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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / General  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
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General

Castration -- statement from the Council for ethics. (2001). Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(10): 634-637. ISSN: 0029-2773.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N81
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal welfare, castration, legislation, pets, professional ethics.

Anonymous (1989). Dog and cat reproduction, contraception and artificial insemination: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Canine and Feline Reproduction. Dublin, Ireland, July 1-2, 1988. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 39: 1-323. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Descriptors: animals, cat physiology, dog physiology, female, pregnancy, physiology of reproduction.

Anonymous (1990). Methods of spaying. The Veterinary Record 127(10): 267. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, female, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, veterinary surgery.

Anonymous (1995). Spaying the female cat. Feline Practice 23(1): 29-32. ISSN: 1057-6614.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, pathogenesis, carnivora, felidae, gonadectomy, mammals, sterilization, surgical operations, complications, recovery

Alexander, S. and S. Shane (1994). Characteristics of animals adopted from an animal control center whose owners complied with a spaying/neutering program. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205: 472-476. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, dogs, ownership, pet adoption, castration, ovariectomy, sex, age characteristics.

The Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs (2002). International Symposium on Nonsugical Methods for Pet Population Control,Callaway Gardens, Pine Mountain, GA, 127 p.
Descriptors: pet overpopulation, population control strategies, contraceptive vaccines, contraceptive drugs, dogs, cats.

An, M.Y., D. Fau, and I.H. Jang (1998). Three different operations in cryptorchid dogs. Korean Journal of Veterinary Clinical Medicine 15(2): 303-306. ISSN: 1225-4800.
Descriptors: cryptorchidism, testes, reproductive disorders, castration, testicular diseases, surgery, male genitalia, dogs.

Andersson A (2001). Castration and progestagen treatment of male dogs, part 1. Svensk Veterinartidning 53(7): 385-389. ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 SV23
Descriptors: adenoma, adverse effects, aggression, aggressive behavior, castration, hernia, neoplasms, progestogens, reproductive disorders, reviews, sex hormones, sexual dimorphism, skin diseases, treatment.

Andersson A (2001). Castration and progestagen treatment of male dogs, part 2. Svensk Veterinartidning 53(7): 391-397. ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 SV23
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, castration, male animals, medroxyprogesterone, potency, prostate.

Andersson A and Linde Forsberg C (2002). Castration and progestagen treatment of male dogs, Part 1. The European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 12(2): 173-177.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E8
Descriptors: activity, adenoma, adverse effects, aggression, animal behavior, appetite, castration, clinical aspects, cryptorchidism, epilepsy, hernia, hyperplasia, live weight, neoplasms, progestogens, sex hormones, skin diseases, testes, therapy, urinary incontinence.

Andersson A and Linde Forsberg C (2002). Castration and progestagen treatment of male dogs, Part 2. The European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 12(2): 178-185.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E8
Descriptors: adverse effects, animal behavior, castration, clinical aspects, medroxyprogesterone, progestogens, sex hormones, therapy, urination.

Aranez, J.B. (1955). Preliminary observations on a new orchiectomy technique for cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 126(939): 457-458. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: orchiectomy technique, inhalation anesthetics, cats, scrotal incision, spermatic artery, noncrushing forceps, surgeons knots, spermatic cords.

Arnold, S., M. Hubler, M. Casal, G. Lott Stolz, B. Hauser, and P. Rusch (1988). Transplantation von autologem Ovargewebe zur Verhinderung von unerwunschten Kastrationsfolgen bei der Hundin (Uberprufung von Patienten mehrere Jahre nach der Operation). [Transplantation of autologous ovarian tissue to prevent side effects of spaying in bitches (survey of cases several years after the operation)]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 130(7): 369-379. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: allografts, ovaries, transplantation, complications, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French and Italian.

Attia, K.A., A.A. Zaki, B.E. Eilts, D.L. Paccamonti, G. Hosgood, M.A. Dietrich, D.W. Horohov, and D.C. Blouin (2000). Anti-sperm antibodies and seminal characteristics after testicular biopsy or epididymal aspiration in dogs. Theriogenology 53(6): 1355-1363. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: dogs, testes, biopsy, antibody formation, antibodies, fine needle aspiration, epididymis, castration, spermatozoa, motility, abnormalities, morphology.

Baarschers, J.J., U.E. Hommes, and P.H.A. Poll (1976). Hemoclip-tang. [The use of hemoclips]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 101(10): 558-559. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: castration instrumentation, surgical staplers, bitches, uterus, ovariectomy, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Backus, R., M. Kanchuk, and Q. Rogers (2003). Cholecystokinin (CCK) release as indicated by plasma CCK concentrations is increased by gonadectomy in male cats. FASEB Journal 17(4-5): Abstract No. 523-2. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: gonadectomy techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, computer techniques, cats.

Baumans, V., G. Dijkstra, and C.J. Wensing (1982). The effect of orchidectomy on gubernacular outgrowth and regression in the dog. International Journal of Andrology 5(4): 387-400. ISSN: 0105-6263.
NAL Call Number: QP251.I55
Abstract: To test whether the outgrowth and regression of the gubernaculum testis and consequently testicular descent are testis dependent, unilateral and bilateral orchidectomies were performed on foetal dogs at 49 days post coitum (p.c.), and on newborns at day 0 and day 3 after birth. Prior to these experiments the vascularisation of the testis, epididymis and gubernaculum had been studied to develop a method of orchidectomy, in which the vascularisation of the gubernaculum and epididymis was minimally damaged. After bilateral orchidectomy at 49 days p.c., outgrowth of the gubernaculum stopped completely, and the epididymis remained in its original abdominal position. After bilateral orchidectomy at birth, the descent of the remaining epididymis from an intra-abdominal to an extra-abdominal position was retarded, due to retarded regression of the gubernaculum. Bilateral orchidectomy 3 days after birth resulted in a slightly retarded gubernacular regression. After unilateral orchidectomies the effects were similar but less pronounced. It was concluded that the testis induces and maintains the outgrowth and initiates regression of the gubernaculum, thereby regulating the process of testicular descent. However, once the regression had started, it appeared to proceed more or less autonomously.
Descriptors: castration, cell division, dogs, epididymis, male genitalia, organ weight, pregnancy, testis.

Belfield, W.O. (1972). For a more normal life for a pet: partial spay (hysterectomy). Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 67(11): 1223-1224. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animals, dogs, female, hysterectomy, sterilization.

Blake, J.A. (1969). A technique for castrating cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 154(1): 25. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, male, methods.

Bloomberg, M.S. (1996). Surgical neutering and nonsurgical alternatives. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(4): 517-519. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: age factors, animals, methods of castration, cats, population density.

Boothe, H.W. (2000). Surgery of the testes and scrotum. In: Birchard SJ and Sherding RG (editors), Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, p. 1005-1008. ISBN: 0-7216-7078-4.
NAL Call Number: SF981.S29 2000
Descriptors: surgery, treatment, testicular diseases, scrotum, postoperative care, postoperative complications, castration, ablation.

Bronson, R.T. (1981). Age at death of necropsied intact and neutered cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42(9): 1606-1608. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: castration, cats, hysterectomy, age of death.

Bronson, R.T. (1982). Variation in age at death of dogs of different sexes and breeds. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43(11): 2057-2059. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: A retrospective study of necropsy data for 2,002 dogs showed that the mean age at death of neutered dogs of both sexes exceeded that of intact dogs, but the differences were not significant. A wide variation in mean age at death of 56 breeds and cross breeds, 3.0 to 9.9 years, was found. This variation was not correlated with mean breed body weight. An attempt was made to explain the variability by finding diseases to which dogs of the short-lived breeds were particularly susceptible. This was not possible in general, since the samples of each breed were small and the total number of diseases from which they died so large. Dogs of long-lived breeds died of diseases appropriate to their age, particularly cancer, 39% of the sample. In the sample as a whole, cancer accounted for 20% of deaths at 5 years and increased to and remained between 40% and 50% from 10 to 16 years of age.
Descriptors: dog diseases mortality, age factors, castration veterinary, crosses, genetic, dogs, longevity, retrospective studies, sex factors, species specificity.

Brown, J.W. (1990). Methods of spaying. The Veterinary Record 127(16): 411. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: abcess, cats, female, adverse effects of hysterectomy, uterine disease.

Brueschke, E.E., M. Burns, J.H. Maness, J.R. Wingfield, K. Mayerhofer, and L.J. Zaneveld (1974). Development of a reversible vas deferens occlusive device. I. Anatomical size of the human and dog vas deferens. Fertility and Sterility 25(8): 659-672. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Descriptors: comparative anatomy, contraceptive devices, dogs, human, male, vas deferens.

Brueschke, E.E., R.A. Kaleckas, J.R. Wingfield, T.J. Welsh, and L.J. Zaneveld (1980). Development of a reversible vas deferens occlusion device. VII. Physical and microscopic observations after long-term implantation of flexible prosthetic devices. Fertility and Sterility 33(2): 167-178. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Abstract: Flexible prosthetic devices developed previously to reversibly block sperm transport through the vas deferens were implanted in the vasa deferentia of dogs or kept in a semen bath for a 6-month period. Dimensional measurements, flow characteristics, leakage tests, and detent action force tests to displace the valve stem were performed with the valves. No changes occurred in any of these parameters with the exception of a decrease in the force required to change the position of the valve stem. This explains the occasional passage of spermatozoa through certain closed devices after they have been implanted for long periods of time. Histologic studies indicated that the same types of genital tract changes are associated with an implanted device as with vasectomy, and that they occur with approximately equal frequencies. Scanning electron microscope studies showed (1) excellent tissue ingrowth into the Dacron velour material of the implanted device; (2) the build-up of material, consisting in part of spermatozoa, in the device lumen and on the value stem; and (3) the absence of surface degradation of either the Silastic material or the valve stem of the device. It is concluded that no irreversible tissue damage is caused by the long-term implantation of flexible prosthetic devices into the vas deferens.
Descriptors: male contraceptive devices, dogs, sperm transport block, vas deferens, epididymis, prostheses and implants.

