal Of Veterinary Research 61(12): 1501-1507. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To investigate renal function in clinically normal dogs undergoing general anesthesia for ovariohysterectomies that received nonsteriodal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) before surgery. ANIMALS: 40 clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURE: After induction of anesthesia, dogs were given an analgesic. Renal function was assessed before surgery and 24 and 48 hours after surgery by means of serum urea and creatinine concentrations, fractional clearance of sodium (FC(Na)), urine gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and urine analysis. Ten dogs in each of 4 groups received ketorolac tromethamine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight), ketoprofen (1 mg/kg), carprofen (4 mg/kg), or morphine (0.1 mg/kg; control group). RESULTS: Duration of general anesthesia ranged from 1.75 to 5 hours, with a mean of 3 hours. Two ketorolac- and 2 ketoprofen-treated dogs had transient azotemia. A significant decrease in the FC(Na) between before surgery and 24 hours after surgery, and between before surgery and 48 hours after surgery, was found in ketoprofen- and carprofen-treated dogs. Ketorolac-, ketoprofen-, and morphine-treated dogs had a decrease in urine specific gravity. Two ketorolac, 1 ketoprofen-, 1 carprofen-, and 4 morphine-treated dogs had increases in renal tubular epithelial cells on urine sediment examination 24 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In clinically normal dogs undergoing general anesthesia and elective surgery, the use of NSAID as analgesics is not contraindicated. Compared with ketorolac or ketoprofen, carprofen had the least effect on renal function and integrity.
Descriptors: alkaline phosphatase, anti-inflammatory agents, creatinine, dogs, hysterectomy, kidney, ovariectomy, postoperativeperiod, reference values, sodium, gamma-glutamyltransferase.

Mastrocinque, S. and D.T. Fantoni (2003). A comparison of preoperative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 30(4): 220-228. ISSN: 1467-2987.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare morphine with tramadol for the management of early postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy after pyometra in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized blinded clinical trial. ANIMALS: Thirty female dogs, 2-14 years old. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group 1 received 0.2 mg kg-1 of morphine IV and group 2 received 2 mg kg-1 of tramadol IV after the induction of anesthesia. The dogs were premedicated with acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with intravenous midazolam and ketamine. Isoflurane was used for the maintenance of anesthesia. The variables measured were: analgesia; sedation; cardiac and respiratory rates; arterial blood pressure; end-tidal isoflurane and carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2); oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2); plasma catecholamines; serum cortisol and glucose concentrations; pH and blood gases. The animals were monitored for 6 hours after the administration of the analgesic agent. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups with regard to analgesia, sedation, SpO2, pH and blood gases, cardiovascular variables, glucose, catecholamine and cortisol concentrations. Forty minutes postopioid administration, the end-tidal isoflurane concentration was significantly lower in the morphine-treated group as compared to the tramadol group. At 30 minutes following opioid injection, Pe'CO2 was significantly higher in the morphine group than in the tramadol group. Two dogs in the tramadol group and one in the morphine group were given morphine postoperatively because of increasing pain scores. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Morphine and tramadol, administered preemptively can be used safely in dogs to control early pain after ovariohysterectomy without significant adverse effects.
Descriptors: opioid analgesics, dogs, hysterectomy, morphine, infusions, ovariectomy, pain measurement, premedication, tramadol.

Mendes, G.M., A.L. Selmi, G.R. Barbudo-Selmi, B.T. Lins, and J.P. Figueiredo (2003). Clinical use of dexmedetomidine as premedicant in cats undergoing propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 5(5): 265-270. ISSN: 1098-612X.
NAL Call Number: SF985.J68
Abstract: The purpose of this report was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects and efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant agent in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy anaesthetized with propofol-sevoflurane. Cats were randomly divided into two groups of eight animals each. Dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline was administered intravenously (D and S, respectively). After 5 min, propofol was administered intravenously and anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane. Heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation, rectal temperature and the amount of propofol needed for induction were measured. Premedication with dexmedetomidine reduced the requirement of propofol (6.7+/-3.8 mg/kg), but induced bradycardia, compared with the administration of saline (15.1+/-5.1 mg/kg). Recovery quality was significantly better in D but no significant difference in time to return of swallowing reflex was observed between groups (D=2.5+/-0.5 min; S=3.2+/-1.8 min). In conclusion, dexmedetomidine is a safe and effective agent for premedication in cats undergoing propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia with minimal adverse effects.
Descriptors: inhalation anesthetics, cats, dexmedetomidine, heart rate, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, premedication, propofol, respiration.

