National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Surgical Techniques  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>


Surgical Techniques

Austin, B., O.I. Lanz, S.M. Hamilton, R.V. Broadstone, and R.A. Martin (2003). Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in nine dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 39(4): 391-396. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: Minimally invasive surgery has been found in humans to reduce pain, incidence of infections, and duration of hospitalization. Minimally invasive procedures are also being described in veterinary medicine. Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (OHE) was performed on nine, healthy, intact female dogs using a Harmonic scalpel. Creatine kinase values were determined both before and 12 hours following the laparoscopic OHE; the magnitude of the difference between preoperative and postoperative creatine kinase values did not correlate with length of operative time, length of incisions, or amount of hemorrhage. Complications included one dog that had an omental herniation that was primarily repaired and one dog with seroma formation. Median surgical time for all dogs was 60 minutes (range, 35 to 100 minutes).
Descriptors: animals, dog diseases, female, hysterectomy, laparoscopy, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, veterinary, reference values, minimally invasive surgical procedures, treatment outcome.

Bloomberg, M.S. (1996). Surgical neutering and nonsurgical alternatives. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(4): 517-519. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: age factors, animals, methods of castration, cats, population density.

Bos, M. (2002). Waltham Award voor evaluatie laparoscopische ovariectomie bij de teef. [Waltham Award for evaluation of laparoscopic ovariectomy in the bitch]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 127(12): 401-402. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: adrenalectomy, animals, dogs, female, laparoscopy, history and methods of ovariectomy, ovariectomy, history of medicine.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Brugmans, F., S. Thiele, and L. Koehler (1996). Minimaal invasieve chirurgie door middel van laparoscopische en thoracoscopische technieken. [Minimal invasive surgery using laparoscopic and thoracoscopic techniques]. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65(2): 72-81. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V84
Descriptors: laparoscopy, surgery, techniques, bitches, reviews, endoscopy, horses, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch, Summary in English.

Brun, M.V., A. Silva Filho de PF da, C.A. Beck, M.B. Mariano, J.R.B. de Mello, C. de Beck CA, A. da Silva, PF de Filho, and J.R.B. de Mello (2000). Ovario-histerectomia em caninos por cirurgia laparoscopica. [Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in canine]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 37(1-6): 480-485. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Descriptors: bitches, hemorrhage, hysterectomy, laparoscopy, ovariectomy, ovaries, surgery, surgical operations, uterus, dogs.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Carr, S.H. (1986). A technique for ovariohysterectomy in the estrous cat. Feline Practice 16(5): 15-16. ISSN: 0046-3639.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: cats, estrous cycle, ovariectomy, uterus, surgical operations, female genital system, fur bearing animals, gonadectomy, reproduction, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system.

Cela, M. and P. Puntoni (1972). Su una nuova tecnica operatoria per l'ovariectomia della cagna. [A new technique of ovariectomy in the bitch. (Summary)]. Atti Della Societa Italiana Della Scienze Veterinarie 26: 278-279.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, bitches, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian; Summary in English and French.

Celo, E.M. and A.B. Agulto (1978). Sutureless and ligatureless technique of castration in dogs and cats [in the Philippines]. Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 4(1): 42-52. ISSN: 0115-2173.
Descriptors: castration, techniques, cats, dogs.

Chaffaux, S. and M. Kaiser (1978). Modification de la technique operatoire de l'ovariectomie chez la chienne. [Modified technique for ovariectomy of the bitch]. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire 154(10): 823-828. ISSN: 0034-1843.
Descriptors: bitches, surgical operations, females, ovariectomy, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: French, Summary in English and Spanish.

Chaudhry, N.I. and M. Iqbal (1988). A simple technique for ovariohysterectomy in the cat. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 8(3): 149-151. ISSN: 0253-8318.
Descriptors: cats, ovariectomy, gonadectomy, pet animals, sterilization, surgical operations.

