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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife / Wildlife Contraception  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife
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Wildlife Contraception

Cunning contraceptives (1998). Ecos (Apr-Jun): 21-24. ISSN: 0143-9073.
Descriptors: CSIRO, vaccines, contraception, wild animals, vertebrate pests, introduced species, baits, vectors, Australia.

Aguilar, R.F., S.K. Mikota, J. Smith, L. Munson, L.J. Freeman, and R. Kolata (1997). Endoscopic ovariohysterectomy in two lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28(3): 290-297. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: Endoscopic techniques were used to ovariohysterectomize two hybrid Asian lions (Panthera leo) in order to reduce the risk of postoperative wound complications associated with standard surgical techniques. One of the lions was aged, overweight, and considered an anesthetic risk. The animals were anesthetized, intubated, catheterized intravenously, and placed in dorsal recumbency with the head lower (Trendelenburg position). Ventilation was assisted mechanically. Following abdominal insufflation, a surgical trocar was placed in the abdominal cavity. Two additional 12-mm surgical trocars were placed under direct visualization using a videoscope. The ovaries and uterus were removed endoscopically, and the abdominal cavity was inspected for hemorrhage under decreased insufflation pressure before closure. The surgery was complicated by obesity, by uterine enlargement from cystic endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial polyps, and by ovarian enlargement and fragility because of bilateral cystic rete ovarii. The procedure and anesthetic recovery were uneventful. Postsurgical recovery time and convalescence lasted less than 3 days, and the animals were reintroduced to an exhibit mate and placed on exhibit within 8 days. The technique is appropriate for use in lions, even those with pathologic reproductive changes, in zoos.
Descriptors: endoscopy, female, hysterectomy, lions, surgery, ovariectomy, surgery of the ovary and uterus, postoperative complications, risk factors, surgical wound infection, time factors.

Artois, M. (1997). Managing problem wildlife in the 'Old World': a veterinary perspective. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 9(1): 17-25. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Abstract: This paper focuses on mammalian pest species mainly in Europe and Africa and on implications for animal health, human safety, wildlife management and animal welfare. Three examples of problem species are presented: the wild boar (Sus scrofa), the stray dog (Canis familiaris) and the red fox, (Vulpes vulpes). Several species are reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases of man and of economically valuable domestic species. The control of these and other infections and the limitation of the nuisance or damage caused by these pest species involves lethal or non-lethal methods which are briefly reviewed. Some control measures require veterinary expertise, and veterinary involvement in managing problem species is likely to increase. With regard to fertility control, methods are considered which will allow an appropriate choice of the best technique for the management of problem animals in various habitats. For desirable native species, traditional methods of control, especially hunting in the case of game species, is preferable to contraception. For exotic or feral species, control of fertility seems to be a worthwhile option.
Descriptors: Africa, animal welfare, animals, disease reservoirs, dogs, Europe, foxes, pest control, swine, veterinary medicine.

Asa, C.S., L.J.D. Zaneveld, L. Munson, M. Callahan, and A.P. Byers (1996). Efficacy, safety, and reversibility of a bisdiamine male-directed oral contraceptive in gray wolves (Canis lupus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27(4): 501-506. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: contraception, oral contraceptive, bisdiamine, safety, zoo animals, spermatogenesis, contraceptives, wolves, infertility, dosage

