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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Complications Resulting from Sterilization/Contraception Techniques  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
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Complications Resulting from Sterilization/Contraception Techniques

Aiken, S.W., S. Jakovljevic, G.C. Lantz, and W.E. Blevins (1993). Acquired arteriovenous fistula secondary to castration in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(6): 965-967. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: A 6-year-old castrated male Basset Hound was examined because of a 1-year history of a pulsating mass in the right inguinal region. The pulsatile mass was diagnosed as an arteriovenous fistula by physical examination and angiography. Surgical exploration revealed that the right testicular artery and vein, the artery of the ductus deferens, and the cremasteric artery were involved in the fistula. The fistula was believed to have developed secondary to castration performed at 6 months of age. The mass and associated vessels were completely excised and signs of recurrence were not observed 13 months after surgery.
Descriptors: dogs, castration, postoperative complications, fistula, arteries, hemorrhage, case studies.

Altarifi, A.R.H. (1982). A study of surgical complications of ovariohysterectomy and pyometra in the bitch and cat. Index to Theses 30(2): 281.
Descriptors: cat diseases, dog diseases, uterine diseases, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, pyometra, postoperative complications, cats, dogs.

Anonymous (2001). When should bitches be neutered. The Veterinary Record 148(16): 491-493. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: attitude of health personnel, dogs, ovariectomy, age factors, postoperative complications.

Arbeiter, K. (1986). Harnblaseninkontinenz nach der ovariohysterektomie bei der hundin [Urinary bladder incontinence in the bitch after ovariohysterectomy]. Kleintier-Praxis 31(5): 215-222. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: dog diseases, surgery, estrogens, acupuncture, ovariectomy, bitches, urinary incontinence, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Arnbjerg, J., S. Knold, and N.I. Heje (1992). Die vorbereitung des operationsfeldes zur kastration von katern [Preparation of the feline scrotum for castration - the need to avoid hair plucking]. Kleintier-Praxis 37(8): 535-538. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: complications, techniques, surgical operations, castration, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and French.

Arnold, S. (1997). Harninkontinenz bei kastrierten Hundinnen. Teil 1: Bedeutung, Klinik und Atiopathogenese [Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. Part 1: Significance, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 139(6): 271-276. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: Acquired urinary incontinence occurs in 20% of spayed dogs and there exists a strong correlation between body weight and the risk of urinary incontinence. Bitches with a body weight of more than 20 kg have a risk of 30% white smaller dogs have a risk of 10%. A particular breed disposition exists in Boxers in which 65% are affected. Other breeds with a more than average disposition for urinary incontinence are Dobermans and Giant Schnauzers. Urinary incontinence due to spaying manifests itself mainly while the dogs are sleeping. The cause is a urethral sphincter incompetence which can be verified by a urethral pressure profile (UPP). The microtransducer method proved to be a suitable method for urodynamic studies. It could be demonstrated that the urethral closure pressure is significantly lower in incontinent bitches (4.6 +/- 2.3 cm H2O) than in continent bitches (18.6 +/- 10.5 cm H2O). In addition, the urethral closure pressure for continent bitches dropped significantly within 12 months after surgery. Histological examination revealed that the functional urethral closure cannot be explained by the extent of discernible structures of the urethral wall as seen by light microscopy.
Descriptors: animals, body weight, breeding, dog diseases, dogs, female, hysterectomy, adverse effects of ovariectomy, risk factors, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Arnold, S. (1997). Harninkontinenz bei kastrierten hundinnen. Teil 2: diagnose und behandlung [Urinary incontinence in spayed bitches. Part 2: diagnosis and treatment]. Schweizer Archiv Fuer Tierheilkunde 139(7): 319-324. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: Urinary incontinence due to spaying is caused by a sphincter incompetence of the urethra. In practice the diagnosis is established by ruling out other causes of incontinence such as neurological disease, bacterial cystitis, urinary tract malformation, iatrogenic ureterovaginal fistula and neoplasia of the urinary tract. An accurate diagnosis of urethral sphincter incompetence is made by urethral pressure profilometry. A urethral closure pressure of 7.4 cm H2O allowed the differentiation of bitches with urinary incontinence, due to spaying, from healthy control dogs with a diagnostic accuracy of 91%. For therapy alpha-adrenergic drugs (Ephedrine or Phenylpropanolamine) are recommended, which result in continence in 74% and improvement in 24% of incontinent patients. In the absence of response estrogens may be used. If the medical therapy fails to achieve urinary continence, the endoscopic injection of collagen into the submucosa of the proximal urethra can be performed. This is a simple and minimally invasive procedure. It rarely leads to complications and may be repeated when necessary. The method is successful in 75% of cases.
Descriptors: urinary system, alpha adrenergic agent, bitches, complications, endoscopic collagen injection, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, spaying, sterilization method, therapeutic method, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Arnold, S. (1997). Harninkontinenz bei kastrierten Hundinnen [Urinary incontinence in spayed bitches]. Dissertation, Universitat Zurich: Stuttgart, Germany. 103 p.
Online: ISBN 3432298315
NAL Call Number: SF992.U75A76--1997
Descriptors: surgical operations, complications, bitches, urinary incontinence, dogs, spaying.
Language of Text : German.

Arnold, S., P. Arnold, M. Hubler, M. Casal, and P. Rusch (1989). Incontinentia urinae bei der kastrierten hundin: haufigkeit und rassedisposition [Urinary incontinence in spayed bitches: frequency and breed predisposition]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 131(5): 259-263. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: A follow up study was performed in 412 spayed bitches in order to determine the incidence of urinary incontinence. The period between the operation being performed and the survey being made varied between 3 and 10 years. 83 animals (20.1%) were incontinent independent of the surgical procedure (ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy). The onset of incontinence varied between immediately to 12 years with an average period of 2.9 years after surgery. 57 of these incontinent bitches were treated with ephedrine or estrogen. In 73.7% a good response was achieved with ephedrine and a further 23.7% showed some improvement. Generally ephedrine was more successful than estrogen in the treatment of incontinence. There appears to be a strong connection between body weight and the incidence of incontinence. Of bitches with a body weight of less than 20 kg only 9.3% were incontinent. Whereas in bitches with a body weight of more than 20 kg the incidence was 30.9%. Of the breeds Boxers showed a high incidence of incontinence (65%) while breeds such as German Shepherds (10.6%) or Dachshunds (11.1%) showed a low incidence in relation to the average incidence rate (20.1%).
Descriptors: surgical operations, predisposition, ovariectomy, bitches, postoperative complications, urinary incontinence, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French and Italian.

Arnold, S., M. Hubler, M. Casal, G. Lott Stolz, B. Hauser, and P. Rusch (1992). The transplantation of autologous ovarian tissue in the bitch for the prevention of side effects due to spaying. A retrospective study several years after surgery. The European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 3(1): 67-71.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E8
Descriptors: ovariectomy, urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, surgery, dogs.

Arnold, S., M. Hubler, M. Casal, G. Lott Stolz, B. Hauser, and P. Rusch (1988). Transplantation von autologem Ovargewebe zur Verhinderung von unerwunschten Kastrationsfolgen bei der Hundin (Uberprufung von Patienten mehrere Jahre nach der Operation) [Transplantation of autologous ovarian tissue to prevent side effects of spaying in bitches (survey of cases several years after the operation)]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 130(7): 369-379. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: allografts, ovaries, transplantation, complications, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French and Italian.

Bagley, R.S., S.A. Dougherty, and J.F. Randolph (1994). Tetanus subsequent to ovariohysterectomy in a dog. Progress in Veterinary Neurology 5(2): 63-65. ISSN: 1061-575X.
NAL Call Number: SF895.P76
Descriptors: bitches, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, tetanus, uterus, Clostridium tetani, case reports.

Banks, S.E., I.R. Fleming, and T.N. Browning (1991). Urinary incontinence in a bitch caused by vaginoureteral fistulation. The Veterinary Record 128(5): 108. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dog diseases, fistula, urinary incontinence dogs, fistula complications, hysterectomy, ovariectomy.

Bellah, J.R., C.P. Spencer, and K.R. Salmeri (1989). Hemiprostatic urethral avulsion during cryptorchid orchiectomy in a dog. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 25(5): 553-556. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: postoperative complications, urethra, dog diseases, surgery, case reports, cryptorchidism, dogs.