Csiszar, P. and E. Brath (1997). Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery on experimental animal models. Acta Chirurgica Hungarica 36(1-4): 63-64. ISSN: 0231-4614.
Abstract: Our goal was to find a very good model for gynecological laparoscopic operations. The main purpose of the operations was to perform the same types of laparoscopic operations as we use daily in our clinical practice at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. UMSD. The uterus of female dogs seemed to be ideal for this work. In every experiment we carried out 10 different interventions on identical part of different dog uterus. The operations were performed at identical time period of day (a.m.). The weight of the female dogs were similar. The anaesthesia was also performed the same way in every case. The main purpose of the operations was to find some significant changes or differences between the 10 different surgical techniques. The hystological investigation were carried out with normal microscope and electron microscope.
Descriptors: gynecological laparoscopy, sterilization, surgical procedures, animal models, comparison study, tubal sterilization.

Davidson, E.B., H. David Moll, and M.E. Payton (2004). Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 33(1): 62-69. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To evaluate technique, complication rates, postoperative pain scores, and clinical outcomes in dogs after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) or traditional ovariohysterectomy (OVH). STUDY DESIGN : Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS OR SAMPLE POPULATION : Thirty-four intact female dogs, weighing 2.4-31 kg. METHODS : LOVH (16 dogs) was performed by ligation of the uterus and ovaries with surgical wire, and then removal by an assisted laparoscopic technique. OVH was performed in 18 dogs. Subjective and objective pain scores were assigned at 0, 2, 8, and 24 hours. Surgical time, complications, and pain and incision scores were evaluated. Dogs were followed for up to 6 months. RESULTS : The mean surgical time for LOVH (120 minutes; range, 47-175 minutes) was significantly longer than for OVH (69 minutes; range, 25-140 minutes). Significantly lower pain scores (subjective, in 2 of 10 categories; objective, in 8 of 10 categories) were identified with LOVH at 1 or more time periods. Surgical complications with LOVH were postoperative fever and anorexia (1 dog), minor splenic (3) or pedicle hemorrhage (4), intermittent vaginal hemorrhagic discharge (1), and suture reaction (3). Surgical complications with OVH were hemorrhage from an ovarian pedicle requiring reoperation (1 dog), dehiscence of the abdominal wall (1), and seroma (1). Anesthetic complications included hypotension in 8 OVH dogs and 1 LOVH dog, and hypothermia in 4 OVH and 9 LOVH dogs. The mean incision scores were lower for LOVH at all time periods. CONCLUSION : LOVH was performed successfully in young nonparous dogs >10 kg. Surgical time and complication rates were greater; however, LOVH postoperative pain scores were </=OVH scores. CLINICAL RELEVANCE : LOVH is a potentially safe surgical alternative to traditional OVH in dogs. Equipment cost and necessity for more than 1 surgeon may limit its usefulness in small animal practice.
Descriptors: laparoscopy, traditional ovariohysterectomy, comparison study, postoperative pain, surgical time, complication rates, techniques, dogs.

Dharmaceelan, S., T.N. Ganesh, and W.P.A. David (2000). Laparoscopic sterilization in bitches: comparison of three techniques. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 21(2): 65-68. ISSN: 0254-4105.
NAL Call Number: SF604.I45
Descriptors: bitches, hematology, histopathology, laparoscopy, ovariectomy, ovaries, surgical operations, techniques, dogs.

Durr, U.M. (1979). Kastrierwinkel: ein hilfsmittel fur die katerkastration. [Device for castrating male cats (practical advice)]. Kleintier-Praxis 24(5): 222-223. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: males, postoperative complications, surgical techniques, castration, cats.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English, French and Italian.

Fischer, A. and D. Graf von Plettenberg (1981). Anlegen einer skrotalen urethradauerfistel ohne kastration. Operationsbeschreibung. [Application of a permanent scrotal urethra fistula without castration. Description of the surgical technique: Dogs]. Kleintier Praxis 26(1): 57-59. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: surgical operations, urethra, fistulation, scrotum, surgery, dogs.

Gallagher, L.A., L.J. Freeman, S. Trenka Benthin, and D.R. Stoloff (1992). Laparoscopic castration for canine cryptorchidism. Veterinary Surgery 21(5): 411-412. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: 27th Annual Meeting, American College of Veterinary Surgeons, November 1992, Miami, Florida.
Descriptors: surgery, endoscopy, laparoscopy, postoperative complications, abscesses, cryptorchidism, castration, dogs.

