Chondrou, M.P.; Papanastasiou, A.D.; Zarkadis, I.K.  Molecular evolution of MAC complex: The case of rainbow trout.  Molecular Immunology.  2007; 44 (1-3, Sp. Iss. SI): 159.  ISSN:  0161-5890.  Note:  21st International Complement Workshop, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China; October 22 -26, 2006.
Descriptors:  rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Mycobacterium avium complex, molecular evolution.

Dvorska, L.; Matlova, L.; Ayele, W.Y.; Fischer, O.A.; Amemori, T.; Weston, R.T.; Alvarez, J.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Pavlik, I.  Avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the Ardeideae and Threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, IS901 RFLP typing, and virulence for poultry.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2007; 119 (2/4): 366-374.  ISSN:  0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families Ardeideae (n=20) and Threskiornithidae (n=18).  Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA, serotype 1, genotype IS901+ and IS1245+) was more often (p=0.01) detected in tissue and/or fecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus).  Avian tuberculosis was not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia).  Tuberculous lesions were found in nine birds.  MAA isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 were present in all of the 20 infected birds and in all environmental isolates.  A mixed infection with the MAA isolates of three RFLP types F-C3 (tissue isolate), G-C3, and T-C3 (fecal isolates) was found in one sacred ibis.  All 20 tissue isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 from 20 birds and 8 environmental MAA isolates were fully virulent in pullets, whilst the isolates of RFLP types G-C3 and T-C3 were non-virulent in pullets.  All of the tested MAA isolates had the same IS1245 RFLP "bird profile".  In 12 of 20 infected birds with MAA M.a. hominissuis isolates of serotypes 4, 8, 9 and genotype IS901- and IS1245+ were detected and in 8 other birds mycobacteria not belonging to the M. avium complex were found.  The presence of MAA in the environment may be a source for further spread of the causal agent of avian tuberculosis among other groups of animals in zoological gardens, farm animals, and also among their keepers..
Descriptors:  bird diseases; wildlife disease reservoirs; Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris); comparison to two birds of the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus); avian tuberculosis not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea

Godfrey, D; Williamson, H.; Silverman, J.; Small, P.L.C.  Newly identified Mycobacterium species in a Xenopus laevis colony.  Comparative Medicine.  2007; 57 (1): 97-104.  ISSN:  1532-0820
NAL Call Number:  SF77.C65
Abstract:  The University of Massachusetts Medical School maintains 3 separate research colonies of Xenopus laevis, with each colony located in a separate building on campus.  After a 5-wk in-house quarantine period, 34 wild-caught X. laevis were transferred into one of the existing colonies.  As a result, this colony grew from 51 to 85 frogs.  All animals were housed in a recirculating frog housing system.  During the first 2 mo, 6 frogs died suddenly, and health reports were generated for another 10 frogs in this colony.  The majority of health reports were written in response to acute coelomic distention.  These patterns continued until, after 1 y, only 25 of the original 85 animals remained.  Necropsies performed showed large accumulations of serosanguinous fluid in the subcutaneous space or body cavity.  Granulomatous inflammatory lesions with acid-fast bacilli were generally present in the liver, lung, or spleen.  Culture of affected tissues grew Mycobacterium sp. within 40 d.  Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the isolated organism to be the same species of Mycobacterium (provisionally named M. liflandii) recently reported by 2 other groups.  However, previous clinical publications suggested that this bacterium originated only from X. tropicalis.  The cases we present highlight the rapidly lethal effects of M. liflandii in a colony of wild-caught X. laevis and illustrate the need to dedicate further attention to this emerging Xenopus disease..
Descriptors:  research colony, frogs (Xenopus laevis), recirculating frog housing system, acute coelomic distention, serosanguinous fluid in body cavity, granulomatous inflammatory lesions on liver and lungs, death rate, Mycobacterium liflandii, US.

Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Vleminckx, Kris; Pasmans, Frank; Stragier, Pieter; Ablordey, Anthony; Tran, Hong Thi; Hermans, Katleen; Fleetwood, Michelle; Meyers, Wayne M.; Portaels, Francoise.  Mycobacterium liflandii infection in European colony of Silurana tropicalis.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2007; 13 (5): 743-746.  ISSN:  1080-6040
Descriptors:  European colony, clawed frogs (Silurana tropicalis), Mycobacterium liflandii, fatal frog disease, captive anurans, transmission via international trade, 

Watral, V.; Kent, M.L.  Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium spp. in zebrafish (Danio rerio) from research facilities.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, Toxicology and Pharmacology.  2007; 145 (1): 55-60.  ISSN:  1532-0456
Abstract:  One of the most common diseases that we have diagnosed in zebrafish is mycobacteriosis, caused by several Mycobacterium spp.  The severity of the disease ranged from severe outbreaks to incidental infections.  We conducted an in vivo study to evaluate the pathogenesis of six isolates of Mycobacterium from zebrafish with mycobacteriosis from four research facilities and one wholesale supplier of zebrafish in the United States:  Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium peregrinum, Mycobacterium chelonae (2 isolates), and Mycobacterium marinum.  We also included two isolates of M. marinum from other fishes.  Fish were exposed by intraperitoneal injection at a target does of 5x104 bacteria/fish, and were held in static aquaria at 28 degrees C for 8 weeks.  Fish were examined by histology and culture, and mortalities were recorded.  The M. marinum isolates caused 100% infection and mortality between 30% and 100%.  None of the other Mycobacterium species caused significant mortalities, but several of these fish had granulomatous lesions in visceral organs.  Mycobacteria were consistently recovered in culture from fish exposed to M. marinum, and from only 9% of fish exposed to the other species.  This study suggests that, of the isolates tested, only M. marinum is highly pathogenic and virulent to healthy zebrafish..
Descriptors:  zebra fish (Danio rerio), bacterial infections, bacterioses, death rate, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium marinum, Oregon, USA.

Whipps, Christopher M; Dougan, Scott T.; Kent, Michael L.  Mycobacterium haemophilum infections of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in research facilities.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2007; 270 (1): 21-26.  ISSN:  0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract:  In May 2005, a disease outbreak was investigated at a zebrafish (Danio rerio) research facility experiencing severe losses.  Mycobacterium haemophilum was isolated from these fish and the disease was subsequently recreated in experimentally infected zebrafish.  Fish exhibited signs characteristic of mycobacteriosis, including granuloma formation and severe, diffuse, chronic inflammation.  Bacteria were observed in multiple tissues, including the central nervous system.  Biofilm samples from the outbreak facility were PCR positive for M. haemophilum, suggesting biofilms might act as a reservoir for infection.  Zebrafish appear to be particularly vulnerable to M. haemophilum, and measures such as quarantine and treatment of incoming water should be implemented to minimize the likelihood of introduction of this bacterium to zebrafish research facilities.  Zebrafish are already a well-established laboratory animal model for genetics, toxicology and disease, their susceptibility to M. haemophilum may make them useful for the study of this bacterium in the future.
Descriptors:  zebrafish (Danio rerio), research facility, clinical picture, chronic inflammation, biofilms, Mycobacterium haemophilum, maybe useful as a research model for pathogen.

Yip, Marcus J.; Porter, Jessica L.; Fyfe, Janet A.M.; Lavender, Caroline J.; Portaels, Francoise; Rhodes, Martha; Kator, Howard; Colorni, Angelo; Jenkin, Grant A.; Stinear, Tim.  Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria from a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2007; 189 (5): 2021-2029.  ISSN:  0021-9193
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  evolution of cytotoxic polyketide mycolactones, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Buruli ulcers, Mycobacterium marinum progenitor of mycolactones, multiple genetic methods, multilocus sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, plasmid acquisition, ecotypes, pathogens of ectotherms and endotherms, mammals, frogs, fish.


Baska, F.; Gonda, E.  Diszhalak virusos es bakteriumos megbetegedesei.  [Viral and bacterial diseases of aquarium fish.] KisallatPraxis.  2006; 7 (2): 42.50.  ISSN:  1585-9142.  Note:  In Hungarian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  pet fish, diseases, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium, lymphocystis virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spring viraemia of carp virus recommended antibacterial treatments.