Bellenger, C.R. and T.L.W. Rothwell (1991). Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in a dog. Australian Veterinary Practitioner 21(3): 131-132, 134. ISSN: 0310-138X.
Descriptors: case report, pathology, therapy, postoperative complications, peritonitis, dogs, abdominal distension, ovariohysterectomy.

Berchtold, M. and K. Wissler (1982). Trachtigkeit und Geburt bei einer ovarektomierten Katzin [Pregnancy and parturition in an ovariectomized cat]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 124(3): 157-159. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: ovariectomy, postoperative complications, parturition complications, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French and Italian.

Berchtold, M. and S. Zindel Grunder (1981). Viszerale Transplantation von Ovargewebe zur Verhinderung von Nebenwirkungen nach der Kastration der Hundin [Visceral transplantation of ovarian tissue for inhibition of side-effects after castration of the bitch]. Zuchthygiene 16(2): 80. ISBN.
NAL Call Number:SF105.A1Z8
Abstract: From the 6th Joint Symposium of German Veterinary Society (Group on Reproduction and its Disorders), German Society for Animal Production (Sanitation Section), German Society for the Study of Fertility and Sterility, and Austrian Society for the Study of Fertility and Sterility on the Subject of Physiology of Reproduction, Berlin, West Germany, March 25-26, 1981.
Descriptors: ovaries, bitches, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.

Berzon, J.L. (1979). Complications of elective ovariohysterectomies in the dog and cat at a teaching institution: clinical review of 853 cases. Veterinary Surgery 8(3): 89-91. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: intraoperative and postoperative complications, students, elective surgery, ovariohysterectomy.

Bird, K.E., W.P. Farrar, and M.S. Whitney (1996). What is your diagnosis? [Foreign body granuloma caused by a retained sponge following spay surgery in a dog]. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 25(3): 90,99. ISSN: 0275-6382.
Descriptors: surgery, postoperative complications, case reports, abdominal cavity, ovariectomy, foreign bodies, granuloma, dogs.

Blendinger, C., K. Blendinger, and H. Bostedt (1995). Die Harninkontinenz nach Kastration bei der Hundin. 1. Mitteilung: Entstehung, Haufigkeit und Disposition [Urinary incontinence following ovariectomy in bitches. I. Origin, frequency and predisposition]. Tierarztliche Praxis 23(3): 291-299. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Descriptors: ovariectomy, complications, urinary incontinence, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Blendinger, C., K. Blendinger, and H. Bostedt (1995). Die Harninkontinenz nach Kastration bei der Hundin. 2. Mitteilung: Therapie [Urinary incontinence in castrated female dogs. 2. Therapy]. Tierarztliche Praxis 23(4): 402-406. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Abstract: Several methods can be used for the treatment of urinary incontinence due to urethral sphincter incompetence in spayed bitches. The most commonly applied medicaments are either alpha-sympathomimetics or estrogens. Because of their high effectiveness and little side effects alpha-sympathomimetics should be preferred. A clinical field trial showed that ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine are highly efficient (ephedrine 93%, phenylpropanolamine 97%) and had very little side effects. It has proved to be valuable to apply 1.2-1.7 mg/kg/day (ephedrine) respectively 1.5 mg/kg twice a day (phenylpropanolamine) as an initial dosage and to reduce this step by step to the lowest dosage that keeps the dog continent. When urinary incontinence does not respond to conservative treatment several surgical techniques can be performed.
Descriptors: dogs, ephedrine, estrogens, ovariectomy, therapeutic use of phenylpropanolamine, urinary incontinence, urethra, alpha-sykmpathomimetics.
Language of Text: German.

Bonsack, F.A. (2001). Does not believe there is an ovarian remnant syndrome. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(12): 1675-6. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, laparotomy, veterinary surgery.

Cabannes, A., F. Lucchese, H. Pelse, N. Biesel, M. Eymonnot, and M. Appriou (2000). Castration and feline Borreliosis in Gironde. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 151(10): 949-954. ISSN: 0035-1555.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R32
Descriptors: antibodies, castration, epidemiology, males, females, borreliosis.

Campbell, V.L., K.J. Drobatz, and S.Z. Perkowski (2003). Postoperative hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration and receiving butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(3): 330-336. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine frequency and severity of postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. DESIGN: Prospective trial. ANIMALS: 0 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb). PROCEDURE: Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine, glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after extubation. RESULTS: In dogs that received hydromorphone, mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that administration of hydromorphone to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively and that administration of hydromorphone or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained within reference limits.
Descriptors: analgesics, anoxemia, butorphanol, hydromorphone, hypercapnia, postoperative complications, blood gas analysis, dogs, hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, adverse effects.

Cooley, D.M., B.C. Beranek, D.L. Schlittler, N.W. Glickman, L.T. Glickman, and D.J. Waters (2002). Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 11(11): 1434-1440. ISSN: 1055-9965.
Descriptors: endocrine system, tumor biology, bone sarcoma, bone disease, neoplastic disease, age at gonadectomy, bone sarcoma development.

Coolman, B., S. Marretta, M. Dudley, and S. Averill (1999). Partial colonic obstruction following ovariohysterectomy: a report of three cases. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35(2): 169-172. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: Partial extramural obstruction of the descending colon was diagnosed in two dogs and a cat as a complication of elective ovariohysterectomy. In each case, the obstruction was caused by fibrous tissue that encircled or crossed the descending colon, severely restricting the organ's normal mobility and luminal diameter. Clinical signs secondary to obstipation were observed in two cases, five weeks and 27 months after elective ovariohysterectomy. In one dog without clinical signs, the adhesion was an incidental finding during a laparotomy performed nine years after the ovariohysterectomy. The fibrous adhesions were removed surgically in all three cases without additional complications.
Descriptors: dog, cat, elective ovariohysterectomy, complications, fibrous band, colonic obstruction, obstipation, removal of fibrous adhesions.

Costa, F.S., D.M. Aguiar de, R. Giuffrida, M.R. Farias de, R. Torres Neto, D.M. de Aguiar, and M.R. de Farias (2002). Tetano em um gato [Tetanus in a cat]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 39(3): 160-162. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Online: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1413-95962002000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Descriptors: bacterial toxins, case reports, epidemiology, neurotoxins, pathogenesis, tetanus, cats, orchiectomy complications.
Language of Text: Portuguese; Summary in English.

Czerniak, A., C. Pelz Czerniak, P. Szabo, and A. Wahle (1992). Verklebung im Abdominalbereich nach Laparotomien (Kastration) bei gesunden Hunden und ihre Folgen [Abdominal adhesions in three bitches after ovariectomy and their consequences]. Praktische Tierarzt 73(10): 968-969. ISSN: 0032-681X.
Descriptors: case reports, ovariectomy, bitches, postoperative complications, adhesions, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

David, G. and E.I. Rajendran (1980). The after-effects of spaying in bitches and cats. Cheiron 9(3): 193-195. ISSN: 0379-542X.
NAL Call Number: SF604.C56
Descriptors: urinary incontinence, obesity, ovariectomy, postoperative complications.

Davies, N.L. (1989). Complications of ovarian autotransplantation in bitches. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 60(3): 145. ISSN: 0301-0732.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Descriptors: dogs, postoperative complications, neoplasms, ovaries, ovariectomy.

Day, D.G., M.Q. Bailey, K.L. Evans, D.D. Smeak, and S.P. DiBartola (1993). Postoperative evaluation of renal function after surgical correction of a ureterovaginal fistula in a cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(1): 104-106. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, fistulation, surgical operations, urination disorders, case studies, carnivora, disorders, felidae, functional disorders, gonadectomy, mammals, sterilization, surgical operations, postoperative complications, urinary incontinence.

de Baerdemaecker, G.C. (1984). Post spaying vaginal discharge in a bitch caused by acquired vaginoureteral fistula. The Veterinary Record 115(3): 62. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dogs, hysterectomy, female genital diseases, fistulation, animals, genital diseases, injurious factors, urovagina, complications, surgical factors.

Demetriou, J.L. and E.M. Welsh (2000). Colonic obstruction in an adult cat following open castration. The Veterinary Record 147(6): 165-166. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: complications, cats, gut-tie, colonic stricture, fibrous ring, dorsal cystotomy, faecal tenesmus, spermatic cord, ligation of spermatic vasculature, inflammation.