Brueschke, E.E., J.R. Wingfield, M. Burns, and J.D. Zaneveld (1974). Development of a reversible vas deferens occlusive device. II. Effect of bilateral and unilateral vasectomy on semen characteristics in the dog. Fertility and Sterility 25(8): 673-686. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Descriptors: cell count, contraceptive devices, dogs, hydrogen ion concentration, male, methods, semen, spermatozoa, vasectomy.

Brueschke, E.E., L.J. Zaneveld, R. Rodzen, and D. Berns (1974). Development of a reversible vas deferens occlusive device. III. Morphology of the human and dog vas deferens: a study with the scanning electron microscope. Fertility and Sterility 25(8): 687-702. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Descriptors: comparative anatomy, contraceptive devices for dogs, electron microscopy, vas deferens, vasectomy.

Brueschke, E.E., L.J. Zaneveld, R. Rodzen, K. Mayerhoffer, M. Burns, and J.R. Wingfield (1975). Development of reversible vas deferens occlusive device: V. Flexible prosthetic devices. Fertility and Sterility 26(1): 40-52. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Abstract: In contrast to the results with rigid-ended prosthetic devices implanted in the vas deferens of the dog, effective sperm transport was obtained for prolonged periods of time with flexible-ended (all soft) devices. Such transport could be halted by device occlusion with clips or shuttle stem valves. Opening the devices resulted once again in the passage of spermatozoa, indicating that these devices may be potentially useful as reversible male contraceptives. More research is necessary to determine the cause of an overall decrease in sperm output after device implantations and to evaluate any adverse side effects of such devices. Dacron velour-covered suture rings on the devices permitted effective tissue ingrowth and prevented leakage or recanalization.
Descriptors: cell movement, dogs, male, prostheses and implants, silicone elastomers, spermatozoa, stainless steel, vas deferens, vasectomy.

Burke, T.J. (1977). Fertility control in the cat. The Veterinary Clinics of North America 7(4): 699-703. ISSN: 0091-0279.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: cats, castration, contraception, estrus, hysterectomy, megestrol, nandrolone, vasectomy, endometritis.

Charpin, C., T.M. Zielonka, D. Charpin, J.L. Ansaldi, C. Allasia, and D. Vervloet (1994). Effects of castration and testosterone on Fel dI production by sebaceous glands of male cats: II-morphometric assessment. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 24(12): 1174-1178. ISSN: 0954-7894.
Descriptors: cats, allergens, Fel d I antigen, sebaceous gland, males, cats.

Chatham, K.N. (1975). A buried suture pattern for ovariohysterectomies and cesarean operations (a photographic essay). Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 70(1): 82-85. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, cesarean section, dogs, female, hysterectomy, suture technique, sutures.

Chaumont, A.J. and J. Mehl (1972). Emasculation par un chien [Emasculation by a dog]. Medecine Legale Et Dommage Corporel 5(2): 154. ISSN: 0025-679X.
Descriptors: bites and stings, adult, cadaver, castration, dogs, forensic medicine, gastrointestinal hemorrhage mortality.
Language of Text: French.

Chawla, S.K. and J.F. Reece (2002). Timing of oestrus and reproductive behaviour in Indian street dogs. The Veterinary Record 150(14): 450-451. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: prevention and control of dog diseases, ovariectomy, India, population control, rabies, seasons, sexual behavior, vaccination, females, dogs.

Concannon, P.W. and V.N. Meyers-Wallen (1991). Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1214-1225. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: induced abortion, cats, methods of contraception, dogs, embryo implantation, megestrol acetate.

Cowan, L.A., J.A. Barsanti, J. Brown, and A. Jain (1991). Effects of bacterial infection and castration on prostatic tissue zinc concentration in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52(8): 1262-1264. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: prostatitis, castration, zinc, animal models, dogs, body fluids, Escherichia coli.

Cowan, L.A., J.A. Barsanti, W. Crowell, and J. Brown (1991). Effects of castration on chronic bacterial prostatitis in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199(3): 346-350. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, castration, prostatitis, Escherichia coli, chronic infection.

Crane, S.W. (1990). Orchiectomy of descended and retained testes in the dog and cat. In: M.J. Bojrab, S.J. Birchard and J.L. Tomlinson Jr. (editors), Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery, 3rd edition, Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia, PA, USA, p. 416-422. ISBN: 0812111931.
NAL Call Number: SF991.C87 1990
Descriptors: male genitalia, veterinary surgery, cats, dogs, orchitis, hernia, castration, cryptorchidism.

Crane, S.W., J.E. Smallwood and C.J.G. Wensing (1983). Orchiectomy of descended and retained testes in the dog and cat and biopsy of the testis [Castration]. In: M.J. Bojrab, S.W. Crane and S.P. Arnoczky (Editors), Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery, 2nd edition, Lea & Febiger: Philadelphia, PA, p. 369-379. ISBN: 0812108620.
NAL Call Number: SF991.C87 1983
Descriptors: male genitalia, veterinary surgery, cats, dogs, orchitis, hernia, castration, cryptorchidism.

Csiszar, P. and E. Brath (1997). Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery on experimental animal models. Acta Chirurgica Hungarica 36(1-4): 63-64. ISSN: 0231-4614.
Abstract: Our goal was to find a very good model for gynecological laparoscopic operations. The main purpose of the operations was to perform the same types of laparoscopic operations as we use daily in our clinical practice at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. UMSD. The uterus of female dogs seemed to be ideal for this work. In every experiment we carried out 10 different interventions on identical part of different dog uterus. The operations were performed at identical time period of day (a.m.). The weight of the female dogs were similar. The anaesthesia was also performed the same way in every case. The main purpose of the operations was to find some significant changes or differences between the 10 different surgical techniques. The hystological investigation were carried out with normal microscope and electron microscope.
Descriptors: gynecological laparoscopy, sterilization, surgical procedures, animal models, comparison study, tubal sterilization.

Davidson, D.L. (1998). Cat castrations and veterinary nurses. The Veterinary Record 142(15): 406-407. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: animal technicians, animals, methods of castration, methods, standards, veterinary, cats, professional competence, veterinary medicine.

Deen, A., Y. Jongsma-Biben, and R. van Gisbergen (2003). Honden castreren in het buitenland [Dog castration abroad]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 128(3): 92. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: dogs, economics and methods of castration, female.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Dejneka, G.J. and W. Nizanski (2000). Wskazania do owariohisterektomii u suk [Indications for ovariohysterectomy in bitches]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 75(9): 473-478. ISSN: 0137-6810.
Descriptors: contraceptives, bitch, dogs, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, pyometra.
Language of Text: Polish.

Dejneka GJ and Nizanski W (2000). Uwagi na temat kastrowania psów i kotów. [Castration in dogs and cats]. Magazyn Weterynaryjny 9(50): 17-19. ISSN: 1230-4425 .
Descriptors: castration, companion animals, surgical techniques.
Language of Text: Polish.

Dorn, A.S. (1975). Ovariohysterectomy by the flank approach. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 70(5): 569-573. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animals, methods of castration, cats, female, hysterectomy.

Dorn, A.S., D.L. Bone, and J.R. Bellah (1985). Sex hormone-related diseases treated surgically in male dogs. Modern Veterinary Practice 66(10): 727-733. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: sex differentiation disorders, endocrine diseases, castration, male genital diseases, veterinary surgery, neoplasms, dogs.

Erdem, H. (2002). Kopeklerde ovariohysterectomy: en fazla sorulan sorular. [Ovariohysterectomy in bitches: the most frequently asked questions]. Hayvancilik Arastirma Dergisi 12(1): 67-70. ISSN: 1300-2031.
Descriptors: bitches, female genital diseases, hysterectomy, mammary gland diseases, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, reproductive disorders, reviews, surgery, surgical operations, dogs.

Fahim, M.S., Z. Fahim, J. Harman, I. Thompson, J. Montie, and D.G. Hall (1977). Ultrasound as a new method of male contraception. Fertility and Sterility 28(8): 823-831. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Abstract: Twenty male cats were treated once or twice with 1 watt/sq cm of ultrasound for 10 minutes. Each of 24 male dogs received one to three treatments with 1 watt/sq cm for 10 minutes. Another six dogs were treated with 2 watts/sq cm for 15 minutes. Four Cebus apella monkeys were treated with the same dosage as that used for the cats and dogs. A dosage of 1 watt/sq cm for 10 minutes was also applied to four human patients without the use of anesthetics, and no pain or side effects were noted. In all treated animals as well as in human patients the results indicate that ultrasound significantly suppresses spermatogenesis according to the dosage and frequency of treatment, without any effect on Leydig cells or blood testosterone levels.
Descriptors: cats, methods of contraception, dogs, Haplorhini, cebus monkeys, rats, seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, temperature, ultrasonics.

Fayrer Hosken R. (2003). Contraceptive techniques for male dogs and cats. In: Root Kustritz M.V. (editor), Small Animal Theriogenology, Butterworth Heinemann: St. Louis, p. 447-456. ISBN: 0-7506-7408-3.
Descriptors: castration, contraceptives, epididymis, GnRH, males, estrogens, progestogens, reproduction, veterinary surgery, testes, vasectomy.

Fettman, M.J., C.A. Stanton, L.L. Banks, D.W. Hamar, D.E. Johnson, R.L. Hegstad, and S. Johnson (1997). Effects of neutering on bodyweight, metabolic rate and glucose tolerance of domestic cats. Research in Veterinary Science 62(2): 131-136. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Few controlled studies have been made of the possible mechanisms and physiological consequences of weight gain after cats have been neutered. In this study, six male and six female cats were gonadectomised and compared with five entire male and six entire female cats, before they were neutered and one and three months later. The neutered males gained significantly more weight (mean [SEM] per cent) than the entire males (30.2 [5.2] v 11.8 [2.3]) and the entire females gained 40.0 (7.3) v 16.1 (3.3) per cent, (P<0.05). The castrated males gained more weight as fat than the sexually intact males (22.0 [3.3] v 8.8 [4.5] per cent, P<0.05). There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in daily food intake after neutering. Spayed females underwent a significant decrease in fasting metabolic rate (83.7 [5.5] v 67.2 [2.3] kcal/kg bodyweight 0.75/day P<0.05). Gonadectomy had minimal effects on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, the resting or fasting metabolic rates in males, or on indices of glucose tolerance.
Descriptors: cats, castration, ovariectomy, bodyweight, metabolism, glucose tolerance, sex differences, food intake, digestibility, body composition, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin.