Beran, V.; Matlova, L.; Horvathova, A.; Bartos, M.; Moravkova, M.; Pavlik, I.  Mycobacteria in the animal's environment in the Czech Republic.  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2006; 76(Supplement): S33-S39.  ISSN:  0372-5480
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6416
Descriptors:  farm and captive wild animals, environmental mycobacteria, breeding facilities, tanks, fish aquaria, peat as feed supplement, 1389 samples, 29 sites, bacteria cultured, Stonebrink's medium, Herrold's egg yolk medium, Sula's medium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium flavescens, zoonotic infections, Czech Republic.

Beran, V.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Pavlik, I.  Distribution of mycobacteria in clinically healthy ornamental fish and their aquarium environment.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  2006; 29 (7): 383-393.  ISSN:  0140-7775
Descriptors:  fish, snails, feeds, Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium marinum, chronic fish diseases, fish tank granuloma, decorative aquarium, breeder fish facility, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium-fortuitum; Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium terrae, Planorbarius corneus, Mycobacterium celatum, Mycobacterium diernhoferi, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium triviale, zoonotic infections, Czech Republic.

Chacko, K.L.; Vineeth Rajagopal; Jaibi, K.; Latha, C.; Nanu, E.  Fish borne bacterial zoonoses.  Intas Polivet.  2006; 7 (2): 207-211.  ISSN:  0972-1738
Descriptors:  fish borne bacterial zoonoses, diagnosis, mode of transmission, clinical features, treatment, vibriosis, Aeromonas, Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum type E, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, Erysipelothrix infections, salmonellosis and shigellosis, control measures outlined.

Chai, N.; Deforges, L.; Sougakoff, W.; Truffot-Pernot, C.; Luze, A. de; Demeneix, B.; Clement, M.; Bomsel, M.C.  Mycobacterium szulgai infection in a captive population of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.  2006; 37 (1): 55-58.  ISSN:  1042-7260
NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6
Descriptors:  African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis), captive colony, Mycobacterium szulgai, clinical picture, lethargy, weight loss, emaciation, visceral granulomas, mycobacteriosis, 16S rRNA gene sequence, postmortem inspections, France.

Chang, Tsung Chou; Hsieh, Chia Yu; Chang, Ching Dong; Shen, Ying Ling; Huang, Kwo Ching; Tu, Chien; Chen, Li Chun; Wu, Zong Bing; Tsai, Shinn,Shyong.  Pathological and molecular studies on mycobacteriosis of milkfish Chanos chanos in Taiwan.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  2006; 72 (2): 147-151.  ISSN:  0177-5103
Descriptors:  milk fish (Chanos chanos), case report, nodules, lesions, spleen, kidnes, liver, GI tract, epitheloid granulomas, Langhan’s type giant cell, match Mycobacterium abscessus Type II (GenBank accession number AY603554), first report of pathogen in milk fish.

Colorni, Angelo; Diamant, Ariel; Kvitt, Hagit; Ucko, Michal. Traditional and phylogenetic approaches in the diagnosis and identification of pathogens in mariculture  Israeli Journal of Aquaculture Bamidgeh.  2006; 58 (4, Sp. Iss. SI): 374.  ISSN:  0792-156X
NAL Call Number:  SH117.I75B36
Descriptors:  mariculture, fish culture, pathogens, Enteromyxum leei, Kudoa iwatai, Streptococcus iniae, Mycobacterium marinum, sea bream, sea bass, genetic diversity, cytopathic effect, complex life cycle, phylogenetic approach.

Cosma, Christine L.; Klein, Kathryn; Kim, Rosa; Beery, Dana; Ramakrishnan, Lalita.  
Mycobacterium marinum Erp is a virulence determinant required for cell wall integrity and intracellular survival.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2006 June; 74 (6): 3125-3133.  ISSN:  0019-9567
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  The Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported repetitive protein (Erp) is a virulence determinant required for growth in cultured macrophages and in vivo. To better understand the role of Erp in Mycobacterium pathogenesis, we generated a mutation in the Erp homologue of Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis.  Erp-deficient M. marinum was growth attenuated in cultured macrophage monolayers and during chronic granulomatous infection of leopard frogs, suggesting that Erp function is similarly required for the virulence of both M. tuberculosis and M. marinum.  To pinpoint the step in infection at which Erp is required, we utilized a zebrafish embryo infection model that allows M. marinum infections to be visualized in real-time, comparing the Erp-deficient strain to a [Delta]RD1 mutant whose stage of attenuation was previously characterized in zebrafish embryos.  A detailed microscopic examination of infected embryos revealed that bacteria lacking Erp were compromised very early in infection, failing to grow and/or survive upon phagocytosis by host macrophages.  In contrast, [Delta]RD1 mutant bacteria grow normally in macrophages but fail to induce host macrophage aggregation and subsequent cell-to-cell spread.  Consistent with these in vivo findings, Erp-deficient but not RD1-deficient bacteria exhibited permeability defects in vitro, which may be responsible for their specific failure to survive in host macrophages. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, zebrafish (Danio rerio), embryo infection model, exported repetitive protein (Erp), effect of Erp negative bacteria on infection.

Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, L de S.; Afonso, A.M.; Silva, M.G. da; Saad, M.H.; Lilenbaum, W.  A report of mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).  Veterinary Journal.  2006 Jan; 171 (1): 177-180.  ISSN:  1090-0233
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V484
Abstract:  The occurrence of mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum in a commercial breeding farm of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described.  Ten animals presented skin lesions on the head and extremities.  These and 38 other asymptomatic adult animals from various tanks were killed and at necropsy disseminated granulomatous lesions were observed in the 10 clinically affected animals and in 16 (42.1%) of the asymptomatic frogs.  Acid-fast bacilli were observed in all smears of the 10 symptomatic frogs and in all but one from the 16 asymptomatic animals with visceral lesions.  Ten samples from the 25 positive animals were randomly selected for culture which yielded four isolates of fast-growing (<7 days) mycobacteria.  Those purified isolates were characterised by biochemical traditional means as M. marinum.  Identification of the strains was confirmed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction enzyme analysis assay.  It is suggested that M. marinum is an important agent of granulomatous disease in bullfrogs and that infected animals, even when asymptomatic, could act as reservoirs spreading the disease and contaminating other frogs in the farm.
Descriptors:  Rana catesbeiana, farmed bullfrogs, tubercular skin lesions, Mycobacterium marinum, disease outbreaks, disease diagnosis, fast-growing Mycobacterium strains, pathogen identification, Brazil.

Hsieh, C.Y.; Chang, T.C.; Shen, Y.L.; Chang, C.D;. Tu, C.; Tung, M.C.; Chen, L.C.; Tsai, S.S.  Pathological and PCR detection of mycobacteriosis in pond-cultured Chinese soft shell turtles, Trionyx sinensisAquaculture.  2006 Nov 16; 261 (1): 10-16.  ISSN:  0044-8486
NAL Call Number:  SH1.A6
Abstract:  Mycobacteriosis due to infection of Mycobacterium marinum is a common disease in pond-cultured Chinese soft shell turtles, especially in those surviving beyond their first year.  The infected turtles independently showed either heterophilic or histiocytic granulomas in various organs such as the spleen, liver, lungs, intestine, kidneys, stomach and pancreas.  The heterophilic granuloma contained many acid-fast unbranching bacilli intracellularly in macrophages and extracellularly in the necrotic center.  The histiocytic granuloma had only a few bacteria, mainly in the cytoplasm of Langhan's giant cells.  The organisms were rarely observed in the advanced lesions of both types.  Based on PCR assays for partial hsp65 gene of Mycobacterium spp., all of our strains were identified as M. marinum which can be divided into two groups.  The strains of the first group induced heterophilic granulomas and had very high nucleotide sequence identities (99.8%-100%) to the reference strains of M. marinum (AF456471) and M. pseudoshottsii (AY550226).  Those strains of the second group caused histiocytic granulomas and also showed very high identities (99.8%-100%) to the reference strains of M. marinum ATCC 927 (AF456470) and M. shottsii (AY550225).  However, when we compared the partial sequence of the hsp65 gene from group one and two strains the identities between the two groups range from 98.8% to 99.3%, therefore we can not assert that these two belong to the same species.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium marinum, animal pathogenic bacteria, heat shock proteins, bacterial proteins, sequence analysis, disease detection, pathogen identification, Trionyx sinensis, soft shelled turtles histopathology, turtle culture.