Bertschinger, H.J., C.S. Asa, P.P. Calle, J.A. Long, K. Bauman, K. DeMatteo, W. Jochle, T.E. Trigg, and A. Human (2001). Control of reproduction and sex related behaviour in exotic wild carnivores with the GnRH analogue deslorelin: preliminary observations. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 57: 275-283. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting implants, was used in an attempt to temporarily control reproduction or aggression in wild carnivores in southern Africa and the USA. In the southern African study, 6 mg deslorelin was administered to cheetahs (eight females, four males), one female leopard and wild dogs (six females, one male) housed in groups, and 12 mg deslorelin was administered to two lionesses. None of the animals became pregnant after deslorelin administration apart from one wild dog that was mated at the initial treatment-induced oestrus. Two wild dogs and one lioness came into oestrus 12 and 18 months after deslorelin administration, respectively, thus demonstrating that the anti-fertility effects of deslorelin are reversible. Two lionesses and four cheetahs underwent oestrus without allowing mating 2-14 days after treatment. Simultaneous administration of progestins to three bitches and one lioness did not suppress oestrus. Male cheetahs had no spermatozoa on day 82 after treatment and did not impregnate two untreated females. Of three untreated female wild dogs housed with treated males, only the first female to enter oestrus (21 days after deslorelin administration) became pregnant. One month after treatment, plasma testosterone concentrations of male dogs were at basal values. In the USA study, three male sea otters that had been treated with 6 mg deslorelin ceased antagonistic behaviour and blood testosterone concentrations and size of the testes were still sharply reduced 24 months after treatment. Male red (n = 7) and grey (n = 5) wolves received 6 mg deslorelin in December 1998 but no effects on seasonal spermatogenesis and behaviour were observed. In a black-footed cat, sperm production, libido and aggressiveness decreased in response to treatment with 3 mg deslorelin and penile spines were not observed within 3 months after treatment, but were observed again 4-6 months later. Treatment of female red (n = 5) and grey (n = 5) wolves with deslorelin in December 1999 triggered preseason oestrus and mating, which were followed by one abortion and one successful pregnancy. Contraception was achieved in female Fennec foxes (n = 7) and two lionesses, which was observed in the foxes by an absence of increases in faecal progesterone concentrations. In two male bush dogs, administration of 3 mg deslorelin once or twice was insufficient to suppress reproductive function or behaviour.
Descriptors: wild animals, carnivores, cheetahs, contraception, drug implants, foxes, gonadorelin, lions, otters, progesterone, sexual behavior, spermatogenesis, testosterone, triptorelin.

Bertschinger, H.J., T.E. Trigg, W. Jochle, and A. Human (2002). Induction of contraception in some African wild carnivores by downregulation of LH and FSH secretion using the GnRH analogue deslorelin. Reproduction 60(Suppl.): 41-52. ISSN: 1477-0415.
NAL Call Number: QP251.J75 Suppl.
Abstract: The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting biocompatible implants, was used as a contraceptive in 31 cheetahs (13 females and 18 males), 21 African wild dogs (15 females and 6 males), 10 lionesses and four leopards (three females and one male). A dose of 12 or 15 mg deslorelin was administered to lions, whereas 6 mg deslorelin was administered to the other species. Monitoring consisted of observations, measurement of plasma progesterone and testosterone concentrations, vaginal cytology and evaluation of semen and sex organs. Deslorelin induced contraception in lionesses for 12-18 months, and in female cheetahs and leopards for a minimum of 12 months after treatment. Two male cheetahs had no viable spermatozoa or detectable plasma testosterone 21 months after treatment with deslorelin. Female wild dogs responded less consistently and one bitch conceived 4 weeks after implantation. However, in nine bitches, mating could be postponed until the next breeding season. Male dogs responded consistently and the contraception was effective for approximately 12 months. Although lionesses and cheetahs may become attractive to males for a few days after treatment, mating was not observed. No side-effects or behavioural changes were noted, indicating that deslorelin is a safe drug to use for the contraception of the species described. Males remain fertile for the first 6 weeks after the insertion of implants and should be separated from cyclic females during this period.
Descriptors: Africa, animals, zoos, carnivores, cheetahs, contraception, veterinary, dogs, drug implants, enzyme inhibitors, follicle stimulating hormone, lions, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, sperm count, testosterone, triptorelin.

Bradley, M.P. (1994). Experimental strategies for the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine for the European red fox, Vulpes vulpes. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 6(3): 307-317. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Abstract: The development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine to control fox populations in Australia would confer considerable advantages in controlling the long-term impact of this predator on native and endangered species. Studies are currently under way to identify sperm antigens that might be used in such a vaccine, and some of these studies are described. It is proposed that such a vaccine would be delivered orally in a bait, thereby stimulating a mucosal immune response to the foreign antigen(s). Such a vaccine requires a detailed understanding of reproductive-tract mucosal immunity in foxes, and selection of the most effective form of antigen delivery. Those under consideration include viral or bacterial vectors and microencapsulated antigens.
Descriptors: antibody formation, administration and dosage of antigens, immunologic contraception, foxes, vaccines.

