National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Chemical Sterilization  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>


Chemical Sterilization

Contraceptive technology in controlled reproduction in pets (1975). American Journal of Public Health 65(1): 77-78. ISSN: 0090-0036.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Am3J
Descriptors: animals, cats, contraception, dogs, veterinary medicine .

Bloomberg, M.S. (1996). Surgical neutering and nonsurgical alternatives. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(4): 517-519. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: age factors, animals, methods of castration, cats, population density.

Burke, T.J. (1977). Fertility control in the cat. The Veterinary Clinics of North America 7(4): 699-703. ISSN: 0091-0279.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: cats, castration, contraception, estrus, hysterectomy, megestrol, nandrolone, vasectomy, endometritis.

Concannon, P.W. and V.N. Meyers-Wallen (1991). Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1214-1225. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: induced abortion, cats, methods of contraception, dogs, embryo implantation, megestrol acetate.

Dixit, V.P. (1977). Action of monochlorohydrin on epididymis of dog. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 15(3): 233-235. ISSN: 0019-5189.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors: castration, chlorohydrins, dogs, epididymis, ligation, male, alpha chlorohydrin.

Dixit V. P. (1986). Antifertility effects of solasodine (C27 H 43 0 2 N) obtained from solanum-xanthocarpum berries in male rats and dogs. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 25(Supplement): 27. ISSN: 0022-4731.
NAL Call Number: QD426.A1J6
Descriptors: abstract, oral administration, rats, dogs, infertility, inhibition of spermatogenesis and sperm motility, solasodine, plant origin, inhibition of testosterone release.

Dixit, V.P. (1977). Chemical sterilization of male dogs: synergistic action of alpha-chlorohydrin (U-5897) with danazol on the testes and epididymides of dog. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 8(2): 167-173. ISSN: 0587-2421.
Descriptors: animals, chlorohydrins, danazol, dogs, drug synergism, epididymis, leydig cells, organ weight, pregnadienes, sterilization, alpha chlorohydrin.

Dixit, V.P. and S.K. Bhargava (1983). Reversible contraception like activity of embelin in male dogs (Canis indicus Linn). Andrologia 15(5): 486-494. ISSN: 0303-4569.
NAL Call Number: QP253.A5
Abstract: In order to evaluate the long term metabolic effect of embelin on the testes, adult male dogs were fed with embelin (80 mg/kg b.w. each other day) for 100 days. Loss in weights of testes and spermatogenic elements was noticed. The epididymides were devoid of spermatozoa but the functional morphology remain unaltered. 250 days of recovery period brings about normal spermiogenesis with all 1-8 cell stages. Epididymal milieu showed functional physiology. A three tiered finding accompanying histology, tissue biochemistry and blood/serum profile of dogs treated with embelin showed that 100 days therapy inhibits spermatogenesis, whereas 250 days recovery restores it. Sexual potency and libido of the animals did not change. A reversible male contraception with the help of a plant benzoquinone (embelin) is promising.
Descriptors: oral contraceptives, benzoquinones, embelin, dogs, reversible contraception, males, testis weight, spermatogenesis.

Dixit, V.P., C.L. Gupta, and M. Agrawal (1977). Testicular degeneration and necrosis induced by chronic administration of cannabis extract in dogs. Endokrinologie 69(3): 299-305. ISSN: 0013-7251.
NAL Call Number: QP187.A1E53
Abstract: 1. Daily administration of cannabis extract (12.5 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days) produced a complete arrest of spermatogenesis in dogs. Distinct degenerative effects were produced in the form of extensive fibrosis and exfoliation of the seminiferous elements. 2. RNA, protein and sialic acid contents of the testis and epididymides were reduced after cannabis extract administration, whereas, testicular cholesterol and enzyme phosphatase were elevated. 3. Serum transaminases were slightly elevated, whereas the alkaline phosphatase and haemoglobin/haematocrit values were in normal range. 4. Histophysiological examination of the liver did not show any damage. 5. Reduced androgen production was reflected in low levels of sialic acid in the testis and epididymides, and shrunken Leydig cell nuclei and luminal epididymal epithelium. 6. In conclusion: Cannabis extract at 12.5 mg/kg body wt. dose level did not cause severe damage to the vital organs but it produced an effective inhibition of spermatogenesis in male dogs in 30 days and thus induces an antifertility state. The possibility of an adverse effect of frequent marihuana use on male reproductive organ functioning in man is alarming.
Descriptors: inhibition of spermatogenesis, cannabis, degenerative effects, anti-fertlity state, animal models, dogs.