Karsten, A.H.; Rice, C.D.  Serum IgM levels against select marine bacteria in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from three estuaries.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, Toxicology and Pharmacology.  2006; 143 (3): 355-361.  ISSN:  1532-0456.
NAL Call Number:  QP901.C6
Descriptors:  Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), Escherichia coli, Listonella anguillarum, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium marinum, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, IgM, bacteriosis. Atlantic Ocean.

Lowry, T.; Smith, S.A.  Mycobacterium sp. infection in cultured cobia (Rachycentron canadum).  Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.  2006; 26 (2): 87-92.  ISSN:  0108-0288
Descriptors:  juvenile cobia fish (Rachycentron canacum), clinical picture, emaciation, lethargy, ulcerative-dermal lesions, exophthalmis, hyperpigmentation,  hypopigmentation, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter, granulomas of various organs, cultured on Middlebrook agar, Mycobacterium marinum, USA.

Maclean, B.  Common dermatoses of ornamental fish and amphibians.  In Practice.  2006; 28 (10): 604-615.  ISSN:  0263-841X
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4 
Descriptors:  Aeromonas, Amphibia, fish, pet fish or frogs, toads, bacteria, Dermocystidium, Mycobacterium, mycobacterial infections, Protozoa, Pseudomonas, Saprolegnia, Metazoa, Peronosporomycetes, Saprolegniaceae, Straminipila, Batrachochytrium viruses, anesthesia, antimicrobials, chemotherapy, bacterial infections, protozoal diseases, clinical picture, death rate, dermis, viral infections, zoonotic infections, skin pathogens, UK.

Miller, D.L.; Gray, M.J.; Rajeev, S.; Baldwin, C.A.  Preliminary pathologic findings in bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) and green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae collected from farm ponds in Tennessee.  Proceedings of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, Thirteenth Annual Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 23-27 April, 2006.  2006: 1-3
Descriptors:  frogs, tadpoles, Rana, Rana catesbeiana, Rana clamitans, Aeromonas hydrophila; Corynebacterium, Iridovirus, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, cattle pasture, introduced pathogens, farm pond environments, Tennessee, US.

Nenoff, P.; Uhlemann, R.  Mycobacteriosis in mangrove killifish (Rivulus magdalenae) caused by living fish food (Tubifex tubifex) infected with Mycobacterium marinum.  Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2006; 113 (6): 230-232.  ISSN:  0341-6593.  Note:  In English with a German summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 D482
Descriptors:  contaminated live fish food, Mycobacterium marinum, mud tube worm (Tubifex tubifex), mangrove killifish, (Rivulus magdalenae).

Pasmans, F.; Mutschmann, F.; Halliday, T.; Zwart, P.  Amphibian decline: the urgent need for amphibian research in Europe.  Veterinary Journal.  2006; 171 (1): 18-19.  ISSN:  1090-0233
Descriptors:  Amphibian decline, Mycobacterium marinum, Rana catesbeiana, need for research, Euproctus platycephalus; chytridiomycosis; Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, frogs, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, disease outbreaks, epidemiology, salamanders, endangered species, Rana catesbeiana, mycoses, Xenopus, wild animals, Europe.

Pasnik, David J.; Smith, Stephen A.  Immune and histopathologic responses of DNA-vaccinated hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis x M-chrysops after acute Mycobacterium marinum infection.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  2006; 73(1): 33-41.  ISSN:  0177-5103
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum pathogen, Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops, hybrid striped bass, immature, pathogen host, vaccinated with DNA vaccine encoding the Mycobacterium marinum Ag85A gene, acute hight-dose challenge with Mycobacterium marinum, disease severity, immune response, histopathologic response, sufficient byt limited duration of protection.

Ponpornpisit, A.; Pirarat, N.; Areechon, N.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Katagiri, T.; Endo, M.  The detection of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) mycobacterium by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique.  Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine.  2006; 36 (1): 78.  ISSN:  0125-6491
NAL Call Number:  SF604.T43
Descriptors:  loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique, Mycobacterium strain Thai 4, detection in guppy (Poecilia reticulata), possible rapid diagnositic tool, 60 minutes test time.

Poort, M.J.; Whipps, C.M.; Watral, V.G.; Font, W.F.; Kent, M.L.  Molecular characterization of a Mycobacterium species in non-native poeciliids in Hawaii using DNA sequences.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  2006; 29 (3): 181-185.  ISSN:  0140-7775
Descriptors:  fishes, Mycobacterium triplex clade, 29 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), 3 green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri), granulomas in organs, liver, spleen, kidneys, mesenteries, gills, PCR analysis, islands of Hawaii and Oahu, Hawaii, US.
Sequence data:  EMBL/GenBank Data Libraries under Accession Number DQ078788..

Ranger, Brian S.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Mosi, Lydia; Adusumilli, Sarojini; Lee, Richard E.; Colorni, Angelo; Rhodes, Martha; Small, P.L.C.  Globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens produce a novel plasmid-encoded toxic macrolide, mycolactone F.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2006 Nov; 74 (11): 6037-6045.  ISSN:  0019-9567
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum are closely related pathogens which share an aquatic environment.  The pathogenesis of these organisms in humans is limited by their inability to grow above 35degrees C.  M. marinum causes systemic disease in fish but produces localized skin infections in humans.  M. ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer, a severe human skin lesion.  At the molecular level, M. ulcerans is distinguished from M. marinum by the presence of a virulence plasmid which encodes a macrolide toxin, mycolactone, as well as by hundreds of insertion sequences, particularly IS2404.  There has been a global increase in reports of fish mycobacteriosis.  An unusual clade of M. marinum has been reported from fish in the Red and Mediterranean Seas and a new mycobacterial species,  Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii, has been cultured from fish in the Chesapeake Bay, United States.  We have discovered that both groups of fish pathogens produce a unique mycolactone toxin, mycolactone F.  Mycolactone F is the smallest mycolactone (molecular weight, 700) yet identified. The core lactone structure of mycolactone F is identical to that of M. ulcerans mycolactones, but a unique side chain structure is present. Mycolactone F produces apoptosis and necrosis on cultured cells but is less potent than M. ulcerans mycolactones.  Both groups of fish pathogens contain IS2404.  In contrast to M. ulcerans and conventional M. marinum, mycolactone F-producing mycobacteria are incapable of growth at above 30degrees C.  This fact is likely to limit their virulence for humans.  However, such isolates may provide a reservoir for horizontal transfer of the mycolactone plasmid in aquatic environments.
Descriptors:  fish pathogens, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium marinum aquatic environments, zoonotic skin lesions, unique mycolactone toxin, mycolactone F production, IS240, resevoirs for horizontal transfer. Red and Mediterranean Seas, Chesapeake Bay.

Seok, Seung Hyeok; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kasuga, A.; Kim, Yeun; Lee, Eun Gae; Lee, Hye Young; Park, Jong Hwan; Baek, Min Won; Lee, Hui Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Lee ,Byeung Hee; Lee, Yong Soon; Cho, Sang Nae; Park, Jae Hak.  Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the identification of zoonotic mycobacteriosis in zebrafish caused by Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 May 31; 114 (3-4): 292-297.  ISSN:  0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Skin ulcers, scoliosis, and dropsy-like scale edema were observed in laboratory-maintained zebrafish.  Affected fish had multifocal granulomas not only in internal organs such as the liver, intestine, genital organs, kidney, muscle, and spleen but also in the fin, epithelium, gills, and sclera of the eyes.  Large numbers of acid-fast-rod-shaped bacteria were observed within the necrotic centers of well-demarcated, multifocal granulomas with Gram's stain and Ziehl-Neelson's stain.  The size of the Mycobacterium spp. was 1-2 micrometer x 2-3 micrometer with a double-layered cell wall, based upon electron-microscopical features.  Definitive diagnosis of these outbreaks was obtained by culture on selective media followed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the rpoB gene for species identification.  The amplified 360-bp products of the rpoB gene of mycobacteria isolated from zebrafish were digested with MspI restriction enzyme, which revealed unique band patterns matching those of Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae which are responsible for skin and soft tissue infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria in humans.  This is the first documentation of the precise identification of zoonotic non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from laboratory-maintained zebrafish by the PRA of the rpoB gene; this study thus provides a great deal of useful epidemiological information and reduces the likelihood that epizootics will occur.
Descriptors:  zebra fish, Danio rerio, laboratory infection, diseases presentation, skin ulcers, scoliosis, scale edema, internal organs affected, diagnostic tests, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium chelonae, clinical picture, zoonotic disease, diagnostic tests.

