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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Pet Population Control  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
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Pet Population Control

Anonymous (1991). AVMA recommends steps to control pet population. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1113. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, population control, societies, scientific, veterinary medicine.

Anonymous (1974). Conclusions and recommendations from the National Conference on the Ecology of the Surplus Dog and Cat Problem. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165(4): 363-370. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, oral contraceptives, dogs, euthanasia, hysterectomy, veterinary, population control, sterilization.

Anonymous (2001). Early castration and ID marking is a good way of dealing with the problem of stray cats. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(11): 726-727. ISSN: 0029-2773.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N81
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal welfare, castration, identification, professional ethics, stray animals.

Anonymous (1991). Pet overpopulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1151-243. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, animals, domestic, population control, population density.

Anonymous (1974). The rising surplus of dogs and cats. Modern Veterinary Practice 55(8): 614-618. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: domestic animals, castration, cats, contraceptive agents, contraceptive devices, dogs, hysterectomy, population growth.

Anonymous (1973). Spay clinics: the other side of the story. Modern Veterinary Practice 54(4): 29-34. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, dogs, population control, societies, reproductive sterilization.

Anonymous (1997). Spay Day USA: controversy eclipses mutual pursuit. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(12): 1495-1497. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: veterinarians role, Doris Day Animal League, pet overpopulation, humane groups, veterinary community, interviews.

Anonymous (1976). Summary and conclusions: National Conference on Dog and Cat Control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 168(12): 1125-1134. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, breeding, castration, physiology of cats, contraceptive agents, dogs, veterinary legislation, Megestrol, population control, pregnancy, psychology, public health, sterilization, vasectomy, zoonoses.

Anderson, D.G. (1992). The control of pet overpopulation. Veterinary Technician 13(2): 119-123, 128. ISSN: 8750-8990.
NAL Call Number: SF406.A5
Descriptors: spaying, neutering, contraceptives, castration, dogs, cats, overpopulation, reproductive physiology, responsible ownership.

Arkow, P. (1991). Animal control laws and enforcement. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1164-1172. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, population control, population density, United States.

Barrows, P.L. (2002). Final letters for now on feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1547. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal care, euthanasia, neutering, sterilization, vaccination, depopulation, free ranging cat problem, pet adoption, public health, sanctuaries, trap-neuter-return program.

Bouw, J. (1972). Manipulaties met populaties [Manipulations with populations]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 97(6): 365-376. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: domestic animals, population dynamics, population control, The Netherlands.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Bradshaw, J.W.S., G.F. Horsfield, J.A. Allen, and I.H. Robinson (1999). Feral cats: their role in the population dynamics of Felis catus. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(3): 273-283. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior , population studies, neutering, nutrient requirements, population dynamics, reproductive success, scavenging, sociability.

Cabannes, A., F. Lucchese, H. Pelse, N. Biesel, M. Eymonnot, and M. Appriou (2000). Castration and feline Borreliosis in Gironde. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 151(10): 949-954. ISSN: 0035-1555.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R32
Descriptors: antibodies, castration, epidemiology, males, females, borreliosis.

Carter, C.N. (1990). Pet population control: another decade without solutions? Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197(2): 192-195. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: domestic animals, cats, dogs, contraception, ovariectomy, orchiectomy, hysterectomy, population control.

Castillo, D. and A.L. Clarke (2003). Trap/neuter/release methods ineffective in controlling domestic cat "colonies" on public lands. Natural Areas Journal 23(3): 247-253. ISSN: 0885-8608.
NAL Call Number: QH76.N37
Descriptors: pest assessment control and management, wildlife management, capture-recapture technique, neutering, photography, trapping, cat colonies, pet management, public lands, release methods.