Dixit, V.P. and N.K. Lohiya (1975). Chemical sterilization: effects of a single high dose of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol on the testes and epididymides of dog. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 6(1): 57-62. ISSN: 0587-2421.
Abstract: A single high dose (70 mg/kg) of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (alpha-chlorohydrin) caused pathological degeneration in the testes of dog when examined after 33 days. The seminiferous tubules were depleted of spermatogenic elements. Epididymal epithelium was regressed, the lumen was empty and the passage through the duct was unimpaired. Alpha-chlorohydrin inhibited the synthesis of RNA and sialic acid of the testes and epididymides. A single high dose of alpha-chlorohydrin increased the total cholesterol/g of wet testis tissue which could be correlated with the testicular atrophy. Antiandrogenic nature of the compound has been discussed.
Descriptors: chlorohydrins, cholesterol, dogs, epididymis, leydig cells, male, biosynthesis of RNA, sialic acid, spermatogonia, sterilization, alpha chlorohydrin.

Dixit, V.P., N.K. Lohiya, and M. Agawal (1975). Effects of alpha-chlorohydrin on the testes and epididymides of dog: a preliminary study. Fertility and Sterility 26(8): 781-785. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Abstract: Chronic administration of alpha-chlorohydrin (8 mg/kg for 30 days, caused lesions in the testis of dog. Seminiferous tubules presented marked degenerative changes. Leydig cell hypertrophy was conspicous. Epididymal epithelium was regressed and the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. Obstruction of the epididymal lumen was not seen. Alpha-chlorohydrin inhibited the synthesis of RNA and sialic acid in the testis, caput epidiymis, corpus epididymis, and cauda epididymis. The total cholesterol per gram of testis was increased significantly after alpha-chlorohydrin administration. The anti-androgenic nature of alpha-chlorohydrin is suggested.
Descriptors: anti-fertility, chlorohydrins, dogs, spematozoa, drug effects on spermatogenesis, seminiferous tubules, anti-androgenic.

Dixit, V.P., N.K. Lohiya, M. Arya, and M. Agrawal (1975). Chemical sterilization of male dogs after a single intra-testicular injection of "Danazol". Folia Biologica 23(3): 305-310. ISSN: 0015-5497.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 F71
Descriptors: 17-a-ethinyl testosterone, intratesticular injection, testes effects, RNA synthesis inhibitor, sialic acid depletion, dogs, testicular atrophy, increase in testicular lipids and cholesterol.

Fahim, M.S., Z. Fahim, J. Harman, I. Thompson, J. Montie, and D.G. Hall (1977). Ultrasound as a new method of male contraception. Fertility and Sterility 28(8): 823-831. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Abstract: Twenty male cats were treated once or twice with 1 watt/sq cm of ultrasound for 10 minutes. Each of 24 male dogs received one to three treatments with 1 watt/sq cm for 10 minutes. Another six dogs were treated with 2 watts/sq cm for 15 minutes. Four Cebus apella monkeys were treated with the same dosage as that used for the cats and dogs. A dosage of 1 watt/sq cm for 10 minutes was also applied to four human patients without the use of anesthetics, and no pain or side effects were noted. In all treated animals as well as in human patients the results indicate that ultrasound significantly suppresses spermatogenesis according to the dosage and frequency of treatment, without any effect on Leydig cells or blood testosterone levels.
Descriptors: cats, methods of contraception, dogs, Haplorhini, cebus monkeys, rats, seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, temperature, ultrasonics.