Swaim, Laura E.; Connolly, Lynn E.; Volkman, Hannah E.; Humbert, Olivier.; Born, Donald E.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita.  Mycobacterium marinum infection of adult zebrafish causes caseating granulomatous tuberculosis and is moderated by adaptive immunity.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2006 Nov; 74 (11): 6108-6117.  ISSN:  0019-9567
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  The zebrafish, a genetically tractable model vertebrate, is naturally susceptible to tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of the causative agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  We previously developed a zebrafish embryo-M. marinum infection model to study host-pathogen interactions in the context of innate immunity.  Here, we have constructed a flowthrough fish facility for the large-scale longitudinal study of M. marinum-induced tuberculosis in adult zebrafish where both innate and adaptive immunity are operant.  We find that zebrafish are exquisitely susceptible to M. marinum strain M. Intraperitoneal injection of five organisms produces persistent granulomatous tuberculosis, while the injection of ~9,000 organisms leads to acute, fulminant disease.  Bacterial burden, extent of disease, pathology, and host mortality progress in a time- and dose-dependent fashion.  Zebrafish tuberculous granulomas undergo caseous necrosis, similar to human tuberculous granulomas.  In contrast to mammalian tuberculous granulomas, zebrafish lesions contain few lymphocytes, calling into question the role of adaptive immunity in fish tuberculosis.  However, like rag1 mutant mice infected with M. tuberculosis, we find that rag1 mutant zebrafish are hypersusceptible to M. marinum infection, demonstrating that the control of fish tuberculosis is dependent on adaptive immunity.  We confirm the previous finding that M. marinum (SE(BRD1 mutants are attenuated in adult zebrafish and extend this finding to show that (SE(BRD1 predominantly produces nonnecrotizing, loose macrophage aggregates.  This observation suggests that the macrophage aggregation defect associated with (SE(BRD1 attenuation in zebrafish embryos is ongoing during adult infection.
Descriptors:  zebrafish, Mycobacterium marinum, embryo infection model, host-pathogen interaction, immunity, pathology, granulomas, lesions, macrophage aggregation defect.

Tarigo, J.; Linder, K.; Neel, J.; Harvey, S.; Remick, A.; Grindem, C.  Reluctant to dive: coelomic effusion in a frog. Veterinary Clinical Pathology.  2006; 35 (3): 341-344.  ISSN:  0275-6382
NAL Call Number:  SF601.A54
Descriptors:  adult female albino South African Clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), laboratory research colony, clinical picture, case report, lethargy, distended abdomen, loss of diving reflex, coelomic effusion fluid, histopathology, organ effects, Mycobacterium marinum, model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, North Carolina State University.


Bigi, Fabiana; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Peralta, Andrea; Caimi, Karina C.; Golby, Paul; Hinds, Jason; Cataldi, Angel; Gordon, Stephen V.; Romano, Maria I.  Identification of genetic markers for Mycobacterium pinnipedii through genome analysis.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2005; 248 (2): 147-152.  ISSN:  0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Descriptors:  seals, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, genetic variability with Mycobacterium bovis, microarray-based comparative genomics, 2 deletions identified, M. tuberculosis genes, PiD1--Rv3530c and Rv3531c, PiD2--Rv1977 and Rv1978.

Fitzgerald, S.D.; Boland, K.G.; Clarke, K.R.; Wismer, A.; Kaneene, J.B.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Hattey, J.A.; Bolin, C.A.  Resistance of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to experimental inoculation with Mycobacterium bovis.  Avian Diseases.  2005; 49 (1): 144-146.  ISSN:  0005-2086
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis by either oral or intratracheal inoculation and to assess their potential role in the spread of bovine tuberculosis. Six ducks were orally inoculated with 1.0 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis, six ducks were intratracheally inoculated with the same dose, and six ducks served as sham-inoculated controls. The study length was 90 days postinoculation, with samples of two birds from each group necropsied at 30-day intervals. Both fecal and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture. None of the inoculated ducks shed M. bovis in their feces at any culture point (days 1, 30, and 60) during the study. No evidence of illness or weight loss was present during the course of the study, and only one duck had M. bovis isolated from any tissue, although there were no associated microscopic lesions. Mallard ducks were highly resistant to infection with M. bovis following high-dose inoculation and did not shed the organism in their feces. This study was conducted using high-dose inoculation; therefore, it appears that ducks are unlikely to play any significant role in the transmission of M. bovis between infected and uninfected mammalian hosts.
Descriptors:  mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), susceptibility to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, possible reservoir for pathogen, experimental infection, high dose oral or intra-tracheal inoculation, no evidence of disease found, unlikely reservoir of disease pathogens.

Jesenska, Andrea; Pavlova, Martina; Strouhal, Michal; Chaloupkova, Radka; Tesinska, Iva; Monincova, Marta; Prokop,-Zbynek; Bartos, Milan; Pavlik,  Ivo; Rychlik, Ivan; Moebius, Petra; Nagata, Yuji; Damborsky, Jiri.  Cloning, biochemical properties, and distribution of mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71 (11): 6736-6745.  ISSN:  0099-2240
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, haloalkane dehalogenases, enzymes, cloning of enzyme genes dmbA and dmbB of M. bovis 5033/66, dehalogenase activity of translation products, distribution of genes in following species--Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium pinnipedii, characterization of proteins, evolution and distribution of haloalkane dehalogenases among mycobacteria.

Kaattari, I.M.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, S.L.  Comparative analysis of mycobacterial infections in wild striped bass Morone saxatilis from Chesapeake Bay.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  2005; 67 (1/2): 125-132.  ISSN:  0177-5103
Descriptors:  wild striped bass (Morone saxatilis), Mycobacterium, disease detection, spleen tissue analysis, histology, quantitative culture, nested PCR, comparison study, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

Korun, J.; Olgac, V.; Akgun Dar, K.; Colorni, A.; Diamant, A.  Mycobacteriosis in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, cultured in Turkey.  Israeli Journal of Aquaculture Bamidgeh.  2005; 57 (4): 215-222.  ISSN:  0792-156X
NAL Call Number:  SH117.I75B36
Descriptors:  European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) aquaculture, Mycobacterium diseased fish, clinical picture, grayish nodules, liver spleen, kidneys, graulomatous mass protruded into abdominal cavity, Turkey.

Li, P.; Gatlin, D.M. III.  Evaluation of the prebiotic GroBiotic-A and brewers yeast as dietary supplements for sub-adult hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) challenged in situ with Mycobacterium marinum.  Aquaculture.  2005 July 29; 248 (1-4): 197-205.  ISSN:  0044-8486.  Note:  Paper presented at the 11th International Symposium on Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, held May 2-7, 2004, Phuket Island, Thailand. Includes references.
NAL Call Number: SH1.A6
Abstract:  Dietary supplements such as immunostimulants and prebiotics hold promise as a potential replacement of antibiotics in maintaining fish health. A 21-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the commercial prebiotic GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy ingredient components and dried fermentation products, in the diet of hybrid striped bass exposed to chronic mycobacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum, as compared to partially autolyzed brewers yeast (Brewtech).  The basal diet was formulated to contain 40% protein, 10% lipid and an estimated digestible energy level of 3.5 kcal/g.  Supplements of 1 or 2% brewers yeast and 2% GroBiotic-A were singularly added to the basal diet and each diet was manufactured by extrusion processing with a twin-screw extruder.  Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of small (initially averaging 64.5 g/fish) and one group of large (initially averaging 118 g/fish) hybrid striped bass in 1187-l circular tanks operated as a recirculating system.  Fish were fed twice daily to apparent satiation and growth performance monitored for 16 weeks.  An in situ infection of M. marinum became well established at week 16 such that fish were fed once daily and mortality was monitored for a total of 21 weeks.  Enhanced growth performance was generally observed in fish fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic-A or brewers yeast compared to fish fed the basal diet throughout the feeding trial with significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced weight gain observed after 12 weeks of feeding.  At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed 2% brewers yeast had significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the other diets.  The in situ mycobacterial challenge employed in this experiment resulted in overall cumulative mortality of approximately 25%.  Fish fed 2% GroBiotic-A had a significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced survival (80%) compared to the other treatments (72-73%) at the end of 21 weeks.  It is concluded that dietary supplementation of 2% GroBiotic-A showed moderate but significant (P < 0.05) protection against mycobacterial infection.  Dietary supplementation of partially autolyzed brewers yeast also may enhance growth performance under chronic infection of mycobacteria.
Descriptors:  Morone chrysops; Morone saxatilis, bass fish hybrids, freshwater fish, animal growth, immune response,  brewers yeast, feed supplements, prebiotics, Mycobacterium marinum, fish culture, freshwater aquaculture.

