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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Related Behavior Topics  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
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Related Behavior Topics

Bradshaw, J.W.S., P.F. Neville, and D. Sawyer (1997). Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 373-379. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pica, feeding behavior, cats.

Chapman, B.L. (1991). Feline aggression: classification, diagnosis, and treatment. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 21(2): 315-327. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Abstract: Types of aggressive behavior commonly recognized in cats include intermale, territorial, fear/defensive, play, predation, and redirected. Diagnosis is made on the basis of signalment data, the pattern of aggressive postures displayed by the aggressive cat, and the circumstances in which the aggressive behavior occurred. Treatment varies with the type of aggressive behavior but may include neutering, desensitization and counter-conditioning techniques, punishment, drug therapy, and management changes.
Descriptors: aggression, bites, cats, defense mechanisms, fear, maternal behavior, play, predatory behavior, sex behavior, territoriality.

Fox, S.M., D.J. Mellor, K.J. Stafford, C.R. Lowoko, and H. Hodge (2000). The effects of ovariohysterectomy plus different combinations of halothane anaesthesia and butorphanol analgesia on behaviour in the bitch. Research in Veterinary Science 68(3): 265-274. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: One hundred and sixty-six behaviours were identified as possible indices of post-operative pain-induced distress in the bitch. These were assessed in bitches after treatment with different combinations of halothane and butorphanol in the absence of surgery and following ovariohysterectomy under halothane anaesthesia with or without butorphanol analgesia given at different stages during the operation. Behaviour was monitored while the bitches were alone (non-interactive) and when routinely examined and handled prior to blood sampling (interactive). Seventy-six of the 166 behaviours occurred so infrequently (less than two occurrences per hour) as to be of no value as indices. Non-interactive behaviours associated with surgery were a decrease in normal speed cage circling and an increase in drawing the rear limbs up in the pike position. The infrequent non-interactive behaviours of incision licking, vomiting and flank gazing were considered to be expressions of pain caused by ovariohysterectomy. During the post-surgical period, bitches given analgesic moved less frequently than those not receiving analgesic. Vocalisation was associated with dysphoria of analgesia rather than pain-induced distress. The behaviour of bitches after ovariohysterectomy suggests that this is a painful procedure which warrants analgesia.
Descriptors: anesthesia, analgesics, animal behavior, butorphanol, halothane, drug combination, dogs, postoperative pain, ovariohysterectomy, posture.

Gerber, H.A., W. Jochle, and F.G. Sulman (1973). Control of reproduction and of undesirable social and sexual behaviour in dogs and cats. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 14(3): 151-158. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: animal behavior, cats, contraceptive agents, dogs, estrus, hydroxysteroids, pregnatrienes, progestins, reproduction, sexual behavior, social behavior.

Guy, N.C., U.A. Luescher, S.E. Dohoo, E. Spangler, J.B. Miller, I.R. Dohoo, and L.A. Bate (2001). Demographic and aggressive characteristics of dogs in a general veterinary caseload. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74(1): 15-28. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, characteristics, age, demography, sex, dogbreeds, gonadectomy, aggressive behavior, behavior problems, surveys, questionnaires, veterinary practice.

Hardie, E.M., B.D. Hansen, and G.S. Carroll (1997). Behavior after ovariohysterectomy in the dog: What's normal? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 51(1-2): 111-128. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pain, stress, surgery, dogs.

Hart, B.L. (2001). Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(1): 51-56. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gonadectomy predisposes dogs to development of age-related behavioral changes linked to cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 29 sexually intact male dogs, 63 spayed female dogs, and 47 castrated male dogs 11 to 14 years old. PROCEDURE: Information on possible impairments in 4 behavioral categories linked to cognitive impairment (orientation in the home and yard, social interactions, house training, and sleep-wake cycle) was obtained from owners of the dogs by use of a structured telephone interview format. A second interview was performed 12 to 18 months after the initial interview, and differences in responses were evaluated. RESULTS: Sexually intact male dogs were significantly less likely than neutered dogs to progress from mild impairment (i.e., impairment in 1 category) to severe impairment (i.e., impairment in > or = 2 categories) during the time between the first and second interviews. This difference was not attributable to differences in ages of the dogs, duration of follow-up, or the owners' perceptions of the dogs' overall health. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that the presence of circulating testosterone in aging sexually intact male dogs may slow the progression of cognitive impairment, at least among dogs that already have signs of mild impairment. Estrogens would be expected to have a similar protective role in sexually intact female dogs; unfortunately, too few sexually intact female dogs were available for inclusion in the study to test this hypothesis. There may be a need to evaluate possible methods for counteracting the effects of loss of sex hormones in gonadectomized dogs.
Descriptors: gonadectomy, cognition disorders, dogs, estrogens, testosterone, age factors.