Gibson, K.L., A.W. Donald, H. Hariharan, and C. McCarville (1997). Comparison of two pre-surgical skin preparation techniques. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research: Revue Canadienne De Recherche Vétérinaire 61(2): 154-156. ISSN: 0830-9000.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C24
Abstract: A one-step iodophor skin preparation solution was compared to chlorhexidine gluconate application as a pre-operative skin preparation method in 100 animals undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Pre-operative and intra-operative skin cultures demonstrated no difference in antiseptic efficacy. No animal in the study demonstrated signs of systemic infection, and no adverse local effects from either antiseptic were seen. The iodophor solution evaluated (DuraPrep) is a safe and effective pre-operative skin preparation agent in small animal patients undergoing clean surgical procedures.
Descriptors: anti-infective agents, body temperature, cats, chlorhexidine, dogs, heart rate, hysterectomy, iodophors, ovariectomy, preoperative care, respiration, staphylococcal infections, surgical wound infection.

Gimbo, A., G. Catone, S. Cristarella, and A. Scirpo (1993). A new, less invasive, laparoscopic-laparotomic technique for the cryptorchidectomy in the dog. Archivio Italiano Di Urologia, Andrologia Organo Ufficiale [Di] Societa Italiana Di Ecografia Urologica e Nefrologica Associazione Ricerche in Urologia 65(3): 277-281. ISSN: 1124-3562.
Abstract: A new, less invasive technique of cryptorchidectomy in the dog is described. The technique makes use of a laparoscope equipped with a telescope for diagnostic purposes (identification of testicle site); and then of a forceps to grasp the deferent duct and force the testicle through a small, laparotomic incision, 2.5 cm long, in the parapenien site. Variations, according to the kind of cryptorchidism (bilateral or unilateral, abdominal, inguinal), are also discussed. The operation ends with suturing of the vascular stem of the testicle (resorbable sutures) and orchiectomy. This technique is easy to carry out and has the advantage of not being invasive since it does not involve a median laparotomy preceded by overturning of the penis. Three operations have been performed: two on cases of unilateral cryptorchidism and one on a case of bilateral cryptorchidism.
Descriptors: cryptorchidism surgery, laparoscopy, dogs.

Guevar, P. (1997). Technique d'ovariectomie chez la chienne par utilisation de clips metalliques [Ovariectomy technique in bitches with the use of metal clips]. Pratique Medicale and Chirurgicale De L'Animal De Compagnie 32(6): 503-506.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, bitches, ovaries, surgery, surgical equipment, surgical operations, female genitalia, dogs.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English.

Hamdane, A., Z. Adamiak, and W. Brzeski (2003). Laparoscopic ovariectomy of dogs by endoloop suture. Indian Veterinary Journal 80(8): 766-768. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: endoloop suture intracorporeal ligation, laparoscopic ovariectomy, dogs.

Heavner, L.W. Jr. and R.J. Moye (1974). Bloodless castration of the cat using the electroscalpel and cautery. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 69(12): 1515-1517. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: castration, surgery, cats, electrocoagulation.

Helfand, J.M. (1999). Alternative neutering technique for consideration. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(1): 16. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, methods of orchiectomy, scrotum, surgery, male.

Herron, M.A. and M.R. Herron (1972). Vasectomy in the cat. Modern Veterinary Practice 53(6): 41-43. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: cats, male, spermatic cord, sterilization, surgery of the vas deferens.

Hummer, R.L. (1975). Pets in today's society. American Journal Of Public Health 65(10): 1095-1098. ISSN: 0090-0036.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Am3J
Descriptors: domestic animals, cats, contraception, dogs, population growth, sterilization, zoonoses.

Janssens, L.A.A. and G.H.R.R. Janssens (1991). Bilateral flank ovariectomy in the dog--surgical technique and sequelae in 72 animals. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 32(5): 249-252. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: bitches, dogs, ovariectomy, sterilization, postoperative complications.