Pasnik, D.J.; Smith, S.A.  Immunogenic and protective effects of a DNA vaccine for Mycobacterium marinum in fish.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005 Feb 10; 103 (3-4): 195-206.  ISSN:  0165-2427
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Morone saxatilis, Morone chrysops, bass fish hybrids, Mycobacterium marinum, mycobacterial diseases, fish diseases, vaccines, vaccination, genes, binding proteins, DNA, immune response, humoral immunity, phagocytosis, DNA vaccines.

Stine, C.B.; Baya, A.M.; Salierno, J.D.; Kollner, M.; Kane, A.S.  Mycobacterial infection in laboratory-maintained Atlantic menhaden.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health.  2005; 17 (4): 380-385.  ISSN:  0899-7659
NAL Call Number:  SH171.J68
Descriptors: Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), laboratory maintained fish, wild caught, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium gordonae, clinical picture, open ulcer, disease prevalence, tissue sampling, granulomas, spleens, posterior kidneys, hearts.


Fitzgerald, S.D.; Maar, T.W.J. de; Thomas, J.S.; Berry, D.E.  Pathologic limb fracture attributed to mycobacterial infection in a marine toad, Bufo marinus, with systemic mycobacteriosis and chromomycosis.  Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery.  2004; 14(3): 19-23.  ISSN:  1529-9651
Descriptors:  captive marine toad, Bufo marinum, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium terrae, case history, bacilli isolated from liver and kidneys.


Antychowicz, J.; Lipiec, M.; Matusiewicz, J. Infection of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in an intensive culture facility Mycobacterium marinum.  Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists. 2003, 23 (2) 60-66.  ISSN:  0108-0288
Descriptors: fish diseases, African catfish, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, fish culture, Clarias gariepinus,  Mycobacterium marinum, histopathology, lesions, mortality, postmortem examinations.

Cousins, D.V.; Bastida, R.; Cataldi, A.; Quse, V.; Redrobe, S.; Dow, S.; Duignan, P.; Murray, A.; Dupont, C.; Ahmed, N.; Collins, D.M.; Ray Butler, W.; Dawson, D.; Rodriguez, D.; et al.  Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov.  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.  2003, 53 (5) 1305-1314.  ISSN: 1466-5026.
NAL Call Number:  442.8 IN82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, seal isolates,  comparison study, taxonomic relationships, six species of pinnipeds, host preference, phenotypic and genetic tests, disease host range, tapirs, granulomatous lesions, lymph nodes, lungs, pleura, spleen, peritoneum, proposed name for new species, Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Great Britain, New Zealand.

Harms, C.A.; Howard, K.E.; Wolf, J.C.; Smith, S.A.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S. Transforming growth factor-B response to mycobacterial infection in striped bass Morone saxatillis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis ssp.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2003, 95 (3-4) 155-163.  ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38

Abstract:  In this study, striped bass and hybrid tilapia were infected with Mycobacterium marinum. Using reverse transcription quantitative-competitive PCR, splenic mononuclear cell(SMC) TGF-beta was measures.  Infected striped bass SMC-TGF-Bets mRNA expression was lower than controls.  In tilapia there as no significant difference between infected and control animals. However, 3 of 10 tilapia, with the most pronounced inflammatory response, showed a decrease in TGF-beta mRNA expression similar to the overall striped bass response to Mycobacterium challenge.  The authors “suggest that the down regulation of TGF-beta may play a role in dysregulation of the inflammatory response that leads to extensive organ damage in at least one mycobacteria-sensitive fish species.”
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, bacterial disease of fish, immune response, growth factor-beta, Morone saxatilis, Oreochromis niloticus x (mossambicus  x O. aureus) effects of inflammatory damage, gross and microscopic pathology.

Dos Santos, N.M.S.;  doVale, A.;  Sousa, M.J.; Silva, M.T. Mycobacterial infection in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2003, 52 (1) 87-91.  ISSN: 0177-5103
Descriptors: farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, piscine tuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, fish culture, granulomas, histopathology, mixed infections, mortality, new host records, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium marinum, Nocardia, water quality.

Niyaz, Ahmed; Mahfooz, Alam; Majeed, A.A.; Rahman, S.A.; Cataldi, A.; Cousins, D.; Hasnain, S.E.; Ahmed, N.; Alam, M. Genome sequence based, comparative analysis of the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (FAFLP) of tubercle bacilli from seals provides molecular evidence for a new species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2003, 2 (3) 193-199.  
Descriptors:  seals, marine mammals, animal diseases, DNA sequencing, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.   

Pasnik, D.J.; Vemulapalli, R.; Smith, S.A.; Schurig, G.G. A recombinant vaccine expressing a mammalian Mycobacterium sp. antigen is immunostimulatory but not protective in striped bass. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2003, 95 (1-2) 43-52. ISSN: 0165-2427.  
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: A recombinant vaccine was constructed for swine mybacteriosis using Brucella abortus str. RB51 vector expressing Mycobacterium sp. 85A antigen. Juvenile striped bass were inoculated with the construct at 5 different dose levels of colony-forming units/fish. Significant specific humoral and cell-mediated responses to the antigen was dose dependent according to blood and tissue samples. Survival studies indicated that inoculated fish failed to demonstrate cross protective responses after a challenge with live Mycobacterium marinum.
Descriptors:  Morone saxatilis, striped bass, Brucella abortus, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, recombinant vaccine efficacy, Mycobacterium marinum, mammalian strain antigen, lack of cross-protective immune response, bacterial disease of fish.  

Pasnik, D.J.; Smith, S.A. Development of a DNA vaccine for piscine mycobacteriosis. GAA (Global Aquaculture Alliance) Advocate. 2003, 6: 24-25.
Descriptors:  vaccine development, Mycobacterium, bacterial disease of fish, DNA based vaccine, immunity.

Prouty, M.G.; Correa, N.E.; Barker, L.P.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Klose, K.E. Zebrafish Mycobacterium marinum model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2003, 225 (2) 177-182. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call Number: QR1.F44
Descriptors:  research pathogenesis model, Mycobacterium marinum, zebrafish, Danio rerio, similarity to human disease, granuloma-like lesions, inoculum levels.

Rhodes, Martha W.; Kator, Howard; Kotob, Shaban; van Berkum, Peter; Kaattari, Ilsa; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Quinn, Frederick; Floyd, Margaret M.; Butler, W. Ray; Ottinger, Christopher A. Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis).  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2003 March; 53 (2) 421-424  ISSN:  1466-5026
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I577
Descriptors:  striped bass, Morone saxatilis, bacterial diseases of aquatic species, Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov., Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium marinum, new bacterial pathogen, characterization, growth, 16S rRNA gene sequences, isolate M175T (=ATCC 700981T=NCTC 13215T), Chesapeake Bay. 

Van Herwijnen, R.; Springael, D.; Slot, P.; Govers, H.A.J.; Parsons, J.R. Degradation of anthracene by Mycobacterium sp. strain LB501T proceeds via a novel pathway, through o-phthalic acid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2003, 69 (1) 186-190. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium sp. str. LB501T, wild type, UV generated mutants, anthracene degradation pathway, o-phthalic acid, protocatechuic acid, novel metabolic pathway, biodegradation, catabolism.