Fingland, R.B. (1990). Ovariohysterectomy. In: M.J. Bojrab (editor), Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery, 3rd edition, Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia, PA, p. 398-404. ISBN: 0-8121-1193-1.
Descriptors: female genitalia, sterilization, surgical operations, postoperative complications, endocrine diseases, urinary incontinence, body weight, uterine diseases, ovarian diseases, mammary gland diseases, bitches, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, surgery, dogs, cats.

Fingland, R.B. (2000). Surgery of the ovaries and uterus. In: Birchard S.J. and Sherding R.G. (editors), Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 0-7216-7078-4.
NAL Call Number: SF981.S29 2000
Descriptors: ovariohysterectomy, anatomy, surgical procedure, cesarean section, postoperative complications, uterine prolapse.

Flynn, M.F., E.M. Hardie, and P.J. Armstrong (1996). Effect of ovariohysterectomy on maintenance energy requirement in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(9): 1572-1581. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomized females, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, energy requirements, prediction, body condition, weight control, caloric intake, food intake.

Fukuda, S. and H. Iida (2000). Effects of orchidectomy on bone metabolism in beagle dogs. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62(1): 69-73. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: The effects of orchidectomy on bone metabolism in male beagle dogs were examined using twelve 2-year-old dogs that were orchidectomized. The dogs' bilateral iliac bones, double-labeled with tetracycline and calcein for the histomorphometry, were obtained from three dogs prior to orchidectomy and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months afterwards. The serum biochemical constituents related to bone metabolism were examined before and every month after orchidectomy. Between 1 and 6 months after orchidectomy, the value of serum testosterone decreased (1 month), while the levels of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, total calcium, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly, indicating a high bone turnover. The mean trabecular thickness and the fraction of labeled osteoid surface decreased significantly 3 months after orchidectomy, but other histomorphometric parameters were unchanged. In the period 7-12 months after orchidectomy, the parathyroid hormone level increased ever and above that of the first 6-month period, while the levels of calcitonin, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and phosphorus decreased. The bone volume, mean trabecular thickness, and the fraction of labeled trabecular surface decreased significantly compared with the pre-orchidectomy values. These findings indicate an imbalance in bone metabolism (i.e. bone resorption > bone formation). These results indicate that a loss of bone volume accompanied the fall in sex hormone levels following orchidectomy and suggest that the orchidectomized dog is available as an animal model for studying osteoporosis caused by hypogonadism and the decline of sex functions in men.
Descriptors: animal model, bone remodeling, effects of orchiectomy, testosterone, bone volume, sex hormones.

Gerber, H.A., W. Jochle, and F.G. Sulman (1973). Control of reproduction and of undesirable social and sexual behaviour in dogs and cats. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 14(3): 151-158. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: animal behavior, cats, contraceptive agents, dogs, estrus, hydroxysteroids, pregnatrienes, progestins, reproduction, sexual behavior, social behavior.

Ghanawat, H.G. and M.B. Mantri (1996). Comparative study of various approaches for ovariohysterectomy in cats. Indian Veterinary Journal 73(9): 987-988. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: cat diseases, surgery, techniques, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, cats.

Gobello, C., H. Baschar, G. Castex, R.L. de la Sota, and R.G. Goya (2001). Dioestrous ovariectomy: a model to study the role of progesterone in the onset of canine pseudopregnancy. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 57: 55-60. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: It has been suggested that overt pseudopregnancy in bitches is caused by an increase in the concentration of serum prolactin as a result of an abrupt decrease in progesterone concentration in the late luteal phase. This hypothesis was tested by using ovariectomy at dioestrus as an experimental model. A total of 18 intact cross- and purebred bitches were used. Eleven animals were ovariectomized (day 0) between day 25 and day 40 of the oestrous cycle, and seven intact bitches were used as controls. Blood samples for determination of prolactin and progesterone concentrations were collected on days -1, 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the ovariectomized group, and on day 1 and day 7 in the control group. On day 7, the presence or absence of overt pseudopregnancy was recorded. The four ovariectomized bitches with a history of pseudopregnancy showed signs of overt pseudopregnancy (P < 0.01). On day 7, progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in the control than in the ovariectomized bitches (P < 0.01). The expected decrease in serum progesterone concentration after ovariectomy was similar in pseudopregnant bitches and non-pseudopregnant bitches. However, in pseudopregnant bitches, but not in non-pseudopregnant bitches, there was a marked increase (expressed as percentage change) in the concentration of prolactin between day -1 and day 7 (P < 0.01). It was concluded that the abrupt decrease in progesterone concentrations does not lead systematically to pseudopregnancy. Only in bitches predisposed to pseudopregnancy would an abrupt decrease in progesterone concentrations induce a substantial increase in prolactin concentrations, which in turn would trigger the typical signs of pseudopregnancy.
Descriptors: dogs, female, animal models, ovariectomy, progesterone, prolactin, pseudopregnancy.

Gobello, C. and Y. Corrada (2002). Noninfectious prostatic diseases in dogs. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 24(2): 99-108. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: dogs, prostate, hyperplasia, clinical aspects, castration, treatment, testosterone, hormone antagonists, diethylstilbestrol, progestogens, cysts, metaplasia, neoplasms.

Gourley, J. (1997). When to spay dogs and cats. The Veterinary Record 140(4): 104. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: age, animals, methods of castration, cats, dogs, sex maturation, prepubertal gonadectomy.

Gregory, S.P., P.E. Holt, T.J. Parkinson, and C.M. Wathes (1999). Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 40(4): 180-184. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: bitches, vagina, position, length, ovariectomy, urinary incontinence, pressure, bodyweight.

Hamilton, J.B., R.S. Hamilton, and G.E. Mestler (1969). Duration of life and causes of death in domestic cats: influence of sex, gonadectomy, and inbreeding. Journal of Gerontology 24(4): 427-437. ISSN: 0022-1422.
Descriptors: animals, domestic, castration, cats, inbreeding, mortality, sex factors, age factors.

Hansen, B.D., E.M. Hardie, and G.S. Carroll (1997). Physiological measurements after ovariohysterectomy in dogs: what's normal? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 51(1-2): 101-109. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: ovariohysterectomy, pain, surgery, dogs, oxymorphone, cortisol, stress.

Harper E.J., Stack D.M., Watson T.D.G., and Moxham G. (2001). Effects of feeding regimens on bodyweight, composition and condition score in cats following ovariohysterectomy. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 42(9): 433-438. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: animal feeding, body composition, body fat, live weight, ovariectomy, veterinary surgery, cats.

Hartmann S (2000). Einfluss des Alters und des Hodenstatus auf periphere Blutkonzentrationen von Thyroxin, Thyreotropin, Cortisol, Luteinisierungshormon, Testosteron und Ostradiol 17beta bei adulten Belgischen und Deutschen Schaferhunden. [Influence of age and gonadal status on peripheral blood concentrations of thyroxine, thyrotropin, cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol-17beta in adult Belgian and German shepherd dogs]. Dissertation, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover: Hannover, Germany. 97 p.
Descriptors: dissertation, age differences, castration, cryptorchidism, estradiol, LH, testosterone, thyrotropin, thyroxine.
Language of Text: German.

Hawthorne, L. (2002). Hawthorne's rebuttal. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(3): 243-246. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: genetics, philosophy and ethics, reproduction, cloning genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, embryo assessment, spaying, overpopulation.

Hellebrekers, L.J. and N. Reens (1993). Castreren van katers. [Castration of male cats]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118(9): 314-315. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: anesthesia, castration, cats, adverse effects of anesthesia, myocardium metabolism, oxygen consumption, drug effects.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Herron, M.A. and M.R. Herron (1972). Vasectomy in the cat. Modern Veterinary Practice 53(6): 41-43. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: cats, male, spermatic cord, sterilization, surgery of the vas deferens.

Hesta A, Debraekeleer J, Janssens G, Wilde R de, and de Wilde R (2000). The importance of diet adaptations after the sterilization and castration of the cat. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 69(3): 175-180. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V84
Descriptors: castration, sterilization, pets, animalfeeding, hyperphagia, obesity.

Hoenig, M. and D.C. Ferguson (2002). Effects of neutering on hormonal concentrations and energy requirements in male and female cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(5): 634-639. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: cats, gonadectomy, male animals, female animals, hormones, fatty acids, obesity, diabetes, energy requirements, glucose, sex differences, insulin, thyroxine.

Houlton, J. and N. McGlennon (1992). Castration and physeal closure in the cat. The Veterinary Record 131(20): 466-467. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, castration, bone, bone mineralization, delayed physeal closure, pilot study.

Howe, L.M., M.R. Slater, H.W. Boothe, H.P. Hobson, T.W. Fossum, A.C. Spann, and W.S. Wilkie (2000). Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(11): 1661-1665. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine long-term results and complications of gonadectomy performed at an early age (prepubertal) or at the traditional age in cats. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 263 cats from animal shelters. PROCEDURE: Cats that underwent gonadectomy were allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at surgery (traditional age, > or = 24 weeks old; prepubertal, < 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews were conducted with owners to determine physical or behavioral problems observed in the cats after adoption. Follow-up information was obtained from attending veterinarians for cats with complex problems or when owners were uncertain regarding the exact nature of their cat's problem. RESULTS: Compared with traditional-age gonadectomy, prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an increased incidence of infectious disease, behavioral problems, or problems associated with any body system during a median follow-up period of 37 months. Additionally, the rate of retention in the original adoptive household was the same for cats that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent traditional-age gonadectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Prepubertal gonadectomy may be performed safely in cats without concern for increased incidence of physical or behavioral problems for at least a 3-year period after gonadectomy.
Descriptors: prepubertal gonadectomy, cats, animal welfare, animal behavior, age factors, follow-up studies.