O'Boyle, M.A. and G.K. Vajda (1975). Acupuncture anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Modern Veterinary Practice 56(10): 705-707. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: abdomen, acupuncture therapy, anesthesia, castration, dogs, female, hysterectomy, male.

Ogilvie, G.K., M.D. Salman, M.L. Kesel, and M.J. Fettman (1996). Effect of anesthesia and surgery on energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry in dogs with malignant and nonmalignant conditions. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(9): 1321-1326. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure (EE) of apparently resting, client-owned dogs with malignant or nonmalignant diseases that were recovering from anesthesia and surgery, and compare those values with values from clinically normal, apparently resting, client owned dogs. ANIMALS: 40 apparently resting, client-owned dogs that had been given general anesthesia for various elective and nonelective surgical procedures, and 30 apparently resting, clinically normal client-owned dogs used as controls. PROCEDURE: EE was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system. Each dog was evaluated before and after surgery (0, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, then at suture removal > 14 days later) and compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). Parameters evaluated were rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2/kg of body weight: ml/min/kg; Vo2/kg0.75: ml/min/kg0.75), EE (EE/kg: kcal/kg/d; EE/kg0.75: kcal/kg0.75/d), and respiratory quotient. RESULTS: Surgery and anesthesia did not significantly alter any of these parameters at any time assessed in any group. The pretreatment Vo2 and EE were significantly lower in the dogs with cancer, compared with dogs of other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the EE of a restricted group of dogs that undergo anesthesia and surgery for malignant and nonmalignant conditions does not increase from baseline values or when compared with values in clinically normal, client-owned dogs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This information may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs recovering from anesthesia and surgery.
Descriptors: general anesthesia, indirect calorimetry, dogs, energy metabolism, fractures, dogs, hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy.

Patel, C.M. and D. Yates (2003). Evaluation of an anaesthetic protocol for the neutering of eight- to 12-week-old puppies. The Veterinary Record 152(14): 439-440. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: aging, adverse effects of anesthesia, inhalation anesthetics, intravenous anesthetics, animal, castration, dogs.

Quessada, A.M., C.S.A. Santana, H.L. Silva da, and H.L. da Silva (2001). Anestesia local para ovariectomia em gatas [Local anesthesia for ovariectomy in cats]. Semina 22(2): 175-177. ISSN: 0101-3742.
NAL Call Number: Q33.S46
Descriptors: local anaesthesia, local anaesthetics, ovariectomy, surgery, surgical operations, techniques, cats.
Language of Text: Portuguese; Summary in English.

Rutherford, K.M.D. (2002). Assessing pain in animals. Animal Welfare 11(1): 31-53. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animals, pain, poultry, debeaking, lambs, docking, tail, castration, dogs, ovariectomized females, ovariectomy, postoperative care, analgesics, stimuli, avoidance conditioning, animal behavior, literature reviews.

Santos FC dos, Rahal SC, Leite CAL, and dos Santos FC (2003). Postoperative use of anti-inflammatory drugs on small animals -- demographic study. A Hora Veterinaria 22(132): 13-16. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: anti-inflammatory agents, castration, complications, flunixin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, postoperative care, small animal practice, surgery, surgical operations, veterinarians.

Seif, D.P. (1994). Anesthesia for early spaying/neutering. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205(10): 1393. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: anesthesia, castration, cats, dogs, female, male.