Fahim, M.S., M. Wang, M.F. Sutcu, Z. Fahim, and R.S. Youngquist (1993). Sterilization of dogs with intra-epididymal injection of zinc arginine. Contraception 47(1): 107-122. ISSN: 0010-7824.
NAL Call Number: RG136.A1C6
Abstract: Condoms and vasectomy are the only fertility control methods available to males. Fifty million surgical vasectomies have been performed worldwide. In spite of improvements in the surgical techniques, the widespread use of vasectomy is limited due mainly to fear of genital operation. Chemical sterilization offers a promising new approach as an alternative to surgery. Fifteen sexually mature, mixed breed, male dogs, 2-3 1/2 years of age and weighing 22 +/- 1.8 kg, were divided into two groups. Five control placebo animals were injected with 0.5 ml of saline into the cauda epididymis, and ten treated animals were injected with 0.5 ml of 50 mg of zinc arginine into the cauda epididymis. Semen analysis performed before injection showed no significant difference between control placebo and treated groups. The control placebo animals exhibited a significant reduction in sperm motility one month after injection, which returned to normal within two months, and no change in semen volume, sperm abnormalities, or sperm concentration analyzed monthly for twelve months. The zinc arginine-treated animals achieved azoospermia ninety days after injection. The dogs were sacrificed one year after injection. There was no significant reduction of reproductive organ weights of the treated group as compared to the control placebo group. Although histological examination of the testes revealed normal seminiferous tubules, there was atrophy of the rete testes of the zinc arginine-treated group and, thus, increase in connective tissue. Histological examination of epididymides of the zinc arginine-treated group indicated that none of the cells in the head, body, and tail of the epididymis and ductus deferens contained sperm; 90% of the coils were empty and 10% contained amorphous pink cell debris; the coils decreased in diameter and were lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; no granuloma was observed. There was no significant change in serum testosterone level of control placebo and treated groups. These results offer the possibility of a new method of permanent sterilization instead of surgery. Zinc is considered to be nonmutagenic, noncarcinogenic, and nonteratogenic.
Descriptors: vasectomy, chemical sterilization, canine model, reduced sperm motility, zinc arginine, permanent sterilization alternative, serum testosterone.

Fayrer Hosken R. (2003). Contraceptive techniques for male dogs and cats. In: Root Kustritz M.V. (editor), Small Animal Theriogenology, Butterworth Heinemann: St. Louis, p. 447-456. ISBN: 0-7506-7408-3.
Descriptors: castration, contraceptives, epididymis, GnRH, males, estrogens, progestogens, reproduction, veterinary surgery, testes, vasectomy.

Fischer, A. and D. Graf von Plettenberg (1981). Anlegen einer skrotalen urethradauerfistel ohne kastration. Operationsbeschreibung. [Application of a permanent scrotal urethra fistula without castration. Description of the surgical technique: Dogs]. Kleintier Praxis 26(1): 57-59. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: surgical operations, urethra, fistulation, scrotum, surgery, dogs

Freeman, C. and D.S. Coffey (1973). Sterility in male animals induced by injection of chemical agents into the vas deferens. Fertility and Sterility 24(11): 884-890. ISSN: 0015-0282.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 F41
Descriptors: cadaver, dogs, ethanol, formaldehyde, granuloma, ligation, sclerosing solutions, sterilization, adverse effects of vasectomy.

Galliani, G., A. Assandri, L. Gallico, F. Luzzani, C. Oldani, A. Omodei Sale, A. Soffientini, and G. Lancini (1981). A new non-hormonal pregnancy-terminating agent. Contraception 23(2): 163-180. ISSN: 0010-7824.
NAL Call Number: RG136.A1C6
Abstract: DL 111-IT, 3-(2-ethylphenyl)-5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4 triazole, a compound belonging to a new class of non-hormonal antifertility agents, when given subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravaginally or orally terminates pregnancy in the rat, the mouse, the hamster and the dog. Time-course and dose-activity studies indicate that its effectiveness is dependent on dose, vehicle, route and time of pregnancy. DL 111-IT has no pre-implantation activity. The most effective time for treatment is the early post-implantation period. The compound has an antifertility effect through a slow and continuing action that results in the degeneration and subsequent resorption or expulsion of conceptuses. As a result, there must be sustained availability of active principle to arrest the pregnancy. Administered parenterally in a proper vehicle (oily) and with a suitable schedule of treatment (x 2-5 days), it demonstrates a very high pregnancy terminating activity (ED50: 0.04-0.7 mg/kg/day). Multiple intravaginal and oral administrations are also effective but the daily doses required are 10-20 and 40-100 times higher than the parenteral ones. Studies of the mechanism of action indicate that the site of action is the utero-placental complex. In fact, in pregnant rats, mice, hamsters and dogs, both plasma progesterone levels and the ineffectiveness of progesterone therapy rule out luteolysis as a basis for the activity. Moreover in hypophysectomized, ovariectomized animals whose pregnancies were maintained with proper hormonal treatments, DL 111-IT terminates pregnancy and adrenalectomy does not prevent its effect, which suggests that pituitary, ovaries and adrenals are not required for the antifertility action.
Descriptors: abortifacient agents, castration, dogs, dose response relationship, hamsters, hypophysectomy, mice, progesterone, rats.