Whipps, C.M.; Watral, V.G.; Kent, M.L. Characterization of a Mycobacterium sp. in rockfish, Sebastes alutus (Gilbert) and Sebastes reedi (Westrheim & Tsuyuki), using rDNA sequences. Journal of Fish Diseases. 2003, 26 (4) 241-245. ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number: SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium sp., rRNA; nucleotide sequence, pathogenic bacteria, Sebastes alutu, Sebastes reedi, Pacific ocean perch, yellowmouth rockfish.


Davis, J.M.; Clay, H.; Lewis, J.L.; Ghori, N.; Herbomel, P.; Ramakrishnan, L. Real-time visualization of Mycobacterium-macrophage interactions leading to initiation of granuloma formation in zebrafish embryos.  Immunity. 2002, 17 (6) 693-702. 
Descriptors:  Danio rerio, Mycobacterium marinum, cell mediated immunity, embryos, experimental infection, granuloma, immune response, macrophage activation, macrophages.

Diamont, A.; Banet, A.; Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Knibb, W.; Kvitt, H. Mycobacteriosis in wild rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus association with cage farming in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2000, 39 (3) 211-219.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, spleen, granuloma, 16S, DNA sequence, coral reef, net sea cages, mariculture, infection pattern, wild fish.

Drancourt, M.; Jarlier, V.; Raoult, D. The environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans grows in amphibian cells at low temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2002, 68 (12) 6403-6404. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium ulcerans, cell culture, amphibian (XTC-2) cell line, growth characteristics, intracellular presence of bacilli, possible isolation method from environmental sources, PCR, Buruli ulcer.

Hughes, K.P.; Duncan, R.B.; Smith, S.A.  Renomegaly associated with a mycobacterial infection in summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus.  Fish Pathology. 2002, p. 83-86.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, bacterial disease of fish, renal enlargement, Paralichthys dentatus, summer flounder, pathology.

Hughes, K.P.; Duncan, R.B.; Smith, S.A.  Mass (mycobacterial granuloma) in the oral cavity of cultured summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus.  Lab Animal. 2002, 31 (3) 25-27. ISSN: 0093-7355. Note: published in the section “What’s your diagnosis?” by column editor Thomas, M. Donnelly.
NAL Call Number:  QL55.A1L33
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, Paralichthys dentatus, summer flounder, pathology, mouth, granuloma, commercially reared fish, white lobulated lesions, necropsy, wet mount biopsies, culture, histopathology, diagnostic techniques.

Hughes, K.P.; Smith, S.A.  Clinical presentations of Mycobacterium sp. in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) held in recirculating aquaculture systems.  Virginia Journal of Science.  2002, 53 (2) 58.  ISSN: 0042-658X.
NAL Call Number:  470 V81
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, commercially reared, oral masses, lower mandible, head swelling, exophthalmia, coelomic distention, opercular masses, Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook media, acid-fast positive with Ziehl Neelsen staining, etiology, histopathology.

Marsollier, L.; Robert, R.; Aubry, J.; Andre, J.S.; Kouakou, H.; Legras, P.; Manceau, A.; Mahaza, C.; Carbonnelle, B. Aquatic insects as a vector for Mycobacterium ulcerans.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2002, 68 (9) 4623-4628.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call Number:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium ulcerans, emerging environmental pathogen, Buruli ulcers, experimental aquarium model, disease transmission to mice, creeping biting aquatic bugs (Naucoridae) as vectors, insect salivary glands, wild insects, Daloa Region, Ivory Coast, Africa.

Nigou, J.; Dover, L.G.; Besra, G.S.  Purification and biochemical characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis SuhB, an inositol monophosphatase involved in inositol biosynthesis.  Biochemistry.  2002, 41 (13) 4392-4398.  ISSN: 0006-2960.
NAL Call Number:  381 B523
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, inositol, lipids, magnesium, lithium, SuhB protein, phosphatidylinositol, myo-inositol, inositol monophosphatase, glucitol-6-phosphate, 2'-AMP, glycerol-2-phosphate, biochemical analysis and purification, cloning, cell wall analysis.

Puttinaowarat, S.; Thompson, K.D.; Kolk, A.; Adams, A.  Identification of Mycobacterium spp. isolated from snakehead, Channa striata (Fowler), and Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens (Regan), using polymerase chain reaction-reverse cross blot hybridization (PCR-RCBH). Journal of Fish Diseases. 2002, 25 (4) 235-244. ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:   Mycobacterium sp., species differentiating techniques, biochemistry, mycoloic acid profiles, antibody-based methods, PCR and reverse cross blot hybridization method, 29 isolates, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium marinum, chevron snakehead, striped snakehead, Siamese fighting fish.

Swanson, C.; Baxa, D.V.; Young, P.S.; Cech, J.J.; Hedrick, R.P. Reduced swimming performance in delta smelt infected with Mycobacterium spp.  Journal of Fish Biology.  2002, 61 (4) 1012-1020.  ISSN: 0022-1112.
NAL Call Number:  QL614.J68
Descriptors:  delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, Mycobacterium spp., Mycobacterium chelonae, results of infection, effects on swimming behavior, activity patterns, bioenergetics.

Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W.R.  Strain variation in Mycobacterium marinum fish isolates.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov 2002. 7 (11) 6114-6120 ISSN:  0099-2240
NAL Call Number:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  fish pathogen, Mycobacterium marinum, genetics, strain variations.

Wick, L.Y.; de Munain, A.R.; Springael, D.; Harms, H. Responses of Mycobacterium sp. LB501T to the low bioavailability of solid anthracene.  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2002, 58 (3) 378-385.  ISSN: 0175-7598. 
NAL Call Number:  QR1.E9
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, anthracene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biofilms, biodegradation, uptake, adhesion, excretion. 


Chen, S.C.; Thompson, K.D.; Adams, A.; Richards, R.H.  The production of a lymphokine (macrophage activating factor) by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), leucocytes stimulated with the extracellular products of Mycobacterium sp.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  2001, 24 (4) 217-223.  ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:   SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Oncorhynchus mykiss, rainbow trout, immunity, bacterial diseases, macrophage activation factor, head kidney leucocytes, in vitro culture, exposure to extracullular products from Mycobacterium cultures, nitrobule tetrazolium, whole cell preparations, comparison study, vaccination efficiency.

Heckert, R.A.; Elankumaran, S.; Milani, A.; Baya, A. Detection of a new Mycobacterium species in wild striped bass in the Chesapeake Bay.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001. 39 (2) 710-715.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
  fish health, isolation of putative new species, skin ulcers and internal granulomas, various organs, Mycobacterium, growth, media, unique growth, unique insertional sequence, homology, 87.7% sequence homology to Mycobacterium  ulcerans, 87.6% homology to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 85.9% homology to Mycobacterium.
Molecular Sequence Data:  GenBank accession number AF257216.

Herbst, L.H.; Costa, S.F.; Weiss, L.M.; Johnson, L.K.; Bartell, J.; Davis, R.; Walsh, M.; Levi, M.   Granulomatous skin lesions in moray eels caused by a novel Mycobacterium species related to Mycobacterium triplex.  Infection and Immunity.  2001, 69 (7) 4639-4646.  ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, captive moray eels, histopathology, granulomatous inflammation, dermis fascial plane, rRNA 16S, polymerase chain reaction, experimental transmission was successful. 

Latha, M.M.; Chandrika, V.  Sample preparation methods for isolation of Mycobacterium spp. from cultured fish and environmental samples.  Perspectives in Mariculture. Publisher: Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin (India).  2001. pp. 149-162.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium sp, bacterial fish pathogen, brackish water fish culture, microbial contamination, sediment sampling, 3 methods evaluated, shaking and membrane filtration methods, acid fast bacterial strain isolation, fish and environmental sampling, Kerala, India.

Kent, M.L.; Watral, V.; Dawe, S.C.; Reno, P.; Heidel, J.R.; Jones, S.R.M.  Ichthyophonus and Mycobacterium-like bacterial infections in commercially-important rockfish, Sebastes spp., in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  2001, 24 (7) 427-431.  ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium sp., Ichthyophonus, bacterial diseases of fish, demersal fish stocks population declines, slope and shelf rockfish fisheries, demersal fish diseases, disease levels in wild stocks, fisheries management, histopathology, etiology, disease survey and detection, disease impact, Sebastes pinniger, widow rockfish, rock fishes, Sebastes flavidus, Sebastes entomelas, Sebastes reedi, Sebastes alutus, Sebastes paucispinus, rockcod, rosefishes, canary rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, yellowtail rockfish, widow rockfish, yellowmouth rockfish, North Pacific Ocean, Oregon, Washington State, British Columbia.