Sendler, K., C. Lendl, I. Henke, K. Otto, U. Matis, S. Mundt, and W. Erhardt (1994). Zur Anästhesie bei der Katze mit Tiletamin/Zolazepam in Minimaldosierung [Anesthesia in cats using tiletamine/zolazepam in minimal doses] . Tierarztliche Praxis 22(3): 286-290. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Abstract: The object of this study was to evaluate minimal dose anesthesia with Tiletamine/Zolazepam for castration, dental treatments and other minor surgical procedures in cats. The study included 264 cats treated either at the Department of Veterinary Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich or under private practice conditions, in a small animal clinic in Hamburg (Germany). The drug dose needed for anesthesia for a 10 minute surgical procedure was calculated in each case using a formula. Side effects that occurred with doses recommended by the manufacturer could not be eliminated by decreasing the drug dose, but could be reduced considerably in severity and duration. Tiletamine/Zolazepam was found to be a useful drug for short anesthesia in cats at an average dose of 4.2 mg/kg. Article in German.
Descriptors: anesthesia, cats, electrocardiography, heart rate, reflex, respiration, tiletamine, zolazepam.
Language of Text: German; Summay in English.

Shafford, H.L., P.W. Hellyer, K.T. Crump, A.E. Wagner, K.R. Mama, and J.S. Gaynor (2002). Use of a pulsed electromagnetic field for treatment of post-operative pain in dogs: a pilot study. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29(1): 43-48. ISSN: 1467-2987.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Descriptors: body temperature, morphine, pain, pulse rate, respiration, surgery, dogs.

Slingsby, L.S., A. Jones, and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (2001). Use of a new finger-mounted device to compare mechanical nociceptive thresholds in cats given pethidine or no medication after castration. Research in Veterinary Science 70(3): 243-246. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Mechanical nociceptive thresholds are regularly used to determine the efficacy of analgesic agents both experimentally and clinically in a variety of species. The 'pressure of palpation device' (PPD) was developed for use in cats and is a small battery operated device with a finger-mounted force sensing resistor (FSR, Interlink Electronics, Northumberland. UK). The PPD was used in a study assessing the analgesic efficacy of pethidine after castration in cats. Pethidine was demonstrated to prevent the development of post-operative scrotal hypersensitivity for up to 2 hours after castration, whereas cats given no analgesics showed marked hyperalgesia immediately after surgery. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores after castration showed a similar analgesic effect of pethidine. These results suggest that the PPD could become a useful research tool to assess the effectiveness of analgesic agents in the cat.
Descriptors: opioid analgesics, cats, hyperalgesia, pain socres, pain management, pain thresholds, presssure of palpation device (PPD).

Slingsby, L.S., E.C. Lane, E.R. Mears, M.C. Shanson, and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (1998). Postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy in the cat: a comparison of two anaesthetic regimens. The Veterinary Record 143(21): 589-590. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dissociative anesthetics, non-narcotic analgesics, inhalation anesthetics, intravenous anesthestics, cats, hysterectomy, halothane, ketamine, medetomidine, acepromazine, postoperative pain, thipental.

Slingsby, L.S. and A.E. Waterman-Earson (2002). Comparison between meloxicam and carprofen for postoperative analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 43(7): 286-289. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Eighty female cats presented for ovariohysterectomy were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups in this assessor-blinded trial. After pre-anaesthetic assessment, the cats were premedicated with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Forty cats received carprofen (4 mg/kg subcutaneously) and 40 received meloxicam (0.3 mg/kg subcutaneously) after anaesthetic induction. Following routine flank ovariohysterectomy the cats were assessed using visual analogue scale scores for pain and sedation over a 20-hour study period. Blood samples were taken before sedation and at 20 hours for serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). There were no significant differences between the groups for pain and sedation scores. Serum biochemistry values were similar between the groups, with some differences within groups between the pre-sedation and 20-hour values. One cat in the carprofen group and two cats in the meloxicam group required rescue analgesia with intramuscular morphine (0.2 mg/kg).
Descriptors: nonnarcotic analgesics, antiinflammatory agents, carbazoles, cats, comparative study, ovariohysterectomy, pain scores, postoperative pain, sedation.