Ghanawat, H.G. and M.B. Mantri (1996). Comparative study of various approaches for ovariohysterectomy in cats. Indian Veterinary Journal 73(9): 987-988. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: cat diseases, surgery, techniques, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, cats.

Goodpasture, J.C., M.B. Hiller, B. Lewis, K.A. Walker, and B.H. Vickery (1987). Same day appearance of orally administered, spermicidal 1-substituted imidazoles in dog ejaculates. Journal of Andrology 8(4): 230-237. ISSN: 0196-3635.
NAL Call Number: QP253.J6
Abstract: Within hours after administration of high oral doses of ketoconazole to males of various species, the intact compound appears in the seminal plasma, leading to immobilization of spermatozoa in ejaculates collected several hours later. The present report describes in vitro and in vivo characterization studies of several new compounds identified from a series of 1-substituted imidazole compounds. Relative rank order of in vitro potencies of the four compounds studied was RS-29984 greater than RS-90847 greater than RS-41353 greater than RS-68287. Oral administration of single doses of these compounds ranging between 10 and 95 mg/kg, followed by ejaculation of the animals at various times after dosing, showed that their relative potencies for decreasing sperm motility were RS-41353 greater than RS-68287 = RS-90847 greater than RS-29984. Four hours after animals were given 30 mg/kg of RS-41353, spermatozoa in the ejaculates had zero forward progression within 30 to 40 minutes after the start of ejaculation. A preliminary metabolic study indicated that the apparently greater potency of RS-68287 in vivo than in vitro was probably not due to metabolic activation. The androgen-suppressing activity of RS-29984 and RS-90847 was shown to be less than that of ketoconazole. These data indicate that orally active inhibitors of sperm motility that exert their effects after ejaculation may be feasible, and suggest that this novel approach to male contraception warrants further investigation.
Descriptors: immobilization of spermatozoa, male contraception, dogs, ejaculation , imidazoles, ketoconazole, spermatocidal agents.

Gupta, R.S. and V.P. Dixit (2002). Effects of short term treatment of solasodine on cauda epididymis in dogs. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40(2): 169-173. ISSN: 0019-5189.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 IN2
Abstract: Oral administration (80 mg/kg body wt/day for 30 days) of solasodine (extracted and isolated from the berries of the Solanum xanthocarpum) to intact dogs significantly decreased the epithelial cell height of cauda epididymides. The cells became atrophic and the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. Castration followed by the adminstration of solasodine further reduced the epithelial cell height in comparison to castrated controls. Concurrent treatment of solasodine along with testosterone propionate was unable to restore the normal epithelial lumen parameters. Total protein, sialic acid, glycogen and acid phosphatase activities were significantly reduced in solasodine treated cauda epididymides. These result suggest antiandrogenic potency of solasodine.
Descriptors: pharmacology, castration, dogs, solasodine, anti-androgen.

Hummer, R.L. (1975). Pets in today's society. American Journal Of Public Health 65(10): 1095-1098. ISSN: 0090-0036.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Am3J
Descriptors: domestic animals, cats, contraception, dogs, population growth, sterilization, zoonoses.

Jackson, E.K. (1984). Contraception in the dog and cat. The British Veterinary Journal 140(2): 132-137. ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V643
Descriptors: castration, cats, methods of contraception, contraceptive agents, estrus, tubal sterilization, pregnancy, dogs.