Dhaliwal, G.K. (1990). Postoperative complications in ovariohysterectomized dogs and cats. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia 2(2): 158. ISSN: 9128-2506.
Descriptors: surgery, suture techniques, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs, cats.

Dorn, A.S. and R.A. Swist (1977). Complications of canine ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 13(6): 720-724. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: breeds, age, techniques, bitches, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, surgery.

Douglas, I.H. and R.H. Wrigley (1979). What is your diagnosis? [Femur fracture in a cat after castration]. Australian Veterinary Practitioner 9(2). ISSN: 0310-138X.
Descriptors: case reports, radiography, fractures, femur, postoperative complications, gonadectomy.

Dubey, J.P., J. Benson, and M.A. Larson (2003). Clinical Sarcocystis neurona encephalomyelitis in a domestic cat following routine surgery. Veterinary Parasitology 112(4): 261-267. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Descriptors: nervous system, parasitology, parasitic disease, routine castration surgery, cats.

Engels, J., N. Albrecht, D. Hagenbeck, and B. Struckmann (1995). Tetanus beim hund [Tetanus in a dog]. Kleintier-Praxis 40(9): 707-708, 713-715. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: tetanus, case reports, therapy, antibiotics, immune serum, postoperative complications, dogs, Clostridium tetani.

Ewers, R.S. and P.E. Holt (1992). Urological complications following ovariohysterectomy in a bitch. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 33(5): 236-238. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: dogs, dystocia, pathology, diagnosis, bladder, hysterectomy, animal morphology, canidae, carnivora, disorders, functional disorders, mammals, parturition complications, reproductive disorders, surgical operations, urinary tract, urogenital system, ovariohysterectomy, postoperative complications.

Fehr, M. (1989). Fadenfisteln aufgrund persistierender Kastrationsligaturen bei der Hundin [Suture fistula from persistent ovariohysterectomy ligature in bitches]. Kleintier-Praxis 34(3): 103-107. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: sutures, fistula, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and French.

Flynn, M.F., E.M. Hardie, and P.J. Armstrong (1992). Effect of ovariohysterectomy on maintenance energy requirement (MER) in cats: a dietary balance study. Veterinary Surgery 21(5): 388. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: From the 27th Annual Meeting, American College of Veterinary Surgeons, November 1992, Miami, Florida.
Descriptors: obesity, postoperative complications, diets, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, nutrient requirements, surgery, cats.

Furneaux, R., B. Baysen, and K. Mero (1973). Complications of ovariohysterectomies. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 14(4): 98-99. ISSN: 0008-5286 .
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: adhesions, castration, cats, dogs, female, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, case reports.

Gajentaan, J.E. (1982). Gastric dilatation after ovariohysterectomy in a dog. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 77(4): 608, 610. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: hysterectomy, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.

Galatos, A.D., T. Rallis, and D. Raptopoulos (1994). Post anaesthetic oesophageal stricture formation in three cats. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 35(12): 638-642. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: cat diseases, anaesthesia, case reports, pathology, diagnosis, therapy, oesophageal diseases, stenosis, postoperative complications, cats, ovariohysterectomy.

Ganssbauer, B., S. Kramer, A. Meyer Lindenberg, and I. Nolte (2000). Tetanus nach ovariohysterektomie bei einem hund [Tetanus following ovariohysterectomy in a dog]. Tierarztliche Praxis 28(4): 225-229. ISSN: 1434-1239.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Descriptors: case reports, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, postoperative complications, clinical aspects, castration, ovariectomy, dogs, Clostridium tetani.

Gokce, A.P., O. Besalti, A. Ozak, and S. Tong (1999). Flank fistulae in ovariohysterectomized dogs and cats [Ovariohisterektomi yapilan kopek ve kedilerde flank fistulleri: 13 olgu (1996-1998)]. Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi 5(3-4): 5-8. ISSN: 1300-7106.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, hysterectomy, fistula, postoperative complications, surgery, cats, dogs.

Gregory, S.P., P.E. Holt, T.J. Parkinson, and C.M. Wathes (1999). Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 40(4): 180-184. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: bitches, vagina, position, length, ovariectomy, urinary incontinence, pressure, bodyweight.

Guarneri Boe, M.A. and D. Lange (1995). When to neuter: the controversy. Iowa State University Veterinarian 57(1): 6-9. ISSN: 0099-5851.
Descriptors: kittens, surgery, age, anesthesia, postoperative complications, castration, cats.

Hadley, B.J., M.A. Berry, and M.A. Kaufmann (1970). Effect on postoperative recovery rate and comfort of four approaches to nursing care of dogs: a pilot study. Communicating Nursing Research 3: 121-137. ISSN: 0160-1652.
Descriptors: convalescence, nursing care, postoperative care, castration, dogs, hysterectomy, physical stimulation, pilot projects, postoperative complications prevention and control, preoperative care, time factors.

Hart, B.L. (2001). Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(1): 51-56. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gonadectomy predisposes dogs to development of age-related behavioral changes linked to cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 29 sexually intact male dogs, 63 spayed female dogs, and 47 castrated male dogs 11 to 14 years old. PROCEDURE: Information on possible impairments in 4 behavioral categories linked to cognitive impairment (orientation in the home and yard, social interactions, house training, and sleep-wake cycle) was obtained from owners of the dogs by use of a structured telephone interview format. A second interview was performed 12 to 18 months after the initial interview, and differences in responses were evaluated. RESULTS: Sexually intact male dogs were significantly less likely than neutered dogs to progress from mild impairment (i.e., impairment in 1 category) to severe impairment (i.e., impairment in > or = 2 categories) during the time between the first and second interviews. This difference was not attributable to differences in ages of the dogs, duration of follow-up, or the owners' perceptions of the dogs' overall health. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that the presence of circulating testosterone in aging sexually intact male dogs may slow the progression of cognitive impairment, at least among dogs that already have signs of mild impairment. Estrogens would be expected to have a similar protective role in sexually intact female dogs; unfortunately, too few sexually intact female dogs were available for inclusion in the study to test this hypothesis. There may be a need to evaluate possible methods for counteracting the effects of loss of sex hormones in gonadectomized dogs.
Descriptors: gonadectomy, cognition disorders, dogs, estrogens, testosterone, age factors.

Hart, B.L. and L. Cooper (1984). Factors relating to urine spraying and fighting in prepubertally gonadectomized cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 184(10): 1255-1258. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, castration, fighting, scent marking behavior.

Heider, H.J. (1990). Kastration als therapeutische Massnahme? [Castration - therapeutic indications]. Kleintier-Praxis 35(12): 644-650. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: bitches, surgery, postoperative complications, small animal practice, castration, ovariectomy, neoplasms, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and French.

Hermo, G., Y. Corrada, and C. Gobello (2003). Incontinencia urinaria pos-castracion en la perra [Post spaying urinary incontinence in the bitch]. Revista De Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires 84(4): 185-187. ISSN: 0325-6391.
Descriptors: bitches, clinical aspects, diagnosis, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, surgery, surgical operations, therapy, urinary incontinence, dogs.

Hoenig, M., S. Alexander, S. Tolbert, and H. Pazak (2000). Transient insulin resistance in cats after neutering. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 14(3): 377. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Descriptors: metabolism, neutering, contraceptive method, transient insulin resistance.

Howe, L.M. (1997). Short-term results and complications of prepubertal gonadectomy in cats and dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(1): 57-62. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine short-term results and complications of prepubertal gonadectomy in cats and dogs. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. ANIMALS: 775 cats and 1,213 dogs. PROCEDURE: Animals undergoing gonadectomy were allotted into 3 groups on the basis of estimated age (group 1, < 12 weeks old; group 2, 12 to 23 weeks old; group 3, > or = 24 weeks old). Complications during anesthesia, surgery, and the immediate postoperative period (7 days) were recorded. Complications were classified as major (required treatment and resulted in an increase in morbidity or mortality) or minor (required little or no treatment and caused a minimal increase in morbidity). An ANOVA was used to detect differences among groups in age, weight, body temperature, and duration of surgery. To detect differences in complication rates among groups, chi 2 analysis was used. RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 723 animals, group 2 consisted of 532, and group 3 consisted of 733. Group-3 animals had a significantly higher overall complication rate (10.8%) than group-1 animals (6.5%), but did not differ from group-2 animals (8.8%). Differences were not detected among the 3 groups regarding major complications (2.9, 3.2, and 3.0% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively), but group-3 animals had significantly more minor complications (7.8%) than group-1 animals (3.6%), but not group-2 animals (5.6%). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this study, prepubertal gonadectomy did not increase morbidity or mortality on a short-term basis, compared with gonadectomy performed on animals at the traditional age. These procedures may be performed safely in prepubertal animals, provided that appropriate attention is given to anesthetic and surgical techniques.
Descriptors: age factors, cats, dogs, adverse effects of hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, population control, postoperative complications.

