Bacteria

 

2007

Adjei, M.D.; Deck, J.; Heinze, T.M.; Freeman, J.P.; Williams, A.J.; Sutherland, J.B.  Identification of metabolites produced from N-phenylpiperazine by Mycobacterium spp.  Journal of  Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2007 Mar; 34 (3): 219-224.  ISSN: 1367-5435
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-006-0189-x
NAL Call Number:  QR53 .J68
Abstract: Mycobacterium sp. 7E1B1W and seven other mycobacterial strains known to degrade hydrocarbons were investigated to determine their ability to metabolize the piperazine ring, a substructure found in many drugs.  Cultures were grown at 30degrees C in tryptic soy broth and dosed with 3.1 mM N-phenylpiperazine hydrochloride; samples were removed at intervals and extracted with ethyl acetate.  Two metabolites were purified from each of the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography; they were identified by mass spectrometry and  superscript 1(BH nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as N-(2-anilinoethyl)acetamide and N-acetyl-N'-phenylpiperazine.  The results show that mycobacteria have the ability to acetylate piperazine rings and cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium strains, ability to metabolize piperazine, broth culture, extracts via hplchromatography, acetylation of piperazine rings, cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds. 

Chitra, M.A.; Subodh Kishore  Lipoarabinomannan for the serological diagnosis of bovine tuberculosisIndian Veterinary Journal.  2007; 84 (2): 123-126.  ISSN:  0019-6479
URL:   www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN2
Descriptors:  cattle; lipoarabinomannan antigen; ELISA test; Mycobacterium bovis identification, optical density compared to other mycobacterial species, diagnostic test sensitivity, serodiagnosis in the field, compared to PPD, CCF, CSA antigens.

Denis, M.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Storset, A.K.; Buddle, B.M.  Bovine natural killer cells restrict the replication of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine macrophages and enhance IL-12 release by infected macrophages.  Tuberculosis.  2007; 87 (1): 53-62.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14729792
Descriptors:  blood monocyte-derived bovine macrophages, stimulated NK cells and release interleukin-2 (IL-2), natural killer cells, innate bovine resistance to virulent M. bovis, reduction of bacterial growth in macrophages.

Flynn, Robin J.; Mannion, Celine; Golden, Olwen; Hacariz, Orcun; Mulcahy, Grace.  Experimental Fasciola hepatica infection alters responses to tests used for diagnosis of  bovine tuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2007 Mar; 75 (3): 1373-1381.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Fasciola hepatica is a prevalent helminth parasite of livestock. Infection results in polarization of the host's immune response and generation of type 2 helper (Th2) immune responses, which are known to be inhibitory to Th1 responses.  Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a bacterial disease of economic and zoonotic importance.  Control polices for this disease rely on extensive annual testing and a test-and-slaughter policy.  The correct diagnosis of BTB relies on cell-mediated immune responses.  We established a model of coinfection of F. hepatica and Mycobacterium bovis BCG to examine the impact of helminth infection on correct diagnosis.  We found the predictive capacity of tests to be compromised in coinfected animals and that F. hepatica infection altered macrophage function.  Interleukin-4 and gamma interferon expression in whole-blood lymphocytes restimulated in vitro with M. bovis antigen was also altered in coinfected animals.  These results raise the question of whether F. hepatica infection can affect the predictive capacity of tests for the diagnosis of BTB and possibly also influence susceptibility to BTB and other bacterial diseases.  Further studies on the interplay between helminth infection and BTB are warranted.  
Descriptors:  livestock, Fasciola hepatica, liver fluke, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, co-infection of helminths and bacteria, question whether bovine tuberculosis testing compromised, suggest further studies.

Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Nakata, Noboru; Maeda, Shinji; Naka, Takashi; Doe, Matsumi; Yano, Ikuya; Kobayashi, Kazuo.  Structural characterization of a specific glycopeptidolipid containing a novel N-acyl-deoxy sugar from Mycobactetium intracellulare serotype 7 and genetic analysis of its glycosylation pathway  Journal of Bacteriology. 2007; 189 (3): 1099-1108.  ISSN:  0021-9193
URL:  http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare complex (MAC) respiratory and lymphatic pathogen, humans and animals, produce polar glycopeptidolipids, serotype specific antigenicity, structural characterization, glycosylation pathway, serovars.

Gannon, B.W.; Hayes, C.M.; Roe, J.M.  Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2007; 82 (2): 169-172.  ISSN:  0034-5288
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288
NAL Call Number:   41.8 R312
Descriptors:  survival time of aerosolized, Mycobacterium bovis, half life of 1.5 hours, airborne transmission, cattle infection, may be principle route of infection.

Gong, Qiang; Liu, Si Guo; Guo, She Ping; Wang, Chun Lai; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jian Dong; Zhao, Kun; Chi, Lei; Kong, Xian Gang.  Immunogenicity of DNA vaccine containing esat-6 gene or mpb70-mpb83 fusion gene from Mycobacterium bovis.  Veterinary Science in China.  2007; 37 (1): 61-66.  ISSN:  1673-4696.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
URL:
  http://www.zgsykx.com/
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis Vallee III, mycobacterial infections, DNA vaccine, fragments of esat-6 and mpb70-mpb83, antigenicity, cloning vectors, immunity reactions, immunogens, immunological reactions, mycobacterial infections, BALB mice.

Marsh, I.B.; Whittington, R.J.  Genomic diversity in Mycobacterium avium: Single nucleotide polymorphisms between the S and C strains of M-avium subsp paratuberculosis and with M-a. aviumMolecular and Cellular Probes.  2007; 21(1): 66-75.  ISSN:  0890-8508
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08908508
Descriptors:  sheep; cattle; Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; strain C; strain S; Mycobacterium avium avium; amino acid sequence; nucleotide sequence; genomic diversity; species comparison; GenBank sequence numbers; 12,117 bp of sequence representing 26 loci across 25 genes; 11 SNPs were identified between the S and C strains in eight genes: hsp65, sodA, dnaA, dnaN, recF, gyrB, inhA, and pks8.

Montgomery, A.  Incidence and sensitivity of major bovine respiratory disease pathogens in Europe.  Veterinary Times.  2007; 37 (2): 24.  ISSN: 1352-9374
Descriptors:  cattle,  acute signs of bovine respiratory disease, sampling with swabs, 220 pathogens isolated, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Histophilus, Mycobacterium bovis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, sensitivity to antiobiotics, florfenicol, tilmicosin, tulathromycin, tetracycline, 8 European countries.

Ren, Huiping; Dover, Lynn G.; Islam, Salim T.; Alexander, David C.; Chen, Jeffrey M.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Liu, Jun.  Identification of the lipooligosaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster from Mycobacterium marinum.  Molecular Microbiology.  2007 Mar; 63 (5): 1345-1359.  ISSN:  0950-382X .
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05603.x
NAL Call Number:  QR74.M65
Abstract: Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are antigenic glycolipids that are present in some species of Mycobacterium including the Canetti strain of M. tuberculosis.  The core LOS structures from several mycobacterial organisms have been established, but the biosynthetic pathways of LOSs remain unknown.  In this study, we describe two transposon insertion mutants of M. marinum that exhibit altered colony morphology.  Cell wall analysis reveals that the MRS1271 mutant is defective in the synthesis of LOS-II, whereas the MRS1178 mutant accumulates an intermediate between LOS-I and -II.  The genetic lesions were localized to two genes, MM2309 and MM2332. MM2309 encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase that is involved in the synthesis of d-xylose.  MM2332 is predicted to encode a decarboxylase.  These two genes and a previously identified losA gene are localized in a gene cluster likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of LOSs.  Our results also show that LOSs play an important role in sliding motility, biofilm formation, and infection of host macrophages.  Taken together, our studies have identified, for the first time, a LOS biosynthetic locus.  This is an important step in assessing the differential distribution of LOSs among Mycobacterium species and understanding the role of LOSs in mycobacterial virulence.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, Lipooligosaccharides, biosynthetic pathways, transposon mutants, biosynthetic locus.

Sharma, S.; Mallick, G.P.; Rishendra Verma; Ray, S.K.  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of IS6110 sequences to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of deer (Axis axis).  Veterinary Research Communications.  2007; 31 (1): 17-21.  ISSN:  0165-7380
URL:  http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103009
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V38: 
Descriptors:  Axix deer (Cervus axis), diagnostic test, PCR IS6110 sequences, fixed tissue samples, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India.

Sreenu, V.B.; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Nagarajaram, H.A. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes.  Journal of Biosciences.  2007; 32 (1): 3-5.  ISSN: print 0250-5991, e-0973-7138
URL:  http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DNA insertion elements, insertion sequences, microsatellites, simple sequence repeats, mobile genetic elements, mobile sequences, transposons.

Sreenu, V.B.; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Nagarajaram, H.A.  Microsatellite polymorphism across the M. tuberculosis and M. bovis genomes: implications on genome evolution and plasticity.  BMC Genomics.  2006; 7 (78): (10 April 2006).  ISSN:  1471-2164
URL:  http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2164-7-78.pdf
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DNA transcription, microsatellite indel mutations, novel functions, plasticity to the mycobacterial genomes, phenotypic variability, polymorphism.

Thanky, Niren R.; Young, Douglas B.; Robertson, Brian D. Unusual features of the cell cycle in mycobacteria: polar-restricted growth and the snapping-model of cell division.  Tuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2007; 87 (3): 231-236.  ISSN:  1472-9792
Descriptors:  cell divisions, mycobacterial growth, cell lengths, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, peptidoglycan, cell poles, V shape.

Turenne, C.Y.; Wallace, R., Jr; Behr,M.A.  Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era.  Clinical Microbiology Reviews.  2007; 20 (2): 205-229.  ISSN:  0893-8512
URL:  http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/2/205
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, genomic data, detection and diagnosis, genomic variability of Mycobacterium subset relationships, fundamental differences and ability to cause disease.

Vega-Manriquez, X.; Lopez-Vidal, Y.; Moran, J.; Adams, L.G.; Gutierrez-Pabello, J.A.  Apoptosis-inducing factor participation in bovine macrophage Mycobacterium bovis-induced caspase- independent cell death.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2007 Mar; 75 (3): 1223-1228. ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species survive and replicate in phagosomes of the host cell.  Cell death (CD) has been highlighted as one of the probable outcomes in this host-pathogen interaction.  Previously, our group demonstrated macrophage apoptosis as a consequence of Mycobacterium bovis infection.  In this study, we aimed to identify the contribution of apoptotic effector elements in M. bovis-induced CD.  Bovine macrophages were either infected with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection, 10:1) or treated with an M. bovis cell extract (CFE).  Structural changes compatible with CD were evaluated.  Chromatin condensation was increased three times by the CFE.  On the other hand, a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated that levels of DNA fragmentation induced by M. bovis and CFE were 53.7% +/- 24% and 38.9% +/- 14%, respectively, whereas control cells had a basal proportion of 8.9% +/- 4.1%.  Rates of DNA fragmentation were unaffected by the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (z-VAD).  Cells treated with 100 (So(Bg of CFE for 12 h had a fivefold decrease in the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization compared to that of untreated cells.  Neither M. bovis infection nor CFE treatment induced activation of caspase 3, 8, or 9.  Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus was identified in 32% +/- 3.5% and 26.3% +/- 4.9% of M. bovis-infected and CFE-treated cells, respectively.  Incubation of macrophages with z-VAD prior to infection did not alter the percentage of cells showing AIF translocation.  Our data suggest that M. bovis-induced CD in bovine macrophages is caspase independent with AIF participation.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cell death, macrophage apoptosis, bacterial infection, structural changes of cell death, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, apoptosis inducing factor, caspase independent.

Waters, W.R.; Nonnecke, B.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Palmer, M.V.  Effects of pre-culture holding time and temperature on interferon-gamma responses in whole blood cultures from Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2007; 119 (2/4): 277-282.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: The BovigamTM assay is approved for use within the United States as a complementary tuberculosis test.  Prior to whole blood culture and the ensuing ELISA to detect interferon-(IFN)- gamma, samples are subjected to various holding time/temperature combinations due, in part, to practical constraints associated with shipment of samples to approved laboratories.  To evaluate these effects, 5-month-old Holstein calves (n=7) received 103 cfu Mycobacterium bovis by aerosol.  Heparinized blood was collected 2 months after challenge and held at 4 or 22 degrees C for 0, 8 or 24 h prior to culture with mycobacterial antigens or pokeweed mitogen (PWM).  Responses of samples held for 8 or 24 h were comparable and lower than responses of cultures prepared immediately after collection, regardless of holding temperature.  Differences in responses of samples held at 4 degrees C versus 22 degrees C were also minimal.  A subset of samples was held for 2 h at 37 degrees C at the beginning of the holding period.  This subset of samples had diminished responses to all stimulants and increased holding times (i.e., 24 h versus 8 h) negatively impacted the response.  Pre-processing conditions, particularly delays in set-up and initial high sample temperatures, reduces IFN- gamma responses of cells from infected cattle increasing the risk of false negatives in this assay of regulatory importance..
Descriptors:  young Holstein cattle, experimental infection, aerosol exposure to Mycobacterium bovis, blood analysis, ELISA, assays, IFN-gamma responses, immunological reactions.