Jochle, W. (1976). Neuere Erkenntnisse über die Fortpflanzungsbiologie von Hund und Katze: Konsequenzen für die Ostruskontrolle, Konzeptionsverhütung, Abortauslösung und Therapie [New findings on the physiology of reproduction in the dog and cat: consequences for the control of estrus, contraception abortion and therapy]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 83(12): 564-569. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: spontaneous abortion, antineoplastic agents, cats, contraception, dogs, english abstract, estrus, female, pregnancy, progestational hormones, drug effects on reproduction.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Kato G. (2001). Proposals for contraception and castration methods in dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Medicine (Japan) 54(4): 282-284. ISSN: 0447-0192.
NAL Call Number: SF761 .Z4
Descriptors: castration, contraception, canine, feline, reproduction, animal welfare.

Koger, L.M. (1978). Calcium chloride castration. Modern Veterinary Practice 59(2): 119-121. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: administration and dosage of calcium chloride, methods of castration, cattle, dogs, evaluation studies, injections, male, testis.

Lacoste, D., R. St-Arnaud, S. Caron, A. Belanger, and F. Labrie (1988). The rise in testicular androgens during the first days of treatment with an LHRH agonist in the dog can be blocked by aminoglutethimide or ketoconazole. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 31(6): 963-970. ISSN: 0022-4731.
NAL Call Number: QD426.A1J6
Descriptors: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, androgens, aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole, receptors, agonists, effects on, serum levels, inhibition, dogs.

Lipatnikov, V.F. (1972). Khimicheskaya kastratsiya zhivotnykh [Chemical castration of animals]. Veterinariia 9: 82-83. ISSN: 0042-4846 .
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V6426
Descriptors: castration, chemicals, dogs, testis, animals.
Language of Text: Russian.

Mahi, C.A. and R. Yanagimachi (1979). Prevention of in vitro fertilization of canine oocytes by anti-ovary antisera: a potential approach to fertility control in the bitch. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 210(1): 129-135. ISSN: 0022-104X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Abstract: Antisera raised against canine ovaries were found to induce light scattering of the surface of the egg zona pellucida even when diluted 10,000 times, and to delay digestion of the zona by pronase. High concentrations of antiserum were required, however, to inhibit in vitro fertilization of the oocytes. Absorption of the antisera with canine ovaries removed these effects, whereas absorption with liver, uterus and serum did not. These results demonstrate the antigenicity of the canine ovary and suggest the plausibility of an anti-zona pellucida vaccine for bith control in the bitch.
Descriptors: contraception, dogs, female, fertilization in vitro, immune sera, oocytes, ovary, pronase, rabbits, sperm-ovum interactions, zona pellucida.

McLaughlin, K.C. and C.E. Hamner (1974). A demonstration of cat seminal plasma antifertility activity. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 145(1): 103-106. ISSN: 0037-9727.
NAL Call Number: 442.9 So1
Descriptors: buffers, cats, centrifugation, fertilization, heat, pregnancy, rabbits, analysis of semen, species specificity, sperm capacitation, spermatozoa, time factors, trypsin inhibitors.

Misk, N.A. and S.M. Seleim (1991). Castration in dogs (a comparative study). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 26(51): 228-234. ISSN: 1012-5973.
NAL Call Number: SF604.A77
Descriptors: postoperative complications, veterinary surgery, castration techniques, dogs.
Language of Text: English; Summary in Arabic.

Murty, T.S. and G.A. Sastry (1978). Effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) injection on the histopathology of the testis and the prostate in dogs. I. Intratesticular procedure. Indian Veterinary Journal 55(5): 368-371. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: toxicology, male genitalia, castration, chemosterilants, male infertility, cadmium chloride sterilization, chloride chemosterilant for dog.

Murty, T.S. and G.A. Sastry (1978). Effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) injection on the histopathology of the testis and the prostate in dogs. II. Subcutaneous procedure. Indian Veterinary Journal 55(10): 815-818. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: males, castration, cadmium chloride, testes, dogs, sterilization.