Centonze, L.A. and J.K. Levy (2002). Characteristics of free-roaming cats and their caretakers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(11): 1627-1633. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of unowned, free-roaming cats and their caretakers who participated in a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program and to determine the effect of the program on free-roaming cat colonies. DESIGN: Prospective study. SAMPLE POPULATION: 101 caretakers of 920 unowned, free-roaming cats in 132 colonies in north central Florida. RESULTS: Most (85/101; 84%) caretakers were female. The median age was 45 years (range, 19 to 74 years). Most (89/101; 88%) caretakers owned pets and of those, most (67/101; 66%) owned cats. The major reasons for feeding free-roaming cats were sympathy and love of animals. Most caretakers reported that the cats they cared for were too wild to be adopted, but many also reported that they considered the cats to be like pets. The total surveyed cat population was 920 before participation in TNR and 678 after TNR. Mean colony size was 7 cats before TNR and 5.1 cats after TNR. Most cats lived on the caretaker's property. At the time of the survey, 70% (644/920) of the cats had been neutered. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The decrease in the surveyed free-roaming cat population was attributed to a reduction in births of new kittens, adoptions, deaths, and disappearances. Recognition of the human-animal bond that exists between caretakers and the feral cats they feed may facilitate the development of effective control programs for feral cat populations.
Descriptors: trap-neuter-return program, cats, caregivers, castration, human-animal bond, population control, quality of life, questionnaires.

Chassy, L.M. (2003). Discussions on TNR programs continue. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(6): 712; author reply 712. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, veterinary surgery, castration, cats, demography, euthanasia, female, male, population control, population dynamics, reproduction.

Chatterjee, S.N. and A.B. Kar (1968). Chemical sterilization of stray dogs. Indian Veterinary Journal 45(8): 649-654. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: animals, cadmium, dogs, male, sterilization, testis.

Clifton, M. (1998). Animal populations may not be out of control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(5): 603. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, cats, population control, United States.

Eze, C.A. and M.C. Eze (2002). Castration, other management practices and socio-economic implications for dog keepers in Nsukka area, Enugu state, Nigeria. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 55(4): 273-280. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call Number: SF601.P7
Descriptors: animal husbandry, castration, dog keeping practices, socio-economics.

Fayrer-Hosken, R.A., H.D. Dookwah, and C.I. Brandon (2000). Immunocontrol in dogs. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61: 365-373. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Abstract: Population control in dogs and cats is an important goal for many groups. Control measures over the years has included surgery, hormonal therapy and more recently immunological control. The current presentation discusses dog population control with an emphasis on immunologic control. Specifically, vaccination with purified zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins leads initially to immunocontraception and then to the profound and irreversible changes of immunosterilization. The preliminary studies are extremely encouraging on developing a vaccine for lasting canine population control.
Descriptors: dogs, egg proteins, membrane glycoproteins, population control, methods of sterilization, vaccination.

Fox, M.W. (1990). Pet population control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197(6): 682. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, contraception, population control.

Fredrickson, L.E. (1975). Solve the pet population crisis with pet planning programs. Modern Veterinary Practice 56(2): 93-95. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, population control, public relations, television.

Gibson, K.L., K. Keizer, and C. Golding (2002). A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 43(9): 695-698. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: cats, kittens, trapping, stray animals, gonadectomy, vaccination, release, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, population control.

Goeree, G. (1998). A different approach to controlling the cat population. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 39(4): 242-243. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: animal welfare, cats, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, methods of population control, economics of sterilization.

Griffin, B. (2001). Prolific cats: the impact of their fertility on the welfare of the species. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 23(12): 1058-1069. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: cats, female animals, parturition, parturition complications, colostral immunity, contraception, immunization, GnRH, zona pellucida, ovariectomy, overpopulation, animal welfare, ovariohysterectomy, feral cats.

Gunther, I. and J. Terkel (2002). Regulation of free-roaming cat (Felis silvestris catus) populations: a survey of the literature and its application to Israel. Animal Welfare 11(2): 171-188. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: cats, animal welfare, urban environment, population control, gonadectomy, sterilization, literature reviews.

Hazard, H.E. and J.I. Freeman (1997). Spay Day USA: controversy eclipses mutual pursuit. Interview by Susan C. Kahler. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(12): 1495-1497. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, castration, cats, dogs, veterinarians.

Heussner, J.C. and W.E. Grant (1978). Ecological aspects of urban dog management: a simulation model. Animal Regulation Studies 1(4): 355-374. ISSN: 0378-4282.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A52
Descriptors: canine population control, pets, stray dogs, animal shelters, simulation, management schemes, neutering, public education for proper pet ownership.