Westhusin, M.E.; Shin, T.; Templeton, J.W.; Burghardt, R.C.; Adams, L.G.  Rescuing valuable genomes by animal cloning: A case for natural disease resistance in cattle.  Journal of Animal Science.  2007 Jan; 85 (1): 138-142.  ISSN:  0021-8812
NAL Call Number:  49 J82
Abstract: Tissue banking and animal cloning represent a powerful tool for conserving and regenerating valuable animal genomes.  Here we report an example involving cattle and the rescue of a genome affording natural disease resistance.  During the course of a 2-decade study involving the phenotypic and genotypic analysis for the functional and genetic basis of natural disease resistance against bovine brucellosis, a foundation sire was identified and confirmed to be genetically resistant to Brucella abortus.  This unique animal was utilized extensively in numerous animal breeding studies to further characterize the genetic basis for natural disease resistance.  The bull died in 1996 of natural causes, and no semen was available for AI, resulting in the loss of this valuable genome.  Fibroblast cell lines had been established in 1985, cryopreserved, and stored in liquid nitrogen for future genetic analysis.  Therefore, we decided to utilize these cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer to attempt the production of a cloned bull and salvage this valuable genotype.  Embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transferred to 20 recipient cows, 10 of which became pregnant as determined by ultrasound at d 40 of gestation.  One calf survived to term.  At present, the cloned bull is 4.5 yr old and appears completely normal as determined by physical examination and blood chemistry.  Furthermore, in vitro assays performed to date indicate this bull is naturally resistant to B. abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, and Salmonella typhimurium, as was the original genetic donor.
Descriptors:  cattle, tissue banking, natural disease resistance in a bull, fibroblast cell line, cryopreserved, cloning of germplasm, 1 viable offspring, resistance to B. abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella typhimurium.

Yip, Marcus J.; Porter, Jessica L.; Fyfe, Janet A.M.; Lavender, Caroline J.; Portaels, Francoise; Rhodes, Martha; Kator, Howard; Colorni, Angelo; Jenkin, Grant A.; Stinear, Tim.  Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria from a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2007; 189 (5): 2021-2029.  ISSN:  0021-9193
URL:  http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  evolution of cytotoxic polyketide mycolactones, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Buruli ulcers, Mycobacterium marinum progenitor of mycolactones, multiple genetic methods, multilocus sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, plasmid acquisition, ecotypes, pathogens of ectotherms and endotherms, mammals, frogs, fish.

 

2006

Adaekambi, Toeidi; Ben Salah, Skandar; Khlif, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel.  Survival of environmental mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM).  2006 Sept; 72 (9): 5974-5981.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL:    http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract: Free-living amoebae in water are hosts to many bacterial species living in such an environment.  Such an association enables bacteria to select virulence factors and survive in adverse conditions.  Waterborne mycobacteria (WBM) are important sources of community- and hospital-acquired outbreaks of nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections.  However, the interactions between WBM and free-living amoebae in water have been demonstrated for only few Mycobacterium spp.  We investigated the ability of a number (n = 26) of Mycobacterium spp. to survive in the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga. All the species tested entered the trophozoites of A. polyphaga and survived at this location over a period of 5 days. Moreover, all Mycobacterium spp. survived inside cysts for a period of 15 days.  Intracellular Mycobacterium spp. within amoeba cysts survived when exposed to free chlorine (15 mg/liter) for 24 h.  These data document the interactions between free-living amoebae and the majority of waterborne Mycobacterium spp.  Further studies are required to examine the effects of various germicidal agents on the survival of WBM in an aquatic environment.
Descriptors:  Acanthamoeba polyphaga free living amoebae, survival of Mycobacterium in A. polyphaga cysts, source of waterborne Mycobacterium infections.

Akey, David; Martins, Alexandra; Aniukwu, Jideofor; Glickman, Michael S.; Shuman, Stewart; Berger, James M.  Crystal Structure and nonhomologous end-joining function of the ligase component of Mycobacterium DNA ligase D. Journal of Biological Chemistry.  2006 May 12; 281(19): 13412-13423.  ISSN:  0021-9258
URL:  http://www.jbc.org/
NAL Call Number:  381 J824
Abstract: DNA ligase D (LigD) is a large polyfunctional enzyme involved in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) in mycobacteria. LigD consists of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain fused to upstream polymerase and phosphoesterase modules.  Here we report the 2.4 eA crystal structure of the ligase domain of Mycobacterium LigD, captured as the covalent ligase-AMP intermediate with a divalent metal in the active site.  A chloride anion on the protein surface coordinated by the ribose 3'-OH and caged by arginine and lysine side chains is a putative mimetic of the 5'-phosphate at a DNA nick. Structure-guided mutational analysis revealed distinct requirements for the adenylylation and end-sealing reactions catalyzed by LigD.  We found that a mutation of Mycobacterium LigD that ablates only ligase activity results in decreased fidelity of NHEJ in vivo and a strong bias of mutagenic events toward deletions instead of insertions at the sealed DNA ends.  This phenotype contrasts with the increased fidelity of double-strand break repair in [Delta]ligD cells or in a strain in which only the polymerase function of LigD is defective. We surmise that the signature error-prone quality of bacterial NHEJ in vivo arises from a dynamic balance between the end-remodeling and end-sealing steps. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, DNA ligaseD.  crystal structure, biochemistry, polyfunctional enzyme, end remodeling, end sealing.

Allix, Caroline; Walravens, Karl; Saegerman, Claude; Godfroid, Jacques; Supply, Philip; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse.  Evaluation of the epidemiological relevance of varable number tandem-repeat genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and comparison of the method with IS6110 restriction fragment fength polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 June; 44 (6): 1951-1962.  ISSN: 0095-1137.  E-ISSN:  1098-660X
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: Sources of Mycobacterium bovis contamination remain unclear for many cases of animal and human disease. A major limitation is the lack of sufficiently informative or epidemiologically well evaluated molecular methods for typing.  Here, we report an evaluation of a high-throughput method based on 29 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci to genotype 127 M. bovis isolates from cattle from 77 different Belgian farms, representative of a nationwide collection obtained from 1995 to 2003.  MIRU-VNTR stability was demonstrated by analyzing a series of 74 isolates in total, obtained from different animals from a single farm or from different farms with an identified epidemiological link.  The genotyping results and the genotypic diversity (h) were compared with those obtained by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping.  Among 68 isolates with no known epidemiological link, MIRU-VNTR typing discriminated better than either RFLP analysis or spoligotyping, with isolates taken individually (32 versus 16 and 17 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.73 and 0.85, respectively) or in combination (32 versus 28 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.92).  Maximal resolution was already achieved with a subset of 9 loci.  The observed congruence of the genetic relationships based on IS6110 RFLP analysis, spoligotyping, and MIRU-VNTR markers is consistent with a clonal population structure of M. bovis.  These results support MIRU-VNTR typing as a convenient and discriminatory technique for analysis of the population structure of M. bovis in much greater detail and for addressing some still unresolved issues in the epidemiology of the pathogen.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle isolates, animal bacterial pathogen, epidemiology, discriminatory technique for population analysis, 29 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci to genotype 127.

Arraiz, N.; Romay, Z.; Faria, N.; Mujica, D.  Identificacion diferencial de aislados clinicos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Mycobacterium bovis por un ensayo de RCP multiple.  [Differential identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis clinical isolates by multiplex PCR assay.]  Revista Cientifica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia.  2006; 16 (6): 622-628.  ISSN:  0798-2259.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, efficacy of PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium species, targeted Rv0577 and Rv1510 gene sequences, zoonotic infections.

Bartos, Milan; Hlozek, Pavel; Svastova, Petra; Dvorska, Lenka; Bull, Tim; Matlova, Ludmila; Parmova, Ilona; Kuhn, Isolde; Stubbs, Janine; Moravkova, Monika; Kintr, Jaromir; Beran, Vladimir; Melicharek, Ivan; Ocepek, Matjaz; Pavlik, Ivo.  Identification of members of Mycobacterium avium species by Accu-Probes, serotyping, and single IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS901-flanking region PCR with internal standards.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2006; 64(3): 333-345.  ISSN:  0167-7012
URL:http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506034/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR65.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (n = 961), Mycobacterium avium avium (n = 677), Mycobacterium avium  silvaticum (n = 5), Mycobacterium avium hominissuis (n = 1566), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis (n = 13), Mycobacterium bovis BCG (n = 4), Mycobacterium caprae (n = 10), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 60), atypical mycobacteria (n = 256) including Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gastri, insertion sequences IS900, IS901, IS1245, and flanking region (FR300) of IS901, PCR of alfalfa genome segment and inserted into plasmid vector, recombinant plasmids, internal amplicons, PCR typing compared with serotyping and Accu-Probes analyses in selected field isolates.

Cadmus, Simeon; Palmer, Si; Okker, Melissa; Dale, James; Gover, Karen; Smith, Noel; Jahans, Keith; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.  Molecular analysis of human and bovine tubercle bacilli from a local setting in Nigeria.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006.  44 (1): 29-34.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: To establish a molecular epidemiological baseline for the strains causing tuberculosis in Nigeria, a survey of isolates from humans and cattle was carried out.  Spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat analysis revealed that the majority of tuberculosis disease in humans in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, is caused by a single, closely related group of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.  Using deletion typing, we show that approximately 13% of the disease in humans in this sample was caused by strains of Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium bovis rather than M. tuberculosis. Molecular analysis of strains of M. bovis recovered from Nigerian cattle show that they form a group of closely related strains that show similarity to strains from neighboring Cameroon.  Surprisingly, the strains of M. bovis recovered from humans do not match the molecular type of the cattle strains, and possible reasons for this are discussed.  This is the first molecular analysis of M. tuberculosis complex strains circulating among humans and cattle in Nigeria, the results of which have significant implications for disease control.
Descriptors:  humans, cattle, tubercular bacilli, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains, spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, Nigeria.

Chambers, M.A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Hewinson, R.G.  Histopathogenesis of experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection in mice.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2006.  80 (1): 62-70.  ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:  mice, cattle, badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, animal disease models, bovine tuberculosis, histopathology, pathogenesis, virulence, lesions animal, disease severity, host-pathogen relationships, vaccination, pathogenicity, model validation.

Chilima, Benson Z.; Clark, Ian M.; Floyd, Sian; Fine, Paul E. M.; Hirsch, Penny R.  Distribution of environmental Mycobacteria in Karonga District, Northern MalawiApplied and Environmental Microbiology.  2006 Apr; 72 (4): 2343-2350.  ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 AP5
Abstract: The genus includes many species that are commonly found in the environment (in soil and water or associated with plants and animals), as well as species that are responsible for two major human diseases, tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae).  The distribution of environmental mycobacteria was investigated in the context of a long-term study of leprosy, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination, and the responses of individuals to various mycobacterial antigens in Karonga District, northern Malawi, where epidemiological studies had indicated previously that people may be exposed to different mycobacterial species in the northern and southern parts of the district.  A total of 148 soil samples and 24 water samples were collected from various locations and examined to determine the presence of mycobacteria.  The detection method involved semi-selective culturing and acid-fast staining, following decontamination of samples to enrich mycobacteria and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, or PCR with primers specific for the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene, using DNA extracted directly from soil and water samples.  Mycobacteria were detected in the majority of the samples, and subsequent sequence analysis of PCR products amplified directly from soil DNA indicated that most of the products were related to known environmental mycobacteria.  For both methods the rates of recovery were consistently higher for dry season samples than for wet season samples.  All isolates cultured from soil appeared to be strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum.  This study revealed a complex pattern for the environmental mycobacterial flora but identified no clear differences between the northern and southern parts of Karonga District.
Descriptors:  soil bacteria, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, cell culture, differential staining, decontamination, polymerase chain reaction, species diversity, ribosomal RNA, genes, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, molecular sequence data, decontamination culture, Malawi.

Chitra, M. Ananda; Kishore, Subodh.  Effect of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan on interleukin-2 production by bovine lymphocytes.  Indian Veterinary Journal.  2006; 83 (7): 703-707.  ISSN:  0019-6479
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN2
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), major antigen of mycobacterial envelope, immunological activities, cytokines, lymphocyte proliferation, induction of interleukin 2.

Collins, Desmond M.; Skou, Bronwyn; White, Stefan; Bassett, Shalome; Collins, Lauren; For, Raewyn; Hurr, Kathryn; Hotter, Grant; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.  Generation of attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strains by signature-tagged mutagenesis for discovery of novel vaccine candidates.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73 (4): 2379-2386.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?iid=117182
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, has a particularly wide host range and causes tuberculosis in most mammals, including humans.  A signature tag mutagenesis approach, which employed illegitimate recombination and infection of guinea pigs, was applied to M. bovis to discover genes important for virulence and to find potential vaccine candidates.  Fifteen attenuated mutants were identified, four of which produced no lesions when inoculated separately into guinea pigs.  One of these four mutants had nine deleted genes including mmpL4 and sigK and, in guinea pigs with aerosol challenge, provided protection against tuberculosis at least equal to that of M. bovis BCG.  Seven mutants had mutations near the esxA (esat-6) locus, and immunoblot analysis of these confirmed the essential role of other genes at this locus in the secretion of EsxA (ESAT-6) and EsxB (CFP10).  Mutations in the eight other attenuated mutants were widely spread through the chromosome and included pks1, which is naturally inactivated in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis.  Many genes identified were different from those found by signature tag mutagenesis of M. tuberculosis by use of a mouse infection model and illustrate how the use of different approaches enables identification of a wider range of attenuating mutants.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, attenuated mutants, illegitimate recombination and infection of guinea pigs.