Bradley, M.P., L.A. Hinds, and P.H. Bird (1997). A bait-delivered immunocontraceptive vaccine for the European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) by the year 2002? Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 9(1): 111-116. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Abstract: An orally-delivered immunocontraceptive vaccine is being developed for the control of fox populations. A number of genes (PH-20, LDH-C4, ZP3) encoding gamete proteins have been cloned, produced in recombinant expression systems and used in fertility trials to test the efficacy of these antigens. As the immunocontraceptive vaccine will be delivered in a bait, there is a requirement for a greater understanding of the immune responses of the reproductive mucosa in canids, and the assessment of the best vaccine delivery system that will evoke a mucosal antibody response. Several vaccine delivery systems including microencapsulated antigens, and both vaccinia virus and bacterial vectors are being investigated. Oral administration of Salmonella typhimurium recombinants expressing different fox sperm antigens stimulates both systemic IgG responses to the antigen and a mucosal immune response within the female reproductive tract in the fox, indicating that salmonella may have potential with respect to the oral delivery of antigen. The enhancement of mucosal immune responses to orally-delivered vaccines is also being examined, research focussing on the possible use of fox-specific cytokines or the beta-subunit of cholera toxin in forming part of the vaccine construct.
Descriptors: immunologic adjuvants, amino acid sequence, antigens, Australia, contraception, foxes, food, molecular sequence data, methods of pest control, vaccines.

De, J.J., P.H. Bird, N.K. Verma, and M.P. Bradley (1999). Antigen-specific systemic and reproductive tract antibodies in foxes immunized with salmonella typhimurium expressing bacterial and sperm proteins. Reproduction Fertility and Development 11(4-5): 219-228. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Descriptors: oral immunocontraceptive vaccine, foxes, wildlife management, Escherichia coli, Salmonella.

De, J.J., L.a. Hinds, and M.P. Bradley (1997). Regulation of reproductive tract immunoglobulins by oestradiol-17beta in the european red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Reproduction Fertility and Development 9(5): 531-538. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Descriptors: immunocontraceptive vaccine, foxes, reproductive tract immunity, Peyer's patch immunization, Salmonella, oestradiol-17beta, female.

DeLiberto, T.J., A. Seglund, W. Jochle, and B. Kimball (2002). Assessment of cabergoline as a reproductive inhibitor in coyotes (Canis latrans). Reproduction 60(Suppl.): 53-64. ISSN: 1477-0415.
Abstract: The efficacy of three oral formulations (gelatin capsule, tablet, oil base) and five dosages (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 microg) of cabergoline to disrupt reproduction in coyotes (Canis latrans) was evaluated. The type of formulation used had no effect on plasma progesterone and prolactin concentrations or on mean litter size. No adverse side effects (for example, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea) were observed despite the use of doses of up to 20 times the therapeutic dose used for domestic dogs and cats. All coyotes treated with 50, 100, 250 and 500 microg cabergoline whelped, but plasma progesterone concentrations in these coyotes were lower (P < or = 0.07) than in control animals at day 7 after treatment. Ten of 11 females treated with 1000 microg cabergoline whelped, but progesterone concentrations in these coyotes were lower than in control animals up to day 14 after treatment (P < or = 0.04). Dosages of 1000 microg cabergoline decreased blood serum prolactin (P < or = 0.10) and progesterone (P < or = 0.06) concentrations, but apparently failed to decrease progesterone below the threshold necessary to maintain pregnancy in all but one animal. However, progressive inhibition of prolactin and progesterone with increasing doses of cabergoline indicated that higher dosages might be effective in coyotes. Survival of pups born to cabergoline-treated females was not different (P < 0.001) from that of pups born to control females, but mean litter size was smaller for females treated with cabergoline (P < or = 0.073) than for the control females. Although all cabergoline treatments in this study were ineffective at preventing reproduction in coyotes, progressive inhibition of prolactin and progesterone with increasing dosages of cabergoline indicates that higher doses might be effective in preventing reproduction in coyotes. However, the physiological differences from other canine species in dopamine D2 receptors and mechanisms of luteal support may ultimately prevent the use of cabergoline for reproductive control in coyotes.
Descriptors: cabergoline, litter size, coyotes, plasma progesterone, dose-response relationship, prevention of reproduction, administration, oral, animals.

Farstad, W. (1998). Reproduction in foxes: current research and future challenges. Animal Reproduction Science 53(1-4): 35-42. ISSN: 0378-4320.
Descriptors: endocrinology, physiology, artificial insemination, semen, cryopreservation, population control, sterilization, in vitro, Alopex lagopus, Vulpes vulpes.