Janssens, L.A.A. and G.H.R.R. Janssens (1991). Bilateral flank ovariectomy in the dog--surgical technique and sequelae in 72 animals. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 32(5): 249-252. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: bitches, dogs, ovariectomy, sterilization, postoperative complications.

Jones, D.E. and J.O. Joshua (1982). Reproductive Clinical Problems in the Dog, Veterinary Practitioner Handbook, John Wright and Sons: Bristol, UKISBN: 0723606382.
NAL Call Number: SF992.R4J65
Descriptors: reproductive physiology, pregnancy, parturition, oestrous cycle, reproductive disorders, parturition complications, bitches, female infertility, reproduction, dogs.

Kassem M.M., Nouh S.R., El Guindi M.H., Noseir M.B., and Abboud M.Y. (1985). Studies on some modifications of ovariohysterectomy in bitches and its complication [Egypt]. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 15(29): 197-204. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: postoperative complications, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, veterinary surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: English; Summary in Arabic.

Kumar, N., A. Kumar, and Bharat Singh (1990). Clinical and physiological effects of ketamine with and without diazepam or meperidine premedication in dogs. Indian Veterinary Journal 67(3): 242-246. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: anaesthetics, diazepam, pethidine, atropine, ketamine, dogs, veterinary surgeries, ovariohysterectomy.

Kunin, S. and M. Terry (1980). A complication following ovariohysterectomy in a dog. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 75(6): 1000-1. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: bladder diseases, castration, dog diseases, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.

Kwapien, R.P., R.C. Giles, R.G. Geil, and H.W. Casey (1977). Basaloid adenomas of the mammary gland in beagle dogs administered investigational contraceptive steroids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 59(3): 933-940. ISSN: 0027-8874.
NAL Call Number: 176.622 J82
Descriptors: adenomas, oral contraceptives, mammary tumors, light microscopy, progestins, estrogens, mestranol, dogs.

Kwapien, R.P., R.C. Giles, R.G. Geil, and H.W. Casey (1980). Malignant mammary tumors in beagle dogs dosed with investigational oral contraceptive steroids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 65(1): 137-144. ISSN: 0027-8874 .
NAL Call Number: 176.622 J82
Abstract: Of 172 beagle dogs administered investigational oral contraceptive steroids for 2.4-5.2 yr, 9 developed malignant mammary tumors. At necropsy their ages varied from 41-70 mo., with a mean age of 4.9 yr. The malignant tumors were observed in 1 dog that received ethynerone plus mestranol at 1.05 mg/kg per day and in 4 dogs that received chlorethynyl norgestrel plus menstranol at 1.05 mg/kg per day. Also, 4 dogs that received anagestone acetate plus menstranol at 0.44 or 1.10 mg/kg per day developed malignant mammary tumors. Malignant tumors were not seen in 33 dogs administered mestranol at 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg per day for 7 yr or in 18 dogs given ethynerone without mestranol at 1.00 mg/kg per day for 5 yr. No malignant tumors were observed in 18 control dogs maintained for 7 yr without treatment. Three dogs had single malignant mammary nodules, 3 dogs had 2 malignant nodules, 2 dogs had 4-6 malignant nodules and 1 dog in the treatment group given high dosages of ethynerone plus mestranol had 14 mammary nodules composed of fibrosarcoma. The malignant tumors were histologically classified as 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 2 solid carcinomas, 1 tubular adenocarcinoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma and 1 fibrosarcoma. Most dogs had only 1 histologic type of cancer (8/9 dogs); 1 dog had carcinomas of both solid and anaplastic types involving different glands. Metastases were present in 5 dogs and most often involved regional lymph nodes and lung.
Descriptors: adenocarcinoma, carcinogens, oral contraceptives, dogs, fibrosarcoma, lung neoplasms, mammary tumors, mestranol, norgestrel, norpregnadienes, pregnenes.

Kyles, A.E., M. Aronsohn, E.A. Stone and A.J. Lipowitz (1996). Urogenital surgery. In: A.J. Lipowitz (editor), Complications in Small Animal Surgery: Diagnosis, Management, Prevention, Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, MD, p. 455-525. ISBN: 0-683-05047-8.
Descriptors: urolithiasis, biopsy, ureter, kidney diseases, urethra, pyometra, cryptorchidism, urogenital system, postoperative complications, surgery, cats, dogs.

Kyles, A., J. Douglass, and J. Rottman (1996). Pyelonephritis following inadvertent excision of the ureter during ovariohysterectomy in a bitch. The Veterinary Record 139(19): 471-472. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: bitches, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, complications, ureter, excision, pyelonephritis, case reports.

Lamb, C.R. (1994). Acquired ureterovaginal fistula secondary to ovariohysterectomy in a dog: diagnosis using ultrasound-guided nephropyelocentesis and antegrade ureterography. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 35(3): 201-203. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: dogs, breeds animals, ovariectomy, surgical operations, case studies, diagnosis, ultrasonics, fistulation, canidae, carnivora, gonadectomy, mammals, radiations, sound, sterilization, surgical operations, taxa, terriers, postoperative complications.

Lee, E.A. and B.R. Jones (1996). Localised tetanus in two cats after ovariohysterectomy. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44(3): 105-108. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Descriptors: case reports, surgical operations, ovariectomy, diagnosis, treatment, drug therapy, postoperative complications, tetanus, hysterectomy, cats.

Lekcharoensuk, C., C.A. Osborne, and J.P. Lulich (2001). Epidemiologic study of risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218(9): 1429-1435. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, urinary tract diseases, risk factors, morbidity, epidemiology, breed differences, age differences, sex differences, gonadectomy.

Liaw BorSong, Chi ChauHwu, Yeh LihSeng, B.S. Liaw, C.H. Chi, and L.S. Yeh (2003). Case report: retrospective study of long-term complications after spay surgery in dogs and cats. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 29(2): 156-161. ISSN: 1682-6485.
Descriptors: case reports, clinical aspects, ovariectomy, ovaries, postoperative care, postoperative complications, surgery, uterus, cats, dogs.

Liu PanChen, Tung KwongChung, Shyu ChingLin, Chen YiPeng, P.C. Liu, K.C. Tung, C.L. Shyu, and Y.P. Chen (2000). Case report: canine pyometra resulting from inadequate contraception surgery. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 26(1): 78-83. ISSN: 0253-9179.
NAL Call Number: SF604.C54
Descriptors: pyometra, surgery, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, case reports, dogs.

Lubberink, A.A., A.C. Okkens, G. Voorhout, and I. Van der Gaag (1981). Ontstekingsprocessen, caudaal van de ribboog na ovario-hysterectomie bij de hond [Inflammatory lesions caudal to the costal arch following ovariohysterectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(23): 1208-1214. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: Over a period of thirty months, twenty-two dogs showing inflammatory lesions caudal to the costal arch following ovariohysterectomy were submitted for examination. Seventeen patients showed fistulae, four showed painful swellings and one patient showed a fistula on one and a swelling on another side. After the findings on physical examination, the results of bacteriological haematological and radiological studies are reported. Surgical procedures consisted in laparotomy through the median line and/or local exploration of the region of the flanks, which led to laparotomy in some cases. The prognosis was bad in these cases; of eighteen patients with fistulae, only six, and of four patients showing swellings two recovered. The findings in six dogs submitted for post-mortem examination are reported.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, fistula, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch; Summary in English.

MacCoy, D.M., G. Ogilvie, T. Burke, and A. Parker (1988). Postovariohysterectomy ureterovaginal fistula in a dog. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 24(4): 469-471. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: dogs, case reports, ureter, vagina, hysterectomy, fistula, postoperative complications.

May, C. (1998). Orthopaedic effects of prepubertal neutering in dogs. The Veterinary Record 142(3): 71-72. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: radius, ulna, castration, surgery, dogs, prepubertal gonadectomy.

McEvoy, F.J. (1994). Iatrogenic renal obstruction in a dog. The Veterinary Record 135(19): 457-458. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: surgical operations, postoperative complications, hysterectomy, case reports, ureter, kidneys, obstruction, kidney diseases, dogs.