Cosma, Christine L.; Klein, Kathryn; Kim, Rosa; Beery, Dana; Ramakrishnan, Lalita.  Mycobacterium marinum Erp is a virulence determinant required for cell wall integrity and intracellular survival.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2006 June; 74 (6): 3125-3133.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported repetitive protein (Erp) is a virulence determinant required for growth in cultured macrophages and in vivo.  To better understand the role of Erp in Mycobacterium pathogenesis, we generated a mutation in the Erp homologue of Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis. Erp-deficient M. marinum was growth attenuated in cultured macrophage monolayers and during chronic granulomatous infection of leopard frogs, suggesting that Erp function is similarly required for the virulence of both M. tuberculosis and M. marinum.  To pinpoint the step in infection at which Erp is required, we utilized a zebrafish embryo infection model that allows M. marinum infections to be visualized in real-time, comparing the Erp-deficient strain to a [Delta]RD1 mutant whose stage of attenuation was previously characterized in zebrafish embryos.  A detailed microscopic examination of infected embryos revealed that bacteria lacking Erp were compromised very early in infection, failing to grow and/or survive upon phagocytosis by host macrophages.  In contrast, [Delta]RD1 mutant bacteria grow normally in macrophages but fail to induce host macrophage aggregation and subsequent cell-to-cell spread.  Consistent with these in vivo findings, erp-deficient but not RD1-deficient bacteria exhibited permeability defects in vitro, which may be responsible for their specific failure to survive in host macrophages. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum, exported repetitive protein, virulence determinant, cultured macrophages, invivo, pathogensis, infection of leopard frogs, infected embryos, early infections, permeability.

Costello, E.; Flynn, O.; Quigley, F.; O'Grady, D.; Griffin, J.; Clegg, T.; McGrath, G.  Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 159(19): 619-623.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers, tissue sampling of 2310 animals, RFLP analysis with IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS), direct repeat sequence (DR) probes, 398 isolates, 52 RFLP types identifies, movement of badgers between territories, Republic of Ireland.

Costello, E.; Flynn, O.; Quigley, F.; O'Grady, D.; Griffin, J.; Clegg, T.; McGrath, G.  Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 159(19): 619-623.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers, tissue sampling of 2310 animals, RFLP analysis with IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS), direct repeat sequence (DR) probes, 398 isolates, 52 RFLP types identifies, movement of badgers between territories, Republic of Ireland.

Courtenay, O.; Reilly, L.A.; Sweeney, F.P.; Hibberd, V.; Bryan, S.; Ul Hassan, A.; Newman, C.; Macdonald, D.W.; Delahay, R.J.; Wilson, G.J.; Wellington, E.M.H.  Is Mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis?  Biology Letters.  2006; 2 (3): 460-462.  ISSN:  1744-9561
URL:  http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/biol_lett
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, prevalence of pathogen in environment, detectability of M. bovis, badger setts and latrines, environmental reservoir, endemic on cattle farms, Britain.

Cruz, Andrea; Khader, Shabaana A; Torrado, Egidio; Fraga, Alexandra; Pearl, John E; Pedrosa, Jorge; Cooper, Andrea M.; Castro, Antonio G.  Cutting edge: IFN-gamma regulates the induction and expansion of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells during mycobacterial infection.  Journal of Immunology.  2006; 177 (3): 1416-1420.  ISSN:  0022-1767.
URL:  http://www.jimmunol.org
NAL Call Number:  448.8 J8232
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin, IFN-gamma deficient mice, IL 17 producing T cells, IL-12 and IL-23 from bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells, changes in experession levels, counter regulation pathway, effects on immune response.

Daly, M.; Diegel, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Schooley, A.; Berry, D.E.; Kaneene, J.B.  Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Michigan wildlife and bovine isolates of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 July; 18 (4): 401-404.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial isolates, wildlife and bovine sources, susceptibility to antibacterial compounds.

Endsley, Janice J.; Endsley, Mark A; Estes, D Mark.  Bovine natural killer cells acquire cytotoxic/effector activity following activation with IL-12/15 and reduce Mycobacterium bovis BCG in infected macrophages.  Journal of Leukocyte Biology.  2006; 79 (1): 71-79.  ISSN:  0741-5400
URL: http://www.jleukbio.org/
NAL Call Number: QP185.R4
Descriptors:  blood, blood and lymphatics, nervous system, macrophage, immune system, monocytes, leukocytes, T lymphocytes, CD4 positive T cells, bovine natural-killer-cells: NK cells, CD3, mRNA, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, CD8, CD25, CD94, NKp46, p46, CD244, CD56, neural adhesion molecule, granulysin, perforin, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin.

Fenner, D.C.; Beurge, B.; Kayser, H.P.; Wittenbrink,-M.M.  The anti-microbial activity of electrolysed oxidizing water against microorganisms relevant in veterinary medicine.   Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe-B.  2006 Apr; 53 (3): 133-137.  ISSN:  0931-1793
URL:    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00921.x
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52
Abstract: Standards of the German Association of Veterinary Medicine (DVG) for the evaluation of chemical disinfectants were used to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing water (EOW).  Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were exposed to anode EOW (pH, 3.0 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.1; oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), +1100 * left-pointing-double-angle * 50 mV; free chlorine, 400 * left-pointing-double-angle * 20 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B) and combined EOW (7 : 3 anode : cathode, v/v; pH, 8.3 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.1; ORP, 930-950 mV; free chlorine, 271 * left-pointing-double-angle * 20 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B).  In water of standardized hardness (WSH), all bacterial strains were completely inactivated by a 30 min exposure to maximum 10.0% anode EOW ([approximately]40.0 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B) or 50.0% combined EOW ([approximately]135.5 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B).  The sensitivity ranking order for anode EOW to the bacterial test strains was P. mirabilis > S. aureus > M. avium ssp. avium > E. faecium > P. aeruginosa.  P. mirabilis and S. aureus decreased to undetectable levels after 5 min of exposure to 7.5% anode EOW ([approximately]30.0 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B).  Candida albicans was completely inactivated by a 5-min exposure to 5.0% anode EOW.  Both, anode and combined EOW exhibited no anti-microbial activities in standardized nutrient broth or after addition of 20.0% bovine serum to the WSH.  Further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of EOW as a disinfectant under operating conditions in animal production facilities.
Descriptors:  cattle, animal pathogens, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, oxidants, chlorine, duration, nutrient solutions, blood serum, water-hardness, Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, electrolysed oxidizing water, oxidation resistance, anodes, cathodes.

Food and Agriculture Organization.  Capacity building for surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, FAO/WHO/OIE Expert and Technical Consultation, Rome, 14-16 June 2005.  FAO Animal Production and Health Proceedings.  2006; (7): 112 pp.  ISSN:  1810-0732
URL:   http://www.fao.org
Abstract: This proceeding contains 14 papers.  This publication is intended to assist veterinary public health services in Developing Countries and countries in transition in the implementation of capacity-building programmes on surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases.  Specific recommendations were made on implementation of surveillance methodologies for zoonotic diseases.  There is a special emphasis on Developing Countries.  The topics include: recommendations for training programs in surveillance methodologies at veterinary and para-veterinary levels; surveillance program in taeniasis/cysticercosis; capacity building for the surveillance, prevention and control of BSE; control of zoonotic disease under emergency conditions; surveillance and control programs in brucellosis, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, anthrax, salmonellosis and other foodborne pathogens; surveillance, early weaning and early reaction to zoonoses outbreaks; and surveillance approaches in antimicrobial resistance.
Descriptors:  animal health, training programs, disease surveillance programs, major bacterial diseases, parasites, Burcella, Mycobacterium bovis, BSE, Developing Countries.

Gao, Lian Yong; Pak, Melissa; Kish, Rabab; Kajihara, Kimberly; Brown, Eric J.  A Mycobacterial operon essential for virulence in vivo and invasion and intracellular persistence in macrophages.  Infection and Immunity.  2006 Mar; 74(3): 1757-1767.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: The ability to invade and grow in macrophages is necessary for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cause disease.  We have found a Mycobacterium marinum locus of two genes that is required for both invasion and intracellular survival in macrophages.  The genes were designated iipA (mycobacterial invasion and intracellular persistence) and iipB.  The iip mutant, which was created by insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene cassette at the 5' region of iipA, was completely avirulent to zebra fish.  Expression of the M. tuberculosis orthologue of iipA, Rv1477, fully complemented the iip mutant for infectivity in vivo, as well as for invasion and intracellular persistence in macrophages.  In contrast, the iipB orthologue, Rv1478, only partially complemented the iip mutant in vivo and restored invasion but not intracellular growth in macrophages.  While IipA and IipB differ at their N termini, they are highly similar throughout their C-terminal NLPC_p60 domains.  The p60 domain of Rv1478 is fully functional to replace that of Rv1477, suggesting that the N-terminal sequence of Rv1477 is required for full virulence in vivo and in macrophages.  Further mutations demonstrated that both Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Asp-Cys-Ser-Gly (DCSG) sequences in the p60 domain are required for function.  The iip mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to antibiotics and lysozyme and failed to fully separate daughter cells in liquid culture, suggesting a role for iip genes in cell wall structure and function.  Altogether, these studies demonstrate an essential role for a p60-containing protein, IipA, in the pathogenesis of M. marinum infection.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, genes for invasion and survival in macrophages, iipA, iipB, mutants.

Godden, S.; McMartin, S.; Feirtag, J.; Stabel, J.; Bey, R.; Goyal, S.; Metzger, L.; Fetrow, J.; Wells, S.; Chester-Jones, H. Heat-treatment of bovine colostrum. II: Effects of heating duration on pathogen viability and immunoglobulin G. Journal of Dairy Science.  2006 Sept; 89 (9): 3476-3483.  ISSN:  0022-0302
NAL Call Number:  44.8 J822
Abstract: Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrum, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10 superscript 8(B cfu/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (10 superscript 6(B cfu/mL), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10 superscript 6(B cfu/mL), Salmonella enteritidis (10 superscript 6(B cfu/mL), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10 superscript 3(B cfu/mL), were heat-treated at 60AC for 120 min in a commercial on-farm batch pasteurizer system.  Duplicate 50-mL subsamples of colostrum were collected at 15-min intervals throughout the heat-treatment process for the purpose of bacterial culture and for measurement of IgG concentration (mg/mL) and antibody activity [log subscript 2(B(bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer)].  Four replicate batches of colostrum were run for each of the 5 pathogens studied.  There was no effect of heating moderate- to high-quality colostrum at 60AC for at least 120 min on mean IgG concentration (pre = 60.5 mg/mL; post = 59.1 mg/mL).  Similarly, there was no effect of heat-treatment on the mean log subscript 2(B bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer (pre = 12.3; post = 12.0). Viable M. bovis, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enteritidis added to colostrum could not be detected after the colostrum was heat-treated at 60AC for 30 min.  Average bacteria counts showed that Map was not detected when batches were heated at 60AC for 60 min.  Although the authors believe that heat-treating colostrum at 60AC for 60 min should be sufficient to eliminate Map from colostrum in most situations, further research is needed to determine whether these findings may be replicated, given that variability was observed in Map culture results.
Descriptors:  first milking colostrum, inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Salmonells enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, heat treatment process to inactivate the pathogens.

Hao, Jun Feng; Zhao,  De Ming.  Cloning and prokaryotic expression of Mycobacterium bovis MB1916c gene. Journal of China Agricultural University.  2006; 11 (6): 1-6.  ISSN:  1007-4333.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
NAL Call Number:  S19-C58
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, amplification of MB1916 gene, PCR technique.

Harris, N. Beth; Payeur, Janet B.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand.  Short-Sequence-Repeat analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates collected from animals throughout the United States reveals both stability of loci and extensive diversity.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 Aug; 44 (8): 2970-2973.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract: We analyzed the multilocus short sequence repeats (SSRs) of 211 and 56 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, respectively.  The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates could be differentiated into 61 genotypes.  The M. avium subsp. avium isolates showed limited diversity.  These SSRs are stable and suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, isolate identification, multilocus short sequence repeats, diversity, molecular epidemiology.

Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Majlessi, Laleh; Simsova, Marcela; Morova, Jana; Rojas, Marie-Jesus; Nouz_e,-Clemence; Brodin, Priscille; Sebo, Peter; Leclerc, Claude.  High frequency of CD4[superscript +] T cells specific for the TB10.4 protein correlates with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  Infection and immunity (IAI).  2006; 74: (6): 3396-3407.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: TB10.4 is a newly identified antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recognized by human and murine T cells upon mycobacterial infection.  Here, we show that immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a strong, genetically controlled, Th1 immune response against TB10.4 in mice.  BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains behave as high and low responders to TB10.4 protein, respectively.  The TB10.4:74-88 peptide was identified as an immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope for H-2d mice.  Since recent results, as well as the present study, have raised interest in TB10.4 as a subunit vaccine, we analyzed immune responses induced by this antigen delivered by a new vector, the adenylate cyclase (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis.  CyaA is able to target dendritic cells and to deliver CD4[superscript +] or CD8+ T-cell epitopes to the major histocompatibility complex class II/I molecule presentation pathways, triggering specific Th1 or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses.  Several CyaA harboring either the entire TB10.4 protein or various subfragments containing the TB10.4:20-28 CTL epitope were shown to induce TB10.4-specific Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses.  However, none of the recombinant CyaA, injected in the absence of adjuvant, was able to induce protection against M. tuberculosis infection.  In contrast, TB10.4 protein administered with a cocktail of strong adjuvants that triggered a strong Th1 CD4+ T-cell response induced significant protection against M. tuberculosis challenge.  These results confirm the potential value of the TB10.4 protein as a candidate vaccine and show that the presence of high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific to this strong immunogen correlates with protection against M. tuberculosis infection.
Descriptors:  mice, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB10.4, newly identified antigen, possible vaccination candidate, immune response in mice, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells.

Hewinson, R.G.; Vordermeier, H.M.; Smith, N.H.; Gordon, S.V.  Recent advances in our knowledge of Mycobacterium bovis: a feeling for the organism.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 127-139.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: Significant and rapid progress has been made in our knowledge and understanding of Mycobacterium bovis since the last international M. bovis conference 5 years ago.  Much of this progress has been underpinned by the completion of the genome sequence.  This important milestone has catalysed research into the development of a number of improved tools with which to combat bovine tuberculosis.  In this article we will review recent progress made in the development of these tools and in our understanding of the organism, its evolution and spread.  Comparison of the genome sequence with those of other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has enabled insights into the evolution of M. bovis.  This analysis also indicates that the M. tuberculosis complex have the propensity to adapt to new host species.  The use of high throughput molecular typing methods has revealed that the recent bovine tuberculosis epidemic in Great Britain is being driven by a number of clonal expansions, which cannot be explained by random mutation and drift alone.  Completion of a number of mycobacterial genome sequences has allowed the development of antigen mining techniques that rapidly identify M. bovis-specific genes.  These can then be used as reagents in the gamma interferon assay to increase the specificity of the assay and also to discriminate between Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccinated animals and those infected with M. bovis.  In the longer term, comparisons between the genomes of M. bovis and BCG will allow insight into how BCG became attenuated following serial passage on artificial growth media and reveal clues into how to improve the vaccine efficacy of BCG.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, genomics, nucleotide sequences, microbial genetics, genome, evolution, host range, adaptation, disease outbreaks, genetic drift, bacterial antigens, BCG vaccine, vaccination, molecular sequence data.  

Hicks, D.J.; Johnson, L.; Mitchell, S.M.; Gough, J.; Cooley, W.A.; La-Ragione, R.M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Wangoo, A.  Evaluation of zinc salt based fixatives for preserving antigenic determinants for immunohistochemical demonstration of murine immune system cell marker.  Biotechnic and Histochemistry.  2006; 81(1): 23-30.  ISSN: 1052-0295
URL:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713692932
NAL Call Number:  QH613.B56
Descriptors: immunohistochemical techniques antigen, cytokine and cytomorphological markers; fixatives; mouse models for Mycobacterium bovis infection; tissues from RIII mice; zinc salt fixative; buffered formalin; tested CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45, CD54, F4/80, Interferon-gamma, MIP2.

Hines, N.; Payeur, J.B.; Hoffman, L.J.  Comparison of the recovery of Mycobacterium bovis isolates using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, BACTEC 460 system, and Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 solid media.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2006 May; 18 (3): 243-250.  ISSN: 1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  cattle, lymph nodes, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, strains, pathogen identification, diagnosis, culture media, tissue analysis, niacin, nitrates, microbial contamination, disease detection, new methods.

Hogarth, P.J.; Hewinson, R.G.; Vordermeier, H.M.  Development of vaccines against bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.  2006; 58 (6): 749-757.  ISSN:  0022-3573
URL:   http://www.pharmpress.com/jpp
Descriptors:  buffalo, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic disease, disease control, review, vaccine research, Great Britain,

Horwitz, Marcus A.; Harth, Guenter; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Maslesa-Galic, Sasa.  A novel live recombinant mycobacterial vaccine against bovine tuberculosis more potent than BCG.  Vaccine.  2006; 24 (10): 1593-1600.  ISSN:  0264-410X
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30521/description#description
Descriptors:  vaccination, cattle, other domesticated animal diseases, wild animal as disease reservoirs, Mycobacterium bovis, live recombinant vaccine, rBCG30 expresses large amounts of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 30kDa major secretory protein, more efficacious against bovine tuberculosis than BCG, aerosol challenge.

Jiang Xiu yun; Wang, Chun feng; Wang, Chun fang; Zhang, Peng ju; He, Zhao yang.  Cloning and expression of Mycobacterium bovis secreted protein MPB83 in Escherichia coliJournal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.  2006; 39 (1): 22-25.  ISSN:  1225-8687
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis Vallee111, gene encoding MPB83, PCR amplification, pGEM-T vector, cloning plasmid pGEM T 83 was constructed, BamH1 and EcoRI digestion, purified MPB83 gene was subcloned, prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-83 was constructed, transformed into competence Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), 26 kDa exogenous protein observed on SDS-PAGE, possible subunit vaccine, DNA vaccine of MPB83 gene.

Jiang, XiuYun; Wang, ChunFeng; Wang, ChunFang; He, ZhaoYang.  Cloning and expression of Mycobacterium bovis secreted protein Ag85B in E. coli.  Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science. 2006; 26(1): 51-54.  ISSN:  1005-4545.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DNA cloning, identify, gene expression, Clone vector pGEM-T-85B, secreted protein Ag85B from Mycobacterium bovis Vallee 111, PCR, diagnosis, plasmid containing pET28a-85B transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3).

Juan, L. de; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Bezos, J.; Romero, B.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.; Travnicek, M.  Epizootologia a diagnostika mykobakterialnych infekcii. Cast I. Tuberkuloza.  [Epidemiology and diagnosis of mycobacterial infections. Part I. Tuberculosis.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2006; 31 (2): 94-97.  ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae, clinical picture, main pathological changes, culture protocol, PCR identification, tuberculin test, gamma interferon tests.

Kubica, Tanja; Agzamova, Rimma; Wright, Abigail; Rakishev, Galimzhan; Ruesch-Gerdes Sabine; Niemann, Stefan. Mycobacterium bovis isolates with M. tuberculosis specific characteristics.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2006; 12 (5): 763-765.  ISSN:  1080-6040.
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?linkbar=plain&db=journals&term=1080-6040
NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis strains, some characteristics of M. tuberculosis, zoonotic isolates, humans, intermediate characteristics, Kazakhstan.

Lazzaro, B.P.; Galac, M.R.  Disease pathology: wasting energy fighting infection.  Current Biology.  2006; 16 (22): R964-R965.  ISSN:  0960-9822
URL:   http://www.current-biology.com
Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster infected with Mycobacterium marinum suffer metabolic wasting similar to that observed in humans suffering from tuberculosis.  This wasting is linked to insulin signalling and hastens host death..
Descriptors:  Drosophila melanogaster, effects of infection, wasting disease, Mycobacterium marinum.

Lee, Keun Wook; Jung, Jinwon; Lee, Younghee; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu; Kim, Doo Sik; Kwon, Hyung Joo.  Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide isolated from genome wide screening of Mycobacterium bovis chromosomal DNA.  Molecular Immunology.  2006; 43 (13): 2107-2118.  ISSN:  0161-5890.  
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/253/description
NAL Call Number:  448.3 IM62
Descriptors:  bacterial DNA, immunostimulatory activity, Mycobacterium bovis, computer analysis of bacterial genome, activation of the NF-kappa B-responsive IL-8 promoter in RAW 264.7 cells.

Li, Jing Jing; Zhao,  De Ming; Xu,  Guang Xian; Zhou, Xiang Mei; Yin,  Xiao Min.  Cloning and expression of Mycobacterium bovis secreted protein MPB83 in Escherichia coliJournal of China Agricultural University.  2006; 11 (6): 19-22.  ISSN: 1007-4333.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
NAL Call Number:  S19.C58
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cloning of the MPB83 gene, analysis of its expression, SDS-PAGE and western blotting technique, possible diagnostic tool.

Lu, Jun Peng; Luo,Man Lin; Song,Yan Hua; Zou,Wei Li.  Expression of MPT83 gene from Mycobacterium bovis and purification of its recombinant protein.  Veterinary Science in China. 2006; 36(5): 366-370.  ISSN:  1673-4696.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
URL:   http://www.zgsykx.com/
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, DAN extraction, MPT83 gene fragment amplified via PCR, cloned into plasmid pET-32a(+) , transformed into BL21(DE3), recombinant protein.

Li, Rui Fang; Qin, Ai Jian; Xu, Jin Jun.  Preparation of the specific monoclonal antibody against bovine gamma -interferon and its properties.  Chinese Journal of Zoonoses.  2006; 22 (8): 755-758.  ISSN:  1002-2694.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, monoclonial, antibody, fusion SP2/0cells and immunized mice spleen cells, immunogen on BALB/cmice, BovIFN-gamma 4A3 BovIFN-gamma4G5, use for surveillance and control of TB in milk cows.

Marcondes, A.G.; Shikama, M. de L.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A.; Benites, N.R.; Morais, Z.M de; Roxo, E.; Dias, R.A.; Leao, S.L.P.C.; Pinheiro, S.R.  Comparacao entre a tecnica de cultivo em camada delgada de agar Middlebrook 7H11 e meio de Stonebrink para isolamento de Mycobacterium bovis em amostras de campo.  [Microcolony detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer culture.]  Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science.  2006; 43 (3): 362-369.  ISSN:  1413-9596.  Note:  In Portuguese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  bacterial morphology, Mycobacterium bovis AN5, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, cultivation technique in thin layer of Middlebrook 7H11 (TL7H11).

Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Bannantine, John P.; Golding, Geoffrey B.   Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer.  FEMS Microbiology Reviews.  2006 Nov; 30 (6): 906-925.  ISSN:  0168-6445
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00041.x
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F46
Abstract: The genus Mycobacterium comprises significant pathogenic species that infect both humans and animals.  One species within this genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the primary killer of humans resulting from bacterial infections. Five mycobacterial genomes belonging to four different species (M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis) have been sequenced to date and another 14 mycobacterial genomes are at various stages of completion.  A comparative analysis of the gene products of key metabolic pathways revealed that the major differences among these species are in the gene products constituting the cell wall and the gene families encoding the acidic glycine-rich (PE/PPE/PGRS) proteins.  Mycobacterium leprae has evolved by retaining a minimal gene set for most of the gene families, whereas M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis has acquired some of the virulence factors by lateral gene transfer.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium species, comparative genomics, biochemical pathways, pathogenicity.

Medina, Eva; Ryan, Lynn; LaCourse, Ronald; North, Robert J.  Superior virulence of Mycobacterium bovis over Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for Mtb-resistant and Mtb-susceptible mice is manifest as an ability to cause extrapulmonary disease.  Tuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2006; 86 (1): 20-27.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/638428/description?navopenmenu=-2
Descriptors:  mouse disease model, BALB/c mice TB resistant, DBA/2 mice TB susceptible, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, both susceptible to M. bovis, intravenous route, progressive infection, pathology in kidneys, adrenal glands.

Megyeri, Klara; Buzas, Krisztina; Miczak, Andrds; Buzas, Edit; Kovacs, Lrdnd; Seprenyi, Gyrgy; Falus, Andras; Mandi, Yvette.  The role of histamine in the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.  Microbes and Infection. 2006; 8 (4): 1035-1044.  ISSN:  1286-4579.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601557/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR180.M53
Descriptors:  intracellular survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, murine bone marrow macrophages, wild type (WT) mice, histidine-decarboxylase knock-out [HDC (-/-)] mice, comparison study, histamine may moderate IL 18 production, immune protection.

Moisan, Jacques; Thuraisingam, Thusanth; Henault, Jill; De Sanctis, Juan.; Radzioch, Danuta.  Role of SLC11A1 (formerly NRAMP1) in regulation of signal transduction induced by Toll-like receptor 7 ligands.  FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology.  2006; 47 (1): 138-147.  ISSN:  0928-8244. 
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0928-8244&site=1
NAL Call Number:  QR180.F46
Descriptors:  treatment for infectious and allergic diseases, toll-like receptor ligands, TLR, Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection, synthetic TLR 7 ligand, splenic bacterial load, mouse model, macrophage cell lines of  B10.A(Nramp1(r)) and B10.A(Nramp1(-/-)) mice, role for NRAMP1 in modulating p38 MAPK and PKC zeta activity, reduced cytokine induction by TLR7 ligands.