Kirpensteijn, J., R.B. Fingland, J.E. Boyer, G.A. Kennedy, R.D. Klemm, and R.M. DeBowes (1993). Comparison of stainless steel fascial staples and polypropylene suture material for closure of the linea alba in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 22(6): 464-472. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: surgery, sutures, laparotomy, dogs.

Knecht, C.D. (1976). An alternate approach for castration of the dog. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 71(4): 469-473. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animals, methods of castration, dogs, male.

Krzaczynski, J. (1974). The flank approach to feline ovariohysterectomy (an alternate technique). Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 69(5): 572-574. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: castration, cats, female, hysterectomy, methods.

Kumar, A., A.K. Das, and A. Kumar (2002). Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy using otoscope in pups. Indian Veterinary Journal 79(5): 506-507. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: methods and techniques, neutering method, prepubertal, otoscope.

Lambardt, A. (1975). Akupunkturanalgesieversuche bei katzen. (Vorlaufige Mitteilung). [Experimental acupuncture anaesthesia in the cat (preliminary communication)]. Praktische Tierarzt 56(1): 33-36. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: acupuncture, ovariectomy, caesarean section, anesthesia, surgery, cats.

Le Roux, P.H. and L.A. van der Walt (1977). Ovarian autograft as an alternative to ovariectomy in bitches. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 48(2): 117-123. ISSN: 0301-0732.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Abstract: The literature on autotransplantation of the ovary is briefly reviewed with emphasis on the portal vein drainage area as the transplant site. An experiment is reported whereby bitches hearing such grafts were compared to entire and ovariectomised subjects with regard to endocrine status and behaviour. It is concluded that autotransplantation of the ovary to the portal vein drainage area may be a promising method of abolishing oestrus and yet avoiding the eunuchoid syndrome as is seen in ovariectomised subjects.
Descriptors: body weight, castration, dogs, estradiol, hydrocortisone, ovary, portal vein, progesterone, stomach.

Liebich, W. (2001). Orchiopexy combined with vasectomy and testicular prosthesis as alternatives to castration of the male dog with retained testis: review and three case reports. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 88(2): 46-53. ISSN: 0043-535X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: casereports, castration, clinicalaspects, diagnosis, gonadaldisorders, maleanimals, physiopathology, prostheses, surgicaloperations, testes, therapy, vasectomy.

Lopez NA (2002). Using CO2 lasers to perform elective surgical procedures. Veterinary Medicine 97(4): 302-312. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: carbon dioxide, castration, hysterectomy, lasers, veterinary surgery.

Makady, F.M., M.A. Seleim, and A.S. Saleh (1990). Open castration in adult male dogs: evaluation of natural ligature of the spermatic vessels. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 23(46): 209-212. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Abstract: A castration technique that does not employ suture material for ligation of the spermatic vessels was evaluated. The technique consisted of making a series of surgeon's knots with the severes was deference, in one hand, and the testicular vessels on the other hand. In castration of healthy genitalia. the use of this techniques is highly recommended because this procedure have the advantages of using no suture material and of being rapidly performed with practice.
Descriptors: dogs, surgical operations, male genital system, castration, animal husbandry methods, animal morphology, gonadectomy, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system.

Monnet, E. and D.C. Twedt (2003). Laparoscopy. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 33(5): 1147-1163. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: methods and techniques, veterinary medicine, laparoscopy, clinical techniques, diagnoses.

Noffsinger, G.R. and M.G. Carbone (1978). Nonabdominal approach to castration of the cryptorchid cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 173(3): 303-304. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animals, castration, cat diseases, cats, cryptorchidism, male.

Nudelmann, N. (1996). La laparoscopie chez les carnivores domestiques. Actes chirurgicaux par abord unique [Laparoscopy in domestic carnivores. Surgical acts if a one-off type]. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire 172(11-12): 643-652. ISSN: 0034-1843.
NAL Call Number: SF604.A77
Descriptors: coelioscopy, surgical technique, ovariectomy, crytorchiectomy, dogs, cats, abdomen, endoscopy, ovariectomy, testes, extirpation, gonadectomy, animal glands.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English and French.