George, P.O., C.J. Chandra, S.R. Nayar, C.A. Varkey, and T.P. Balagopalan (1995). Vasectomy in lions (Panthera leo). Indian Veterinary Journal 72(1): 94. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: reproductive system, surgery, wildlife management, breeding, castration, population control.

George, P., C. Chandra, J.V. Cheeran, T.S. Amma, and K. Rajankutty (1995). Orchiectomy in lions (Panthera leo). Indian Veterinary Journal 72(1): 92-93. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: Felidae, reproductive techniques, testis, orchiectomy, case report.

Grandy, J.W. and A.T. Rutberg (2002). An animal welfare view of wildlife contraception. Reproduction Supplement 60: 1-7. ISSN: 1477-0415.
NAL Call Number: QP251.J75 Suppl.
Abstract: Although there is some dissent, the animal protection community generally supports the concept of wildlife contraception. However, some contraceptive agents, delivery mechanisms and specific applications will be opposed by animal welfare advocates on environmental, humane or other ethical grounds, and some animal rights advocates may oppose wildlife contraception entirely. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has supported and conducted wildlife contraception studies for more than 10 years. In general, we have invested in contraceptive agents (such as porcine zona pellucida) that we believe will prove environmentally, physiologically and behaviourally benign, and in delivery mechanisms that are narrowly targeted. As we consider contraception to be a major intervention into natural processes, we believe that wildlife contraception should be applied judiciously, locally and in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of animals, humans and ecosystem function.
Descriptors: animal welfare, wild animals, carnivora, immunologic contraception, antigens, egg proteins, elephants, deer, horses, membrane glycoproteins, population control.

Haight, R.G. and L.D. Mech (1997). Computer simulation of vasectomy for wolf control. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(4): 1023-1031. ISSN: 0022-541X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J827
Descriptors: models, population regulation, wildlife management, sterilization, Canis lupus, gray wolf, computer applications.

Holland, M.K. (1999). Fertility control in wild populations of animals. Journal of Andrology 20(5): 579-585. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: wildlife management, feral animals, fertility control, habitat destruction, immunocontraception, population management, resource availability, vaccine development

Holland, M.K. and A.J. Robinson (1995). The use of viral vectored immunocontraception for feral pest control in Australia. In: Proceedings of a Joint Conference American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association, and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians,East Lansing, Michigan, USA, AAZV (AAWV (and WDA, 810 East 10th Street, Lawrence, Kansas 66044, USA)), p. 43-55.
Descriptors: ecology, immune system, infection, wildlife management.

Hood, G.M., P. Chesson, and R.P. Pech (2000). Biological control using sterilizing viruses: host suppression and competition between viruses in non-spatial models. Journal of Applied Ecology 37(6): 914-925. ISSN: 0021-8901.
Descriptors: wildlife management, myxomatosis, viral infection, sterilization , pest control method, viral vectored immunocontraception, contraception method, non spatial models.

Johnson, P. Jr and D. Baffa (1979). Use of megestrol acetate in African lions (Panthera leo). Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician 74(10): 1542-1544. ISSN: 0042-4889.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: aggression, contraception, female, human, lions, megestrol, pregnancy.

Kazensky, C.A., L. Munson, and U.S. Seal (1998). The effects of melengestrol acetate on the ovaries of captive wild felids. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(1): 1-5. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: Melengestrol acetate (MGA) is the most widely used contraceptive in zoo felids, but the mechanism of contraception and the pathologic effects have not been investigated. For this study, the effects of MGA on folliculogenesis were assessed, and the association of MGA with ovarian lesions was evaluated. Comparisons were made among the histopathologic findings in the ovaries from 88 captive wild felids (representing 15 species) divided into three groups: 37 currently contracepted with MGA, eight previously exposed to MGA, and 43 never contracepted. Ninety-one percent of the felids evaluated had tertiary follicles, and no differences were noted between contracepted and uncontracepted cats. Some MGA-contracepted cats also had corpora lutea indicating recent ovulation. These results indicate that folliculogenesis not suppressed by current doses of MGA and ovulation occurred in some cats. Therefore, the contraceptive actions of MGA do not occur by suppressing folliculogenesis, and MGA-contracepted felids likely have endogenous estrogens that may confound progestin effects on the uterus. Cystic rete ovarii was the most common pathologic finding, but they were not more prevalent in MGA-contracepted cats. These findings indicate that MGA is not associated with ovarian disease, including ovarian cancer, in contrast to the uterine lesions noted in MGA-treated cats.
Descriptors: zoo animals, felids, contraceptive implants, melengestrol acetate, mechanism of contraception, ovarian pathology.