Morales, P.; Dunker, F.  Fish tuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum, in a group of Egyptian spiny-tailed lizards, Uromastyx aegyptius.  Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery.  2001; 11 (3): 27-30.  ISSN:  1529-9651
Descriptors:  lizards (Uromastyx aegyptius), Mycobacterium marinum, Egypt.  

Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kotob, S.; Van Berkum, P.; Kaattari, I.; Vogelbein, W.; Floyd, M.M.; Butler, W.R.; Quinn, F.D.; Ottinger, C.; Shotts, E.A. Unique Mycobacterium species isolated from an epizootic of striped sass (Morone saxatilis).  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2001, 7 (5) 896-899.  ISSN: 1080-6040.
NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46
Descriptors:  fish diseases, Mycobacterium species, taxonomic relationships, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium ulcerans, phenotypic characteristics and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence, striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Maryland, Chesapeake Bay.

Roberts, R. J., ed. The bacteriology of teolosts.  In: Fish Pathology, Third Edition. W.B. Saunders, An imprint of Harcourt Publishers Limited, London. 2001, p. 297-331.  ISBN: 0-7020-2563-1. Note: A book chapter.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.F68 2001
Descriptors:  bacterial diseases of fish, general information, list of 34 pathogens from various families, Gram negative, Gram positive, aerobic and anaerobic species, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, bacterial isolation, habitat, morphology, culture, epizootiology, clinical pathology, control.


Stinear, T.P.; Jenkin, G.A.; Johnson, P.D.R.; Davies, J.K. Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence. ISSN: 0165-2427. Journal of Bacteriology. 2000, 182: 6322-6330. ISSN: 0021-9193.
NAL Call Number: 448.3J82
Descriptors: Mycobacterium ulcerans (18 strains), Mycobacterium marinum (22 strains), taxonomic relationships, comparison of 3,306 nucleotides of 8 housekeeping and structural genes, genome sizes, preserved sequences, acquisition and loss of mobile DNA elements.

Torkko, P.; Suomalainen, S.; Iivanainen, E.; Suutari, M.; Tortoli, E.; Paulin, L.; Katila, M.L. Mycobacterium xenopi and related organisms isolated from stream waters in Finland and description of Mycobacterium botniense sp. nov.  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000, 50 (1) 283-289. ISSN: 1466-5026.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I577
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, scotochromogenic organisms, stream water isolates, GLC-MS, biochemical test, internal transcribed spacer sequencing, lipid analysis, unique sequences, characteristics of new species, strains (E347(T) and E43), ATCC strains700701(T) and 700702. 

Torkko, P.; Suomalainen, S.; Iivanainen, E.; Suutari, M.; Tortoli, E.; Paulin, L.; Katila, M.L. Mycobacterium xenopi and related organisms isolated from stream waters in Finland and description of Mycobacterium botniense sp. nov.  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000, 50 (1) 283-289. ISSN: 1466-5026.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I577
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, scotochromogenic organisms, stream water isolates, GLC-MS, biochemical test, internal transcribed spacer sequencing, lipid analysis, unique sequences, characteristics of new species, strains (E347(T) and E43), ATCC strains700701(T) and 700702. 


Alito, A.; Romano, M.I.; Bigi, F.; Zumarraga, M.; Cataldi, A. Antigenic characterization of mycobacteria from South American wild seals. Veterinary Microbiology.  Aug 31, 1999. 68 (3/4) 293-299. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
  seals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium, antigens, wild animals, strain differences, genetic variation, antibodies, lysis, identification, Mycobacterium microti.

Austin, B. Emerging bacterial fish pathogens. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathology. 1999, 19: 231-234.
Descriptors:  fish species, various types of fish pathogens, Mycobacterium sp.

Bastida, R.; Loureiro, J.; Quse, V.; Bernardelli, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Costa, E.  Tuberculosis in a wild subantarctic fur seal from Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1999. 35 (4) 796-798. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
  subantarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, granulomatous lesions in lungs, pathobiology, Mycobacterium complex, case reports, wild animals, Agrentina.

Chinabut, S. Mycobacteriosis and nocardiosis. In: Woo, P.T.K., Bruno, D.W. Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 3. Viral, Bacterial, and Fungal Infections. CAB International, New York. 1999. p. 319-340. Note: ook chapter.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.F57 1995 v. 3
  Mycobacterium sp., species of fish affected, geographical distribution, clinical signs, gross pathology, histopathology, characterization and taxonomy, diagnostic methods, disease transmission, control, treatment, pathogenesis and immunity, public health.

Gal, J.; Makrai, L.; Fodor, T.; David, S.; Fodor, L.; Vetesi, F. Gumokor elofordulasa fogsagban tartott mandarinreceben (Aixa galericulata). [Occurrence of tuberculosis in a captive mandarin duck (Aix galericulata).] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 1999. 121 (6) 367-371. Note:  In Hungarian with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V644
  Mycobacterium avium, captive duck, case report, tuberculosis, diagnosis, pathology, histology, liver, larynx, spleen, thymus, Hungary.

Holanda, E.D.; Lobato, F.C.F.; Ribeiro, L.P.; Mota, P.M.P.C.; Leite, R.C.;  Sampaio, R.; Lima, L.C. Avaliacaeo de metodos de descontaminacaeo para Mycobacterium fortuitum em tecido de peixe. [Available decontamination methods before examination of fishery products for Mycobacterium fortuitum.]  Acuicultura '99. 1999, 1: 275-278. Note:  2. Congreso sur American de Acuicultura. 3. Congreso WAS/LCA. 2. Feria Internacional de Acuicultura. 1. Congreso Nacional de Camaronicultura. 7. Encuentro Nacional de Acuicultura. 1. Encuentro de Genetica, Puerto la Cruz (Venezuela), 17-20 Nov 1999.  Cabrera, T.; Jory, D.; Silva, M. (eds).  In Portuguese.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium contaminated tissues, fish and animal specimens, hazardous materials, decontamination chemical treatments, worker protection, comparison study, 0,75% 1-hexadecyl pirydium chloride, 5% oxalic acid, 0,25% benzalkonium chloride, 6% sulfuric acid, toxicity to Mycobacterium fortuitum. 

Molina, M.; Araujo, R.; Hodson, R.E.  Cross-induction of pyrene and phenanthrene in a Mycobacterium sp. isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated river sediments.  Canadian Journal of Microbiology.  1999, 45 (6) 520-529.  ISSN:  0008-4166.
NAL Call Number:  448.8 C162
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, contaminated rivers sediments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biodegradation, pyrene, phenanthrene, pollution effects, bacterial metabolism, cross acclimation.

United Kingdom, British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. Scientific information document: tuberculosis. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 1999. 40 (3) 145-147.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 J8292
  cattle, reptiles, fishes, amphibians, humans, cats, dogs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, tuberculosis, zoonoses, pathogenesis, treatment, diagnosis, radiography, histopathology, reviews.

Wolf, J.C.; Smith, S.A. Comparative severity of experimentally-induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 1999, 38 (3) 191-200.
  Mycobacterium, bacterial disease of fish, experimental infection, pathology, striped bass, Morone saxatilis, hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp.

Zumarraga, M.J.; Bernardelli, A.; Bastida, R.; Quse, V.; Loureiro, J.; Cataldi, A.; Bigi, F.; Alito, A.; Ramos, M.C.; Samper, S.; Otal, I.; Martin, C.; Romano, M.I. Molecular characterization of mycobacteria isolated from seals.  Microbiology.  1999. 145 (9) 2519-2526. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
  seals, Arctocephalus australis, Arctocephalus tropicalis, Otaria flavescens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, RFLP, IS6110 probe, spoligotyping, analysis of 26S rRna gene sequence, PCR restriction analysis of hsp65, polymorphisms at gyrA codon 95 and katG codon 463, Mycobacterium bovis, unique genotypic group, Uruguay, Argentina.