Hsu YuYing , L.L. Severinghaus, and J.A. Serpell (2003). Dog keeping in Taiwan: its contribution to the problem of free-roaming dogs. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(1): 1-23. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: survey, dog ownership practices, rates of neutering, behavioral problems, dogs, religious and cultural taboos, childhood experiences, stray dogs, low cost neutering, shelter relinquishment, Taiwan.

Hughes, K.L. and M.R. Slater (2002). Implementation of a feral cat management program on a university campus. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(1): 15-28. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: In August 1998, Texas AM University implemented on campus a trap-test-vaccinate-alter-return-monitor (TTVARM) program to manage the feral cat population. TTVARM is an internationally recognized term for trapping and neutering programs aimed at management of feral cat populations. In this article we summarize results of the program for the period August 1998 to July 2000. In surgery laboratories, senior veterinary students examined cats that were humanely trapped once a month and tested them for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus infections, vaccinated, and surgically neutered them. They euthanized cats testing positive for either infectious disease. Volunteers provided food and observed the cats that were returned to their capture sites on campus and maintained in managed colonies. The program placed kittens and tame cats for adoption; cats totaled 158. Of the majority of 158 captured cats, there were less kittens caught in Year 2 than in Year 1. The proportion of tame cats trapped was significantly greater in Year 2 than in Year 1. The prevalence found for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus ELISA test positives was 5.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Following surgery, 101 cats returned to campus. The project recaptured, retested, and revaccinated more than one-fourth of the cats due for their annual vaccinations. The program placed 32 kittens, juveniles, and tame adults for adoption. The number of cat complaints received by the university's pest control service decreased from Year 1 to Year 2.
Descriptors: feral cat population control, animal welfare, castration, population dynamics, veterinary students, euthanasia, vaccination.

Hughes K.L., Slater M.R., and Haller L. (2002). The effects of implementing a feral cat spay/neuter program in a Florida county animal control service. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(4): 285-298. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: euthanasia, ovariectomy, population control.

Jessup, D.A., P.L. Barrows, L. Winter, and C.M. Storts (2003). TNR debates still active. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(9): 1254-1255; author reply 1255-1256. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, California, castration, cats, euthanasia, methods of population control.

Jochle, W. (1991). Pet population control in Europe. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1225-30. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, Europe, population control.

Jochle, W. (1974). [Progress in small animal reproductive physiology, therapy of reproductive disorders, and pet population control]. Folia Veterinaria Latina 4(4): 706-731. ISSN: 0301-0724.
NAL Call Number: SF604.F62
Descriptors: castration, cats, chlormadinone acetate, contraceptive agents, dogs, estrogens, estrus, luteinizing hormone, ovulation, population control, progesterone, progestins, prostaglandins, prostatic hyperplasia, pseudopregnancy, reproduction, sexual behavior.
Language of Text: English and Italian.

Josa J.M. and P. del Canizo (1999). Population control programme [for pet species]. Medicina Veterinaria 16(12): 583-586. ISSN: 0212-8292.
Descriptors: castration, ovariectomy, gonadectomy, sterilization, animal welfare.

Kalz B. and K.M. Scheibe (2001). Verwilderte Hauskatzen in einem Untersuchungsgebiet in Berlin-Mitte -- Populationsbiologie und Einfluss der Kastration. [Feral cats in a study area of the Berlin city -- population biology and influence of castration]. In: Aktuelle Arbeiten zur artgemassen Tierhaltung. Vortrage anlasslich der 32. Internationalen Arbeitstagung Angewandte Ethologie bei Nutztieren der Deutschen Veterinarmedizinischen Gesellschaft e. V. Fachgruppe Verhaltensforschung,Freiburg-Breisgau, Kuratorium fur Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL): Darmstadt; Germany. Vol. 403, p. 145-152.
Descriptors: castration, urban areas, vermin, vertebrate pests.

Koltveit, A.J. (1991). Pet overpopulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1151-1243. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: overpopulation, pets, companion animals, USA, Europe, veterinary ethics, control laws and enforcement, animal shelters, euthanasia, spaying, neutering, effects of gonadectomy on growth and behavior, termination of pregnancy, epidemiological surveys.

Koltveit, A.J. (1973). Toward more responsible pet ownership. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 162(6): 434 passim. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, veterinary legislation, population control, reproductive sterilization, veterinary medicine, United States.