McLaughlin, M.A. (2002). More thoughts on ovarian remnant syndrome. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(3): 295. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, postoperative complications.

Mehl, M.L. and A.E. Kyles (2003). Ureteroureterostomy after proximal ureteric injury during an ovariohysterectomy in a dog. The Veterinary Record 153(15): 469-470. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: dogs, female, adverse effects of hysterectomy and ovariectomy, ureter, ultrasonagraphy.

Miller, D.M. (1995). Ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats: 46 cases (1988-1992). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 7(4): 572-574. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Descriptors: bitches, cats, queens, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, age, breeds, complications, histopathology, animal tissues.

Millis, D.L., J.G. Hauptman, and M. Richter (1992). Preoperative and postoperative hemostatic profiles of dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Cornell Veterinarian 82(4): 465-470. ISSN: 0010-8901.
Descriptors: dog diseases, surgical operations, postoperative complications, haematology, ovariectomy, hysterectomy.

Modigh, A. Post-operative complications of ovariohysterectomy in the bitch: Post-operativa komplikationer till ovariohysterektomi utfoerd vid pyometra hos hund. Foerdjupningsarbete. Uppsala (Sweden). Slu. 1996. 14 P.
Abstract: I HAVE NO IDEA WHERE THIS CAME FROM!
Descriptors: dogs, pyometra, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, functional disorders, canidae, carnivora, disorders, female genital diseases, genital diseases, gonadectomy, mammals, organic diseases, sterilization, surgical operations, uterine diseases.

Mohammed, A., I. Igbokwe, and M.M. Musa (1993). Observations on immediate post-surgical complications of ovariohysterectomy (spaying) in mongrel bitches. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41(3): 229-231. ISSN: 0378-9721.
Descriptors: bitches, surgery, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.

Moormann, K., M. Sager, and J. Assheuer (2003). Schmerzen im Bereich der Harnblase als Komplikation nach Ovariohysterektomie bei einer Hundin [Abdominal pain as a complication after ovario-hysterectomy in a bitch]. Kleintier-Praxis 48(3): 151-155. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: bitches, case reports, clinical aspects, hysterectomy, ovaries, postoperative complications, surgery, surgical operations, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Muir, R., S. Goldsmid, and C. Bellenger (1991). Megacolon in a cat following ovariohysterectomy. The Veterinary Record 129: 512-513. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: adhesions, cats, constipation, female, hysterectomy, megacolon, ovariectomy, postoperative complications.

Murphy, S.T., S.M. Newell, and C.F. Burrows (1998). What is your diagnosis? Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212: 195-196. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, hysterectomy, suture techniques, postoperative complications.

Musselman, E.E. and S.M. Hartsfield (1976). Complete atrioventricular heart block due to hypokalemia following ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 71(2): 155-9. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: castration, dogs, hypokalemia, hysterectomy, complications.

Neiger, R. and C.R. Lamb (2000). Retrograde vaginographie zur diagnose einer ureterovaginalen fistel nach ovariohysterektomie: zwei faelle [Uretrovaginal fistula as complication of a ovariohysterectomy: two cases]. Schweizer Archiv Fuer Tierheilkunde 142(9): 529-533. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: ureterovaginal fistula, clinical pathology, female reproductive system disease, urologic disease, abdominal ultrasound, complications of ovariohysterectomy, case study.

Nelson, L.W., J.H. Weikel Jr., and F.E. Reno (1973). Mammary nodules in dogs during four years' treatment with megestrol acetate or chlormadinone acetate. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 51(4): 1303-11. ISSN: 0027-8874.
Abstract: A 7 year study of megestrol and chlormadinone in female dogs is in progress. This report characterized histopathologically 60 mammary nodules during the first 4 years of the study. 100 purebred female beagles, 6-12 months of age, were randomly assigned to 5 equal groups. One group was used as a control. Oral doses were .01, .10, and .25 mg/kg/day of megestrol acetate in coconut oil in capsules and of chlormadinone acetate .25 mg/kg/day in lactose tablets. These doses were 1, 10, and 25 times the projected dose of megestrol for humans and about 25 times the human dose of chlormadinone. After 2 years 4 dogs from each group were necropsied. One high-dose megestrol-treated and 1 chlormadinone-treated dog had benign mixed mammary tumors. Palpable nodules were first observed at 16 months in the chlormadinone-treated dogs, at 18 months in dogs given the high dose megestrol and at 27 months in the dogs treated with middle-dose megestrol. Transitory nodules were found in 4 control dogs after 21 months and in low dose megestrol-treated dogs at 26 months. Of 38 grossly detected nodules evaluated microscopically from the megestrol-treated dogs 27 were nodular hyperplasia, 5 were benign mixed mammary tumors, 3 were ductal dialatations, 1 was a lymph node, 1 was fat necrosis and 1 was the umbilicus. Of 22 nodules from the chlormadinone-treated dogs 12 were nodular hyperplasia, 4 benign mixed mammary tumors, 1 chondromucoid degeneration and 1 adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases. 3 nodules were lymph nodes and 1 other had no mammary tissue. Involutions, regression and sclerosis of many areas of nodular hyperplasia were evident at 4 years. Thus of the 60 nodules evaluated during the first 4 years of the study 50 were non-neoplastic and 10 were neoplastic. It is considered that the 1 adenocarcinoma may have been spontaneous and not a treatment-related neoplasm. A precursor stage through nodular hyperplasia apparently did not occur.
Descriptors: adenocarcinoma, chlormadinone, contraceptives, mammary glands, drug effects, megestrol, adenocarcinoma, chlormadinone acetate, dogs, hyperplasia.

Nickel, R.F. (1992). Hoe vaak komt incontinentia urinae voor als complicatie na ovariohysterectomie bij de hond? [How often does urinary incontinence occur as a complication following ovario-hysterectomy in dogs? Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 117(15-16): 464. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: dog diseases, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, urinary incontinence, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Okkens, A.C., S.J. Dieleman, and I. van der Gaag (1981). Gynaecologische complicaties na ovariohysterectomie bij de hond ten gevolge van: 1. Het incompleet verwijderen van de ovaria. 2. Een ontsteking van de uterus-cervixsomp [Gynaecological complications following ovariohysterectomy in dogs, due to partial removal of the ovaries or inflammation of the uterocervical stump]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(22): 1142-1158. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: Of the total number of dogs with complications following ovario-hysterectomy submitted during the period from January 1977 to July 1979 (109), fifty-five showed gynaecological symptoms such as discharge of the vulva (28), attractiveness to male dogs (37), periods of heat (28) and pseudopregnancy (14). In addition to a general clinical examination, the dogs (forty-two of these fifty-five weighing more than 20 kg) underwent a selective gynaecological examination usually consisting in clinical, cytological and bacteriological studies and estimation of the progesterone level of the peripheral blood. At the same time, the progesterone levels of the peripheral blood of six beagles were studied for comparative purposes during pro-oestrus, oestrus and metoestrus; the maximum progesterone level was recorded about day 20 and varied from 35 to 60 ng/ml. The average progesterone level was determined in thirty-nine beagles during anoestrus and found to be 0.24 +/- 0.02 SEM ng/ml. The basal progesterone level was determined in eight dogs in which total ovariohysterectomy had been performed (0.14 +/- 0.02 SEM ng of progesterone /ml). When a cytological study was done in the dogs with residual ovarian tissue, an oestrus pattern was observed in 39 per cent of the cases, the progesterone level of the peripheral blood being above the basal level in 70 per cent of the cases. Remnants of ovarian tissue were removed during laparotomy in forty-seven dogs, on the right side in forty-one cases and on the left in twenty-two cases. The uterocervical stump was shortened when uterine tissue was probably or obviously present. The uterine stump was more or less severely inflamed in nineteen cases. The procedure was confined to shortening of the uterocervical stump in eight dogs in which ovarian tissue was not found to be present. The inflamed stump contained an unabsorbable ligature in seven dogs, the uterocervical stump of the eighth dog not being examined.
Descriptors: dogs, female, laparotomy, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, veterinary surgery.
Language of Text: Dutch; Summary in English.