Howe, L.M., M.R. Slater, H.W. Boothe, H.P. Hobson, J.L. Holcom, and A.C. Spann (2001). Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218(2): 217-221. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine long-term results and complications of gonadectomy performed at an early age (prepubertal) or at the traditional age in dogs. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 269 dogs from animal shelters. PROCEDURE: Dogs that underwent gonadectomy were allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at surgery (traditional age, > or =24 weeks old; prepubertal, < 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews were conducted with owners to determine physical or behavioral problems observed in the dogs since adoption. Follow-up information was obtained from attending veterinarians for dogs with complex problems or when owners were uncertain regarding the exact nature of their dog's problem. RESULTS: Prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an increased incidence of behavioral problems or problems associated with any body system, compared with traditional-age gonadectomy, during a median follow-up period of 48 months after gonadectomy. Rate of retention in the original adoptive household was the same for dogs that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent traditional-age gonadectomy. Infectious diseases, however, were more common in dogs that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: With the exception of infectious diseases, prepubertal gonadectomy may be safely performed in dogs without concern for increased incidence of physical or behavioral problems during at least a 4-year period after gonadectomy.
Descriptors: animal behavior, early age gonadectomy, ovariectomy, orchiectomy, prepubertal gonadectomy, dogs, animal shelter, questionnaires.

Hubbard, J.I., B.I. Hyland, and N.E. Sirett (1990). Stimulation of the LH release by naloxone in anaesthetized cats after ovariectomy. Neuroscience Letters 108(3): 295-302. ISSN: 0304-3940.
NAL Call Number: QP351.N3
Abstract: The effect of intravenous injections or infusions of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) was studied in 18 spayed cats anaesthetized with Althesin. Effective injections significantly increased the LH concentration of plasma samples (taken every 10-15 min and measured by radio-immunoassay) to a peak 20-30 min after injection. The concentration thereafter declined exponentially (ke = 0.42), and, in 4/8 trials rose again significantly and declined again without further injection. The threshold dose was between 0.4 and 0.5 mg/kg. There did not appear to be a dose dependence of the effect above threshold. Infusion of naloxone at levels up to 5 mg/kg/h was effective in producing a pulsatile release of LH and repeated injections of threshold doses (0.5 mg/kg) could produce a maintained plateau and pulsatile release at frequencies comparable to pulse frequencies in vivo.
Descriptors: anesthesia, animal, cats, dose-response relationship, female, luteinizing hormone, naloxone, ovariectomy.

Hummer, R.L. (1975). Pets in today's society. American Journal Of Public Health 65(10): 1095-1098. ISSN: 0090-0036.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Am3J
Descriptors: domestic animals, cats, contraception, dogs, population growth, sterilization, zoonoses.

Jayaraman, K.S. (1991). Sterilized dogs, bulls will keep their libido. Nature 352(6331): 97. ISSN: 0028-0836.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: cattle, dogs, India, male, reproductive sterilization, biological drive.

Jochle, W. (1975). Hormones in canine gynecology. A review. Theriogenology 3(4): 152-165. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: animals, chlormadinone acetate, chorionic gonadotropin, diethylstilbestrol, dogs, embryo implantation, estrus, female, follicle stimulating hormone, gonadotropins, hydroxyprogesterones, luteinizing hormone, megestrol, norethindrone, pregnancy, progesterone.

Jochle, W. (1976). Neuere Erkenntnisse über die Fortpflanzungsbiologie von Hund und Katze: Konsequenzen für die Ostruskontrolle, Konzeptionsverhütung, Abortauslösung und Therapie. [New findings on the physiology of reproduction in the dog and cat: consequences for the control of estrus, contraception abortion and therapy]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 83(12): 564-569. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: spontaneous abortion, antineoplastic agents, cats, contraception, dogs, estrus, female, pregnancy, progestational hormones, drug effects on reproduction.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Jochle, W. (1994). Neutralizacja hormonalna czy trzebienie chirurgiczne suk i kotek? [Hormonal or surgical sterilization of bitches and queens?]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 50(11): 537-540. ISSN: 0025-8628.
Descriptors: pets, estrous cycle, reproductive physiology, drug therapy, postoperative complications, sterilization, progestogens, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Polish.

Jochle, W. (1989). Reproduction in the dog: reflections on past neglect and its consequences for society. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 33(1): 66-69. ISSN: 0031-5982.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 P43
Descriptors: dogs, estrus, female, reproduction, social control.

Jochle, W. (1987). Zum Sexualzyklus der Hundin: Neuere Einsichten und Konsequenzen fur Therapie und Fortpflanzungskontrolle. [The sexual cycle in the bitch: recent insights and impact on therapy and reproduction control]. Tierärztliche Praxis 15(3): 295-300. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Abstract: Present knowledge about the estrous cycle of the bitch has been reviewed from a morphological, endocrinological and clinical point of view. This cycle is truly biphasic, characterized by its slow motion. It includes pregnancy or pseudopregnancy, and lactation. Corpus luteum function and regression as well as endometrial recovery, following endometrial desquamation at about day 100 of the cycle, are finalized at about days 140 to 150. Soon thereafter, subclinical preparations for the next proestrus can be recognized. Prolactin seems to play an important role as a luteotrophic agent, beginning at about day 30 to 35 of the cycle. Inhibition of prolactin secretion can be used to induce abortion, or to inhibit lactation and to shorten the cycle, or to treat clinical anestrus. Late metestrus and subclinical proestrus, i.e. days 120 to 170 of the cycle, is the most suitable period of the cycle to initiate suppression of the cycle, i.e. prevention of the next estrus, by using progestins with the least tendency for side effects. Article in German.
Descriptors: dogs, estrus synchronization, female, implications for contraception.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Jochle, W. and A.C. Andersen (1977). The estrous cycle in the dog: a review. Theriogenology 7(3): 113-140. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: dog physiology, estrus, female, pregnancy.

Johnston, S.D. (1991). Questions and answers on the effects of surgically neutering dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1206-1214. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, cats, castration, ovariectomy.

Kalz, B. and K.M. Scheibe (2001). Feral cats in a study area of the Berlin city -- population biology and influence of castration. [Verwilderte Hauskatzen in einem Untersuchungsgebiet in Berlin-Mitte -- Populations biologie und Einfluss der Kastration]. In: Aktuelle Arbeiten zur artgemassen Tierhaltung 2000. Vorträge anlässlich der 32. Internationalen Arbeitstagung Angewandte Ethologie bei Nutztieren der Deutschen Veterinärmedizinischen Gesellschaft e. V. Fachgruppe Verhaltensforschung,Freiburg-Breisgau, Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL): Darmstadt, Germany. Vol. 403, p. 145-152.
Descriptors: castration, urban areas, vermin, vertebrate pests, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Kanchuk, M.L., R.C. Backus, C.C. Calvert, J.G. Morris, and Q.R. Rogers (2002). Neutering induces changes in food intake, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations in normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male cats. Journal of Nutrition 132(6 Supplement S2): 1730S-1732S. ISSN: 0022-3166.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 J82
Descriptors: nutrition, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, metabolic disease, obesity, nutritional disease, neutering, body weight, food intake.

Kanchuk, M.L., R.C. Backus, C.C. Calvert, J.G. Morris, and Q.R. Rogers (2003). Weight gain in gonadectomized normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male domestic cats results from increased food intake and not decreased energy expenditure. Journal of Nutrition 133(6): 1866-1874. ISSN: 0022-3166.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 J82
Descriptors: enzymology, metabolism, nutrition, obesity, nutritional disease, gonadectomy, adiposity, energy expenditure, food intake, weight gain.

Kaplan, B. (1981). A technique of canine castration using anatomic structures for hemostasis. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 76(2): 193-196. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: anesthesia, animals, methods of castration, dogs, hemostatic techniques, male.

Kato, G. (2001). Proposals for contraception and castration methods in dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Medicine (Japan) 54(4): 282-284. ISSN: 0447-0192.
NAL Call Number: SF761 .Z4
Descriptors: castration, contraception, canine, feline, reproduction, animal welfare.

Kawakami, E., T. Tsutsui, M. Shimizu, H. Orima, M. Fujita, and A. Ogasa (1995). Comparison of the effects of chlormadinone acetate-pellet implantation and orchidectomy on benign prostatic hypertrophy in the dog. International Journal of Andrology 18(5): 248-255. ISSN: 0105-6263.
NAL Call Number: QP251.I55
Abstract: Five beagles out of 11 dogs aged 7-10 years with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) were implanted subcutaneously with pellets of the synthetic anti-androgen chlormadinone acetate (CMA) at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. The remaining six dogs (one beagle and five mongrel dogs) underwent bilateral orchidectomy. Changes in prostatic volume, histological findings in the prostate and the testis, and peripheral plasma levels of LH, testosterone and oestradiol-17 beta (E2) were assessed up until 24 and 4 weeks after CMA-implantation and orchidectomy, respectively. Measurements of the size of the prostate and biopsies of the prostate were performed by laparotomy. Mean prostatic volume had decreased to 71% and 41%, respectively, of its pretreatment volume, by 4 weeks after CMA-implantation and orchidectomy, and was 49% and 47%, respectively, of pretreatment volume at 12 and 24 weeks after CMA-implantation. The clinical signs of BPH, e.g. haematuria, resolved within 2 weeks after either treatment. When the prostate was examined histologically 4 weeks after either treatment, hardly any evidence of active secretion (e.g. glandular epithelium projecting markedly into the lumen), was observed in CMA-implanted dogs, alveolar diameter and height of the glandular epithelium had decreased markedly and the glandular lumen had become very small in the orchidectomized dogs. By 12 weeks after CMA-implantation, degenerative and atrophic glands were observed in the prostate nearly the same as at 4 weeks after orchidectomy. In the testis the number of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules decreased markedly after CMA-implantation. The mean level of plasma LH at 4 weeks after orchidectomy had increased to 14.9 ng/ml, twice the value before operation. The mean levels of plasma testosterone and E2 at 4 weeks after CMA-implantation had decreased to 0.7 ng/ml and 9 pg/ml from 1.5 ng/ml and 15 pg/ml, the values before treatment, respectively. CMA-implantation resulted in poor semen quality. The results indicate that CMA-implantation at a dose of 10 mg/kg results in the same prostate-shrinking effect as orchidectomy.
Descriptors: dogs, anti-androgen chlormadinone acetate, oral contraceptives, orchidectomy, comparison study, semen quality, prostate-shrinking effect, drug implants.