Hart, B.L. and L. Cooper (1984). Factors relating to urine spraying and fighting in prepubertally gonadectomized cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 184(10): 1255-1258. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, castration, fighting, scent marking behavior.

Hart, B.L. and R.A. Eckstein (1997). The role of gonadal hormones in the occurrence of objectionable behaviours in dogs and cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 331-344. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: sex hormones, domestic animals, sexual dimorphism, castration, behavior problems, dogs, cats.

Hart, B. (1991). Effects of neutering and spaying on the behavior of dogs and cats: questions and answers about practical concerns. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1204-1205. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, cats, castration, ovariectomy, animal behavior, behavior change, behavior patterns.

Idowu, A.L. (1984). Effects of castration on certain behavioural problems in dogs. Tropical Veterinarian 2(2): 80-82. ISSN: 0253-4851.
NAL Call Number: SF724.T72
Descriptors: behavior modification, aggressive behavior, castration, dogs.

Inselman-Temkin, B.R. and J.P. Flynn (1973). Sex-dependent effects of gonadal and gonadotropic hormones on centrally-elicited attack in cats. Brain Research 60(2): 393-410. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Descriptors: estrogen, testosterone, leutininzing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, cats, aggressive behavior, hormone injections, gonadectomy, sexual differentiation of the brain.

Jochle, W. (1998). Fehlverhalten und Anpassungsprobleme bei Hund und Katze und deren pharmakologische Beeinflussbarkeit [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Klientiere Heimtiere 26(6): 410-421. ISSN: 1434-1239.
Abstract: Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed. Article in German, abstract in English.
Descriptors: psychological adaptation, animals, anxiety, cats, dogs, psychotropic drugs, treatment for abnormal behavior, behavioral therapy, castration.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Jochle, W. and M. Jochle (1975). Reproductive and behavioral control in the male and female cat with progestins: long-term field observations in individual animals. Theriogenology 3(5): 179-185. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: cats, chlormadinone acetate, comparative study, estrus, female, megestrol, pregnancy, progestins, sexual behavior, social dominance.

Juhr, N.C. (2001). Die fruehkastration von Hunden aus der sicht der verhaltenskunde [Early castration of dogs from the point of view of behavior]. Tieraerztliche Umschau 56(4): 199-200. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: dogs, castration, sterilization method, behavioral problems, urine marking.
Language of Text: German.

Kirsan, I., A. Senünver, and A. Sevimli (1998). Egitime alinacak disi kopeklerde kisirlastirma operasyonunun onemi [Effects of ovariohysterectomy on the training of bitches]. Istanbul Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 24(2): 355-365. ISSN: 0378-2352.
NAL Call Number: SF1.I78
Descriptors: sterilization, effects, surgery, ovariectomy, training of animals, hysterectomy, dogs.
Language of Text: Turkish; Summary in German.
Notes: CAB.

Knol, B.W. and S.T. Egberink-Alink (1990). Treatment of problem behaviour in dogs and cats by castration and progestagen administration: A review. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 115(11): 522-527. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: castration, progestagen, dogs, cats, behavior therapy

Kyles, A.E., E.M. Hardie, B.D. Hansen, and M.G. Papich (1998). Comparison of transdermal fentanyl and intramuscular oxymorphone on post-operative behaviour after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 65(3): 245-251. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The effects of transdermal fentanyl and i.m. oxymorphone on behavioural and physiological responses, after ovariohysterectomy in dogs, were investigated. The study involved three groups of 10 dogs: fentanyl/surgery (FS), oxymorphone/surgery (OS), fentanyl/control (FC). A transdermal fentanyl delivery system (50 microg hour(-1)) (FS and FC) was applied 20 hours before surgery, or i.m. oxymorphone (OS) was administered. After ovariohysterectomy (FS and OS) or anaesthesia alone (FC), dogs were continuously videotaped for 24 hours and a standardised hourly interaction with a handler performed. The videotapes were analysed, and interactive and non-interactive behaviours evaluated. In addition, pain and sedation scores, pulse and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, plasma cortisol and plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured. This study showed that transdermal fentanyl and i.m. oxymorphone (0.05 mg kg(-1)) produced comparable analgesic effects over a 24 hour recording period. I.m. oxymorphone produced significantly more sedation and lower rectal temperatures than transdermal fentanyl. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory and heart rates, and arterial blood pressures.
Descriptors: postoperative pain, pain score, respiration, heart rate, cortisol, administration and dosage of fentanyl, animal behavior, ovariohysterectomy, arterial blood pressure, dogs, oxymorphone.