Mushtaq, M., S. Kulp, W. Chang, and Y.C. Lin (1996). Gossypol inhibits human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by cultured canine testicular interstitial cells. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology 91(3): 259-272. ISSN: 1078-0297.
NAL Call Number: RM1.R4
Abstract: Gossypol (GP) is a natural polyphenolic compound that possesses antifertility and antisteroidogenic activities in both males and females. The dog is highly sensitive to GP toxicity, yet GP's effect on canine testicular steroidogenesis has never been reported. Thus, the present study examines GP's effects on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced testosterone (T) production by primary cultured canine testicular interstitial cells. After decapsulation and enzymatic dissociation of canine testes in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with Ham's Nutrient Mixture F-12 (1:1; DME/F-12) containing 0.1% collagenase, 0.1% BSA, and 10 micrograms/ml DNase 1 (37 degrees C, 20 min), interstitial cells were isolated by sedimentation and filtration (140 microns) and then cultured in supplemented DME/F-12 medium (5 micrograms/ml insulin, 5 micrograms/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml sodium selenite; DME/F-12/S) containing 0.1% fetal bovine serum (FBS). FBS was used to enhance cell attachment during the first 24 hours of culture. After 24 hours, the medium was replaced with serum-free DME/F-12/S and the cells were cultured for an additional 24 hours. Thereafter, cells were treated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) alone and in combination with GP (0.05, 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM). Media were collected for T radioimmunoassay and cells for protein estimation after 8, 16 and 24 hours of treatment. Treatment with hCG significantly (p < 0.05) stimulated T production over that of controls at all treatment times examined. At 8, 16 and 24 hours, T secretion was elevated from 0.91 +/- 0.25, 1.32 +/- 0.42, and 1.41 +/- 0.40 pg/microgram protein to 2.36 +/- 0.50, 2.84 +/- 0.60, and 2.82 +/- 0.43 pg/microgram protein, respectively. At 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM, GP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hCG-induced T secretion at 16 and 24 hours of treatment to 1.79 +/- 0.50, 1.62 +/- 0.12, 1.34 +/- 0.16 (16 hr), and 1.53 +/- 0.38, 1.43 +/- 0.11, 1.42 +/- 0.32 (24 hr) pg/microgram protein, respectively. At 8 hours, T production was reduced by 2.5 and 5.0 microM GP to 1.08 +/- 0.55 and 0.93 +/- 0.61 pg/microgram protein, respectively. GP, however, did not reduce T production to below basal levels. These results demonstrate the inhibition of hCG-induced T production by GP in cultured canine testicular interstitial cells.
Descriptors: gossypol, antifertility, antisteroidogenic, effects on hCG-induced testosterone production, canine testicular interstitial cells.

Nshimura, N., N. Kawate, T. Sawada, and J. Mori (1992). Chemical castration by a single intratesticular injection of lactic acid in rats and dogs. Journal of Reproduction and Development 38(4): 263-266. ISSN: 0916-8818.
Descriptors: dogs, rats, castration, lactic acid, injection, testes, testosterone, spermatogenesis, acids, androgens, animal glands, animal husbandry methods, animal morphology, application methods, endocrine glands, gametogenesis, genital system, gonadectomy, hormones, male genital system, mammals, organic acids, physiological functions, reproduction, rodentia, sex hormones, sexual reproduction, sterilization, steroids, surgical operations, urogenital system.

Olson, P.N. and S.D. Johnston (1993). Animal welfare forum: Overpopulation of unwanted dogs and cats. New developments in small animal population control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(6): 904-909. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: induced abortion, cats, contraceptive trends, dogs, population control.

Patra, S.P. and P.K. Bose (1990). A new approach for intraovarian injection of cadmium chloride to perform mass sterilization in adult bitches. Indian Journal of Animal Health 29(2): 115-117. ISSN: 0019-5057.
NAL Call Number: SF1.I4
Descriptors: surgical operations, ultrastructure, ovaries, ovariectomy, surgery, dogs, chemosterilization, cadmium chloride.

Pineda, M.H. and M.P. Dooley (1984). Surgical and chemical vasectomy in the cat. American Journal of Veterinary Research 45(2): 291-300. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Ejaculates of surgically vasectomized cats had spermatozoa as long as 49 days after vasectomy, indicating that spermatozoa in the ejaculate from intact cats originated from the epididymides and vasa deferentia. Intraepididymal injections of an aqueous solution of 4.5% chlorhexidine digluconate into the caudae of the epididymides induced a lasting oligospermia or azoospermia in 7 of 8 cats. Of these 7 cats, 4 were azoospermic and 1 cat had no intact spermatozoa in his ejaculates 140 days after treatment. The method of chemical vasectomy by intraepididymal injection of sclerosing agents appears to be safe and may be suitable for large-scale sterilization programs for controlling the growth of the feline population.
Descriptors: cats, chlorhexidine, comparative study, dogs, granuloma, oligospermia, population control, spermatozoa, sterilization, testicular diseases, testis, vasectomy.