Kawakami, E., T. Tsutsui, Y. Yamada, A. Ogasa, and M. Yamauchi (1988). Spermatogenic function and fertility on unilateral cryptorchid dogs after orchiopexy and contralateral castration. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 50(3): 754-762. ISSN: 0021-5295.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J27
Descriptors: dogs, cryptorchidism, surgical operations, castration, spermatogenesis, fertility, testes, biopsy, semen, anatomy, animal anatomy, animals, biological techniques, body parts, canidae, carnivores, disorders, domestic animals, endocrine glands, functional disorders, glands, gonadectomy, infertility, injurious factors, male genital system, male infertility, mammals, pet animals, physiological functions, reproduction, reproductive disorders, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system, vertebrates.

Kipnis, R.M. (1981). Comments on canine castration. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 76(4): 446. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: dogs, surgery, methods of castration, male.

Kirby, F.D. (1980). A technique for castrating the cryptorchid dog or cat. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 75(4): 632. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: methods of castration, cats, cryptorchidism, dogs, male.

Kirkpatrick, J.F. and A.T. Rutberg (2001). Fertility control in animals. In: D.S. Salem and A.N. Rowan (editors), State of the Animals 2001, Humane Society Press: Washington, DC, p. 183-198. ISBN: 0-9658942-3-1.
Descriptors: humane control of wildlife, local population size, population control, fertility control, immunocontraception, porcine zona pellucida vaccine, horses, deer, elephants, companion animals, ethics.

Kustritz, M. (1996). Elective gonadectomy in the cat. Feline Practice 24(6): 36-39. ISSN: 1057-6614.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Abstract: Agricola
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, castration, body condition, obesity, behavior change, metabolism.

Lanevschi, A., J.W. Kramer, S.A. Greene, and K.M. Meyers (1996). Fibrinolytic activity in dogs after surgically induced trauma. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(8): 1137-1140. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alterations in the fibrinolytic pathway analytes, plasminogen (PLG), tissue plasminogen activator, and alpha 2-antiplasmin are significant in dogs subjected to minor and major surgical trauma. ANIMALS: 18 dogs in 3 groups of 6 each. PROCEDURE: Plasma fibrinolytic pathway analytes were measured in dogs with trauma of ovariohysterectomy (minor trauma) or orthopedic surgery (major trauma) and halothane anesthesia (control group). A commercial procedure adapted to a microtitration plate was used to measure the analytes. Blood was obtained 24 hours before anesthesia, at extubation (0 hours), and again at 2, 24, and 48 hours after extubation. An analyte quality-control strategy was maintained. RESULTS: In the major trauma group, there was a significant, transient, postsurgical decrease in PLG activity at 0 and 24 hours and a return to presurgical values by 48 hours. The minor trauma group had a similar trend without significant changes, including an increase in PLG values at 48 hours that exceeded the reference range. Antiplasmin values changed significantly in the major trauma group only. Tissue plasminogen activator values remained within the reference range. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue plasminogen activator was not considered a clinical marker of interest for detection of alterations in fibrinolysis after trauma. In contrast, plasma PLG and alpha 2-antiplasmin values may be useful in the evaluation of hemostatic complications of surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Identification of altered fibrinolysis in dogs undergoing traumatic surgery may provide a baseline for preventive pre-and postsurgical hemostatic care.
Descriptors: fibrinolysis, hysterectomy, orthopedics, ovariectomy, wounds and injuries, anesthesia, antiplasmin analysis, biological markers, dogs, halothane, plasminogen, postoperative period, reference values, time factors.

Leverkusen, D.M. (1973). Die Kastration der Katze. [Castration in the cat]. Tierarztliche Praxis 1(1): 195-203. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Descriptors: anesthesia, methods of castration, cats, ovary, female.
Language of Text: German.

Luder, S. and P. Lueps (2002). Hauskatzen beim Tierarzt: veterinaermedizinische und zoologische Daten auf Grund einer Erhebung in einer Praxis im Kanton Bern. [Domestic cats in a veterinary surgery: Not neglecting the zoological point of view.]. Mitteilungen Der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern 59: 61-77. ISSN: 0077-6130.
Descriptors: cats, castration, veterinary surgery.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Mahlow, J.C. (1999). Estimation of the proportions of dogs and cats that are surgically sterilized. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(5): 640-643. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine an estimate of the proportions of dogs and cats in Texas that are surgically sterilized and whether those proportions differed according to species and sex of the animal, level of responsibility of the owner, or geographic location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 43,831 dogs and cats > or = 6 months old. PROCEDURE: Information on sterilization rates was provided by 14 licensing agencies and 16 animal shelters in diverse regions of Texas. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare sterilization rates among subpopulations of animals (dogs vs cats, males vs females, sheltered vs licensed, rural vs urban location). RESULTS: Overall, 12,893 (29.4%) of the animals (26.9% of dogs and 32.6% of cats) were sterilized. Proportions of animals sterilized were significantly different among subpopulations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the cause of pet overpopulation is multifaceted, failure of owners to spay and castrate their animals is a major contributing factor. Significant differences in sterilization rates among subpopulations of dogs and cats suggest that organizations encouraging spaying and castration should use motivational techniques specific for the pet owners they are targeting.
Descriptors: gonadectomy, sterilization statistics, dogs, cats, rural population, cross sectional study, owner responsibility, education.

Mandelker, L. (1978). A sterile surgical procedure for feline castration (a photographic essay). Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 73(7): 904-95. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animals, asepsis, castration, cats, male.

Marholdt, D. (1973). Die Kastration der Katze. [Feline castration]. Tierarztliche Praxis 1(2): 195-203. ISSN: 0303-6286.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V4
Descriptors: anesthesia, cats, female, methods of castration, hysterectomy, postoperative care, premedication.
Language of Text: German.

Martin, L., B. Siliart, H. Dumon, R. Backus, V. Biourge, and P. Nguyen (2001). Leptin, body fat content and energy expenditure in intact and gonadectomized adult cats: A preliminary study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 85(7-8): 195-199. ISSN: 0044-3565.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Descriptors: metabolism, nutrition, obesity, nutritional disease, gonadectomy, body weight, energy expenditure.

Martin, R.B., R.L. Butcher, L.L. Sherwood, P. Buckendahl, R.D. Boyd, D. Farris, N. Sharkey, and G. Dannucci (1987). Effects of ovariectomy in beagle dogs. Bone 8(1): 23-31. ISSN: 8756-3282.
NAL Call Number: RC930.B65
Abstract: Beagle dogs 3-7 years old were ovariectomized (n = 9) or sham operated (n = 6) and followed for 48 weeks with measurements of body weight, tibial shaft bone mineral content (BMC), and serum biochemistry. Following killing, measurements were made of bone strength and histomorphometry. Ovariectomy (OX) significantly reduced serum estrone and estradiol concentrations and their variability from month to month. There was a transient decrease in cortical BMC of the OX dogs during the first 12 postoperative weeks but no difference between the groups after 48 weeks. Serum osteocalcin was elevated, but there was little effect on serum alkaline phosphatase, Ca, P, or calcitonin. OX increased the number of tetracycline-labeled osteons in cortical bone but reduced the percent trabecular surface labeled with tetracycline. OX produced no significant changes in the composition of the bones or loss of cortical area, but a statistically significant 15% trabecular bone loss occurred in the spine. However, bone strength had not been significantly affected at the time of sacrifice.
Descriptors: disease models, animal, dogs, osteoporosis, ovariectomy, bone and bones analysis, calcium binding proteins, estradiol, osteocalcin, progesterone, spine.

Maute A.M., Koch D.A., and Montavon P.M. (2001). Perineale Hernie beim Hund - Colopexie, Vasopexie, Cystopexie und Kastration als Therapie der Wahl bei 32 Hunden. [Perineal hernia in dogs -- colopexy, vasopexy, cystopexy and castration as an alternative therapy in 32 dogs]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 143(7): 360-367. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: In 32 male dogs colopexy, vasopexy, cystopexy and castration was performed for the treatment of perineal hernia. Recurrence rate in this study is 22%, what is comparable to other studies using different methods. The degree of severity and the number of complications is lower with this technique than with others. Enlargement of the prostate was evident in 59% and bladder retroflexion in 22% of the dogs. A celiotomy allows to recognize, assess, reduce and fix displaced organs which is not possible by using other methods. The aim is to regain the tubular structure of the ampulla recti and to fix prostate and bladder cranioventrally to the pelvic entrance. The castration performed at the same time causes the prostate gland to atrophy within 2-3 weeks, what makes the pelvic entrance even wider and the dogs return to normal defecation.
Descriptors: hernia, perineum, surgery, treatment.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

McEntee, M.C. (2002). Reproductive oncology. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 17(3): 133-149. ISSN: 1096-2867.
NAL Call Number: SF911.S45
Descriptors: reproductive system, tumor biology, neoplastic disease, neutering, clinical techniques.

McLaughlin, K.C. and C.E. Hamner (1974). A demonstration of cat seminal plasma antifertility activity. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 145(1): 103-106. ISSN: 0037-9727.
NAL Call Number: 442.9 So1
Descriptors: buffers, cats, centrifugation, fertilization, heat, pregnancy, rabbits, analysis of semen, species specificity, sperm capacitation, spermatozoa, time factors, trypsin inhibitors.

Medleau, L., D.T. Crowe, and D.L. Dawe (1983). Effect of surgery on the in vitro response of canine peripheral blood lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin. American Journal Of Veterinary Research 44(5): 859-860. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: The effects of surgery (ovario-hysterectomy) and anesthesia on phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis were studied in vitro in 12 dogs. Four dogs had depressed lymphocyte blastogenic responses after surgery. This suppression was transient with normal blastogenic responses occurring in cells from all dogs 24 hours after surgery. Seemingly, T-lymphocyte function may be depressed, only transiently, after surgery.
Descriptors: anesthesia, antibody formation, castration, dogs, female, hysterectomy, lymphocyte activation, phytohemagglutinins.