Okkens, A.C., H.S. Kooistra, and R.F. Nickel (1997). Comparison of long-term effects of ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy in bitches. in: Reproduction in dogs, cats, and exotic carnivores proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Canine and Feline Reproduction,Veldhoven, The Netherlands, Journal of Reproduction & Fertility: Cambridge, U.K., Vol. 51, p. 227-231. ISBN: 0906545315.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: Although ovariectomy is less invasive and less time-consuming than ovariohysterectomy, most surgical textbooks recommend ovariohysterectomy for routine neutering of bitches. This advice is probably based on concerns about the development of uterine disease after ovariectomy. However, there is no evidence that conditions such as cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)-endometritis develop in the ovariectomized bitch, unless progestagens are administered. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the long-term effects of ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy, including the incidence of urinary incontinence. Questionnaires were sent to 264 owners of bitches, in which ovariectomy (126) or ovariohysterectomy (138) had been performed as a routine neutering procedure 8-11 years earlier. Complete data were available for 69 bitches of the ovariectomy group and for 66 bitches from the ovariohysterectomy group. There were no indications that endometritis had developed in bitches of the ovariectomy group. None of the bitches was sexually attractive to male dogs after neutering. The occurrence of a clear to white vaginal discharge was reported in two bitches of each group, but none of these four bitches appeared to be ill during the periods when the discharge was present. Furthermore, with the exception of urinary incontinence, no problems were reported that could be related to the surgical neutering. Six of the ovariectomized bitches and nine of the ovariohysterectomized bitches eventually developed urinary incontinence. Of these 15 bitches (11%), 12 weighed more than 20 kg. Bouvier des Flandres bitches were at a higher risk of developing urinary incontinence than were those of the other breeds. The possibility that the urinary incontinence was due at least in part to other conditions must be considered, since eight of the bitches were 9 years or older before urinary incontinence occurred and seven of the incontinent bitches also had polyuria or polydipsia. There were no significant differences in the incidence of urogenital problems listed above between the bitches of the ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy group. It is hypothesized that a uterine disease such as CEH-endometritis cannot develop after complete ovariectomy, unless progestagens are administered. The results of this study indicate that ovariectomy does not increase the risk of CEH-endometritis or other complications in comparison with ovariohysterectomy. It is concluded that there is no indication for removing the uterus during routine neutering in healthy bitches. On the contrary, ovariectomy should be considered the procedure of choice.
Descriptors: dogs, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, sterilization, reproductive, adverse effects of hysterectomy, time factors, treatment outcome, urinary incontinence.

Okkens, A.C., H.S. Kooistra, and R.F. Nickel (2003). Comparison of long-term effects of ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy in bitches [Vergleich der Langzeiteffekte der Ovarektomie mit denen der Ovariohysterektomie bei der Hundin]. Praktische Tierarzt 84(2): 98-101. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: bitches, cystic endometrial endometritis, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, sterilization, surgery, surgical operations, surveys, urinary incontinence, dogs.

Okkens, A.C., H.S. Kooistra, and R.F. Nickel (2002). Vergelijking van lange termijn effecten van ovariectomie versus ovariohysterectomie bij de teef [Comparison of long term side effects of ovariectomy versus ovariohisterectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(11): 369-372. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: comparative study, dogs, surgery, female, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, reproductive sterilization, time factors, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Okkens, A.C., I. van der Gaag van der, W.J. Biewenga, J. Rothuizen, and G. Voorhout (1981). Urologische complicaties na ovario-hysterectomie bij de hond [Urological complications following ovariohysterectomy in dogs]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(23): 1189-1198. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: postoperative complications, urological problems, dogs, adhesions, granulomas, ligation of the ureters, kidney.
Language of Text: Dutch; Summary in English.

Pearson, H. (1973). The complications of ovariohysterectomy in the bitch. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 14(5): 257-66. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: castration, dog diseases, hysterectomy veterinary, postoperative complications, castration adverse effects, dogs, estrus, hemorrhage, adverse effects of sutures.

Perkins, N.R. and G.S. Frazer (1995). Ovarian remnant syndrome in a toy poodle: a case report. Theriogenology 44(3): 307-312. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) has been described in the dog and cat, and it appears to be a less frequent complication of routine ovariohysterectomy in the female dog and queen than in women. This has been attributed to the rare occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease and of the associated adhesions in small animals, allowing the surgeon to recognize and remove the ovaries more easily in routine ovariohysterectomy. Animals with ORS present with a range of symptoms associated with endogenous hormone production by the remnant of ovarian tissue present in the abdomen. These include vulval swelling, proestral bleeding, estrous behavior and occasional mammary gland enlargement and milk production. The recommended treatment for ORS is surgical removal of remaining ovarian tissue. Histological examination of ovarian remnant tissue usually demonstrates the presence of corpora lutea or simple cystic structures. In a series of 72 females referred to the University of Bristol for complications arising after ovariohysterectomy, 12 (17%) were referred for continuing signs of estrus. No diagnostic tests were performed on these cases and functional ovarian tissue was found in all cases during exploratory laparotomy. A series of 11 cases of ORS in cats was reported recently by Wallace. The time interval from ovariohysterectomy to reported signs of estrus varied from 17 d to 9 yr. Hormonal challenge testing using GnRH was utilized in all eleven feline cases to demonstrate an elevation in serum progesterone concentration attributed to ovarian tissue. Signs of recurrent estrus resolved in all cases after surgical removal of ovarian tissue.
Descriptors: dogs, ovaries, estrus, diagnosis, case reports, estradiol, blood serum, progesterone, laparotomy, uterus, surgical operations.

Plah, S. (1990). Methods of spaying. [Correspondence]. The Veterinary Record 127(21): 531. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, gonadectomy, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system, postoperative complications.

Pollari, F.L. and B.N. Bonnett (1996). Evaluation of postoperative complications following elective surgeries of dogs and cats at private practices using computer records. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 37(11): 672-678. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: This study was designed to determine the frequency of postoperative complications following elective surgeries (castration, ovariohysterectomy, onychectomy) of dogs and cats from private practices and to evaluate the use of electronic medical records for this type of research. All elective surgeries performed during the study period at 5 private practices were included. The surgical techniques and materials used for each procedure were similar across practices, but the interpretation of "complication," the amount of detail recorded on the primary medical record, and the intensity of follow-up varied. The frequencies and types of complications varied by species and procedure. The postoperative complication frequencies ranged from 1% to 24% for all complications and 1% to 4% for severe complications. The results of this study describe populations of elective-surgery patients at private practices, provide data for educating clients about the risks associated with these procedures, and demonstrate how computerized records can be used to collect practice-specific medical information.
Descriptors: cats, dogs, hysterectomy, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, prospective studies, veterinary records, software.

Pollari, F., B. Bonnett, S. Bamsey, A. Meek, and D. Allan (1996). Postoperative complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and paper medical records. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(11): 1882-1886. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Postoperative complications (POC) that developed in dogs and cats that underwent elective ovariohysterectomy, castration, and declaw at a veterinary teaching hospital were determined by examining the computerized abstracts of the medical records and by examining a random sample of the paper medical records. When the computerized abstracts were examined, POC were found to have occurred in 62 (6.1%) of 1,016 dogs. One dog died and 6 others developed major complications. Postoperative complications were found to have occurred in 38 (2.6%) of 1,459 cats. Two cats died and 1 was euthanatized. Four other cats developed major complications. Complete paper medical records for 218 dogs and cats were examined. When the paper medical records were examined, the proportions of dogs and cats with POC were 19.4% and 12.2%, respectively. These proportions were 4 to 7 times higher than when the computerized abstracts were the data source. Results of this study indicate that the frequency of clinically relevant POC of elective surgeries in dogs and cats is substantial. Examination of the computerized abstracts of medical records at this hospital allowed us to rapidly identify cases that could be included in the study but the frequency of POC would be significantly underestimated if paper records were not also assessed.
Descriptors: postoperative complications, dogs, cats, gonadectomy, castration, records.