Nudelmann, N. (1996). Laparoscopy in domestic carnivores: surgical acts if a one-off type. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire De L'Ecole D'Alfort 172(11-12): 643-652. ISSN: 0034-1843.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, abdominal cavity, cryptorchidectomy, endoscopy, imaging method, laparoscopy, ovariectomy, radiology, surgery, surgical method.

Nudelmann, N., L. Boulouha, A. Rousseau, and B. Siliart (1998). Degenerescence testiculaire par devascularisation. Application chirurgicale pratique chez le chien. [Testicular degeneration by devascularization. Practical surgical application in the dog]. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire 174(7-8): 133-139. ISSN: 0034-1843.
Descriptors: dogs, males, testes, castration, abdomen, endoscopy, animal glands, animal husbandry methods, body parts, body regions, gonadectomy, male genital system, sex, sterilization, surgical operations, urogenital system.
Language of Text: Summaries in English and Spanish.

O'Boyle, M.A. and G.K. Vajda (1975). Acupuncture anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Modern Veterinary Practice 56(10): 705-707. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: abdomen, acupuncture therapy, anesthesia, castration, dogs, female, hysterectomy, male.

Okamoto, Y., S. Minami, K. Kato, and A. Matsuhashi (1998). Laparoscopy-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs and cats. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 51(2): 91-94. ISSN: 0446-6454.
Descriptors: laparoscopy, castration, surgery, ovaries, uterus, laparotomy, female animals, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, cats, dogs.

Pettit, G.D. (1981). There's more than one way to castrate a cat. Modern Veterinary Practice 62(9): 713-716. ISSN: 0362-8140.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: animals, castration, cats, male.

Phillips, J.T. and E.B. Leeds (1976). A closed technique for canine orchiectomy. Canine Practice 3(4): 23-26. ISSN: 0094-4904.
NAL Call Number: SF991.A1C3
Descriptors: castration, veterinary surgery, dogs.

Puntoni, P., M. Cela, and F. Morgantini (1973). L'impeigo di una nuova tecnica nell'ovariectomia della cagna [Use of a new technique in ovariectomy in the dog]. Annali Della Facolta Di Medicina Veterinaria Di Pisa 25: 45-49. ISSN: 0365-4729.
Descriptors: bitches, ovariectomy, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian; Summary in English and French.

Rickards, D.A. (1975). A castration technique before feline perineal urethrostomy: photographic essay. Feline Practice 5(4): 37-38. ISSN: 0046-3639.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: perineal urethrostomy, surgical time, The Cleveland Technique, scrotum castration, surgery, cats.

Rochat, M.C., F.A. Mann, and J.N. Berg (1993). Evaluation of a one-step surgical preparation technique in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203(3): 392-395. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: The efficacy of a 1-step surgical preparation technique for skin of dogs prior to elective ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. Dogs randomly assigned to group 1 (n = 30) had their skin prepared for surgery by use of a 2-step method, whereas the skin of dogs in group 2 (n = 30) was prepared for surgery by use of a commercially available product for a 1-step technique. Culture plates for quantitative bacterial counts were applied to the proposed incision site on dogs under general anesthesia after hair at the site was clipped and vacuumed but before antiseptic was applied. A second quantitative bacterial culture plate was applied to the proposed incision site after completion of the surgical preparation technique. Surgeries were routinely completed, and dogs were evaluated by physical examination the next day and at the time of suture removal (7 to 10 days after surgery) for complications. Postoperative complications were minor and consisted primarily of subcutaneous swelling, which resolved with time. All cultures obtained prior to skin preparation included bacteria or yeast. Sixteen cultures obtained after skin preparation (group 1, n = 11; group 2, n = 5) included bacteria or yeast. The total number of colonies of potential pathogens (Staphylococcus sp and Enterobacteriaceae) on the preparation cultures was 9,339; 4 colonies were counted on the postpreparation cultures. Potential bacterial pathogens, ie Streptococcus intermedius and gram-negative bacteria, were isolated from dogs prepared with the 2-step technique.
Descriptors: bacteria, microbial colony count, dogs, evaluation studies, hysterectomy, veterinary, ovariectomy, povidone iodine, preoperative care, elective surgical procedures, surgical wound infection.