Kuehn, B.M. (2002). Pros, cons of feral and free-ranging cat management debated. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(6): 759, 761-2. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, castration, cat diseases, predatory behavior, veterinarians, zoonoses.

Lane, D.M. (1998). Solution to pet overpopulation may involve change in perspective. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(1): 26. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, population density, sexual behavior, reproductive sterilization.

Lein, D.H. (1978). Small animal reproductive problems. Cornell Veterinarian 68(Suppl 7): 261-267. ISSN: 0010-8901.
Abstract: Reproductive problems in the dog and cat are an important segment of the total case load in many veterinary practices. The interest in pet population control, estrus control, artificial insemination and planned pregnancies of pets as well as the advanced knowledge and technology in immunology, microbiology, pathology, physiology and related sciences are expanding the knowledge concerning pet reproduction. The use of radioimmunoassays (RIA) to detect minute amounts of hormones in the serum or plasma of animals has given the physiologist a precise biological measuring stick. As hormone testing laboratories become available, the RIA will become a valuable aide to the veterinary clinician, clients and their pets in diagnosing and possibly preventing or treating reproductive disorders. Knowledge of the normal canine and feline reproductive physiology, pathogenesis of reproductive disorders and a thorough history, genital tract examination, collection and examination of specimens for diagnosis and realistic treatments are all fundamental to a successful management of these disorders.
Descriptors: animals, cats, dogs, pregnancy, reproduction.

Levy, J. (2002). Feral cats: controversies and controls. In: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference: Small Animal and Exotics,Orlando, FL, Eastern States Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, FL, Vol. 16, p. 417-420.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: cats, stray animals, overpopulation, population control, sterilization.

Levy, J.K., D.W. Gale, and L.A. Gale (2003). Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(1): 42-46. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return program, with adoption whenever possible, on the dynamics of a free-roaming cat population. DESIGN: Observational epidemiologic study. ANIMALS: 155 unowned free-roaming cats. PROCEDURES: Free-roaming cats residing on a university campus were trapped, neutered, and returned to the environment or adopted over an 11-year period. RESULTS: During the observation period (January 1991 to April 2002), 75% of the cats were feral, and 25% were socialized. Kittens comprised 56% of the original population. Male cats were slightly more numerous (55%) than females. At the conclusion of the observation period, 47% of the cats had been removed for adoption, 15% remained on site, 15% had disappeared, 11% were euthanatized, 6% had died, and 6% had moved to the surrounding wooded environment. Trapping began in 1991; however, a complete census of cats was not completed until 1996, at which time 68 cats resided on site. At completion of the study in 2002, the population had decreased by 66%, from 68 to 23 cats (of which 22 were feral). No kittens were observed on site after 1995, but additional stray or abandoned cats continued to become resident. New arrivals were neutered or adopted before they could reproduce. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A comprehensive long-term program of neutering followed by adoption or return to the resident colony can result in reduction of free-roaming cat populations in urban areas.
Descriptors: trap-neuter-return programs, feral cat populations, castration, population control, population dynamics, euthansia, adoption.

Levy, J.K. (2002). Final letters for now on feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1547. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal care, pest assessment, euthanasia, neutering, animal shelters, free roaming population, human-animal bond, pet adoption, trap-neuter-return program.

Lieberman, L.L. (1991). Retirement brings strong voice to pet overpopulation issue. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1132-1139. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, autobiography, food inspection, history of medicine, population control, portraits, United States, veterinary medicine, veterinary service.

Lillich, R.K. (2000). More on ear cropping and neutering. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(2): 174-175. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: age factors, animal welfare, castration, cats, dogs, female, male, population control.

Lord, L.K., T.E. Wittum, C.A. Neer, and J.C. Gordon (1998). Demographic and needs assessment survey of animal care and control agencies. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(4): 483-487. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: legislation, questionnaires, vaccination, veterinary services, wildlife, animal welfare, cats, dogs.

Mahlow, J.C. and M.R. Slater (1996). Current issues in the control of stray and feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(12): 2016-2020. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare legislation, human-animal bond, cats, euthanasia, female, population control, population density, sterilization.

McDonald, M. (1980). Contraceptives for feral cats. The Veterinary Record 106(18-20): 418. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: animal population groups, feral cats, oral contraceptives, population control, poisoning.