Pineda, M.H. and D.I. Hepler (1981). Chemical vasectomy in dogs long-term study. Theriogenology 16(1): 1-12. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: nonsurgical sterilization, chlorhexidine, contraceptive, dog, population control, irreversible azoospermia, intraepididymal injection.

Pineda, M.H., T.J. Reimers, L.C. Faulkner, M.L. Hopwood, and G.E. Seidel Jr (1977). Azoospermia in dogs induced by injection of sclerosing agents into the caudae of the epididymides. American Journal of Veterinary Research 38(6): 831-838. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Injections of sclerosing agents into the caudae of the epididymides of adult and prepubertal dogs induced a long-lasting and probably irreversible azoospermia. The technique is easy to do and inexpensive, does not seem to cause undesirable side effects, and appears suitable for large-scale sterilization programs in male dogs.
Descriptors: chlorhexidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, dogs, ejaculation, epididymis, formaldehyde, sclerosing solutions, semen, spermatozoa, sterilization.

Pittaway, D.E. (1983). Inhibition of testosterone synthesis in the canine testis in vitro. Contraception 27(4): 431-436. ISSN: 0010-7824.
NAL Call Number: RG136.A1C6
Abstract: Testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17 beta-HOR) is one of the several enzymes necessary for the synthesis of testosterone, but is not required for either glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid synthesis. Since specific inhibition of the testicular enzyme has potential contraceptive and experimental uses, the inhibitory effect of twenty steroids on 17 beta-HOR activity was examined in microsomal preparations of canine testes. Six steroids inhibited testosterone formation, but only 4-estrene-3,17-dione (KI = 2.4 microM) and 5-androstene-3,17-dione (KI = 6.8 microM) had significant inhibitory activity. The data suggest the following molecular characteristics necessary for competitive inhibition of 17 beta-HOR activity: (a) requirement for 17-keto group, (b) relative requirement for 3-keto group, (c) decreased inhibition with unsaturation in position 5-6, and (d) marked loss of inhibitory activity with 6 beta-, 11 beta- or 19- hydroxylation, and A-ring aromatization.
Descriptors: 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, dogs, male, contraceptive potential, testosterone, inhibition of testicula enzyme.

Rodaski, S., R.R. Weiss, S.D. Guérios, M.A.M. Torres, G.G. Kasecker, J. Büchele, and A.B. Nardi (2001). Chemical sterilization in dogs with intraepididymal 0.1% adrenaline and 10% lugol's solution. Archives of Veterinary Science 6(2): 9-17. ISSN: 1517-784X.
Descriptors: chemosterilants, epididymis, epinephrine, male fertility, spermatozoa, sterilization, toxicity, toxicology, dogs.

Samanta, P.K. (1998). Chemosterilization of stray dogs. Indian Journal of Animal Health 37(1): 61-62. ISSN: 0019-5057.
NAL Call Number: SF1.I4
Descriptors: sterilization, calcium chloride, testes, histology, morphology, seminiferous tubules, interstitial cells, parenchyma, dogs.

Senn, R. (1981). Kastrierplattchen mit Spannbugel [Castration device with tension plate for cats]. Kleintier-Praxis 26(5): 307. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: apparatus, techniques, surgical instruments, castration, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English, French, and Italian.

Stovring, M., L. Moe, and E. Glattre (1997). A population-based case-control study of canine mammary tumours and clinical use of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica Et Immunologica Scandinavica 105(8): 590-596. ISSN: 0903-4641.
NAL Call Number: QR1.A6
Abstract: We investigated whether or not an association could be found between mammary tumours and prior clinical use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bitches. A population-based retrospective age-matched case-control study was designed based on interviews with the owners of the bitches. The proportion of bitches with diagnosed mammary tumours (group MT+, n = 98) that had received progestin injections was compared with the proportion in a control group without mammary tumours (group MT-, n = 98). In the case group 39%, and in the control group 21% of the bitches had been treated with MPA. A significantly higher number of bitches with mammary tumours had been exposed to progestins, compared with the control group without mammary tumours (odds ratio = 2.32, Chi-square = 7.01, p = 0.008). Bitches treated clinically with low doses of MPA to avoid oestrus were at a greater risk of developing mammary tumours, the majority of which were histologically malignant (91%).
Descriptors: medroxyprogesterone acetate, mammary tumor development, female contraceptive agents, dogs.