Slingsby, L.S. and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (2001). Analgesic effects in dogs of carprofen and pethidine together compared with the effects of either drug alone. The Veterinary Record 148(14): 441-444. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Thirty bitches undergoing routine neutering were used in an assessor-blinded trial of the postoperative analgesic effects of pethidine and carprofen administered either together or singly. The level of analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain and sedation and by nociceptive mechanical threshold testing. The two drugs administered together, and carprofen alone, provided good postoperative analgesia as assessed by VAS scoring. Pethidine alone did not provide postoperative analgesia of sufficient duration.
Descriptors: adjuvants, opioid analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, carbazoles, dogs, hysterectomy, meperidine, pain measurement, postoperative pain.

Slingsby, L.S. and A.E. Waterman-Pearson (2000). The post-operative analgesic effects of ketamine after canine ovariohysterectomy--a comparison between pre- or post-operative administration. Research in Veterinary Science 69(2): 147-152. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Thirty-six female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were randomly allocated into three groups in this assessor-blinded study. The control group received no ketamine, the preketamine group were given ketamine (2.5 mg kg(-1)i.m.) at anaesthetic induction (in addition to the induction agents), the post-ketamine group received ketamine (2.5 mg kg(-1)i.m.) at extubation. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were measured before premedication and post-operatively at 20 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 hours after extubation. Dogs in the control group required more rescue analgesics than those in the other two groups (significantly more than the preketamine group), they also had consistently higher VAS pain scores throughout the post-operative period. Administration of ketamine post-operatively delayed the onset of post-operative wound hyperalgesia; dogs in the control group had the greatest amount of post-operative wound hyperalgesia. A single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine provided effective but short acting analgesia and preoperative administration may confer some benefits over administration post-operatively.
Descriptors: analgesia, dissociative anesthetics, dogs, hysterectomy, ketamine, ovariectomy, pain threshold, postoperative care, preoperative care, wounds and injuries.

Slingsby, L.S. and A.E. Waterman Pearson (2000). Postoperative analgesia in the cat after ovariohysterectomy by use of carprofen, ketoprofen, meloxicam or tolfenamic acid. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 41(10): 447-450. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: cats, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, ketoprofen, efficacy, postoperative care, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, anesthesia, pain.

Smith, J.D., S.W. Allen, and J.E. Quandt (1999). Changes in cortisol concentration in response to stress and postoperative pain in client-owned cats and correlation with objective clinical variables. American Journal Of Veterinary Research 60(4): 432-436. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical variables that indicate postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy in a veterinary hospital setting. ANIMALS: 40 cats. PROCEDURE: Cats were anesthetized and ovariohysterectomized by senior veterinary students. Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [n = 20] or 0.3 mg/kg [20] of body weight) was administered IM after surgery. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the anesthetic period for measurements of PCV and blood glucose and cortisol concentrations. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Data for these variables were compared with changes in cortisol concentrations and with similar data-which was used as historical control data-obtained from 20 cats in another study (10 that had been ovariohysterectomized but had not received butorphanol and 10 that had only been anesthetized). RESULTS: Surgical durations were longer in this study, and cats had higher cortisol concentrations, compared with historical control cats. Objective clinical variables did not consistently correlate with changes in cortisol concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain. This response was greater in cats in which duration of surgery was longer. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The objective clinical variables evaluated in this study were not consistent indicators of pain in an uncontrolled, clinical situation.
Descriptors: cats, female, heart rate, hydrocortisone, ovariohysterectomy, postoperative pain, stress.

Smith, J.D., S.W. Allen, J.E. Quandt, and R.L. Tackett (1996). Indicators of postoperative pain in cats and correlation with clinical criteria. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(11): 1674-1678. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical indicators that may help identity postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS: Healthy, laboratory animal source cats. PROCEDURE: Clinical indicators of pain were identified, and relief from pain in response to butorphanol was studied in 5 groups of cats. 10 cats had 1 hour of general anesthesia only, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight. Another 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.3 mg butorphanol/kg. 10 cats received 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg, IM, only. Samples and recorded data were obtained before, during, and after the anesthesia period. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, PCV, and blood glucose concentration. Results were compared with changes in norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol concentrations. RESULTS: Cats that did not receive analgesics had higher cortisol concentration than did cats without surgery and cats that received butorphanol after surgery. Systolic blood pressure measured by ultrasonic Doppler was found to be predictive of cortisol concentration, using a multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain, and this increase was diminished by use of butorphanol. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Systolic blood pressure was the best clinical predictor of postoperative pain.
Descriptors: analgesics, anesthesia, blood glucose, blood pressure, butorphanol, cats, hysterectomy, norepinephrine, ovariectomy, pain measurement, veterinary, postoperative pain.