Miller, R.M. (1971). The pet population explosion: where do we stand? Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 66(12): 1152. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: cats, dogs, population control, reproduction, United States.

Moulton, C., P. Wright, and K. Rindy (1991). The role of animal shelters in controlling pet overpopulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1172-1176. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: adoption, animal welfare, euthanasia, dogs, cats, orchiectomy, nonprofit organizations, pet population control, United States.

Nassar, R. and J. Fluke (1991). Pet population dynamics and community planning for animal welfare and animal control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1160-1164. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, cats, dogs, veterinary euthanasia, statistical models, population control, population dynamics.

Neidhart, L. and R. Boyd (2002). Companion animal adoption study. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(3): 175-192. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: behavior, philosophy and ethics, neutering, spaying, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, adopt-a-thon, age differences, animal shelter, companion animal adoption, compatibility, counseling, education health, mortality, personality, pet retention, veterinary care.

Neville, P.F. and J. Remfry (1984). Effect of neutering on two groups of feral cats. The Veterinary Record 114(18): 447-450. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Two colonies of urban feral cats were subjected to a programme of population control by trapping, neutering and returning to site. The behaviour of individual cats and the stability of the groups was studied before and after the programme, which was then assessed in terms of its humaneness and effectiveness as a means of control. The method was satisfactory on both counts and may be recommended for controlling feral cat colonies where the welfare of the cats can be assured after their return.
Descriptors: animal behavior, castration, cats, feeding behavior, social behavior, physical restraint, population control.

Olson, P.N. (2000). Controlling pet overpopulation: new studies shed new light; new sterilants being developed. In: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference: Small Animal and Exotics Edition,Orlando, FL, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, FL, Vol. 14, p. 656.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: companion animal surplus, National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy, research, age of relinquishment, shelter survey.

Olson, P.N. and S.D. Johnston (1993). Animal welfare forum: Overpopulation of unwanted dogs and cats. New developments in small animal population control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(6): 904-909. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: induced abortion, cats, contraceptive trends, dogs, population control.

Olson, P.N. and C. Moulton (1993). Pet (dog and cat) overpopulation in the United States. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 47: 433-438. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: Over half of all United States (US) households own a dog or cat. The veterinary profession can now provide health care for dogs and cats of affluent or devoted owners that rivals the health care offered many human patients. Unfortunately, as many pets receive medical and surgical care that becomes increasingly sophisticated, other pets in the US receive no veterinary care at all. Additionally, millions of pets are humanely killed in US animal shelters because owners are not committed to the continual responsibilities of pet care. Although the total dog and cat population is unknown in the US, as is the total number of pets killed, estimates suggest that between one-tenth and one-quarter of the entire US pet population is destroyed annually because of a surplus dog and cat problem. Pet overpopulation is attributable to relinquishment and abandonment, as well as to birth rates; thus, veterinarians must strive to reduce pet overpopulation by not only curbing reproduction, but also by decreasing the major cause of pet death in the US (i.e. humane killing). Thus, the veterinary profession must take a prominent role in the campaign to prevent the deaths of healthy animals for whom homes cannot be found, just as it has done to prevent the deaths of sick animals that do have homes.
Descriptors: animal rights, domestic animals, cats, dogs, contraception, population control, population density, reproductive sterilization.

Olson, P.N., C. Moulton, T.M. Nett, and M.D. Salman (1991). Pet overpopulation: a challenge for companion animal veterinarians in the 1990s. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1151-1152. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: domestic animals, population control, population density, veterinary medicine trends.

Olson, P.N., T.M. Nett, R.A. Bowen, R.P. Amann, H.R. Sawyer, T.A. Gorell, G.D. Niswender, B.W. Pickett, and R.D. Phemister (1986). A need for sterilization, contraceptives, and abortifacients: abandoned and unwanted pets. I. Current methods of sterilizing pets. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 8(2): 87-90,92. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: contraception, pet overpopulation, ovariectomy, castration, dogs, cast, abortion