Thompson, D.L. (2000). Immunization against GnRH in male species (comparative aspects). Animal Reproduction Science 60/61: 459-469. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Descriptors: GnRH, immunization, livestock, animal behavior, fertility, neutralization, odours, testes, male animals, reproduction, aggressive behavior, immunocastration.

Volpe, P., B. Izzo, M. Russo, and L. Iannetti (2001). Intrauterine device for contraception in dogs. The Veterinary Record 149(3): 77-79. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A new intrauterine device for contraception was tested on nine bitches. After it had been implanted, the bitches were mated but none of them became pregnant. Over a two-year period no side effects were observed, except in a bulldog bitch in which signs of oestrus persisted until the device had been removed.
Descriptors: contraception, intrauterine devices, dogs.

Von Berky, A.G. and W.L. Townsend (1993). The relationship between the prevalence of uterine lesions and the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate for canine population control. Australian Veterinary Journal 70(7): 249-250. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: The prevalence of uterine disease was established during desexing of 175 bitches in the Torres Strait and Cape York, 42 of which had been treated with injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for oestrus postponement. The prevalence of uterine lesions was 45% for treated bitches, 5% for untreated bitches, and 14.9% for the sample population. A highly significant relationship (P < 0.01) between MPA treatment and uterine lesions was established. A significant association (P < 0.05) between age (> 2 years old) and uterine lesions was found, most likely attributable to a significantly higher proportion (P < 0.01) of MPA-treated bitches in the older population. There was no significant difference in the effect of MPA on the prevalence of uterine lesions between older and younger bitches. There was no effect of parity on the prevalence of uterine lesions.
Descriptors: estrus postponement, medroxyprogesterone acetate, uterine lesions, adverse effects, ovariectomy, dogs.

Wang, W.C., R.F. Lu, S.X. Zhao, and Y.Z. Zhu (1982). [Antifertility effect of pseudolaric acid B]. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 3(3): 188-192. ISSN: 0253-9756.
Descriptors: plant extracts, pregnancy, animal drug effects, castration, dogs, chemically induced fetal death, mice, progesterone, rabbits, rats.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Weissinger, J. and D. McRae (1991). FDA fast-tracking of pet population control drugs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(7): 1231-1233. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Theriogenologists have been studying estrus prevention and termination of pregnancy in dogs for at least 2 decades. However, drugs approved for estrus suppression are few. No dog or cat abortifacients or male dog and cat sterilants have been approved. Marketed drugs with alternate indications that have antiestrus and antihormonal activity might be good candidates for study after obtaining an INAD from FDA. With the support of the original drug sponsor or manufacturer and appropriate safety and effectiveness studies, these products may be studied for additional label claims. New (not previously approved) drugs additionally need detailed information regarding the synthesis and manufacturing controls. Drugs offering substantial benefit over existing therapeutics may be eligible for expedited review. Prior to starting any studies in this area, clinical investigators and sponsors should communicate with FDA, an INAD must be granted, and the protocol submitted for evaluation. Approvability is evaluated after establishment of safety and effectiveness in clinical field trials.
Descriptors: abortifacient agents, cats, dogs, drug and narcotic control, estrus, female, population control, United States Food and Drug Administration.

Wildt, D.E. and S.W. Seager (1977). Reproduction control in dogs. The Veterinary Clinics of North America 7(4): 775-787. ISSN: 0091-0279.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: castration, contraception, contraceptive devices, dogs, estrus, hysterectomy, immunization, megestrol, nandrolone, ovulation, tubal sterilization, vasectomy.

Wright, P.J., T. Stelmasiak, D. Black, and D. Sykes (1979). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and reproductive processes in male dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal 55(9): 437-438. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: The treatment of normal male dogs with a depot preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (4 mg/kg) for 7 weeks reduced peripheral testosterone levels by 58%. No effects on testicular size and consistency, semen quality or libido were found.
Descriptors: libido, semen quality, testosterone levels, testis, medroxyprogesterone acetate, dogs, male, drug effects on reproduction.



Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 24, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House