Souza, H., M. Hahn, L. da Silva, R. Leivas, C. Belchior, C. Teixeira, M. Daiha, R. Graca, and K. Corgozinho (2001). Neuro-endocrine response of cats to spaying, with analgesia provided by butorphanol tartrate and/or flunixin meglumine. A Hora Veterinaria 21(124): 13-20. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: analgesics, butorphanol, castration, flunixin, stress, surgery.

Stegmann, G.F. and L. Bester (2001). Some cardiopulmonary effects of midazolam premedication in clenbuterol-treated bitches during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 72(1): 33-36. ISSN: 0301-0732.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Abstract: Midazolam was administered intravenously to 8 bitches in a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial before propofol induction of surgical anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane-in-oxygen during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy. Clenbuterol was administered at the start of surgery to improve uterine muscle relaxation, and to facilitate endoscopic examination of the uterus. Ventilation was controlled. Induction of anaesthesia with propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in minute volume and arterial oxygen partial pressure in the midazolam group. Apnoea also occurred in 50% of dogs in the midazolam group. The dose for propofol in the midazolam group was 7.4 mg/kg compared to 9.5 mg/kg in the control. Minute volume was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in both groups during isoflurane maintenance, compared to the value after incremental propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex. Propofol induction resulted in a 25-26% reduction in the mean arterial blood pressure in both groups, and the administration of clenbuterol at the start of surgery resulted in a transient, but statistically significant (P < 0.05), decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in the midazolam group during isoflurane anaesthesia. It is concluded that intravenous midazolam premedication did not adversely affect cardiovascular function during propofol induction, but intra-operative clenbuterol during isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia may result in transient hypotension. Midazolam premedication may increase adverse respiratory effects when administered before propofol induction of anaesthesia.
Descriptors: anesthetics, blood pressure, midazolam, drug interactions, dogs, clenbuterol, cardiovascular function, hypotension, ovariohysterectomy, preanesthetic medication.

Stegmann, G.F. and L. Bester (2001). Some clinical effects of midazolam premedication in propofol-induced and isoflurane-maintained anaesthesia in dogs during ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 72(4): 214-216. ISSN: 0301-0732.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Abstract: In a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial, anaesthesia was induced with propofol (4 mg/kg) after intravenous premedication with or without midazolam (0.1 mg/kg), in a group of 8 dogs scheduled for ovariohysterectomy. Midazolam administration induced acute behavioural changes, and increased reflex suppression after propofol induction. Compared to the control group, the dose required to obtain loss of the pedal reflex was significantly reduced by 37%, and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration during maintenance, reduced by 23%.
Descriptors: anesthetics, ovariohysterectomy, midazolam, preanesthetic medication, isoflurane, behavioral changes, reflex suppression, dogs.

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (1981). Feral cats: notes for veterinary surgeons. The Veterinary Record 108(14): 301-303. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Feral cats are usually difficult to handle. In order to neuter or treat them they should be trapped and immobilised by injection of an agent such as ketamine. This is easier to do if the cat is in a squeeze-back container. Once immobilised, clinical examination, general anaesthesia or euthanasia are straightforward. If the cat is to be ovariohysterectomised, absorbable suture materials and long-acting antibiotics should be used so that recapture will be unnecessary. In colony control schemes all cats left on site should be neutered, marked for identification, vaccinated against feline infectious enteritis with a single dose live vaccine and wormed regularly.
Descriptors: anesthesia, animals, cats, immobilization, euthanasia, veterinary surgery, ovariohysterectomy, neutering.