Kirkpatrick, J.F. and A.T. Rutberg (2001). Fertility control in animals. In: D.S. Salem and A.N. Rowan (editors), State of the Animals 2001, Humane Society Press: Washington, DC, p. 183-198. ISBN: 0-9658942-3-1.
Descriptors: humane control of wildlife, local population size, population control, fertility control, immunocontraception, porcine zona pellucida vaccine, horses, deer, elephants, companion animals, ethics.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.W. Turner Jr, I.K. Liu, and R. Fayrer-Hosken (1996). Applications of pig zona pellucida immunocontraception to wildlife fertility control. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 50: 183-189. ISSN: 0449-3087.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 J8222 Suppl.
Abstract: A unique application of pig zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception is the control of wildlife populations. A native PZP vaccine has been successfully applied to wild horse and donkey populations. A single annual booster inoculation was capable of maintaining contraception. Seven consecutive years of PZP treatment in wild mares resulted in no detectable debilitating side effects, and reversibility of contraception has been documented among mares treated for up to 4 consecutive years. Long-term treatment (5-7 years) is associated with some ovulation failure and depressed urinary oestrogen concentrations. Complex social behaviours in horses were unaffected by treatment. PZP immunocontraception has also been successfully applied to white-tailed deer, with no detectable changes in ovarian histology after 2 years of treatment. Seventy-four species of captive zoo animals have been treated with the PZP vaccine, with documented success in 27 species, including members of the orders Perissodactyla (Equidae), Artiodactyla (Cervidae, Capridae, Giraffidae, Bovidae), and Carnivora (Ursidae, Mustelidae, Felidae). Immunocytochemistry studies have demonstrated a high degree of crossreactivity between anti-PZP antibodies and African elephant zona pellucida. The need for a one-inoculation form of the vaccine has led to the incorporation of PZP into lactide-glycolide microspheres, which cause a delayed release of the PZP. PZP immunocontraception of wildlife has potential because of (1) > 90% effectiveness, (2) the ability for remote delivery, via darts, (3) reversibility after short-term use, (4) a wide breadth of effectiveness across many species, (5) a lack of debilitating side-effects even after long-term treatment, and (6) minimal effects upon social behaviours.
Descriptors: zona pellucida immunocontraception, wildlife , population control, reversible contraception.

Kolata, R.J. (2002). Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and hysterectomy on African lions (Panthera leo) using the ultracision harmonic scalpel. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33(3): 280-282. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: Two laparoscopic ovariohysterectomies and three laparoscopic hysterectomies were performed on normal, healthy, adult African lions (Panthera leo) in dorsal recumbency, with the body tilted at 25 degrees with the head down. One 12-mm trocar and two 5-mm trocars were used to access the uterus and ovaries, and the UltraCision (Harmonic Scalpels clamp or coagulation shears was used to coagulate and divide the ovarian- and the uterine-supporting structures and the uterine body. The animals recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and were released to their exhibits within 5-10 days of surgery. Such procedures can be performed safely on large felids and can reduce postoperative recovery time and postoperative complications. The scalpel facilitated the procedure by coagulating and dividing tissue in a continuous sequence and reducing the number of instruments required.
Descriptors: hysterectomy, laparoscopy, lions, ovariectomy, ultrasonics.

Kolata, R.J. (2002). Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and hysterectomy on african lions (Panthera leo) using the ultracision(r) harmonic scalpel(r). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33(3): 280-282. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: devices and instrumentation, reproductive system, surgery, ultracision harmonic scalpel, laparoscopic hysterectomy, lions.

Mccallum, H. (1996). Immunocontraception for wildlife population control. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11(12): 491-493. ISSN: 0169-5347.
Descriptors: conservation, wildlife management, bait delivery, Brushtailed possum, contraceptive method, immunocontraception, pest management, vector, wildlife population control.