Reichler, I.M., M. Hubler, W. Jochle, T.E. Trigg, C.A. Piche, and S. Arnold (2003). The effect of GnRH analogs on urinary incontinence after ablation of the ovaries in dogs. Theriogenology 60(7): 1207-1216. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: After removal of the ovaries approximately 20% of dogs develop urinary incontinence. Removal of the gonads results in estrogen deficiency and chronic elevation in the production and secretion of FSH and LH. The gonadotrophins may directly or indirectly, adversely affect the sphincter function of the urethra. Estrogen replacement therapy and treatment with sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine or phenylpropanolamine (PPA), are effective only in some of the affected dogs, and many of these subsequently become nonresponsive. Since the role of the elevated gonadotrophins has not been elucidated, we used depot preparations of GnRH analogues to down-regulate gonadotrophins once or twice in 13 ovariectomized (ovx), incontinent dogs, which were either refractory to alpha-adrenergics (n=11) or in which alpha-adrenergics were contraindicated (n=2). Dogs were treated with leuprolide, deslorelin, buserelin or triptorelin. In 7 dogs treatments with GnRH analogues alone (n=11) resulted in continence for 50-738 days (mean 247). In all dogs except one, where GnRH treatments did not resolve the incontinence completely, additional treatment with phenylpropanolamine was successful. With additional treatment of phenylpropanolamine complete continence was restored for 21-367 days (mean 159). All treatments caused long-term reduction of circulating FSH and LH concentrations to very low or undetectable levels. No adverse effects of treatments were observed.
Descriptors: urinary incontinence, dogs, FSH, gonadorelin, leuprolide, LH, adverse effects of ovariectomy, phenylpropanolamine, sympathomimetics, triptorelin.

Remedios, A.M. and J.D. Fowler (1992). Colonic stricture after ovariohysterectomy in two cats. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 33(5): 334-336. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, colon, case reports.

Romatowski, J. (1993). Early-age neutering, an "uncontrolled experiment". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203(11): 1523. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: castration, cats, dogs, postoperative complications, age factors.

Rubin, S., R.T. Faulkner, and G.E. Ward (1983). Tetanus following ovariohysterectomy in a dog: A case report and review. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 19(3): 293-298. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: tetanus, hysterectomy, dogs, Clostridium bifermentans, association, case reports.

Ruckstuhl, B. (1978). Die Incontinentia urinae bei der Hundin als Spatfolge der Kastration [Urinary incontinence in the bitch as a sequel to spaying]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 120(3): 143-148. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: adverse effects, breeds, estrogens, progestogens, urinary incontinence, bitches, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French and Italian.

Ryan, C.P. (1983). Iatrogenic urolith in a dog [from steel sutures]. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 78(7): 1073-1075. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: sutures, radiography, dogs, ovariectomy, bladder calculi, postoperative complications.

Salmeri, K.R. (2000). Health effects of early-age neutering. In: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference: Small Animal and Exotics Edition,Orlando, FL, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, FL, Vol. 14, p. 659-660.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: dogs, cats, gonadectomy, age, adverse effects, secondary sex characteristics, weight gain, skeletal growth, behavior, gonadal hormones, urethral function.

Schaefers-Okkens, A.C. (1997). Incontinentie na castratie op jonge leeftijd? [Incontinence after castration at an early age?]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 122(12): 343. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: age factors, animals, dogs, female, sterilization, adverse effects of gonadectomy, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Schaefers-Okkens, A.C. and H.S. Kooistra (1999). Ovariectomeren van een teef bij een leeftijd van acht maanden [Ovariectomy of a bitch at an age of eight months]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 124(8): 268-269. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: age factors, animals, dog diseases, dogs, female, adverse effects of ovariectomy, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Schaefers-Okkens, A.C. and H.S. Kooistra (2002). Ovariectomie van de teef [Ovariectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(19): 590-591. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: age factors, animals, dogs, estrus, female, adverse effects of ovariectomy.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Schmidtke, D. and H.O. Schmidtke (1969). Komplikationen nach Pyometra-Operationen [Complications following surgery for pyometra]. Berliner Und Muenchener Tieraerzliche Wochenschrift 82(1): 10-13. ISSN: 0005-9366.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, dogs, cats, postoperative complications, hysterectomy, surgical wound, suture techniques.
Language of Text: German.

Schmidtke, H.O. and T. Meyer Engelke (1984). Ureterenstauung und Hydronephrose nach unsachgemasser Kastration einer Hundin [Ureter obstruction and hydronephrosis after inexpert sterilization in a bitch]. Kleintier-Praxis 29(3): 127. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, ureter, kidney diseases, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Schulz, K.S., D.R. Waldron, M.M. Smith, R.A. Henderson, and L.M. Howe (1996). Inadvertent prostatectomy as a complication of cryptorchidectomy in four dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32(3): 211-214. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: Inadvertent prostatectomy was identified as a complication of cryptorchidectomy in four dogs. Surgical correction of the resulting urethral trauma was attempted in each case. One case was euthanized due to a poor prognosis for recovery. Three cases survived without clinical evidence of urinary incontinence. Inadvertent prostatectomy during cryptorchidectomy may be avoided by adequate surgical exposure and proper identification of the abdominally retained testicle.
Descriptors: cryptorchidism, orchiectomy, prostatectomy, adverse effects.
Notes: Comment In: J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1996 Sep-Oct;32(5):376-7.

Sjollema, B.E. (1993). Katten na sterilisatie [Cats after sterilization]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118(21): 695-696. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, ovariectomy, postoperative complications.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Skinner, C., L. Freeman, and S. Thompson (1988). Gastroesophageal and enteroenteric intussusceptions following ovariohysterectomy in a dog with megaesophagus. California Veterinarian 42(5): 7-9. ISSN: 0008-1612.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 C12
Descriptors: postoperative complications, regurgitation, stomach, intestines, oesophageal diseases, ovariectomy.

Smith, M. and N. Davies (1996). Obstipation following ovariohysterectomy in a cat. The Veterinary Record 138(7): 163. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, constipation, adhesions, case reports.

Stocklin-Gautschi N.M., Hassig M., Reichler I.M., and A.S. Hubler M. (2001). The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 57(Suppl.): 233-236. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: It is still controversial whether a bitch should be spayed before or after the first oestrus. It would be desirable to spay bitches at an age that would minimize the side effects of neutering. With regard to the risk of mammary tumours, early spaying must be recommended because the incidence of tumours is reduced considerably. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early spaying also reduces the risk of urinary incontinence. The owners of 206 bitches that had been spayed before their first oestrus and for at least 3 years were questioned on the occurrence of urinary incontinence as a result of spaying. At the time of the enquiry the average age of the bitches was 6.5 years, and the average age at the time of surgery was 7.1 months. Urinary incontinence after spaying occurred in 9.7% of bitches. This incidence is approximately half that of spaying after the first oestrus. Urinary incontinence affected 12.5% of bitches that were of a large body weight (> 20 kg body weight) and 5.1% of bitches that were of a small body weight (< 20 kg body weight). The surgical procedure (ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy) had no influence on the incidence, or on the period between spaying and the occurrence of urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence occurred on average at 2 years and 10 months after surgery and occurred each day, while the animals were awake or during sleep. However, compared with late spaying the clinical signs of urinary incontinence were more distinct after early spaying.
Descriptors: early spay-neuter, complications, mammary tumor development, urinary incontinence, ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy.

Swalec, K.M. and D.D. Smeak (1989). Priapism after castration in a cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 195(7): 963-964. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: cat, castration, adverse effects, penis, case studies, complications.

Teske E, Naan EC, Dijk EM van, Garderen E van, Schalken JA, van Dijk EM, van Dikj EM, and van Garderen E (2002). Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 197(1-2): 251-255. ISSN: 0303-7207 .
NAL Call Number: QP187.A1M6
Descriptors: carcinoma, castration, diagnosis, epidemiology, hyperplasia, neoplasms, prostate, risk factors.

Thrusfield, M.V. (1985). Association between urinary incontinence and spaying in bitches. The Veterinary Record 116(26): 695. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: surgical operations, postoperative complications, urinary incontinence, ovariectomy, complications, dogs.

Thrusfield, M.V., P.E. Holt, and R.H. Muirhead (1998). Acquired urinary incontinence in bitches: its incidence and relationship to neutering practices. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 39(12): 559-566. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: bitches, urinary incontinence, incidence, ovariectomized females, risk factors, ovariectomy, estrous cycle, cervix.