Vaha-Vahe, T. (1989). The clinical efficacy of medetomidine. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum 85: 151-153. ISSN: 0065-1699.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Ac87 Suppl.
Abstract: Studies on the clinical efficacy of medetomidine, a novel alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, are reviewed. Medetomidine has been shown to produce a reliable state of sedation, relaxation and recumbency suitable for small animal practice. In dogs, the optimal clinical dose for examinations, clinical procedures and minor surgical interventions seems to be 30-40 micrograms/kg intramusculary and in cats 80-110 micrograms/kg. Other effects of medetomidine reported include bradycardia, nausea and vomiting. Occasional muscle jerkings have been also reported after medetomidine injection. In special investigations, medetomidine has successfully been used in wound suturation and ovariohysterectomy in dogs and for sedation in dogs with heart diseases. Medetomidine-ketamine combination has been shown to be useful for anesthesia and immobilization in cats and zoo animals. The medetomidine-fentanyl combination was tested in dog: The administration of fentanyl increased the sedation and analgesia obtained with medetomidine. Medetomidine appears to be a potent sedative and analgesic agent for clinical use.
Descriptors: adrenergic alpha-agonists, analgesics, animals, clinical trials, hypnotics and sedatives, imidazoles, medetomidine.

Vaisanen, M., M. Raekallio, E. Kuusela, P. Huttunen, J. Leppaluoto, P. Kirves, and O. Vainio (2002). Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic medication. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(7): 969-975. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic medication. ANIMALS: 42 client-owned dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURE: Each dog was randomly allocated to receive medetomidine and butorphanol tartrate (20 microgram/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, IM) or acepromazine maleate and butorphanol (0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, IM) for preanesthetic medication. Approximately 80 minutes later, anesthesia was induced by administration of propofol and maintained by use of isoflurane in oxygen. Each dog was also given carprofen before surgery and buprenorphine after surgery. Plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were measured at various stages during the perioperative period. In addition, cardiovascular and clinical variables were monitored. RESULTS: Concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly lower for dogs administered medetomidine. Concentrations of beta-endorphin did not differ between the 2 groups. Heart rate was significantly lower and mean arterial blood pressure significantly higher in dogs administered medetomidine, compared with values for dogs administered acepromazine. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicate that for preanesthetic medications, medetomidine may offer some advantages over acepromazine with respect to the ability to decrease perioperative concentrations of stress-related hormones. In particular, the ability to provide stable plasma catecholamine concentrations may help to attenuate perioperative activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
Descriptors: acepromazine, inhalation anesthetics, intravenous anesthetics, animals, epinephrine, ovariohysterectomy, dogs, cortisol levels, effects on heart rate, blood pressure, comparative study, stress homones.

Ward, G.S., D.O. Johnsen, and C.R. Roberts (1974). The use of CI 744 as an anesthetic for laboratory animals. Laboratory Animal Science 24(5): 732-742. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call Number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: dissociative anesthetics, laboratory animals, azepines, drug effects on blood pressure, castration, cats, dogs, drug combinations, thyroidectomy, heart rate, injections, salivation.

Waterman, A.E., M.A. Hashim, and H. Pearson (1995). Effect of body position on oesophageal and gastric pressures in the anaesthetised dog. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 36(5): 196-200. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: The effect of body position on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (LOSP), gastric pressure and barrier pressure (BrP) was investigated in 40 dogs anaesthetised for neutering procedures. The dogs were placed in lateral recumbency followed by dorsal recumbency (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). LOSP decreased significantly in the animals which were positioned initially in lateral recumbency, when they were then placed in dorsal recumbency, while those initially positioned in dorsal recumbency showed no significant change in their LOSP or BrP when their position was altered to lateral recumbency. When the data from both groups were pooled, LOSP and BrP were significantly lower when the dogs were in dorsal compared to lateral recumbency (P < 0.05).
Descriptors: anesthesia, diaphragm, dogs, esophagogastric junction, manometry, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, posture, pressure, stomach, thiopental.