Rocken, F.E., E. Lettow, and K.F. Gerlach (1994). Die Kastration des Ruden mit Resektion des Skrotums. Operationstechnik und Ergebnisse bei 274 Patienten. [The castration of the male dog with resection of the scrotum. Technique and results in 274 patients]. Kleintier-Praxis 39(6): 407-408, 413-415. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: surgery, postoperative complications, dog diseases, scrotum, castration, surgical operations, dogs.
Language of Text: English, French.

Sgorbini M, Rota A, Melanie P, and Aria G (2002). Queen mini-invasive sterilization by means of "ovariectomy-hook". Praxis Veterinaria Milano 23(2): 23-27.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, queens, sterilization, surgery, surgical instruments, surgical operations, uterus.

Shyu JeouJong, Liu PanChen, J.J. Shyu, and P.C. Liu (1998). Castration of male dogs using laparoscopic electro-coagulation. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 24(3): 169-178. ISSN: 0253-9179.
NAL Call Number: SF604.C54
Descriptors: castration, male animals, laparoscopy, surgery, testes, spermatozoa, semen, male genitalia, epididymis, dogs.

Siegl, H., R. Bohm, J. Ferguson, M. Friedrich, and U.M. Losert (1994). Laparoskopische ovariohysterektomie bei einem hund [Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in a bitch]. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 81(5): 149-152. ISSN: 0043-535X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: surgical operations, techniques, experimental surgery, ovariectomy, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Stansbury, R.L. (1971). A castration technique. Feline Practice 1(1): 20-22. ISSN: 0046-3639.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: castration, surgery, cats

Sugano, H. (1984). Modification of a subcuticular buried suture for ovariectomy in cats and dogs. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 37(10): 639-643. ISSN: 0446-6454.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, surgery, dogs, cats, suture technique.

Sylvestre, A., J. Wilson, and J. Hare (2002). A comparison of 2 different suture patterns for skin closure of canine ovariohysterectomy. The Canadian Veterinary Journal: La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 43(9): 699-702. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative wound healing in canine ovariohysterectomy following the use of an absorbable monofilament poliglecaprone 25 suture in 2 different skin closure techniques, the buried continuous subcuticular (BCS) suture pattern and the simple interrupted (SI) suture pattern. These 2 skin closure techniques were evaluated against a nonabsorbable polypropylene monofilament suture in an SI pattern. Wounds were assessed by using a semiquantitative scoring system at 18 to 24 hours and 10 to 14 days, postoperatively. Results indicated that the BCS closure using poliglecaprone 25 demonstrated a higher rate of tissue reactivity initially (18-24 hours postoperatively), as compared with the SI closure using either suture material. By 10 to 14 days postoperatively, poliglecaprone 25 used in a BCS closure was associated with significantly lower wound scores than was the same material used in an SI closure. It was concluded that the BCS closure may effect a better cosmetic appearance to the skin closure in a canine ovariohysterectomy at the time of the recheck appointment. Furthermore, by obviating the need for suture removal, use of the BCS pattern may eliminate the requirement for this return appointment.
Descriptors: comparative study, dogs, ovariohysterectomy, skin closure techniques, wound scores, skin closure, wound healing.

Tesson, B. (1982). Utilisation des clips hemostatiques dans l'ovario-hysterectomie de la chienne et de la chatte. [Use of haemostatic clips in ovaro-hysterectomy in the dog and cat]. Bulletin Des Groupements Techniques Veterinaires 3: 5-8.
Descriptors: ovariectomy, surgical instruments, dog, cat, veterinary science

Thiele, S., G. Kelch, and K.G. Frank (1996). Endoskopie der Korperhohlen und minimal invasive Chirurgie (MIC) bei Kleintieren - Ubersichtsreferat. [Endoscopy of body cavities and minimal invasive surgery in dogs - survey article]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 109(8): 288-291. ISSN: 0005-9366.
Descriptors: body cavities, surgery, diagnostic techniques, reviews, castration, endoscopy, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Thiele, S., G. Kelch, and K. Gerlach (1993). Kastration der Hundin durch laparoskopische Ovarektomie. [Castration of the bitch by means of laparoscopical ovariectomy]. Kleintier-Praxis 38(7): 463-466. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: surgery, ovaries, reproduction, ovariectomy, bitches, dogs.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and French.