Line, S. and V.L. Voith (1986). Dominance aggression of dogs towards people: Behavior profile and response to treatment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16(1): 77-83. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, dogs, treatment.

Maarschalkerweerd, R.J., N. Endenburg, J. Kirpensteijn, and B.W. Knol (1997). Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour. The Veterinary Record 140(24): 617-669. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: One hundred and twenty-two dog owners were interviewed to obtain information about the effects of orchiectomy on the behaviour, unwanted side effects, and testosterone-dependent disease processes in their dogs. Behavioural problems were the main reason for orchiectomy, unwanted sexual behaviour being the most common, together with roaming, aggression, and abnormal urination behaviour. Objectionable sexual behaviour, inter-male aggression, roaming, and abnormalurination were reduced after orchiectomy in approximately 60 per cent of the dogs. The side effects of orchiectomy included increased bodyweight, increased appetite and decreased activity in less than 50 per cent of the dogs, and there was a significant relationship between increased appetite and bodyweight. The clinical signs of testosterone-dependent disease in most of the dogs either decreased or disappeared after orchiectomy.
Descriptors: aggression, appetite, animal behavior, body weight, comparative study, dogs, incidence, orchiectomy, prostatic hyperplasia, sexual behavior, urination disorders.

McKeown, D.B., U.A. Luescher, and M.A. Machum (1988). Aggression in feline housemates: A case study. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 29(9): 742-743. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, cats, behavior modification, case reports.

Mikkelsen, J. and J.D. Lund (1999). Aflivning af hunde pa grund af adfaerdsproblemer: En epidemiologisk undersogelse over euthanasi af hunde i Danmark - med saerlig fokus pa aggressionsproblemer [Euthanasia of dogs because of behaviour problems: An epidemiological study of euthanasia of dogs in Denmark with special attention to aggression problems]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 82(11): 474-479. ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Descriptors: behavior, aggression, euthanasia, body weight influence, breed, neutering, obedience training.
Language of Text: Danish; Summary in English.

Misner, T. and K. Houpt (1998). Animal behavior case of the month. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(9): 1260-1262. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: aggression, ovariohysterectomy, dogs, adoption, guarding behavior, mibolerone, anabolic steroids, dominance, progestins.

Neilson, J.C., R.A. Eckstein, and B.L. Hart (1997). Effects of castration on problem behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of behavior. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(2): 180-182. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 9 problem behaviors in adult male dogs were affected by castration and to examine the influence of age and duration of problem behavior on behavioral effects of castration. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 57 male dogs > 2 years old at the time of castration that had > or = 1 of the targeted problem behaviors. PROCEDURE: Data were collected by telephone contact with owners to identify dogs that had > or = 1 problem behavior before castration and to estimate the improvement (ie, decrease) in the objectionable behaviors after castration. Problem behaviors of interest included urine marking in the house, mounting, roaming, fear of inanimate stimuli, aggression toward human family members, aggression toward unfamiliar people, aggression toward other dogs in the household, aggression toward unfamiliar dogs, and aggression toward human territorial intruders. RESULTS: Effects of castration on fear of inanimate stimuli or aggression toward unfamiliar people were not significant. For urine marking, mounting, and roaming, castration resulted in an improvement of > or = 50% in > or = 60% of dogs and an improvement of > or = 90% in 25 to 40% of dogs. For remaining behaviors, castration resulted in an improvement of > or = 50% in < 35% of dogs. Significant correlations were not found between the percentage of improvement and age of the dog or duration of the problem behavior at the time of castration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Castration was most effective in altering objectionable urine making, mounting, and roaming. With various types of aggressive behavior, including aggression toward human family members, castration may be effective in decreasing aggression in some dogs, but fewer than a third can be expected to have marked improvement. Age of the dog or duration of the problem behavior does not have value in predicting whether castration will have a beneficial effect.
Descriptors: aggression, aging, animal behavior, dogs, orchiectomy, sex behavior.

Reisner, I.R. (2003). Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs. The Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 33(2): 303-320. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: behavior, human directed aggression, rage syndrome, behavior modification, castration, ovariohysterectomy.