Watson, A.D., A. Nicholson, D.B. Church, and M.R. Pearson (1996). Use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 74(3): 203-210. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: Responses (486) were collared from a survey of 5054 Australian veterinarians on their use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. Almost all respondents used glucocorticoids (usually prednisolone) to treat allergic, pruritic dermatoses in dogs, while two-thirds also gave fatty acid supplements and one-half used antihistamines. Almost 60% of respondents initially injected a glucocorticoid (frequently a long-acting preparation) when treating inflammatory skin diseases in dogs. More than 90% of respondents used glucocorticoids to treat immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia or thrombocytopenia, and about one-third also gave cytotoxic drugs. Administration of prednisolone on alternate days was generally favoured for long-term enteral steroid therapy. Phenylbutazone was the most preferred treatment for painful or inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders of dogs, but aspirin and pentosan polysulphate were also used widely. Regarding the use of analgesics drugs generally, both narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were used more widely in dogs than in cats, but alpha-2 agonists were used similarly in both species. The most commonly used narcotic analgesics were pethidine and buprenorphine in both species, while the NSAIDs used most often were flunixin and dipyrone in dogs and ketoprofen in cats. More than 80% of respondents generally used analgesic drugs with potentially painful surgical procedures, with doses given usually before anaesthetic recovery. Analgesic use rates varied with the condition, ranging from 94% for patients with acute severe trauma, through 60% for cruciate ligament repair and 29% for perineal herniorrahphy, to about 5% for ovariohysterectomy and dog castration. The three clinical signs most frequently nominated as indicators of pain in dogs and cats were (in descending order) vocalisation, response to handling or palpating the affected area, and mental depression. Other items mentioned frequently were behavioural changes and immobility (in both species), inappetence/anorexia in cats, and altered respiration in dogs.
Descriptors: hemolytic anemia, anti-inflammatory agents, cats, dogs, glucocorticoids, musculoskeletal diseases, pain, postoperative complications, questionnaires, skin diseases, wounds and injuries.

Williams, L.S., J.K. Levy, S.A. Robertson, A.M. Cistola, and L.A. Centonze (2002). Use of the anaesthetic combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine for neutering feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(10): 1491-1495. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: anesthesia, feral herds, ketamine, ovariectomy, potency, surgical operations, xylazine, cats.

Williams, L.S., J.K. Levy, S.A. Robertson, A.M. Cistola, and L.A. Centonze (2002). Use of the anesthetic combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine for neutering feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(10): 1491-1495. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the anesthetic combination tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine (TKX) for anesthesia of feral cats at large-scale neutering clinics. DESIGN: Original study. ANIMALS: 7,502 feral cats. PROCEDURE: Cats were trapped by their caretakers for a feral cat neutering program from July 1996 to August 2000. The anesthetic combination TKX was injected IM into cats while they remained in their traps. Each milliliter of TKX contained 50 mg of tiletamine, 50 mg of zolazepam, 80 mg of ketamine, and 20 mg of xylazine. Females were spayed by veterinarians, whereas males were castrated by veterinarians or veterinary students. Yohimbine (0.5 mg, IV) was administered at the end of the procedure. Logs were kept of the individual drug doses, signalment of the cats, and any complications encountered. These data were analyzed retrospectively (1996 to 1999) and prospectively (2000). RESULTS: Of the 5,766 cats for which dosing records were complete, 4,584 (79.5%) received a single dose of TKX. The mean initial dose of TKX was 0.24 +/- 0.04 ml/cat, and the total mean dose of TKX was 0.27 +/- 0.09 ml. Overall mortality rate was 0.35% (26/7,502) cats, and the death rate attributable solely to potential anesthetic deaths was 0.23% (17/7,502) cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of TKX for large-scale feral cat neutering clinics has several benefits. The TKX combination is inexpensive, provides predictable results, can be administered quickly and easily in a small volume, and is associated with a low mortality rate in feral cats.
Descriptors: anesthesia, anti-anxiety agents, cats, castration, spay-neuter clinic, combined anesthetics, mortality rate.

 

 

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