Millis, D.L., J.G. Hauptman, and M. Richter (1992). Preoperative and postoperative hemostatic profiles of dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Cornell Veterinarian 82(4): 465-470. ISSN: 0010-8901.
Descriptors: dog diseases, surgical operations, postoperative complications, haematology, ovariectomy, hysterectomy.

Minami, S., Y. Okamoto, H. Eguchi, and K. Kato (1997). Successful laparoscopy assisted ovariohysterectomy in two dogs with pyometra. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59(9): 845-847. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: Two dogs with pyometra were treated by laparoscopy assisted ovariohysterectomy. Hemostasis of the mesovarium was achieved with an ultrasonic scalpel and hemoclips. Both ovaries and the uterus were exposed via a 10-mm caudal port that was enlarged to 3 cm and the uterine cervix was excised after ligation of the uterine arteries. These cases were the first report on ovariohysterectomy for pyometra by laparoscopy assisted surgery in the veterinary field.
Descriptors: pyometra, ovariectomy, hemostasis, laparoscopy, uterine diseases, dogs.

Misk, N.A. and S.M. Seleim (1991). Castration in dogs (a comparative study). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 26(51): 228-234. ISSN: 1012-5973.
NAL Call Number: SF604.A77
Descriptors: postoperative complications, veterinary surgery, castration techniques, dogs.
Language of Text: English; Summary in Arabic.

Mojzisova, J., R. Hromada, I. Valocky, S. Paulik, V. Hipikova, V. Bajova, S. Posivakova, and A. Bugarsky (2003). Effect of ovariohysterectomy on canine postsurgical leukocyte function. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 51(2): 219-227. ISSN: 0236-6290.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Ac83
Abstract: The effect of surgery on phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was studied in fourteen dogs. Simple ovariohysterectomy with anaesthesia induced by ketamine and xylazine or by ketamine, xylazine and halothane caused a short nonsignificant depression of phagocytic activity that persisted for four hours after surgery. Ingestion capacity of leukocytes decreased significantly immediately after surgery. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was depressed significantly in the first 48 hours and despite partial recovery this parameter did not reach the value of the control groups until the end of observation (7 days). A more conspicuous decrease of blastogenic response of blood lymphocytes to mitogens was found after the use of ketamine and xylazine in a dose maintaining anaesthesia. Anaesthesia with ketamine and xylazine in the lower dose and maintained with halothane resulted in a later improvement of the blastogenic response of lymphocytes.
Descriptors: dissociative anesthetics, dogs, halothane, hysterectomy, ketamine, leukocyte count, leukocytes, ovariectomy, phagocytosis, xylazine.

Muller, S.C., J.T. Hsieh, T.F. Lue, and E.A. Tanagho (1988). Castration and erection. An animal study. European Urology 15(1-2): 118-124. ISSN: 0302-2838.
Abstract: Castrated dogs (n = 3) need a much higher threshold level of energy to induce erection by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve than noncastrated animals (n = 24). In addition the resulting quality of erection, measured as maximal intracavernous pressure (pCC) versus peak systolic blood pressure (BP), was weaker in castrated dogs (pCC = 57% of BP on average) than in noncastrated dogs (pCC = 80% of BP on average). A high venous outflow from the corpora cavernosa in castrated dogs can also explain the shorter duration of erection. This experimental model excludes the interference of subjective factors, such as erotic stimuli and libido on erection, and it seems that androgen deficiency has a direct effect on the neurophysiology of the erectile tissues resulting in a higher tonus of the detumescence factors, which can be explained by an incomplete relaxation of the sinusoidal smooth muscle.
Descriptors: androgens physiology, orchiectomy, penile erection, penis physiology, dogs, electric stimulation.

Murphy, J.V. (1990). Methods of spaying. The Veterinary Record 127(8): 219-220. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: animals, dogs, female, female genitalia, ovariectomy.

Nassar, R. and J.E. Mosier (1982). Feline population dynamics: a study of the Manhattan, Kansas, feline population. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43(1): 167-70. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Analysis of the age-specific birth and survival rates and the age distribution in the pet population of cats in Manhattan, Kansas, revealed that the rate of population change (lambda) was about 1.18. This means that under present birth and death rates, the cat population can increase by about 18% per year. In reality, the increase may not be as high since pet ownership may not increase by as much. The frequency of spayed females of reproductive age in the Manhattan population was about 59%. This may not be sufficient to curb population growth. With the present age-specific survival rates, about 88% of the females should be spayed if the population is to remain stable. The ratio of people to cats in Manhattan was estimated to be 5.2:1. The average number of cats per household was 0.508. The percentage of households with cats was 28 with an average of 1.74 cats per household. In comparison, the average number of dogs per household was 0.43 and the percentage of households with dogs was 43 with an average of 1.36 dogs per household. The methods used in this study are useful for collecting and analyzing data to be used by governmental bodies and veterinarians concerned with proposals to regulate pet population growth and reproduction.
Descriptors: cats, castration veterinary, Kansas, longevity, mortality, population control, population dynamics.

Nassar, R., J.E. Mosier, and L.W. Williams (1984). Study of the feline and canine populations in the greater Las Vegas area. American Journal of Veterinary Research 45(2): 282-7. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Analysis of household dogs and cats, based on age-distribution data and on age-specific birth and survival rates, as well as on pet source, indicated that the dog and cat populations are stable and not increasing in size (lambda congruent to 1). Roaming dogs and cats euthanatized at the pound represented about 5.7% and 8.1% of the estimated dog and cat populations, respectively. The death at the pound seems to be effective in checking pet population growth. Among pets acquired, 84% were less than 1 year of age for dogs as compared with 88% for cats. Breeders and pet shops supplied about 7% of cats and 17% of dogs. About 10% of cats and 10% of dogs were acquired at the pound, while 6.4% of dogs and 14% of cats were acquired as stray. About 45% of dogs and 41% of cats were acquired from pet owners. Some dogs (12.46%) and cats (12%) were imported from outside the Las Vegas area. Of dogs and cats below 2 months of age, 33% and 19.5%, respectively, came from breeders or pet shops or were imported from outside the area. Seventeen percent of unspayed female dogs and 16% of unspayed female cats reproduced. The percentages of spayed females were 77 for dogs and 86 for cats. Forty-five percent of the dogs and 48% of the cats were males. Among dogs at the shelter, 2% were neutered and 26% spayed. At the pound, 24% of dogs were small breeds, 24% medium size breeds, and 52% large breeds.
Descriptors: cats, dogs, age factors, animals, domestic, castration, population control, population dynamics, questionnaires.

Nomura, K. and T. Makino (1997). Effect of ovariectomy in the early first half of the diestrus on induction or maintenance of canine deciduoma. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59(3): 227-230. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: The effect of ovariectomy in the early first half of the diestrus was examined on the induction or maintenance of suture-induced canine deciduoma. Ovariectomy immediately, or some days, after the insertion of suture had no effect on the induction or maintenance of deciduoma. Even when ovariectomy was performed within 4 days before insertion, deciduoma could be induced in spite of there being no ovary. However, when ovariectomy was done 4 or more days before suture insertion, the rate of deciduoma was decreased or no deciduoma was induced. These results indicate that the influence of the ovary on the endometrium may persist for at least 4 days after ovariectomy. Ovariectomy after the suture insertion had few effects. It is suggested that canine uterine glands in the early first half of the diestrus maintain a certain degree of self-proliferative ability even after ovariectomy, and thus canine deciduoma is not as dependent on the ovary that of the rodentia.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, body weight, cell division, decidua, diestrus, laparotomy, ovary, female, suture techniques.

Nurse, R.G. (1980). Spaying of bitches. The Veterinary Record 106(6): 134. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dogs, methods of castration, female, surgery.

Okkens, A.C. (1981). Ovario-hysterectomie bij de hond. [Ovariohysterectomy in dogs]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 106(22): 1129-1141. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: A brief introductory part is followed by a discussion of the age of the bitch and that stage of the oestrous cycle, during which ovariohysterectomy can best be performed. The various indications for ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy are reviewed. A number of important anatomical features are briefly referred to and the technique of ovariohysterectomy is described in detail. Attention is paid to a number of complications such as haemorrhage during or after operation and the escape of infected contents of the uterus into the abdominal cavity. Finally, the possible effects of ovariohysterectomy, such as a gain in weight, a change of character, incontinence of urine and the appearance of an infantile vulva associated with pruritus vulvae, are discussed.
Descriptors: age factors, animal behavior, methods of castration, body weight, postoperative complications, uterus, hysterectomy, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch; Summary in English.

Okkens, A.C., H.S. Kooistra, and R.F. Nickel (2002). Vergelijking van lange termijn effecten van ovariectomie versus ovariohysterectomie bij de teef. [Comparison of long term side effects of ovariectomy versus ovariohisterectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(11): 369-372. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: comparative study, dogs, female, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, reproductive sterilization, time factors, urinary incontinence.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Ozanne-Smith, J., K. Ashby, and V.Z. Stathakis (2001). Dog bite and injury prevention--analysis, critical review, and research agenda. Injury Prevention 7(4): 321-326. ISSN: 1353-8047.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To analyze Australian dog bite injury data and make international comparisons; to review risk and protective factors relating to the dog, injured person, and environment; and to recommend action for prevention and research. METHODS: Australian dog bite injury data, complemented by detailed Victorian and regional data from routine health records and vital statistics, were analyzed to determine incidence, severity, nature, circumstances, and trends. International comparison data were extracted from published reports. Risk and protective factor studies were selected for review from electronic and bibliographic searches where data were recent, sample sizes substantial, and bias limited. RESULTS: The Australian dog bite death rate (0.004/100,000) is lower than both the United States (0.05-0.07/100,000) and Canadian rates (0.007/100,000). Victorian hospitalized trend rates were stable between 1987 and 1998, but there was a decline for children <5 years (p=0.019) corresponding with a reduction in dog ownership. Children 0-4 years have the highest rate of serious injury, particularly facial. Adults have longer hospitalizations, most frequently for upper extremity injury. Risk factors include: child, males, households with dogs, certain breeds, male dogs, home location, and leashed dog. CONCLUSIONS: Dog bite rates are high and it may therefore be assumed that current preventative interventions are inadequate. Responsible dog ownership, including separating young children from dogs, avoiding high risk dogs, neutering, regulatory enforcement, and standardized monitoring of bite rates are required. Controlled investigations of further risk and protective factors, and validated methods of breed identification, are needed.
Descriptors: animals, Australia, bites, dogs, hospitalization, human, risk factors, responsible dog ownership.