More, S.J.; Collins, J.D.; Gormley, E.; Good, M.; Skuce, R.A.; Pollock, J.M.  4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis: workshop reports.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006; 112 (2/4): 383-391.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  Note:  Special issue:  S.J. More; J.D. Collins; E. Gormley; M. Good; R.A. Skuce;  J.M. Pollock (editors).  Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August 2005.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  conference workshop reports, policy, strategy, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, disease eradication programs, diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, wild animals as disease reservoirs, vaccines, vaccination of animals, cattle, livestock.

Morita, Yasu S.; Sena, Chubert B.C.; Waller, Ross F.; Kurokawa, Ken; Sernee, M. Fleur; Nakatani, Fumiki; Haites, Ruth E.; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; McConville, Malcolm J.; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh PimE Is a polyprenol-phosphate-mannose-dependent mannosyltransferase that transfers the fifth mannose of phosphatidylinositol mannoside in mycobacteria.  Journal of Biological Chemistry.  2006 Sept 1; 281 (35): 25143-25155.  ISSN:  0021-9258
URL:  http://www.jbc.org/
NAL Call Number:  381 J824
Abstract: Phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) are a major class of glycolipids in all mycobacteria.  AcPIM2, a dimannosyl PIM, is both an end product and a precursor for polar PIMs, such as hexamannosyl PIM (AcPIM6) and the major cell wall lipoglycan, lipoarabinomannan (LAM).  The mannosyltransferases that convert AcPIM2 to AcPIM6 or LAM are dependent on polyprenol-phosphate-mannose (PPM), but have not yet been characterized.  Here, we identified a gene, termed pimE that is present in all mycobacteria, and is required for AcPIM6 biosynthesis.  PimE was initially identified based on homology with eukaryotic PIG-M mannosyltransferases. PimE-deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was defective in AcPIM6 synthesis, and accumulated the tetramannosyl PIM, AcPIM4.  Loss of PimE had no affect on cell growth or viability, or the biosynthesis of other intracellular and cell wall glycans.  However, changes in cell wall hydrophobicity and plasma membrane organization were detected, suggesting a role for AcPIM6 in the structural integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane.  These defects were corrected by ectopic expression of the pimE gene.  Metabolic pulse-chase radiolabeling and cell-free PIM biosynthesis assays indicated that PimE catalyzes the (Sa(B1,2-mannosyl transfer for the AcPIM5 synthesis.  Mutation of an Asp residue in PimE that is conserved in and required for the activity of human PIG-M resulted in loss of PIM-biosynthetic activity, indicating that PimE is the catalytic component.  Finally, PimE was localized to a distinct membrane fraction enriched in AcPIM4-6 biosynthesis.  Taken together, PimE represents the first PPM-dependent mannosyl-transferase shown to be involved in PIM biosynthesis, where it mediates the fifth mannose transfer.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs), cell wall and plasma membrane changes and organization, polyprenol-phosphate-mannose (PPM).

Mustafa, A.S.; Skeiky, Y.A.; Al Attiyah, R.; Alderson, M.R.; Hewinson, R.G.; Vordermeier, H.M.  Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected cattle. Infection and immunity (IAI).  2006 Aug.; 74 (8): 4566-4572.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: The development of novel vaccine strategies supplementing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) constitutes an urgent research challenge.  To identify potential subunit vaccine candidates, we have tested a series of eight recently identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in M. bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle.  These antigens were characterized on the basis of their ability to induce in vitro gamma interferon responses in infected or BCG-vaccinated calves.  We were able to establish a hierarchy of these antigens based on how frequently they were recognized in both groups of animals.  In particular, we were able to prioritize frequently recognized proteins like Rv0287, Rv1174, and Rv1196 for future evaluation as subunit vaccines to be used in BCG-protein heterologous prime-boost vaccination scenarios.  In addition, the antigen most dominantly recognized in M. bovis-infected cattle in this study, Rv3616c, was significantly less frequently recognized by BCG vaccinees and could be a target to improve BCG, for example, by increasing its secretion, in a recombinant BCG vaccine.
Descriptors:  cattle, vaccines, subunit vaccine candidates, eight Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, Mycobacterium bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle, Rv3616c antigen.

Naranjo, V.; Ayoubi, P.; Vicente, J.; Ruiz-Fons, F.; Gortazar, C.; Kocan, K.M.; De la Fuente, J.  Characterization of selected genes upregulated in non-tuberculous European wild boar as possible correlates of resistance to Mycobacterium bovis infection.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Aug 25; 116 (1-3): 224-231.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.013
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex), is a zoonotic disease that affects cattle and wildlife worldwide.  These animal hosts can serve as reservoirs of infection, thus increasing the risk of human exposure and infection.  In this study we quantified by RNA macroarray fluorescent hybridization and real-time RT-PCR the mRNA levels of genes differentially expressed in oropharyngeal tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of three and seven individual non-tuberculous and tuberculous wild boars naturally exposed to M. bovis, respectively.  These results demonstrated upregulation of two genes, complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), in the non-tuberculous wild boars.  These upregulated genes may contribute to resistance of wild boars to bTB by modifying the innate immunity, which limits the ability of the mycobacterium to infect and persist within macrophages.  The C3 and MUT genes, therefore, are likely to be good candidates to study as markers of bTB resistance using functional genomics in animal model systems.  Identification of genes upregulated in wild animals resistant to bTB contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity and resistance to mycobacterial organisms.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, wild boars, wildlife disease reservoir, up regulated genes, resistant of boars to tuberculosis, limits Mycobacterium to infect and persist in macrophages.

Parra, Marcela; Cadieux, Nathalie; Pickett, Thames; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Brennan, Michael J.  A PE protein expressed by Mycobacterium avium is an effective T-cell immunogen.  Infection and Immunity.  2006 Jan; 74 (1): 786-789.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Infection of mice with Mycobacterium avium or immunization with a novel PE gene expressed by M. avium (MaPE) showed that a dominant T-cell immune response was elicited.  Immunization with an MaPE DNA vaccine protected mice against an aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting that mycobacteria express PE antigens with cross-protective T-cell epitopes. 

Pereira-Suarez, A.L.; Estrada-Chavez, C.; Arriaga-Diaz, C.; Espinosa-Cueto, P.; Mancilla, R.  Coexpression of NRAMP1, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine in bovine tuberculosis.  Veterinary Pathology.  2006; 43 (5): 709-717.  ISSN:  0300-9858
URL:   http://www.acvp.org
NAL Call Number:  41.8 P27
Abstract: In murine models the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the natural resistance associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1) play major roles in host defence against mycobacteria.  iNOS regulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which is noxious for ingested mycobacteria, and NRAMP1 displays pleiotropic antimicrobial effects, including upregulation of iNOS expression.  Little is known about the role of these molecules in bovine tuberculosis (TB).  In this work we demonstrate by Western blot a high expression of NRAMP1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), alveolar macrophages (obtained by bronchioalveolar lavage), and lymph node granulomas from 8 Holstein-Freisian cattle with autopsy-proven bovine TB.  Immunohistochemistry revealed the abundant expression of NRAMP1 and iNOS in lymph node and lung granulomas.  Immunoreactivity was abundant in the cytoplasm of many epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells of the Langhans type.  A striking accumulation of nitrotyrosine (NT), an indicator of iNOS activity and local NO production, was observed in granuloma cells, particularly in multinucleated Langhans cells.  This study shows that the expression of NRAMP1 and iNOS is costimulated in granulomas, which are protective T-cell reactions against mycobacteria..
Descriptors:  Holstein-Freisian cattle, murine model, lymph node granulomas, T cells, nitric oxide synthase; nitrotyrosine Mycobacterium bovis.

Pignone, Michelle; Greth, Kimberly M.; Cooper, Jason; Emerson, David; Tang, Jane.   Identification of mycobacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 June; 44 (6): 1963-1970.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/6/1963
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract: Classical methods for identification of Mycobacterium species rely on morphology and biochemical profiles.  Speciation of a Mycobacterium isolate using these standard methods is a lengthy process based on subjective data interpretation.  In this study, Mycobacterium species were characterized by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).  This technology is designed to provide a characteristic mass spectral fingerprint based on desorbed ions from the cell surface.  Thirty-seven strains were analyzed; these represented thirteen species and five subspecies that included the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the M. avium M. intracellulare complex, as well as rapid- and slow-growing mycobacteria.  All 37 strains were analyzed in triplicate, and a database was generated.  This method produced species-specific patterns for all but 1 of the 37 isolates and provided reliable differentiation at the strain level.  The data suggest that whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS has potential as a rapid and reproducible method for the identification and characterization of Mycobacterium species. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium species, speciation, characterized by mass spectrometry method, spectral fingerprint.

Pollock, J.M.; Rodgers, J.D.; Welsh, M.D.; McNair, J.  Pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis: the role of experimental models of infection.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 141-150.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: In many countries, test-and-slaughter policies based on tuberculin skin testing have made a significant impact on the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis).  However, in some countries these policies have not proved as effective and improved disease control strategies are required (including improved diagnostic tests and development of vaccines).  The host pathogen interactions in bovine tuberculosis are very complex.  While studies of the disease in naturally infected field cases of bovine tuberculosis have provided valuable information, detailed knowledge can also be gained through studies of disease models.  A number of studies have developed M. bovis infection models employing a range of routes and challenge doses.  An early objective was assessment of vaccine efficiency, and models of infection remain central to current work in this area.  Development of the intra-nasal and intra-tracheal models have also advanced our understanding of the kinetics of the immune response.  In many of these studies, understanding of pathogenesis has been improved by definition of the cells that respond to infection and those that are instrumental in modulation of host responses. Experimental models of infection have been adapted to study cattle to cattle transmission, modeling one of the fundamental routes of infection.  This review provides a historical perspective on the types of experimental models used in over 100 years of research and outlines new opportunities to refine those methods for bovine and human tuberculosis and to contribute to improved diagnostics, advanced understanding of immunology and vaccine design.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, disease control, disease control programs, literature reviews, animal disease models, infection, disease diagnosis, analytical kits, vaccines, host pathogen relationships, pathogenesis, resistance mechanisms, disease transmission, humans, tuberculosis.

Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V.; Quirin, R.; Rapaoliarijaona, A.; Rakotoaritahina, H.; Vololonirina, E.J.; Rasolonava, T.; Ferdinand, S.; Sola, C.; Rastogi, N.; Ramarokoto, H.  Usefulness of restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping for epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis in Madagascar: Description of new genotypes. Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Apr 16; 114 (1-2): 115-122.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.11.057
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in cattle in Madagascar.  An epidemiological study based on genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and its transmission to humans was carried out.  The restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110 and DR markers) and spoligotyping were used to assess the genetic diversity of strains from different regions of Madagascar. One of these strains was isolated from goat.  The other strains were isolated from zebu cattle.  Nine IS6110 profiles, 20 DR profiles and 12 spoligotypes were obtained.  About 90% of all isolates gave a single IS6110 band at about 1.8 kb. Most strains had the same spoligotype.  M. bovis strains commonly lack spacers 39-43, and all Malagasy strains also lacked spacers 3-5, 8-10 and 16.  This pattern has not been reported elsewhere. DR was the most discriminatory of the three markers.  The patterns obtained with the three markers were combined to identify 34 different genotypes, one of which was found in 35% of the strains.  No region-specific M. bovis genotype was identified, but the genotyping of 18 M. bovis strains isolated from patients showed that the human and bovine strains were identical, suggesting possible human contamination from zebu cattle.
Descriptors:  zebu cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, restriction fragment length polymorphism, epidemiology, genotype, strains, strain differences, microbial genetics, disease transmission, humans, zoonoses, goats, spoligotyping, Internet resource, Madagascar.  

Razanamparany, V.R.; Quirin, R.; Rapaoliarijaona, A.; Rakotoaritahina, H.; Vololonirina, E. J.; Rasolonavalona, T; Ferdinand, S.; Sola, C.; Rastogi, N.; Ramarokoto, H.; Chanteau, S.  Usefulness of restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping for epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis in Madagascar: description of new genotypes.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006; 114 (1/2): 115-122.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in cattle in Madagascar.  An epidemiological study based on genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and its transmission to humans was carried out.  The restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110 and DR markers) and spoligotyping were used to assess the genetic diversity of strains from different regions of Madagascar.  One of these strains was isolated from goat, the other strains were isolated from zebu cattle.  Nine IS6110 profiles, 20 DR profiles and 12 spoligotypes were obtained.  About 90% of all isolates gave a single IS6110 band at about 1.8 kb.  Most strains had the same spoligotype.  M. bovis strains commonly lack spacers 39-43, and all Malagasy strains also lacked spacers 3-5, 8-10 and 16.  This pattern has not been reported elsewhere. DR was the most discriminatory of the three markers.  The patterns obtained with the three markers were combined to identify 34 different genotypes, one of which was found in 35% of the strains.  No region-specific M. bovis genotype was identified, but the genotyping of 18 M. bovis strains isolated from patients showed that the human and bovine strains were identical, suggesting possible human contamination from zebu cattle..
Descriptors:  Zebu cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevalence, disease transmission between animals and humans, epidemiology, spoligotyping, genetic diversity, genetic markers, genetic polymorphism, genotypes, microsatellites, zoonoses, Madagascar.