Patronek, G.J., A.M. Beck, and L.T. Glickman (1997). Dynamics of dog and cat populations in a community. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(5): 637-642. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe dynamics of the pet dog and cat populations in a single community in terms of reproductive patterns and turnover. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, random-digit dial telephone survey. SAMPLE POPULATION: Information gathered from 1,272 households in St Joseph County, Ind that owned a dog or cat between Dec 1, 1993 and Nov 30, 1994 was compared with data on 9,571 dogs and cats received by the Humane Society of St Joseph County during the same period. RESULTS: Prevalence of pet ownership was lower than expected, compared with consumer panel surveys. Eight hundred forty-three of 1,335 (63.1%) dogs were neutered, compared with 816 of 1,023 (79.8%) cats. Cost was cited as a reason that 35 of 441 (7.9%) dogs and 34 of 132 (25.8%) cats were not neutered. Only 33 of 968 (3.4%) dog-owning households reported that their dog had had a litter during the past year, whereas 52 of 662 (7.9%) cat-owning households reported their cat had had a litter of kittens. Most cat litters were unplanned, whereas two thirds of dog litters were planned. Annual turnover in owned pets was 191 of 1,354 (14.1%) dogs and 194 of 1,056 (18.4%) cats. Pet owners underreported relinquishing pets to a shelter in the telephone survey. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: A combination of animal shelter- and human population-based data are needed to describe pet population dynamics in a community. Information about species-specific reproductive patterns is essential in designing population control programs.
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, breeding, castration, cats, data collection, dogs, income, population dynamics.

Reed, D. (1986). Pet overpopulation: more spay/neuter efforts underway. Shelter Sense 9(5): 1-2, 11-15. ISSN: 0734-3078.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.S43
Descriptors: cat, animals, pets, population control, spaying.

Reed, D. (1986). Pet overpopulation: spay/neuter efforts continue to reduce animal births. Shelter Sense 9(3): 1-2, 11-15. ISSN: 0734-3078.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.S43
Descriptors: dogs, animal welfare, pet animals, population control, spaying.

Rowan, A.N. (1991). What we need to learn from epidemiologic surveys pertaining to pet overpopulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1233-1236. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, demography, epidemiologic methods, population control, population density, United States.

Rowan, A.N. and J. Williams (1987). The success of companion animal management programs: a review. Anthrozoos 1(2): 110-122. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: dogs, cat, shelter, population control, spaying, animal husbandry, programs, surveys, United States, neuter program.

Samuelson, M.L. (1973). Spay clinics and pet population control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 162(12): 1061-1064. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, costs and cost analysis, dogs, fees and charges, legislation, population control, veterinary medicine.

Scarlett, J.M., M.D. Salman, J.G. New, and P.H. Kass (2002). The role of veterinary practitioners in reducing dog and cat relinquishments and euthanasias. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(3): 306-311. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: veterinarians, roles, dogs, cats, euthanasia, behavior problems, counseling, gonadectomy.

Scott, K.C., J.K. Levy, and P.C. Crawford (2002). Characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(8): 1136-1138. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 5,323 free-roaming cats. PROCEDURE: Data collected included sex, maturity, pregnancy status, number of fetuses per pregnancy, cryptorchidism, and occurrence of complications or euthanasia. RESULTS: Adult cats represented 85% of the population, and 57% were female. Overall, 19% of adult females were pregnant, and mean litter size was 3.6 fetuses. Pregnancy rate peaked at 36 to 47% of all females evaluated in March and April and decreased to < or = 4% from October through January. Cryptorchidism was observed in 1.9% of the males; 0.4% of the adult females had pyometra. Only 1.9% of the cats were already neutered. Euthanasia and unexpected death rates were 0.4 and 0.3%, respectively. The most common severe problems encountered included pyometra, neoplasia, surgical complications, diaphragmatic hernia, debilitation, and chronic inflammatory diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Neutering programs for free-roaming cats should include preparations to perform more spays than castrations. Typically, almost half of the female cats trapped during spring will be pregnant. Cryptorchidism is uncommon but is encountered on a consistent basis, so care should be taken to differentiate previous castration from retained testicles. Euthanasia of debilitated cats for humane reasons is rarely necessary, and unexpected deaths occur at a low rate. It is feasible and safe to neuter large numbers of free-roaming cats in large-scale clinics.
Descriptors: trap-neuter-return program, cats, pregnancy rate, castration, neutering program, cryptorchidism, population control, euthanasia, spay-neuter clinics.