Padley, R.J., D.B. Dixon, and W.J.R. Wu (2002). Effect of castration on endothelin receptors. Clinical Science 103(Suppl. 48): 442S-445S. ISSN: 0143-5221.
Descriptors: endocrine system, prostate cancer, neoplastic disease, reproductive system disease, male, urologic disease, castration, surgical methods, hormone ablation therapy.

Peters, M.A.J. and F.J.v. Sluijs (2002). Decision analysis tree for deciding whether to remove an undescended testis from a young dog. The Veterinary Record 150(13): 408-411. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dogs, testes, decision analysis, lifespan, risk factors, postoperative complications, cryptorchidism, surgical operations.

Philibert, J.C., P.W. Snyder, N. Glickman, L.T. Glickman, D.W. Knapp, and D.J. Waters (2003). Influence of host factors on survival in dogs with malignant mammary gland tumors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17(1): 102-106. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Descriptors: carcinoma, hormone secretion, mammary gland neoplasms, metastasis, mortality, neoplasms, obesity, ovariectomy, survival, dogs.

Pinto, C.R.F., D.L. Paccamonti, and B. Partington (2001). Theriogenology question of the month. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1343-1345. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: spermatic cord torsion, swollen testes, orchiectomy, surgical method, ultrasonography.

Pittaway, D.E. (1983). Inhibition of testosterone synthesis in the canine testis in vitro. Contraception 27(4): 431-436. ISSN: 0010-7824.
NAL Call Number: RG136.A1C6
Abstract: Testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17 beta-HOR) is one of the several enzymes necessary for the synthesis of testosterone, but is not required for either glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid synthesis. Since specific inhibition of the testicular enzyme has potential contraceptive and experimental uses, the inhibitory effect of twenty steroids on 17 beta-HOR activity was examined in microsomal preparations of canine testes. Six steroids inhibited testosterone formation, but only 4-estrene-3,17-dione (KI = 2.4 microM) and 5-androstene-3,17-dione (KI = 6.8 microM) had significant inhibitory activity. The data suggest the following molecular characteristics necessary for competitive inhibition of 17 beta-HOR activity: (a) requirement for 17-keto group, (b) relative requirement for 3-keto group, (c) decreased inhibition with unsaturation in position 5-6, and (d) marked loss of inhibitory activity with 6 beta-, 11 beta- or 19- hydroxylation, and A-ring aromatization.
Descriptors: 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, dogs, male, contraceptive potential, testosterone, inhibition of testicula enzyme.

Plah, S. (1990). Methods of spaying. [Correspondence]. The Veterinary Record 127(21): 531. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, gonadectomy, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system, postoperative complications.

Platt, S. (1990). Methods of spaying. The Veterinary Record 127(21): 531. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, female, megestrol, ovariectomy, vaginal diseases.

Power, S.C., K.E. Eggleton, A.J. Aaron, P.E. Holt, and P.J. Cripps (1998). Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the male dogs: importance of bladder neck position, proximal urethral length and castration. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 39(2): 69-72. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: dogs, urinary incontinence, sphincters, bladder, urethra, length, position, size, prostate, castration, physiopathology.

Renauld, A., I. Von Lawzewitsch, R.C. Sverdlik, R.L. Perez, R.R. Rodriguez, and V.G. Foglia (1988). On changes in pancreas cytomorphometry, serum insulin and metabolic adjustments induced by long term orchidectomy and substitutive therapy with testosterone in dogs. Acta Physiologica Et Pharmacologica Latinoamericana: Organo De La Asociacion Latinoamericana De Ciencias Fisiologicas y De La Asociacion Latinoamericana De Farmacologia 38(3): 345-361. ISSN: 0326-6656.
NAL Call Number: QP1.A27
Abstract: Mongrel, male, fasted, unanesthetized dogs under the following alternative treatments: 1) nil, 2) orchidectomy 4 months before the study, 3) orchidectomy 10 months in advance, 4) orchidectomy like in (3) followed by i.m. propylenglycol treatment, 0.05 ml/kg body wt./day, 15 days (vehicle controls, and 5) testosterone hemisuccinate in propylenglycol, 0.75 mg in 0.05 ml/kg body wt./day, for 15 days, were used in this study. Pancreas slices of animals of every group were stained with immunoperoxidase. The animals were fasted, anesthetized for pancreas removal. Pancreatic section mean absorbance was estimated in a Zeiss cytospectrophotometer with a coupled computer. Blood sugar (BS) and both serum, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acids (FFA) were assayed in these.
Descriptors: animal, blood glucose, dogs, fatty acids, insulin, orchiectomy, testosterone.

Ridyard, A.E., E.A. Welsh, and D.A. Gunn Moore (2000). Successful treatment of uterine torsion in a cat with severe metabolic and haemostatic complications. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2(2): 115-119. ISSN: 1098-612X.
NAL Call Number: SF985.J68
Abstract: A peri-parturient fifteen-month-old female Maine Coon cat was presented with extreme weakness and depression, profound hypovolaemia and hypothermia. Severe hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia and anaemia were detected. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected due to marked prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time. Uterine torsion was diagnosed at exploratory laparotomy. The cat made a full recovery following ovariohysterectomy and intensive supportive therapy.
Descriptors: pregnancy complications, uterine diseases, cat diseases, cats, fetal death, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, partial thromboplastin, torsion.

Robbins, M.A. and H.S. Mullen (1994). En bloc ovariohysterectomy as a treatment for dystocia in dogs and cats. Veterinary Surgery 23(1): 48-52. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: En bloc ovariohysterectomy, a technique that involves ovariohysterectomy before hysterotomy and removal of the neonates, was performed on 63 animals (37 dogs and 26 cats). Intraoperative complications were limited to 1 cat that bled excessively during surgery and was later found to have a clotting disorder. Postoperative complications included anemia that required blood transfusion in 3 cats, uroperitoneum in 1 dog, and death in 1 cat. The rate of neonatal survival (75% for dogs and 42% for cats) was similar to that documented by previous studies of medical and surgical management of dystocia. We concluded that en bloc ovariohysterectomy is a safe and effective alternative to cesarean section for surgical treatment of dystocia in dogs and cats.
Descriptors: dog diseases, cat diseases, reproductive disorders, surgery, postoperative complications, parturition complications, dystocia, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, dogs, cats.

Rubin, L.D. and D.C. Maplesden (1978). Ovariohysterectomy in dogs and cats. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 73(4): 467-471. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: methods of castration, cats, dogs, female, hysterectomy.

Salmeri, K., P. Olson, and M. Bloomberg (1991). Elective gonadectomy in dogs: A review. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1183-1192. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, castration, ovariectomy, age, sex hormones, biological development, skeleton, obesity, animal behavior, secondary sexual traits, urinary tract, anesthesia, disease resistance.

Santen, R.J., E. Samojlik, L. Demers, and E. Badder (1980). Adrenal of male dog secretes androgens and estrogens. American Journal Of Physiology 239(2): E109-E112. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: In the absence of functioning gonads, the adrenal is an important source of androgens and estrogens. In order to precisely quantitate the adrenal secretion rates of the sex steroids, we cannulated the adrenal veins and measured venous blood flow and arterial venous steroid gradients in adult male beagle dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia. Celite chromatography and specific radioimmunoassays were utilized to measure steroid levels. During basal conditions, the adrenal produced larger amounts of the androgens (667 ng/min of androstenedione, 5.45 ng/min of testosterone, and 3.43 ng/ min of dihydrotestosterone) than of the estrogens (1.245 ng/min of estradiol and 0.239 ng/min of estrone. These secretion rates were 20- to 50,000-fold less than that of cortisol (12,360 ng/min). Studies were also carried out during adrenal suppression with hydrocortisone to block ACTH release and with the adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitor, aminoglutethimide, plus hydrocortisone. The secretion rates of each androgen measured fell during ACTH inhibition. Significant suppression of estrone and estradiol, however, required addition of aminoglutethimide. This study provides direct evidence that the adrenal in the male dog can secrete estrogens, a previously controversial issue.
Descriptors: adrenal glands, androstenediols, androstenols, castration, dogs, drug therapy, estradiol, sex factors, testosterone, estrogens.

Schaefers-Okkens, A.C. and H.S. Kooistra (2002). Ovariectomie van de teef. [Ovariectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(19): 590-591. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: age factors, animals, dogs, estrus, female, adverse effects of ovariectomy.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Scott, K.C., J.K. Levy, S.P. Gorman, and S.M. Newell (2002). Body condition of feral cats and the effect of neutering. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(3): 203-213. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Considerable debate exists regarding the most appropriate methods for controlling feral cat populations, both from humane and logistical points of view. The physical condition of feral cats has not been reported, and it is not known if these cats benefit from neutering. This study investigates the body condition of feral cats by measuring body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS; Burkholder, 2000; Laflamme, Kealy, & Schmidt, 1994), and falciform fat pad. The study includes lateral abdominal radiographs taken at the time of neutering of 105 adult feral cats for measurement of falciform fat pad depth and area. At that time we also assessed BW and BCS. One year later we assessed the effects of neutering on body condition by evaluating a subsample of 14 cats. At the time of surgery, the cats were lean but not emaciated (BW 3.1 +/- 0.9 kg; BCS 4 +/- 1; based on a 1 to 9 scale ranging from 1 [emaciated] to 9 [grossly obese]). Falciform fat pad depth and area averaged 7.1 mm and 197.4 mm2, respectively, indicating a small amount of fat. Fourteen cats, reevaluated 1 year after neutering, increased 260% + 90% in falciform fat pad depth, 420% +/- 390% in fat pad area, 40% +/- 4% in BW, and 1 level in BCS ranking (1 to 9 scale; all differences p <.001). Similar to confined socialized cats, feral cats gained significant weight and body fat after neutering.
Descriptors: feral cat population control, castration, neutering, body condition score, adipose tissue, body weight.