Bruno, D.W.; Griffiths, J.; Mitchell, C.G.; Wood, B.P.; Fletcher, Z.J.; Drobniewski, F.A.; Hastings, T.S. Pathology attributed to Mycobacterium chelonae infection among farmed and laboratory-infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 1998, 33 (2) 101-109. ISSN: 0177-5103.

  Mycobacterium chelonae, Salmo salar, Atlantic salmon, bacterial fish diseases, fish culture, pathology, fish mortality, nodules with acid-fast bacteria, tissue isolates, biochemical tests, lipid analysis and PCR (polymerase chain reaction), Shetland Isles, Scotland.

Chen, Shih-Chu; Adams, A.; Thompson, K.D.; Richards, R.H.  Electron microscope studies of the in vitro phagocytosis of Mycobacterium spp. by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss head kidney macrophages.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  1998, 32 (2) 99-110.  ISSN:  0177-5103.

Descriptors:  Mycobacterium ssp., pathogenic bacteria of fish, immunology, head kidney, experimental infections, oral ingestion of pathogens, in vitro suspensions of macrophages, Oncorhynchus mykiss, quantitative evaluation of phygocytosis, phagosomes, opsonised with serum and antiserum.  

Chen, S-C.; Yoshida, T.; Adams, A.; Thompson, K.D.; Richards, R.H.  Non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to the extracellular products of Mycobacterium spp. and to various adjuvants.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  1998, 21 (1) 39-46.  ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium spp, Mycobacterium marinun, Oreochromis niloticus, adjuvants, vaccines, macrophages bladder inoculation, immune response, lysozome.

Colorni, A.; Avtalion, R.; Knibb, W.; Berger, E.; Colorni, B.; Timan, B. Histopathology of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium marinum and treated with streptomycin and garlic (Allium sativum) extract.  Aquaculture. 1998, 160 (1-2) 1-17.  ISSN:  0044-8486.
NAL Call Number:  SH1.A6
Descriptors:  Dicentrarchus labrax, Mycobacterium marinum, Allium sativum, pathogenic fish diseases, histopathology, serological effects, experimental infection, introperitoneal injection, granulomata in spleen, treatment with streptomycin and allicin, effects of treatment. 

Hunter, J.E.B.; Duigan, P.J.; Dupont, C.; Fray, L.; Fenwick, S.G.; Murray, A. First report of potentially zoonotic tuberculosis in fur seals in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 1998. 111 (1063) 130.
NAL Call Number:  R99 N4
  tuberculosis, zoonoses, Mycobacterium, fur seals, Actocephalus fosteri, zoonotic bacterial disease, New Zealand.

Mohney, L.L.; Poulos, B.T.; Brooker, J.H.; Cage, G.D.; Lightner, D.V.  Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium peregrinum from the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 1998, 10 (1) 83-88.  ISSN: 0899-7659.
NAL Call Number:  SH181.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium peregrine, Penaeus vannamei, whiteleg shrimp, shrimp culture, pathogenic bacteria, multifocal, melanized, nodulare lesions of the carapace, new species record for shrimp, potential zoonotic skin disease, disease risks for seafood handlers, negative marketability. 

Shehab, M.M. (ed.); El Tahlawy, M.R. (ed.); Mahmoud, M.R. Eighth Scientific Congress, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 15-17 November, 1998. Assiut; Egypt, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University; 1998. 927 pp. Note:  74 papers.
  livestock animals, cattle, camels, buffaloes, goats, sheep, rabbits, donkeys, dogs, pigs, mice, poultry, horses, rats, shrimp, many diseases, tuberculosis, brucellosis, aflatoxins, dermatitis, Mycobacterium.

Talaat, A.M.; Reimschuessel, R.; Wasserman, S.S.; Trucksis, M.  Goldfish, Carassius auratus, a novel animal model for the study of Mycobacterium marinum pathogenesis.  Infection and Immunity. 1998. 66 (6) 2938-2942.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  goldfish disease model experimental infection, Mycobacterium marinum, fish diseases, pathogenesis, tuberculosis, symptoms.

Thorel, M.F.; Karouia, C.; Varnerot, A.; Fleury, C.; Vincent, V.  Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from baboons, leopards and a sea-lion.  Veterinary Research. 1998, 29 (2) 207-212. ISSN: 0928-4249.
NAL Call Number:  SF602.A5 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovi, Otaria byronia, Papio hamadryas, Panthera uncial, Panthera  pardus, Otaria byrona, leopard, infection in captive zoo animals, epidemiology using genetics markers, DNA fingerprinting system, strain differentiation, disease control, marine mammals.

United States Animal Health Association. Proceedings:  One Hundred and Second Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3-9 October, 1998. Richmond:  The Association. 1998. 756 pp.
NAL Call Number:  49.9 UN3R
  livestock, pigs, cattle, bison, horses, llamas, poultry, aquaculture species, wildlife, animal welfare, biotechnology, disease outbreaks, feeds, food safety, international trade, parasitoses, drugs, environment, rabies, bluetongue virus, Retroviridae, Leptospira, Aujeszky virus, Salmonella, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, USA.


Chen, S-C.; Adams, A.; Thompson, K.D.; Richards, R.H.  A comparison of the antigenicity of the extracellular products and whole-cell sonicates from Mycobacterium spp. in rabbits, mice and fish by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  1997, 20 (6) 427-442.  ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium ssp., Channa striatus, Betta splendens, chevron snakehead, Siamese fighting fish, mice, rabbits, bacterial fish diseases, antigens, metabolites. 

Chen, S.-C.; Adams, A.; Richards, R.H.  Extracellular products from Mycobacterium spp. in fish.  Journal of Fish Diseases.  1997, 20 (1) 19-25.  ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.A1J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium ssp., TB1, TB40, TB267 and TB268,  Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium marinum, food and ornamental fish, isolation and differentiation, cell culture techniques, Long's medium, Eagle's minimum essential medium, Sauton's medium, modified Sauton's medium, extracellular enzymes, pathogenic bacteria, secretory products excretion, enzymes, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Tilapia nilotica, rainbow trout, Nile mouthbrooder, Thailand.

Chen, Shih-Chu; Adams, A.; Thompson, K.D.; Richards, R.H.  Development of monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular products of Mycobacterium, spp. isolated from chevron snakehead and the reference strain Mycobacterium chelonei.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 1997, 9 (2) 86-98.  ISSN: 0899-7659.
NAL Call Number:  SH181.J68
Descriptors:  Channa striat, Mycobacterium chelonei, monoclonal antibodies, pathogenic bacteria therapy, chevron snakehead, striped snakehead, ELISA, Western blot, antigen molecular weights.

Hoel, K.; Lillehaug, A. Adjuvant activity of polar glycopeptidolipids from Mycobacterium chelonae in experimental vaccines against Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish.  Fish & Shellfish Immunology.  1997, 7 (6) 365-376.  ISSN: 1050-4648.
NAL Call Number:  QL638.97.F55
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium chelonae, Aeromonas salmonicida, pathogenic fish bacteria, vaccines, marine fish, boil disease, adjuvant activity, glycopeptidolipids, potential vaccine formulations.

Ramakrishnan, L.; Valdivia, R.H.; McKerrow, J.H.; Falkow, S. Mycobacterium marinum causes both long-term subclinical infection and acute disease in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Infection and Immunity.  1997, 65 (2) 767-773.  ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call Number:  QR1. I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, Rana pipiens, bacterial species temperature requirements, chronic granulomatous disease, immunocompromised host species, tuberculosis pathogenesis, bacterial disease, disease detection, leopard frog as an animal model.

Smith, S.A. Mycobacterial infection in pet fish. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. 1997, 6: 40-45.
NAL Call Number:  SF994.2.A1S36
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, exotic fish trade, bacterial disease of fish, pathology, incidence, treatment.

Teska, J.D.; Twerdok, L.E.; Beaman, J.; Curry, M.; Finch, R.A. Isolation of Mycobacterium abscessus from Japanese medaka.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health.  1997, 9 (3) 234-238.  ISSN: 0899-7659.
NAL Call Number:  SH171.J68
Descriptors: Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, aquatic toxicity testing in animals, Mycobacterium abscessus, isolated from whole fish homogenates, culture media and techniques. 


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