Ren, Huiping; Dover, Lynn G.; Islam, Salim T.; Alexander, David C.; Chen, Jeffrey M.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Liu, Jun. Identification of the lipooligosaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster from Mycobacterium marinum.  Molecular Microbiology.  2007; 63 (5): 1345-1359.  ISSN:  0950-382X
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mmi
Abstract: Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are antigenic glycolipids that are present in some species of Mycobacterium including the Canetti strain of M. tuberculosis.  The core LOS structures from several mycobacterial organisms have been established, but the biosynthetic pathways of LOSs remain unknown.  In this study, we describe two transposon insertion mutants of M. marinum that exhibit altered colony morphology.  Cell wall analysis reveals that the MRS1271 mutant is defective in the synthesis of LOS-II, whereas the MRS1178 mutant accumulates an intermediate between LOS-I and -II.  The genetic lesions were localized to two genes, MM2309 and MM2332.  MM2309 encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase that is involved in the synthesis of D-xylose. MM2332 is predicted to encode a decarboxylase.  These two genes and a previously identified losA gene are localized in a gene cluster likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of LOSs.  Our results also show that LOSs play an important role in sliding motility, biofilm formation, and infection of host macrophages.  Taken together, our studies have identified, for the first time, a LOS biosynthetic locus.  This is an important step in assessing the differential distribution of LOSs among Mycobacterium species and understanding the role of LOSs in mycobacterial virulence.
Descriptors:  glycolipids, mutants, Mycobacterium marinum, lipooligosaccharides.

Richter, Elvira; Reusch Gerdes, Sabine; Hillemann, Doris.  Evaluation of the genotype Mycobacterium assay for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 May; 44 (5): 1769-1775.  ISSN:  0095-1137
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract: A new commercially available DNA strip assay (GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS; Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) was evaluated for the ability to differentiate mycobacterial species.  The test is based on a PCR technique targeting a 23S rRNA gene region, followed by reverse hybridization and line probe technology.  The GenoType CM is capable of identifying 23, the GenoType AS a further 14, species either alone or in combination with one or more species.  Both tests were evaluated with 156 mycobacterial strains composed of 61 validly published species including different subspecies, 6 not validly published species, and 3 strains other than mycobacterial species.  All strains were precharacterized by sequencing of the 5' region of the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical tests. In total, results for 151 strains were interpretable.  Concordant results were obtained for 137 (92.6%) of 148 mycobacterial strains with the CM assay and 133 (89.9%) of 148 mycobacterial strains with the AS assay, and all three non-Mycobacterium species were identified.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium species, 2 diagnostic test strips, culture testing, soecies differentiation.

Robinson, Nirmal; Wolke, Martina; Ernestus, Karen; Plum, Georg.  A mycobacterial gene involved in synthesis of an outer cell envelope lipid is a key factor in prevention of phagosome maturation.  Infection and Immunity (IAI).  2007 Feb; 75 (2): 581-591.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:    http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Virulent mycobacteria cause arrest of phagosome maturation as a part of their survival strategy in hosts.  This process is mediated through multiple virulence factors, whose molecular nature remains elusive.  Using Mycobacterium marinum as a model, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify mutants whose ability to inhibit phagosome maturation was impaired, and we succeeded in isolating a comprehensive set of mutants that were not able to occupy an early endosome-like phagosomal compartment in mammalian macrophages.  Categorizing and ordering the multiple mutations according to their gene families demonstrated that the genes modulating the cell envelope are the principal factors in arresting phagosome maturation.  In particular, we identified a novel gene, pmiA, which is capable of influencing the constitution of the cell envelope lipids, thereby leading to the phagosome maturation block.  The pmiA mutant was not able to resist phagosome maturation and was severely attenuated in mice.  Complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene restored the attenuated virulence to wild-type levels in mice.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, interference with phagosome maturation, screening for mutants, multiple mutations found, novel gene pmiA, affects cell envelope lipids, mouse model.

Romero, Beatriz; Aranaz, Alicia; Juan, Lucaia de; a Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Mateos, Ana; Gaomez-Mampaso, Enrique; Domainguez, Lucas.  Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis Isolates with the same spoligotyping profile as isolates from animals.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology (JCM).  2006 Sept; 44 (9): 3405-3408.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/6/1963
Abstract: PCR-based characterization techniques have been adopted in most laboratories for Mycobacterium bovis typing. We report a molecular characterization of human multidrug-resistant M. bovis isolates and three bovine isolates that share the spoligotyping profile.  The analysis of the direct repeat region showed that both groups differed in the presence of spacers not included in the current membrane.  They were also distinguished by two out of the nine mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable-number tandem repeat loci tested, indicating that the human infection was not acquired from the cattle from which isolates were obtained.  These results highlight that a combination of techniques is required for appropriate discrimination, even for those spoligotypes that have a low frequency.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, molecular characterization of human and bovine strains, spoligotyping profile, differences, interspersed repetitive unit variable number tanden repeat loci, methods.

Ren, Huiping; Dover, Lynn G.; Islam, Salim T.; Alexander, David C.; Chen, Jeffrey M.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Liu, Jun.  Identification of the lipooligosaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster from Mycobacterium marinum.  Molecular Microbiology.  2007; 63 (5): 1345-1359.  ISSN:  0950-382X
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mmi
Abstract: Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are antigenic glycolipids that are present in some species of Mycobacterium including the Canetti strain of M. tuberculosis.  The core LOS structures from several mycobacterial organisms have been established, but the biosynthetic pathways of LOSs remain unknown.  In this study, we describe two transposon insertion mutants of M. marinum that exhibit altered colony morphology.  Cell wall analysis reveals that the MRS1271 mutant is defective in the synthesis of LOS-II, whereas the MRS1178 mutant accumulates an intermediate between LOS-I and -II.  The genetic lesions were localized to two genes, MM2309 and MM2332.  MM2309 encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase that is involved in the synthesis of D-xylose. MM2332 is predicted to encode a decarboxylase.  These two genes and a previously identified losA gene are localized in a gene cluster likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of LOSs.  Our results also show that LOSs play an important role in sliding motility, biofilm formation, and infection of host macrophages.  Taken together, our studies have identified, for the first time, a LOS biosynthetic locus.  This is an important step in assessing the differential distribution of LOSs among Mycobacterium species and understanding the role of LOSs in mycobacterial virulence.
Descriptors:  glycolipids, mutants, Mycobacterium marinum, lipooligosaccharides.

Rosenthal, K.L.  Microbiology: revisiting the gram stain and culture.  Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006.  2006: 1575-1577
URL:  http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors:  pet birds, bacterial infections, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydophila, Gram stain, culture methods.

Rothschild, B.M.; Martin, L.D.  Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  Naturwissenschaften.  2006; 93 (11): 565-569.  ISSN:  0028-1042
URL:  http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100479
Abstract: Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis.  The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors.  While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely "culprits" in its spread.
Descriptors:  paleontology, Mycobacterium bovis, paleozoology, bone destruction and lesions; skeletons of artiodactyls, perissodactyls, and carnivores, fossil bones, museum specimens, prehistoric vectors of bovine Mycobacterium, North America; Europe.

Rothschild, B.M.; Laub, R.  Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis.  Naturwissenschaften.  2006; 93 (11): 557-564.  ISSN:  0028-1042
URL:   http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100479
Abstract: The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support.  A unique pathologic zone of resorption in 52% of metacarpels and metatarsals was first noticed in a 113 skeletons of Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpals. There was also associated rib periosteal reaction that is suggestive of tuberculosis.  Foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis.  The high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was pandemic, a hyperdisease.  Such pandemic tuberculosis could have been one of several factors contributing to mastodon extinction.
Descriptors:  paleozoology, fossils, mammals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial infections in feet bones, bacterioses, bone destruction, Mammut americanum, Pleistocene era.

Rosseels, Valerie; Marche, Sylvie; Roupie,Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Godfroid, Jacques; Walravens, Karl; Huygen, Kris.  Members of the 30- to 32-kilodalton mycolyl transferase family (Ag85) from culture filtrate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are immunodominant Th1-type antigens recognized early upon infection in mice and cattle.  Infection and Immunity.  2006 Jan; 74 (1): 202-212.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: The characterization of protective antigens is essential for the development of an effective, subunit-based vaccine against paratuberculosis.  Surface-exposed and secreted antigens, present abundantly in mycobacterial culture filtrate (CF), are among the well-known protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis.  Culture filtrate, prepared from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698 grown as a surface pellicle on synthetic Sauton medium, was strongly and early recognized in experimentally infected B6 bg/bg beige mice and cattle, as indicated by elevated spleen cell gamma interferon (IFN-[gamma]) secretion and lympho-proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively.  Strong proliferative and ex vivo IFN-[gamma] responses against antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (a major protein component from M. bovis BCG culture filtrate) could be detected in cattle as early as 10 weeks after oral M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.  Synthetic peptides from the Ag85A and Ag85B components of this complex were strongly recognized, whereas T-cell responses were weaker against peptides from the Ag85C protein.  A promiscuous T-cell epitope spanning amino acids 145 to 162 of Ag85B (identical sequence in M. bovis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) was identified in experimentally infected cattle.  Finally, young calves, born from cows with confirmed paratuberculosis, demonstrated proliferative responses to purified, recombinant Ag85A and Ag85B from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results indicate that the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis Ag85 homologues are immunodominant T-cell antigens that are recognized early in experimental and natural infection of cattle.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, protective antigens, synthetic Sauton medium, cultural filtrate, experimentally infections, B6 bg/bg beige mice. cattle, elevated spleen cell gamma interferon (IFN-[gamma]) secretion, lympho-proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Ag85 homologues.

Rybniker, Jan; Kramme, Stefanie; Small, Pamela L. Host range of 14 mycobacteriophages in Mycobacterium ulcerans and seven other mycobacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis - application for identification and susceptibility testing.  Journal of Medical Microbiology.  2006; 55(1): 37-42.  ISSN:  0022-2615
URL:  http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J62
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG Pasteur; Mycobacterium ulcerans strain M18, strain-RifR, strain, clinical-isolates, strain 1615 mycolactone--mutant, strain-1615 (ATCC-35840), strain S12; Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, strain-371, strain BCG-Pasteur; Mycobacterium avium strain 702, strain 701, strain 3746-02; Mycobacterium marinum strain 565, strain ATCC-927; Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strain 1315, strain 1320; Mycobacterium fortuitum strain 1529; Mycobacterium chelonae strain 1543; Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc-2-155; mycobacteriophage strain TM4, strain D29, phage therapy.

Santillan-Flores, M.A.; Flores, J.; Arriaga-Diaz, C.; Romero-Torres, C.; Suarez-Guemes, F.; Espitia, C. Polymorphism of the PE domain of PE/PE_PGRS sequences in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Mexico .  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 July 20; 115 (4): 364-369.  ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.02.021
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract:    Polymorphism of the PE domain of PE/PE_PGRS sequences was studied in Mycobacterium bovis isolates from different Mexican states.  Samples were analyzed by spolygotyping and RFLP using IS6110 and a 235-bp fragment of the PE domain of PE/PE_PGRS as probes.  With the PE probe, three different genotypes were observed, one being predominant in all states.  These results confirm the high conservation of the PE domain and suggests a potential role for PE sequence as a stable genetic marker for bovine tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, RFLP, microbial genetics, bacterial proteins, mycobacterial diseases, multigene family, genes, genotype, genetic variation, genetic markers, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, spolygotyping, molecular sequence data, Mexico.

Savelkoul, Paul H.M.; Catsburg, Arnold; Mulder, Sije; Oostendorp, Ludo; Schirm, Jurjen; Wilke, Hans; van der Zanden, Adri G.M.; Noordhoek, Gerda T.  Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Real Time PCR: comparison of different primer-probe sets based on the IS6110 element.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2006; 66 (1): 177-180.  ISSN:  0167-7012
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506034/description#description
NAL Call Number: QR65.J68
Descriptors:  diagnostic testing, sensitivity and specificity, real time PCR: real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction, laboratory echniques, genetic techniques, TaqMan, laboratory equipment, express software package, minor groove binding probe, four real time PCR prime probe sets, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium fortuitum Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium smegmatis strain 1008, Mycobacterium cordense, Mycobacterium senegalanse, Nocardia farcinica.