Munson, L., A. Gardner, R.J. Mason, L.M. Chassy, and U.S. Seal (2002). Endometrial hyperplasia and mineralization in zoo felids treated with melengestrol acetate contraceptives. Veterinary Pathology 39(4): 419-427. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Melengestrol acetate (MGA) contraceptives are widely used in zoo felids to regulate fertility and may have deleterious effects on endometrial health. To determine whether MGA exposure was associated with endometrial disease, the genital tracts of 212 zoo felids (99 MGA treated and 113 control) representing 23 species were evaluated. Adenomatous and cystic hyperplasia were prevalent in both MGA-treated (85%) and control (61%) groups, and the risk of developing these lesions increased with age. Treatment with MGA further increased the risk of developing advanced hyperplasia regardless of dose, and treatment for >72 months significantly elevated that risk, whereas parous animals had a lower risk. Endometrial polyps, fibrosis, adenomyosis, and hydrometra occurred in both MGA-treated and control animals. MGA treatment was associated with an increased risk of hydrometra and mineralization but not of adenomyosis, polyps, or fibrosis after adjusting for advanced hyperplasia. Acute or chronic endometritis were associated with advanced hyperplasia but not with MGA treatment. These results indicate that proliferative and inflammatory endometrial lesions are common spontaneous diseases in zoo cats, and MGA contraceptives increase the risk of some diseases. The association of MGA with endometrial lesions that could impair fertility should be considered when using this contraceptive in genetically valuable felids.
Descriptors: zoo animals, felids, contraceptive agents, drug implants, melengestrol acetate, endometrial disease, risk factors.

Peacock, T. (2002). Progress towards immunocontraceptive control of pest animals. Proceedings of the Second NSW Pest Animal Control Conference: Practical Pest Animal Management,Dubbo, NSW, Australia, NSW Agriculture: Orange, NSW, Australia, 59 p.
NAL Call Number: SF140.F47 N782 2002
Abstract: This volume is a pre-conference compilation of working papers, posters and abstracts. The contents are unrefereed and in many cases contain preliminary results only.
Descriptors: contraception, contraceptives, control methods, control programmes, integrated pest management, pest control, vertebrate pests, wild animals, foxes, rabbits.

Robinson, A.J. and M.K. Holland (1995). Testing the concept of virally vectored immunosterilisation for the control of wild rabbit and fox populations in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 72(2): 65-68. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: Virally vectored immunosterilisation is a concept whereby a gene encoding an antigen from an animal's reproductive system is inserted into a virus and, during infection, stimulates the formation of antibodies to that antigen such that the animal is rendered infertile. There is good evidence that certain proteins from sperm or egg when introduced parenterally will induce infertility. This paper summarises the work of the Cooperative Research Centre for the Biological Control of Vertebrate Pest Populations and reviews progress toward the isolation of the genes for gamete antigens from rabbits and foxes and their introduction into suitable viral vectors as a means of control of these pests in Australia.
Descriptors: wild animals, immunologic contraception, foxes, genetic vectors, population control, rabbits, sterilization.

Saunders, G., J. McIlroy, M. Berghout, B. Kay, E. Gifford, R. Perry, and R. van de Ven (2002). The effects of induced sterility on the territorial behaviour and survival of foxes. Journal of Applied Ecology 39(1): 56-66. ISSN: 0021-8901.
Descriptors: foxes, population control, induced sterility, effects on territoriality and survival, behavior, immunocontraception, Australia.

Thompson, L.H. (1976). Induced sterility for coyote control: effect of cadmium chloride on potential fertility of the male Canis familiaris. Science of Biology Journal 2(2): 42-47. ISSN: 0098-5600.
NAL Call Number: QH301.S335
Descriptors: laboratory animals, cadmium, chemosterilants, spermatogenesis, sterilization.

Thomson, P.C., N.J. Marlow, K. Rose, and N.E. Kok (2000). The effectiveness of a large-scale baiting campaign and an evaluation of a buffer zone strategy for fox control. Wildlife Research 27(5): 465-472. ISSN: 1035-3712.
Descriptors: pest assessment control and management, population studies, immunocontraception, contraception method, large scale baiting campaign, population reduction.

Tyndale-Biscoe, C.H. (1994). Virus-vectored immunocontraception of feral mammals. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 6(3): 281-287. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Abstract: The potential value of immunosterilization as a means to control species of wildlife that are widespread, numerous and undesirable is assessed. Key questions about the efficacy of fertility control and the means for delivering antigens expressed in recombinant viral vectors are discussed and the legal and social concerns that relate to its possible future use are raised.
Descriptors: animals, Australia, bioethics, immunologic contraception, foxes, genetic vectors, population control, rabbits, sterilization.



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