Tomizawa, S., H. Ishikawa, and T. Matsui (1996). Regeneration of ovarian tissue in ovario-hysterectomized cats with recurrent oestrus. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 49(11): 809-812. ISSN: 0446-6454.
Descriptors: regeneration, oestrus, ovaries, female genitalia, castration, postoperative complications, surgery, cats, dogs.

van der Gaag, I., R.P. Happe, A.C. Okkens, and W.T. Wolvekamp (1981). Enterologische complicaties na ovario-hysterectomie bij de hond. [Enterological complications following ovariohysterectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(23): 1199-1207. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: Of 109 dogs submitted with complications following ovariohysterectomy, twenty were found to show enterological problems. Presenting symptoms in these animals consisted in vomiting, diarrhoea and emaciation. A large number of animals also showed body temperatures above 39 degrees C. An irregular, often painful mass was palpable on examination of the mesogastrium in seventeen cases. Plain radiography revealed the features of ileus in ten dogs, a mass of soft tissues in the abdominal cavity in six and the pattern of peritonitis in five cases (two animals were classifiable with two groups). One dog did not show any changes. Laparotomy was performed in all twenty dogs. In view of the extent of the lesions, euthanasia was performed in ten animals. Partial enterectomy was performed in the other ten; some of these dogs are still alive at the time of writing. The findings at laparotomy and subsequent post-mortem examination, if any, may be summarized as follows: - there were adhesions between the ovarian-stump granulomas and an intestinal loop in five animals; - twelve animals showed adhesions between the ovarian-stump granuloma and the intestines which also adhered to each other; in five of these bitches, the intestinal loops were also attached to the wall of the abdomen, and also to the cervix stump in two cases; - three dogs only showed adhesions between intestinal loops; the cervix stump was involved in the adhesions in one dog.
Descriptors: castration, postoperative complications, adhesions, dogs, intestinal obstruction, peritonitis.

van Oosterom, R.A.A. (1986). Therapie unerwunschter Kastrationsfolgen beim Hund. [Treating complications of castration in the dog]. Der Praktische Tierarzt 67(Sondernummer): 62-63. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: urinary incontinence, surgical operations, therapy, castration, postoperative complications.
Language of Text: German.

van Os, J.L., P.H. van Laar, E.P. Oldenkamp, and J.S. Verschoor (1981). Oestrus control and the incidence of mammary nodules in bitches, a clinical study with two progestogens. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(2): suppl 3:46-56. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: The incidence, size and location of mammary nodules were established in 10 practices in The Netherlands by the clinical examination of bitches in which oestrus was controlled with proligestone (P), 331 animals, or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), 341 animals and in 339 animals never medicated with such compounds. In comparison with the unmedicated control and the P-medicated animals of comparable age the incidence of mammary nodules of all sizes was significantly increased in the MAP-medicated animals. There was no significant difference in nodule incidence between the P-medicated animals and the control animals. Based on the assumption that nodules above a certain size are most likely tumours, these results indicate that oestrus control with MAP stimulates tumour development even in animals medicated for less than four years. The practical value of the reported differences, especially in relation to the subsequent requirement for surgical removal of tumours in bitches, medicated for oestrus control, is discussed.
Descriptors: adverse effects of medrosxyprogesterone acetate, mammary nodules, dogs, female, dog diseases, contraception.

Viehoff, F.W. (2002). Zwelling in buikwand na sterilisatie poes [Swelling in the abdomen after sterilization of a cat]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(23): 739. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: cats, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, postoperative complications, adverse effects.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Von Berky, A.G. and W.L. Townsend (1993). The relationship between the prevalence of uterine lesions and the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate for canine population control. Australian Veterinary Journal 70(7): 249-250. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: The prevalence of uterine disease was established during desexing of 175 bitches in the Torres Strait and Cape York, 42 of which had been treated with injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for oestrus postponement. The prevalence of uterine lesions was 45% for treated bitches, 5% for untreated bitches, and 14.9% for the sample population. A highly significant relationship (P < 0.01) between MPA treatment and uterine lesions was established. A significant association (P < 0.05) between age (> 2 years old) and uterine lesions was found, most likely attributable to a significantly higher proportion (P < 0.01) of MPA-treated bitches in the older population. There was no significant difference in the effect of MPA on the prevalence of uterine lesions between older and younger bitches. There was no effect of parity on the prevalence of uterine lesions.
Descriptors: estrus postponement, medroxyprogesterone acetate, uterine lesions, adverse effects, ovariectomy, dogs.

Wallace, M.S. (1991). The ovarian remnant syndrome in the bitch and queen. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 21(3): 501-507. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Abstract: The ovarian remnant syndrome is a complication of ovariohysterectomy resulting in the presence of functional ovarian tissue in the abdomen. The usual symptom is a return to estrus in a previously ovariohysterectomized bitch or queen. The available methods of diagnosis are vaginal cytologic evaluation during estrus, resting hormone assays, hormone challenge testing, and exploratory laparotomy. Surgical removal of the ovarian remnant is the preferred treatment.
Descriptors: cats, dogs, estrus, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, adverse effects, ovary physiology, retrospective studies.

Weikel Jr., J.H. and L.W. Nelson (1977). Problems in evaluating chronic toxicity of contraceptive steroids in dogs. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 3(1-2): 167-177. ISSN: 0098-4108.
NAL Call Number: RA565.A1J6
Abstract: The long-term effects of oral contraceptive steroids including a combination of norethindrone and ethynylestradiol, a sequential regimen of dimethisterone and ethynylestradiol, and daily administration of megestrol acetate were studied in female beagle dogs at dose levels of 1, 10, or 25 times the projected human dose levels. The major findings included cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra requiring hysterectomies and alopecia for the norethindrone-ethynylestradiol and dimethisterone-ethynylestradiol treated dogs. These groups did not have accentuated mammary development or treatment-related hyperplastic or neoplastic changes. For dogs given dimethisterone-ethynylestradiol, numerous acne-like lesions occurred in the skin of the mammary areas. Dogs given the higher dose levels of megestrol acetate had marked mammary stimulation, hyperplastic and neoplastic changes in the mammary glands, and clinical and pathologic changes typical of diabetes mellitus. Mammary changes of nodular hyperplasia, benign mixed tumor, and adenocarcinoma appeared as distinct entities although constant and intense mammary stimulation may be a common denominator. Such mammary changes have not been found in long-term studies in monkeys or rats with megestrol acetate, and the relevance of the canine mammary changes to projecting potential tumorigenesis in women is questioned.
Descriptors: oral contraceptives, norethindrone, ethynylestradiol, megestrol acetate, dogs, complications, alopecia, endomedrial hyperplasia, hysterectomy, mamamary changes, tumorigenesis, animal models.

Weiss, S. (1995). Surgical prevention of urinary incontinence of hormonal origin in bitches [Chirurgische Prophylaxe der hormonellen Harninkontinenz der Hundin. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 82(7): 222-224. ISSN: 0043-535X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: surgical operations, complications, urination disorders, bitches, postoperative complications, hormones, surgery, ovariectomy, urinary incontinence, dogs.

Werner, R.E., A.J. Straughan, and D. Vezin (1992). Nylon cable band reactions in ovariohysterectomized bitches. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200(1): 64-6. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Nylon cable bands used as ligatures caused postsurgical complications in 5 ovariohysterectomized bitches. Clinical signs included fever, stiffness, strangury, draining fistulae, vaginal discharge, and tenesmus. Most signs first appeared several years after surgery, and all signs were resolved after removal of the bands. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that nylon cable bands not be used for ovariohysterectomy ligations. Comment In: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992 Mar 15;200(6):759
Descriptors: dogs, hysterectomy, nylons adverse effects, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, fistula, granuloma, ligation.

Wilke, M., H. Aupperle, and H.A.G.A. Schoon (1999). Transcervical collection of endometrial biopsy in the bitch - technique and complications. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 34(1): 19. ISSN: 0936-6768.
NAL Call Number: SF105.A1Z3
Descriptors: endometrial biopsy, collection method, ovariohysterectomy, transcervical cannulation, estrus cycle, fertility.

Wilson, G.P. and H.M. Hayes Jr. (1983). Ovariohysterectomy in the dog and cat. In: M.J. Bojrab (editor), Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery, 2nd edition, Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia, PA, p. 334-351. ISBN: 0812108620.
NAL Call Number: SF991.C87 1983
Descriptors: anaesthesia, postoperative complications, caesarean section, hysterectomy, surgery, dogs, cats.

Zambelli D, Melioli M, and Belluzzi S (2001). Urinary incontinence in dog after castration. Veterinaria Cremona 15(2): 35-40. ISSN: 0391-3151 .
Descriptors: castration, medical treatment, postoperative complications, prostate, sex differences, sympathomimetics, urethra, urinary incontinence.

 

 

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