Valocky, I., S. Paiss, and I. Maracek (1999). Methods of laparoscopic sterilization of bitches. Veterinarni Medicina 44(9): 269-273. ISSN: 0375-8427.
Descriptors: bitches, sterilization, abdominal cavity, complications, German Shepherd, laparoscopy, ligature, ovariectomy, ovaries, oviducts, surgery, sutures, techniques, dogs.
Language of Text: Slovakian.

Van Goethem, B.E., K.W. Rosenveldt, and J. Kirpensteijn (2003). Monopolar versus bipolar electrocoagulation in canine laparoscopic ovariectomy: a nonrandomized, prospective, clinical trial. Veterinary Surgery 32(5): 464-470. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of using monopolar (MEC) or bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC) on surgical time for laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs and to evaluate the influence of age, weight and obesity, and estrus or pseudopregnancy on surgical time. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized, clinical trial. ANIMALS: One hundred three female dogs. METHODS: Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with MEC or BEC by 1 surgeon using a standard protocol. Surgical time was recorded for the different procedural stages and was statistically evaluated for differences between MEC and BEC (chi(2), Student t test, and ANOVA). The influence of significant variables was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 47 minutes (range, 27 to 110 minutes). With BEC, surgical time was significantly shorter (41 minutes; P <.001) than with MEC (53 minutes). Obesity (56 vs. 42 minutes; P <.001) and intraoperative mesovarial bleeding (56 vs. 46 minutes; P =.03) increased surgical time. Dog age, estrus, and pseudopregnancy did not significantly influence surgical time. CONCLUSIONS: BEC decreased laparoscopic ovariectomy time, decreased intraoperative hemorrhage, and, with the technique used, facilitated exteriorization of the ovaries. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Laparoscopic ovariectomy can be performed more rapidly when using BEC instead of MEC and with less risk of mesovarial hemorrhage.
Descriptors: dogs, comparative study, electrocoagulation, laparoscopy, ovariectomy.

Vannozzi, I., G. Barsotti, and A. Rota (1999). Ovariectomia mini invasiva nella cagna: note preliminari. [Minimally invasive ovariectomy in bitches: preliminary report]. Annali Della Facolta Di Medicina Veterinaria Di Pisa 52: 317-327. ISSN: 0365-4729.
Descriptors: bitches, ovariectomy, laparoscopy, veterinary surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian; Summary in English.

Whitney, G.D. (1982). Use of implanted nylon bands in surgical procedures. Canine Practice 9(1): 24, 28-30. ISSN: 0094-4904.
NAL Call Number: SF991.A1C3
Descriptors: veterinary surgery, ovariectomy, postoperative complications, ligature, dogs, cats.

Whyte, J., R. Sarrat, A. Torres, A. Cisneros, A. Whyte, R. Mazo, and E. Aranda (1999). Vasectomia experimental: comparacion de la estructura del epididimo mediante diferentes tecnicas quirurgicas. [Experimental vasectomy: Comparison of the epididymal structure by means of different surgical techniques]. Archivos Espanoles De Urologia 52(9): 915-921. ISSN: 0004-0614.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of different surgical techniques of vasectomy on the epididymal structure. METHODS: Experimental vasectomies were performed in dogs using the conventional and open-ended techniques. The animals were orchidectomized 1 to 12 months after vasectomy and the epididymal structure was analyzed. RESULTS: The epididymal structure of dogs submitted to the conventional technique showed marked ectasia, reinforced basement membrane, loss of stereocilia in the principal cells, and formation of spermatic granulomas in interstitial tissue. At 12 months the principal cells showed signs of degenerative changes. In the different time periods analyzed in the study, no changes were observed in the epididymal structure of dogs submitted to the open-ended technique. CONCLUSIONS: The changes observed in the principal cells are ascribable to the increased intraluminal pressure produced by ligation of both ends of the vas deferens (conventional technique), since no changes were found in the epididymal structure of dogs submitted to the open-ended technique, at least in the different time periods analyzed in the study. Article in Spanish.
Descriptors: epididymis, vasectomy methods, dogs, spermatic granuloma, open-ended technique.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English.