Rutherford, K.M.D. (2002). Assessing pain in animals. Animal Welfare 11(1): 31-53. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animals, pain, poultry, debeaking, lambs, docking, tail, castration, dogs, ovariectomized females, ovariectomy, postoperative care, analgesics, stimuli, avoidance conditioning, animal behavior, literature reviews.

Salman MD, Hutchison J, Ruch Gallie R, Kogan L, New JC Jr., Kass PH, and Scarlett JM (2000). Behavioral reasons for relinquishment of dogs and cats to 12 shelters. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(2): 93-106. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: aggression, pets, animal behavior, animal welfare

Salmeri, K., M. Bloomberg, S. Scrugs, and V. Shille (1991). Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1193-1203. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, castration, ovariectomy, skeletal development, feed intake, liveweight gain, animal behavior, body fat, secondary sexual traits.

Schmidt W.D. (2002). Verhaltenstherapie Des Hundes [Behavioural Therapy in Dogs], Schlütersche GmbH & Co. KG, Verlag und Druckerei: Hannover, Germany, 176 pp. p. ISBN: 3-87706-674-7.
Descriptors: abnormal behaviour, aggression, animal behaviour, neuroses, therapy.

Schwartz, S. (1999). Use of cyproheptadine to control urine spraying in a castrated male domestic cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(4): 501-502. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, cyproheptadine, drug therapy, urine, marking, behavior disorders, castration, behavior modification.

Sherman, C.K., I.R. Reisner, L.A. Taliaferro, and K.A. Houpt (1996). Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of 99 cases of aggression between dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47(1-2): 91-108. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: aggression, dogs.

Stubbs, W.P., M.S. Bloomberg, S.L. Scruggs, V.M. Shille, and T.J. Lane (1996). Effects of prepubertal gonadectomy on physical and behavioral development in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(11): 1864-1871. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of prepubertal gonadectomy on physical and behavioral development in cats. DESIGN: Prospective controlled study of kittens randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: group 1, neutered at 7 weeks of age; group 2, neutered at 7 months of age; and group 3, sexually intact controls. ANIMALS: 31 clinically normal male and female kittens. PROCEDURE: Age at distal radial physeal closure and mature radius length were determined radiographically. Six behavioral characteristics were recorded monthly. At 1 year of age, body weight was recorded and thickness of the falciform ligament was measured from a lateral abdominal radiographic view. Secondary sex characteristics were also examined at 1 year of age. RESULTS: There were no differences between group-1 and group-2 cats for any of the study variables. Sexually intact cats (group 3) weighted significantly less than group-2 cats and had less falciform fat and earlier distal radial physeal closure than cats of both neutered groups. Group-3 cats manifested greater intraspecies aggression, less affection, and greater development of secondary sex characteristics than neutered cats. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Neutering cats at 7 weeks of age had similar effects on physical and behavioral development, compared with neutering at the more traditional age of 7 months. These data lend support to the concept of prepubertal gonadectomy, already performed by many animal shelters/humane organizations, as a method of enhancing the effectiveness of pet population control programs.
Descriptors: cats, gonadectomy, skeletal development, body-weight, animal behavior, body composition, early age neutering, radiography, sexual maturation, age factors.

van den Berg, L., M.B. Schilder, and B.W. Knol (2003). Behavior genetics of canine aggression: behavioral phenotyping of golden retrievers by means of an aggression test. Behavior Genetics 33(5): 469-483. ISSN: 0001-8244.
NAL Call Number: QH301.B45
Abstract: Molecular genetic analysis of complex traits such as aggression strongly depends on careful phenotyping of individuals. When studying canine aggression, the information provided by the owners of the dogs is often not detailed and reliable enough for this purpose. Therefore we subjected 83 golden retrievers, both aggressive and nonaggressive individuals, to a behavioral test. These tests were analyzed with help of an ethogram, resulting in a behavioral profile for each of the dogs. In this article three methods are described of converting these profiles into a measure of behavioral phenotype. The usefulness of the methods is evaluated by comparing the test results with information provided by owners. Moreover, the hypothesis underlying all these methods, that a lowered threshold for aggressive behavior in general is present in the dogs, is also evaluated. Future research will need to reveal whether the methods meet the high standards that are necessary for studying complex traits.
Descriptors: aggression, dogs, fear, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, behavioral genetics.

Wright, J.C. and R.T. Amoss (2004). Prevalence of house soiling and aggression in kittens during the first year after adoption from a humane society. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224(11): 1790-1796. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: time of neutering, animal shelter, aggression, questionnaire, animal behavior, owner survey, cats.



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