Selby, L.A., J.D. Rhoades, J.E. Hewett, and J.A. Irvin (1979). A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership. Public Health Rep 94(4): 380-386. ISSN: 0033-3549.
Abstract: The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered.
Descriptors: adolescent, adult, aged, attitude, child, female, health, human, legislation, male, middle aged, population control, social responsibility.

Sleeman, J.M. (2003). Additional input on feral cat debate. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(12): 1729-1730; author reply 1730. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: domestic animals, human-pet bonding, cats, female, male, pest control, population control methods.

Sorich, T.J. (1976). Reduced cost for surgical-neutering programs. In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Dog and Cat Control,Denver, CO, American Humane Association: Denver, CO, p. 204-219.
NAL Call Number: SF413.N37 1976
Descriptors: bitches, cat, spaying, surgery, programs, costs, cost-benefit analysis, USA.

Stockner, P.K. (1991). The economics of spaying and neutering: market forces and owners' values affecting pet population control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1180-1182. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, cats, costs and cost analysis, dogs, female, male, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, population control, veterinary medicine economics.

Storts, C.M. (2003). Discussions on TNR programs continue. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(6): 710; 712. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: wildlife management, euthanasia, animal population control, public health risk, trap-neuter-return programs, wildlife losses.

Thornton, G.W. (1992). The welfare of excess animals: status and needs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200(5): 660-662. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, cats, dogs, euthanasia, female, hysterectomy, male, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, population control, population density.

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (1981). Feral cats: notes for veterinary surgeons. The Veterinary Record 108(14): 301-303. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Feral cats are usually difficult to handle. In order to neuter or treat them they should be trapped and immobilised by injection of an agent such as ketamine. This is easier to do if the cat is in a squeeze-back container. Once immobilised, clinical examination, general anaesthesia or euthanasia are straightforward. If the cat is to be ovariohysterectomised, absorbable suture materials and long-acting antibiotics should be used so that recapture will be unnecessary. In colony control schemes all cats left on site should be neutered, marked for identification, vaccinated against feline infectious enteritis with a single dose live vaccine and wormed regularly.
Descriptors: anesthesia, animals, cats, immobilization, euthanasia, veterinary surgery, ovariohysterectomy, neutering.

Weissinger, J. and D. McRae (1991). FDA fast-tracking of pet population control drugs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1231-1233. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Theriogenologists have been studying estrus prevention and termination of pregnancy in dogs for at least 2 decades. However, drugs approved for estrus suppression are few. No dog or cat abortifacients or male dog and cat sterilants have been approved. Marketed drugs with alternate indications that have antiestrus and antihormonal activity might be good candidates for study after obtaining an INAD from FDA. With the support of the original drug sponsor or manufacturer and appropriate safety and effectiveness studies, these products may be studied for additional label claims. New (not previously approved) drugs additionally need detailed information regarding the synthesis and manufacturing controls. Drugs offering substantial benefit over existing therapeutics may be eligible for expedited review. Prior to starting any studies in this area, clinical investigators and sponsors should communicate with FDA, an INAD must be granted, and the protocol submitted for evaluation. Approvability is evaluated after establishment of safety and effectiveness in clinical field trials.
Descriptors: abortifacient agents, cats, dogs, drug and narcotic control, estrus, female, population control, United States Food and Drug Administration.

Williams, B.A. (2002). Final letters for now on feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1547-1548. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal care, pest assessment, euthanasia, neutering, population growth, population reduction, resource competition, trap-neuter-return program.

Williams, J.L. (1988). Successful spay and neuter programs across the U.S. Shelter Sense 11(5): 7-9. ISSN: 0734-3078.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.S43
Descriptors: dogs, cat, animal welfare, population control, spaying, programs, USA.

Wolff, E.E. (2002). Final letters for now on feral cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1548. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal care, pest assessment, euthanasia, neutering, long term population reduction, trap-neuter-return programs.

Young, W.A. (1980). The surplus animal problem can be solved. Modern Veterinary Practice 61(6): 485-487. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: cats, dogs, population control, population growth.

Zaunbrecher, K.I. and R.E. Smith (1993). Neutering of feral cats as an alternative to eradication programs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203(3): 449-452. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cats, wild animals, population control, castration, ovariectomy, costs, ovariohysterectomy.

 

 

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