Senn, R. (1981). Kastrierplattchen mit Spannbugel. [Castration device with tension plate for cats]. Kleintier-Praxis 26(5): 307. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: apparatus, techniques, surgical instruments, castration, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French, and Italian.

Shen, V., D.W. Dempster, R. Birchman, R.W.E. Mellish, E. Church, D. Kohn, and R. Lindsay (1992). Lack of changes in histomorphometric, bone mass, and biochemical parameters in ovariohysterectomized dogs. Bone 13(4): 311-316. ISSN: 8756-3282.
NAL Call Number: RC930.B65
Descriptors: osteopenia, ovaries, uterus, ablation, effects on, bone mass, histomorphometry, dogs, animal models, osteoporosis.

Shille, V.M. and G.H. Stabenfeldt (1980). Current concepts in reproduction of the dog and cat. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 24: 211-243. ISSN: 0065-3519.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Ad9
Descriptors: cats, dogs, contraception, estrus, artificial insemination, reproduction, ovulation, sexual behavior.

Shiroma, J.T., J.K. Gabriel, R.L. Carter, S.L. Scruggs, and P.W. Stubbs (1999). Effect of reproductive status on feline renal size. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 40(3): 242-245. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: cats, kidneys, length, width, radiography, sex differences, normal values, castration, ovariectomized females, male animals.

Sinowatz, F. (1984). Early changes in the dog prostate after castration. An ultrastructural study. [Fruehe Veraenderungen an der Prostata des Hundes nach Kastration. Eine feinstrukturelle Untersuchung]. Acta Anatomica 120(3): 103-107. ISSN: 0001-5180.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 Ac8Z
Abstract: Using electron microscopic techniques the prostate glands of male Beagle dogs were studied 3 days after castration. At this time marked differences in the extent of alterations of the glandular epithelium were observed: Whereas several acini showed only minor changes with reduction of epithelial height and diminution of secretory granules, many acini were severely affected with pronounced alteration of cellular structure and accumulation of large lipid droplets. A constant feature was the stimulation of the basal cells of the grandular epithelium. Additionally, in some areas of the gland aggregations of stimulated basal cells forming an acinus-like structure with a slit-like lumen were found. Our study shows that castration leads to marked alterations of prostatic epithelium within a short time. Androgen deprivation causes regressive changes of secretory epithelial cells, but clearly stimulates the basal cell population.
Descriptors: dogs, epithelium, male, electron microscopy, postoperative period, prostate, prostatectomy.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Sohst, S., E. Sohst, and W. Busch (2002). Erfahrungen bei der kastration von weiblichen katzen -- eine patientenstatistik. [Experiences in castration of female cats]. Kleintier-Praxis 47(9): 533-539. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: castration, diagnosis, healing, surgery, wounds, cats.

Sorenmo, K.U., F.S. Shofer, and M.H. Goldschmidt (2000). Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 14(3): 266-270. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Abstract: The risk of developing mammary gland tumors in dogs is significantly decreased by ovariohysterectomy at an early age. However, previous studies have not found a benefit to ovariohysterectomy concurrent with tumor removal in dogs with established mammary gland tumors, suggesting that the progression of these tumors is independent of continued estrogen stimulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spaying and of the timing of spaying on survival in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma. Signalment, spay status and spay age, tumor characteristics, treatment. survival, and cause of death of 137 dogs with mammary gland carcinoma were analyzed. The dogs were classified into 3 groups according to spay status and spay time: intact dogs, dogs spayed less than 2 years before tumor surgery (SPAY 1), and dogs spayed more than 2 years before their tumor surgery (SPAY 2). Dogs in the SPAY 1 group lived significantly longer than dogs in SPAY 2 and intact dogs (median survival of 755 days, versus 301 and 286 days, respectively, P = .02 and .03). After adjusting for differences between the spay groups with regard to age, histologic differentiation, and vascular invasion, SPAY 1 dogs survived 45% longer compared to dogs that were either intact or in the SPAY 2 group (RR = .55; 95% CI .32-.93; P = .03). This study reveals ovariohysterectomy to be an effective adjunct to tumor removal in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma and that the timing of ovariohysterectomy is important in influencing survival.
Descriptors: dog diseases, hysterectomy, mammary neoplasms, animal mortality, ovariectomy, disease progression, dogs, animal surgery, epidemiology, retrospective studies, survival analysis, time factors.

Spain, C.V., J.M. Scarlett, and S.M. Cully (2002). When to neuter dogs and cats: a survey of New York state veterinarians' practices and beliefs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38(5): 482-488. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: veterinarians, small animal practice, cats, dogs, castration, ovariectomy, age, surveys, New York.

Tivers, M.S., T.R.D. Travis, R.V. Windsor, and A. Hotston Moore (2002). Castration of the dog: a comparison of methods currently employed in practice with those taught at the UK veterinary schools. Journal of Small Animal Practice 43(8): 364. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Clinical research abstract presented at the 45th British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Birmingham, UK, April 4-7, 2002.
Descriptors: castration, veterinary schools, veterinary practice, questionnaire, meeting abstract.

Tivers, M.S., T.R.D. Travis, R.V. Windsor, and A. Hotston Moore (2002). Ovariohysterectomy in the bitch: a comparison of methods currently employed in practice with those taught at UK veterinary schools. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 43(8): 364. ISBN.
NAL Call Number:41.8 J8292
Abstract: Clinical research abstract presented at the 45th British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Birmingham, UK, April 4-7, 2002.
Descriptors: veterinary schools, veterinary medicine, urinary incontinence, questionnaires, castration, ovariohysterectomy, meeting abstract.

Vannozzi, I., C. Benetti, and A. Rota (2002). Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in a cat. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 4(4): 201-203. ISSN: 1098-612X.
NAL Call Number: SF985.J68
Abstract: Several techniques for castration of cryptorchid cats have been described. In this case report, the use of laparoscopy for castration of a bilateral cryptorchid cat (with testes located in the abdomen) is described. Three trocars were inserted into the abdominal cavity, the testicles were easily identified adjacent to the urinary bladder. Haemostasis of the gubernaculum testis and spermatic cord was achieved with bipolar cauterisation. The testicles were easily removed in approximately 20 min. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of the use of laparoscopy for the treatment of cryptorchidism in cats.
Descriptors: laparoscopic castration, cryptorchidism, cats, orchiectomy methods.

Verwer, M.A. (1980). Sterilisatie hond (II). [Sterilization of dogs. II.]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 105(6): 251. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: animals, dogs, reproductive sterilization.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Volpe, P., B. Izzo, M. Russo, and L. Iannetti (2001). Intrauterine device for contraception in dogs. The Veterinary Record 149(3): 77-79. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A new intrauterine device for contraception was tested on nine bitches. After it had been implanted, the bitches were mated but none of them became pregnant. Over a two-year period no side effects were observed, except in a bulldog bitch in which signs of oestrus persisted until the device had been removed.
Descriptors: contraception, intrauterine devices, dogs.

White, R.A. (2001). Ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 15: 667.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: bitches, cats, ovariectomy, hysterectomy.

Wildt, D.E. and S.W. Seager (1977). Reproduction control in dogs. The Veterinary Clinics of North America 7(4): 775-787. ISSN: 0091-0279.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: castration, contraception, contraceptive devices, dogs, estrus, hysterectomy, immunization, megestrol, nandrolone, ovulation, tubal sterilization, vasectomy.

Wilson, G.P. (1975). Symposium on surgical techniques in small animal practice. Surgery of the male reproductive tract. The Veterinary Clinics of North America 5(3): 537-550. ISSN: 0091-0279.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: anal gland neoplasms, biopsy, castration, cryptorchidism, dogs, hernia, vasectomy, prostatectomy, male genitalia.

Wilson, G.P. and H.M. Hayes Jr. (1983). Ovariohysterectomy in the dog and cat. In: M.J. Bojrab (editor), Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery, 2nd edition, Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia, PA, p. 334-351. ISBN: 0812108620.
NAL Call Number: SF991.C87 1983
Descriptors: anaesthesia, postoperative complications, caesarean section, hysterectomy, surgery, dogs, cats.

Zielonka, T.M., D. Charpin, P. Berbis, P. Luciani, D. Casanova, and D. Vervloet (1994). Effects of castration and testosterone on Fel dI production by sebaceous glands of male cats: I--Immunological assessment. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 24(12): 1169-1173. ISSN: 0954-7894.
Abstract: Fel dI is produced by salivary and sebaceous glands. Hormonal control of sebum production is clearly established. The influence of cat castration and supplementary treatment with testosterone on the production of sebum and Fel dI in cat skin have been researched in this study. On day 1, 12 male cats were anaesthetized and three skin areas carefully shaven. Then the level of lipids on skin surface was measured by means of a photometric method. Finally, the three areas of skin were washed with 5ml of distilled water through a plastic cylinder. Fel dI collected in the washes was measured with a two-site monoclonal antibody based ELISA. On day 2, six cats were castrated, the other six were used as a control group. Two and 4 weeks later, the levels of lipids and Fel dI in skin washes were measured again in all cats. On day 30, the six castrated cats were injected intramuscularly with prolonged-action testosterone. Two weeks later, quantification of lipids and Fel dI in all animals was repeated. Sebum and Fel dI levels decreased in all castrated animals. Injecting the castrated cats with testosterone led to a significant increase in sebum and Fel dI production. Our findings indicate that Fel dI production is influenced by the production of hormones.
Descriptors: allergens, animals, monoclonal antibodies, castration, cats, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, glycoproteins, sebaceous glands.

 

 

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