Wildt, D.E. and D.F. Lawler (1985). Laparoscopic sterilization of the bitch and queen by uterine horn occlusion. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46(4): 864-869. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Laparoscopic sterilization techniques, originally developed for use in women, were evaluated in the bitch and queen. In the first study (study I), the uterine horns of 6 bitches and 3 queens were occluded by electrocoagulation or plastic clips. The sites of occlusion were midway along the length of 1 cornus and at the uterotubal junction on the contralateral side. Both procedures effectively occluded the uterine horns, as evidenced by a distinctly visible separation of the reproductive tract. Laparoscopic examination 1 year after surgery revealed an enlarged, thin-walled, and fluid-filled uterine segment cranial to the midcornus occlusion sites in all animals. The contralateral horn was normal in appearance, except for the separation from the ovarian bursa. Three of the bitches developed pyometra (confined to the distended uterine segment) at 24 months, at 53 months, and at 72 months after sterilization, respectively. In a subsequent study (study II), 1 adult and 5 prepubertal bitches were sterilized by laparoscopic electrocoagulation of both uterine horns at the uterotubal junction adjacent to the ovarian bursa. Upon reexamination 1, 2, and 4 years later, the uterine horns of these females were normal in appearance, but were separated from the adjacent ovarian bursae. These females continued to be clinically healthy. Laparoscopic sterilization offers a rapid and safe alternative to ovariohysterectomy and, because of its minor invasive nature, can be performed on young, prepubertal animals. Such a procedure may have particular value as a simple, practical means of sterilizing dogs and cats on a mass basis.
Descriptors: cats, dogs, electrocoagulation, female, laparoscopy, ligation, postoperative complications, sterilization, uterus.

Wildt, D.E., S.W. Seager, and C.H. Bridges (1981). Sterilization of the male dog and cat by laparoscopic occlusion of the ductus deferens. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42(11): 1888-1897. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: cats, dogs, electrocoagulation, laparoscopy, spermatozoa, reproductive sterilization, males.

Willimzik, H.F. and K.O. Weber (1992). Diskussionsbeitrag zum Verschluss der die Ovarien versorgende Gefasse bei der Kastration der Katze. [Electrocoagulation sealing of ovarian blood vessels during ovariectomy of cats]. Kleintier-Praxis 37(8): 539-540. ISSN: 0023-2076.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: surgical operations, techniques, hemostasis, ovariectomy, cats.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and French.

Wissler, K., S. Zindel, K. Nager, and M. Berchtold (1983). Verhinderung von unerwunschten Kastrationsfolgen bei der Hundin durch Transplantation von autologem Ovargewebe.[Prevention of unwanted consequences of castration (ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy) in the bitch through transplantation of autologous ovarian tissue]. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin, Reihe A 30(6): 470-481. ISSN: 0514-7158.
Descriptors: ovaries, postoperative care, adverse effects, gonadectomy, dogs.
Language of Text: Summary in English, Spanish, French.

Young, W.P. (2002). Feline onychectomy and elective procedures. The Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 32(3): 601-619. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: radiology, carbon dioxide, laser medical equipment, elective laser surgery, laser castration surgical method, laser onychectomy.

Zagraniski, M.J. (1978). Ovariohysterectomy of the estrous queen utilizing nylon cable tie bands. Feline Practice 8(4): 47-50. ISSN: 0046-3639.
NAL Call Number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: hysterectomy, ovariectomy, surgery, cats.



Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 24, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House