Shah, N.P..; Singhal, A.; Jain, A.; Kumar, P.; Uppal, S.S.; Srivatsava, M.V.P.; Prasad, H.K. Occurrence of overlooked zoonotic tuberculosis: detection of Mycobacterium bovis in human cerebrospinal fluid.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 Apr; 44 (4) 1352-1358.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:   http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: The paucibacillary nature of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been a major obstacle in the diagnosis of human tuberculous meningitis (TBM).  This study shows that with molecular techniques direct precise determination to the species level of mycobacterial pathogens can be made.  The present report describes the utility of a nested PCR (N-PCR) assay (A. Mishra, A. Singhal, D. S. Chauhan, V. M. Katoch, K. Srivastava, S. S. Thakral, S. S. Bharadwaj, V. Sreenivas, and H. K. Prasad, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:5670-5678, 2005) in detecting M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in human CSF.  In 2.8% (6/212) of the samples, M. tuberculosis was detected, and in 17% (36/212), M. bovis was detected.  Mixed infection was observed in 22 samples.  Comparative analysis of clinical diagnosis, smear microscopy, and N-PCR in 69 patients (TBM, 25; non-TBM, 44) showed that the sensitivity of N-PCR (61.5%) was greater than that of smear microscopy (38.4%).  Determination to the species level is important from the viewpoint of determining the prevalence of these mycobacteria in a community and would influence strategies currently adopted for the prevention of tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, differential diagnostic techniques, zoonotic diseases, epidemiology, prevalence, disease prevention, nested PCR assay, utility of assay.

Slinina, K.N.; Lazovskaya, A.L. Vorob' eva, Z.G.; Kul' chitskaya, M.A.; Druchkova, M.V.  A method for storage of cultures in the laboratory.  Russian Agricultural Sciences.  2006; (12): 24-25.  ISSN:  1068-3674.  Note:  Translated journal.  
NAL Call Number:  S1.S68
Descriptors: storage methods, bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium strains, preservation of biochemical characteristics and properties.

Smith, N.H.; Gordon, S.V.; Rua-Domenech, R. de la; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Hewinson, R.G.  Bottlenecks and broomsticks: the molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis.  Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2006; 4(9): 670-681.  ISSN:  1740-1526
URL:  http://www.nature.com/reviews
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle tuberculosis, reduction in diversity, population bottlenecks, selective sweeps, shaping of phylogeny, British Isles populations, spread of infection, improved vaccines, diagnostic, tests, UK.

Teixeira, Francisco M.; Teixeira, Henrique C.; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Michele F.; Azevedo, Vasco; Macedo, Gilson C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.  DNA vaccine using Mycobacterium bovis Ag85B antigen induces partial protection against experimental infection in BALB/c mice.  Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  2006; 13(8): 930-935.  ISSN:  1556-6811
URL:  http://cvi.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  RB 46.5
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, mouse model, Ag85B gene as a DNA vaccine, challenge with Mybacterium bovis virulent strain (ATCC 19274), induction a Th1 type of immune response, spleens, lungs.

Thoen, C.; LoBue, P.; Kantor, I. de.  The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 339-345.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis and closely associated acid-fast bacilli cause disease in humans. Epidemiologic investigations reveal that the organism may be ingested or inhaled.  Extra pulmonary lesions may occur associated to the consumption of infected milk, even though with the practice of boiling milk, and the growth of milk pasteurization plants all over the world, the digestive route of infection became less important.  On the other hand, airborne infection continues to occur among meat industry and slaughterhouse workers, in regions where the infection is still prevalent in cattle.  Evidence of person to person transmission is rare.  Main causes of concern related to M. bovis in industrialized countries are: epizootics in domesticated and wild mammals and latent infection in immigrants.  Although multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of M. bovis have been identified, case reports reveal that anti-tuberculosis drugs routinely used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients are effective when properly administered.
Descriptors:  cattle, food animals, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, zoonoses, humans, tuberculosis, disease transmission, lesions animal, health hazards, occupational health and safety, livestock and meat industry, slaughterhouses, disease outbreaks, wild animals, latent period, multiple drug resistance, asymptomatic infections.

Tobler, Nadia E.; Pfunder, Monika; Herzog, Katrin; Frey, Juerg E.; Altwegg, Martin.  Rapid detection and species identification of Mycobacterium spp. using real-time PCR and DNA-Microarray.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2006; 66 (1): 116-124.  ISSN:  0167-7012.  
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506034/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR65.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, 37 different species, identification procedure, 5' exonuclease real-time PCR, DNA microarray based on the region upstream of 65 kDa heat shock protein, may be good for mixed infections as well, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium haemophilum, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium genavense, Mycobacterium celatum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium alvei, Mycobacterium heckenshornense, Mycobacterium heidelbergense.

Ung, Korine S E; Av Gay, Yossef.  Mycothiol-dependent mycobacterial response to oxidative stress.  FEBS Letters. 2006; 580 (11): 2712-2716.  ISSN:  0014-5793
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506085/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QD415.F4
Descriptors:  mycobacteria, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, esogenous oxidative stress, MSH levels, thiol-specific oxidant diamide, hydrogen peroxide.

Viana-Niero, Cristina; Rosales-Rodriguez, Cesar Alejandro; Bigi, Fabiana; Santos-Zanini, Marcos; Ferreira-Neto, Jose Soares; Cataldi, Angel; Leao, Sylvia Cardoso.  Identification of an IS6110 insertion site in plcD, the unique phospholipase C gene of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Medical Microbiology.  2006; 55 (4): 451-457.  ISSN: 0022-2615
URL:  http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J62
Descriptors:  phospholipase C genes, plcA, plcB, plcC, plcD genes, IS6110 single copy, IS6110 transposion, PCR, Southern blot hybridization and sequencing analysis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Pvull fragment, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium microti.

Vitale, Fabrizio; Reale, Stefano; Petrotta, Enrico; Caracappa, Santo; Barera, Annalisa; La Manna, Marco Pio; Macaluso, Pasquale; Caccamo, Nadia; Dieli, Francesco; Vordermeier, Hans Martin; Sireci, Guido; Salerno, Alfredo.  ESAT-6 peptide recognition by bovine CD8(+) lymphocytes of naturally infected cows in herds from southern ItalyClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  2006; 13 (4): 530-533.  ISSN: 
URL:  http://cvi.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  RB46.5
Descriptors:  define epitopes of Mycobacterium bovis from ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen of 6 kDa) recognized by CD8(+) T lymphocytes from cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, bovine CD8' T cells recognized 10 out of 11 ESAT-6 peptides tested.

Waddington, K.  The Bovine Scourge: Meat, Tuberculosis and Public Health, 1850-1914.  Boydell Press.  Suffock, UK2006; i-ix + 226 pp.  ISBN:  1843831937.  Note:  A book with 10 chapters on the topic of meat and TB.
NAL Call Number:  SF967.T8 W33 2006
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, public health, food safety concerns, meat form infected cattle, transmissibility between species and humans, meat inspection, eradication, etc.

Walravens, K.; Allix, C.; Supply, P.; Rigouts, L.; Godfroid, J.; Govaerts, M.; Portaels, F.; Dufey, J.; Vanholme, L.; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Saegerman, C.  Apports du genotypage des souches de Mycobacterium bovis a l'analyse de l'epidemiologie de la tuberculose bovine en Belgique (1995-2005).  [Genotyping of the strains of Mycobacterium bovis isolated in Belgium (1995-2005).]  Rencontres Autour des Recherches sur les Ruminants.  2006; 13: 407-410.  ISSN:  1279-6530.  Note:  In French. 
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis pathogen, molecular typing of isolates, strains, restriction techniques, fragment length polymorphism (RFLP IS6110) and spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units, variable number tandem repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), 40 genotypes, 12 lineages, epidemiology, Belgium.

Wedlock, D.N.; Kawakami, R.P.; Koach, J.; Buddle, B.M.; Collins, D.M. Differences of gene expression in bovine alveolar macrophages infected with virulent and attenuated isogenic strains of Mycobacterium bovisInternational Immunopharmacology.  2006; 6 (6): 957-961.  ISSN:  1567-5769.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/621330/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR180.I52
Descriptors:  DNA microarray analysis to detect genes expressed in infected bovine lung alveolar macrophages, two isogenic strains of M bovis, virulent strain ATCC35723, attenuated strain WAg520 derived from ATCC35723, chemokines, interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, identification of key genes, early and protective immune responses to tuberculosis.  

 

2005

Amadio, Ariel; Romano, Maria-Isabel; Bigi, Fabiana; Etchechoury, Ignacio; Kubica, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina.  Identification and characterization of genomic variations between Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis H37Rv.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43 (5): 2481-2484.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: Genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis were identified.  We found (i) a deletion of Rv3479 specific to M. bovis, (ii) that the rpfA gene is shortened to various extents in M. bovis, and (iii) an insertion in Rv0648 and a duplication of lppA common in M. tuberculosis complex isolates.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genetic differences, gene deletions, gene shortenings, insertion gene, duplication of common M. tuberculosis complex.

Amadio, A.; Romano, M.I.; Bigi, F.; Etchechoury, I.; Kubica, T.; Niemann, S.; Cataldi, A.; Caimi, K.  Identification and characterization of genomic variations between Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis H37Rv.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43 (5): 2481-2484.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:   http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genetic analysis, transposable elements, genetic deletions, deletion of Rv3479 specific to M. bovis, rpfA gene is shortened to various extents in Mycobacterium bovis, insertion in Rv0648 and a duplication of lppA common in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates.

Bakshi, C.S.; Shah, D.H.; Verma, Rishendra; Singh, R.K; Malik, Meenakshi.  Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on a 12.7-kb fragment by a single tube multiplex-PCR.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 109 (3-4): 211-216.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: The aim of this work was the design and validation of a rapid and easy single tube multiplex-PCR (m-PCR) assay for the unequivocal differential detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Oligonucleotide primers were based on the uninterrupted 229-bp sequence in the M. bovis genome and a unique 12.7-kb insertion sequence from the M. tuberculosis genome, which is responsible for species-specific genomic polymorphism between these two closely related pathogens.  The m-PCR assay was optimized and validated using 22 M. bovis and 36 M. tuberculosis clinical strains isolated from diverse host species and 9 other non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) strains.  The designed primers invariably amplified a unique 168-bp (M. bovis-specific) and 337-bp (M. tuberculosis-specific) amplicon from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis strains, respectively.  The accuracy of the assay, in terms of specificity, was 100%, as none of the NTM strains tested revealed any amplification product.  As little as 20 pg of genomic DNA could be detected, justifying the sensitivity of the method.  The m-PCR assay is an extremely useful, simple, reliable and rapid method for routine differential identification of cultures of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis.  This m-PCR may be a valuable diagnostic tool in areas of endemicity, where bovine and human tuberculosis coexist, and the distinction of M. bovis from M. tuberculosis is required for monitoring the spread of M. bovis to humans.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, differential diagnosis, PCR assay technique.

Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Francoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A.  Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC).  Veterinary Research (Les Ulis). 2005; 36(3): 411-436.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
URL:  http://www.edpsciences.org/journal/index.cfm?edpsname=vetres
NAL Call Number:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare complex, epidemiology, zoonotic diseases, transmission between environment and wildlife, etiology, possibilities of control and management, Europe, North America, New Zealand.

Bigi, Fabiana; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Peralta, Andrea; Caimi, Karina C.; Golby, Paul; Hinds, Jason; Cataldi, Angel; Gordon, Stephen V.; Romano, Maria I.  Identification of genetic markers for Mycobacterium pinnipedii through genome analysis.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2005; 248 (2): 147-152.  ISSN:  0378-1097
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506058/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Descriptors:  seals, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, genetic variability with Mycobacterium bovis, microarray-based comparative genomics, 2 deletions identified, M. tuberculosis genes, PiD1--Rv3530c and Rv3531c, PiD2--Rv1977 and Rv1978.

Bigi, F.; Gioffre, A.; Klepp, L.; Santangelo, M.P.; Velicovsky, C.A.; Giambartolomei, G.H.; Fossati, C.A.; Romano, M.I.; Mendum, T.; McFadden, J.J.; Cataldi, A.  Mutation in the P36 gene of Mycobacterium bovis provokes attenuation of the bacillus in a mouse modelTuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2005; 85 (4): 221-226.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/638428/description?navopenmenu=-2
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, P36 proteins, putative virulence factor of wild type pathogen, mouse model.

Burguiere, Adeline; Hitchen, Paul G; Dover, Lynn G; Kremer, Laurent; Ridell, Malin; Alexander, David C.; Liu, Jun; Morris, Howard R.; Minnikin, David E.; Dell, Anne; Besra, Gurdyal S.  LosA, a key glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of a novel family of glycosylated acyltrehalose lipooligosaccharides from Mycobacterium marinum.  Journal of Biological Chemistry.  2005 Dec 23; 280 (51): 42124-42133.  ISSN:  0021-9258
URL:    http://www.jbc.org/
NAL Call Number:  381 J824
Abstract: Members of the genus Mycobacterium are characterized by cell envelopes rich in unusual free lipids, interacting with a covalently anchored mycolyl-arabinogalactan matrix.  Previous studies have shown that Mycobacterium marinum produces large amounts of a diacylglycosylphenolphthiocerol, "phenolic" glycolipid.  When cultivated on liquid Sauton medium, traces of a polar lipooligosaccharide (LOS) glycolipid antigen were also previously indicated.  In this study, it was found that growth of the type strain of M. marinum on solid Sauton or Middlebrook 7H10 agar gave substantial, but different, amounts of a family of four major trehalose-based LOSs.  The core pentasaccharide LOS-I was a rhamnosyl diglucosyl-acylated trehalose.  The heptasaccharide, LOS-II, was derived from LOS-I by adding xylose accompanied by a novel sugar (X); repeated addition of this sugar unit X gave the octasaccharide LOS-III. LOS-IV has a decasaccharide component with two additional unusual sugar units, YZ.  In a recent study (Alexander, D. C., Jones, J. R., Tan, T., Chen, J. M., and Liu, J. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 18824-18833), chromatographically similar glycolipids were assigned to the family of phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) and a "PimF" (Rv1500) glycosyltransferase implicated in the conversion of a supposed "PIM subscript 5" to a "PIM subscript 7."  The present study indicates that these putative PIMs are in fact members of the phosphorus-free LOS family of glycolipids and that the protein product of Rv1500, which we have now termed LosA, is a glycosyltransferase involved in transferring sugars to LOS-III to form LOS-IV of M. marinum
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, cultured on solid Sauton medium, liquid Sauton medium, lipids, mycolyl-arabinogalactan matrix, putative PIMs.

Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Inwald, J.; Archer, J.; Hughes, S.; Palmer, N.; Sayers, A.R.; Sweeney, K.; Embden, J.D.A. van; Hewinson, R.G.  Recent advances in DNA fingerprinting using spoligotyping - epidemiological applications in bovine TB.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 347-350.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis strains, molecular fingerprinting techniques, uses in epidemiology, UK.

Cobos-Marin, L.; Montes-Vargas, J.; Zumarraga, M.; Cataldi, A.; Romano, M.I.; Estrada-Garcia, I.; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, J.A.  Spoligotype analysis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Northern Mexico.  Canadian Journal of Microbiology.  2005 Nov.; 51 (11): 996-1000.  Note:  English; Summary in: French.  ISSN: 0008-4166
NAL Call Number:  448.8 C162
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, strains, bovine tuberculosis, genetic techniques and protocols, polymerase chain reaction, loci, repetitive sequences, spoligotyping, spacer oligonucleotide typing, spoligotypes, Mexico.

Collins, Desmond A.; Skou, Bronwyn; White, Stefan; Bassett, Shalome; Collins, Lauren; For, Raewyn; Hurr, Kathryn; Hotter, Grant; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.  Generation of attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strains by signature-tagged mutagenesis for discovery of novel vaccine candidates.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73 (4): 2379-2386.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL: http://iai.asm.org
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, has a particularly wide host range and causes tuberculosis in most mammals, including humans.  A signature tag mutagenesis approach, which employed illegitimate recombination and infection of guinea pigs, was applied to M. bovis to discover genes important for virulence and to find potential vaccine candidates.  Fifteen attenuated mutants were identified, four of which produced no lesions when inoculated separately into guinea pigs.  One of these four mutants had nine deleted genes including mmpL4 and sigK and, in guinea pigs with aerosol challenge, provided protection against tuberculosis at least equal to that of M. bovis BCG.  Seven mutants had mutations near the esx4 (esat-6) locus, and immunoblot analysis of these confirmed the essential role of other genes at this locus in the secretion of EsxA (ESAT-6) and EsxB (CFP10).  Mutations in the eight other attenuated mutants were widely spread through the chromosome and included pks1, which is naturally inactivated in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis.  Many genes identified were different from those found by signature tag mutagenesis of M. tuberculosis by use of a mouse infection model and illustrate how the use of different approaches enables identification of a wider range of attenuating mutants.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, genes important for virulence, potential vaccine candidates, attenuated mutants, guinea pig animal model.

de Jong, Bouke C.; Onipede, Anthony; Pym, Alex S.; Gagneux,-Sebastien; Aga, Roxanne S.; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Small, Peter M.  Does resistance to pyrazinamide accurately indicate the presence of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43 (7) 3530-3532.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:   http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis is best identified by screening those isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that have any pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance, using a confirmatory test such as spoligotyping, biochemical testing, or genomic deletion analysis.  The sensitivity for detection of M. bovis is lowered to 82% when only PZA-monoresistant isolates are screened.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, isolate screening, pyrazinamide resistance, spoligotyping, biochemical testing, genomic deletion analysis.

Denis, M.; Buddle, B.M.  Iron modulates the replication of virulent Mycobacterium bovis in resting and activated bovine and possum macrophages.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2005; 107 (3-4) 189-199.  ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journalabstracting.cws_home/503319/abstracting
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial replication, in vitro testing, resting and activated possum macrophages, resting and activated bovine macrophages, iron modulating effects, virulent strains.

Denis, Michel; Wedlock, D. Neil; Buddle, Bryce M.  IFN-gamma enhances bovine macrophage responsiveness to Mycobacterium bovis: Impact on bacterial replication, cytokine release and macrophage apoptosisImmunology and Cell Biology.  2005; 83 (6): 643-650.  ISSN:  0818-9641
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/icb
NAL Call Number:  QR180.I43
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bovine macrophages, effect of IFN-gamma, NO levels, IL-12, pro-inflammatory mediators, BCG infection, combination of IFN and LPS caused reduction of bacterial replication, apoptotic pathway, TNF alpha release.

Fujita, Yukiko; Naka, Takashi; Doi, Takeshi; Yano, Ikuya.  Direct molecular mass determination of trehalose monomycolate from 11 species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  Microbiology (Reading). 2005; 151(Part 5): 1443-1452.  ISSN:  1350-0872.  
URL:  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: QR1.J65
Descriptors:  mycobacteria, molecular mass of cell wall component, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, numbers of carbons and double bonds, mycolic acid, species differences, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis wild and BCG strains, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare group, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium flavescens, procedure does not require degradation process.

Fujita, Y.; Naka, T.; McNeil, M.R.; Yano, I.  Intact molecular characterization of cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate) from nine species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  Microbiology (Reading). 2005; 151 (10): 3403-3416.  ISSN:  1350-0872
URL:  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: QR1.J64
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium flavescens, species differentiation, species characterization,molecular genetics, ions, molecular conformation, physicochemical properties, trehalose.

Gibson, Andrea; Brown, Timothy; Baker, Lucy; Drobniewski, Francis.  Can 15 locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat analysis provide insight into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005 Dec.; 71 (12): 8207-8213.  ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: 448.3 Ap5
Abstract: The phylogeny and evolution of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still poorly understood despite the application of a variety of molecular techniques.  We analyzed 469 M. tuberculosis and 49 Mycobacterium bovis isolates to evaluate if the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) commonly used for epidemiological studies can define the phylogeny of the M. tuberculosis complex.  This population was characterized by previously identified silent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNPs) or by a macroarray based on these sSNPs that was developed in this study.  MIRU-VNTR phylogenetic codes capable of differentiating between phylogenetic lineages were identified.  Overall, there was 90.9% concordance between the lineages of isolates as defined by the MIRU-VNTR and sSNP analyses.  The MIRU-VNTR phylogenetic code was unique to M. bovis and was not observed in any M. tuberculosis isolates.  The codes were able to differentiate between different M. tuberculosis strain families such as Beijing, Delhi, and East African-Indian.  Discrepant isolates with similar but not identical MIRU-VNTR codes often displayed a stepwise trend suggestive of bidirectional evolution.  A lineage-specific panel of MIRU-VNTR can be used to subdivide each lineage for epidemiological purposes.  MIRU-VNTR is a valuable tool for phylogenetic studies and could define an evolutionarily uncharacterized population of M. tuberculosis complex organisms.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), phylogeny evolution of M tuberculosis complex, macroarray based on these sSNPs, differentiating between strain families, bidirectional evolution, useful in epidemiology.

Guo, ShePing; Liu, SiGuo; Wang, ChunLai; Shao,MeiLi; Gong, Qiang; Liu,JianDong.  Prokaryotic expression of fusion gene mpb64-Ag85B of Mycobacterium bovis in Escherichia coli.  Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology.  2005; 35 (12): 946-949.  ISSN:  1000-6419.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, E. coli, genes, gene expression, gene splicing, Ag85B, mpb64.

Guo, MingXing; Zhang, HanXie; Chen, JianJun; Huang,Shen; Xu,GongHe; Chen, Ping  Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis from swine sourcesChinese Journal of Zoonoses.  2005; 21(10): 920-922.  ISSN:  1002-2694.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  pigs, granulomatous lesions in various organs, disease outbreaks, case reports, diagnosis, Mycobacterium bovis, drug resistance, penicillins, rifampicin, streptomycin, susceptibility, Hubie, China.

Hilty, Markus; Diguimbaye, Colette; Schelling, Esther; Baggi, Franca; Tanner, Marcel; Zinsstag, Jakob.  Evaluation of the discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 109 (3-4): 217-222.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  The discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on 16 known loci (12 MIRUs, 3 ETRs and VNTR 3232) was assessed for Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially at the slaughterhouse of N'Djamena, Chad.  Of 67 M. bovis strains analyzed, 67% were clustered.  In this study, VNTR typing was highly discriminative with an overall allelic diversity (h(oa)) of 0.922.  We defined five loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 26, 27) as highly (h > 0.25), two loci (MIRU 4, and VNTR 3232) as moderately (0.11 < h < 0.25) and three loci (MIRU 16, 20, 3 1) as poorly (0.01 < h < 0.11) discriminative.  Six loci (MIRU 2, 10, 23, 24, 39, and 40) showed no polymorphism at all.  VNTR typing of the five highly discriminative loci (h = 0.917) proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis strains of Chad and superior than spoligotyping (h(sp) = 0.789).  In contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, a consensus on VNTR loci needs to be found for M. bovis strains.  The selection of a generally agreed set of VNTR loci for molecular discrimination of M. bovis in different geographical settings is discussed.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, collected 67 strains at a slaughter house, allelic diversity, genetic polymorphism, N'Djamena, Chad.

Hope, J.C.; Stephens, S.A.; Charleston, B.; Sopp, P.; Howard, C.J.  Subsets of afferent lymph dendritic cells differ in their capacity to phagocytose Mycobacterium bovis.  Immunology.  2005; 116(Suppl. 1): 21.  ISSN:  0019-2805.  Note:  A meeting abstract.  Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology, Harrogate, England; December 06-09, 2005 
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0019-2805&site=1
NAL Call Number:  448.3 IM6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial diseases, immunology, CD8 positive T-cell, CD4-positive-T-cell, afferent lymph dendritic cell, CD26, CD13, mannose receptor, expression, SIRP alpha, CD21, CD1b, expression, CD205, 187041-85-6, IL 10, secretion, interleukin 1 alpha, IL 12, secretion, phagocytosis.

Hughes, M.S.; Ball, N.W.; McCarroll, J.; Erskine, M.; Taylor, M.J.; Pollock, J.M.; Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D.  Molecular analyses of mycobacteria other than the M. tuberculosis complex isolated from Northern Ireland cattle.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 108 (1/2): 101-112.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Descriptors:  Northern Ireland cattle, mycobacteria isolates from bovine lymph nodes, PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and reverse cross blot hybridization, sequence analyses, MPB70, MPB 64, ESAT-6, CFP 10, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium bohemicum, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium holsaticum, Mycobacterium palustre, Mycobacterium sp. IWGMT 90210, Mycobacterium sp. LIV-2129, a potentially novel mycobacterial species (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ Accession Number AJ617495), UK.

Jiang Xiu yun; Wang Chun feng; Wang Chun fang; He Zhao yang.  Cloning and expression of Mycobactetium bovis secreted protein MPB51 in Escherichia coliWeishengwu Xuebao.  2005; 45 (2): 298-300.  ISSN:  0001-6209.  Note:  In Chinese.
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis Vallee111 chromosomal DNA, PCR, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, cloning, Western blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE, MPB51 amplifies, plasmid generation, pET28a (+), pET28a-51transformed into competence E. coli BL21 (DE3), subunit vaccine, DNA vaccine.

Jiang, XiuYun; Wang, ChunFeng; Wang, ChunFang; He, ZhaoYang.  Expression of Mycobacterium bovis Ag85A gene in Escherichia coli.  Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology.  2005; 35(11): 875-878.  ISSN:  1000-6419.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Escherichia coli, DNA cloning, gene expression, genes, genetic transformation, plasmids, genetic vectors, antigens, nucleotide-sequences, plasmids, pGEM T 85A and pET28a(+), digested using BamH I, EcoR I.

Khalid-Sendide; Deghmane, A.E.; Pechkovsky, D; Av Gay, Y.; Talal, A.; Hmama, Z.  Mycobacterium bovis BCG attenuates surface expression of mature class II molecules through IL-10-dependent inhibition of cathepsin S. Journal of Immunology.  2005; 175 (8): 5324-5332.  ISSN:  0022-1767
URL:  http://www.jimmunol.org/
NAL Call Number:  448.8 J8232
Abstract:  We have previously shown that macrophage infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) partially inhibits MHC class II surface expression in response to IFN-gamma.  The present study examined the nature of class II molecules that do in fact reach the surface of infected cells.  Immunostaining with specific abs that discriminate between mature and immature class II populations showed a predominance of invariant chain (Ii)-associated class II molecules at the surface of BCG-infected cells suggesting that mycobacteria specifically block the surface export of peptide-loaded class II molecules.  This phenotype was due to inhibition of IFN- gamma -induced cathepsin S (Cat S) expression in infected cells and the subsequent intracellular accumulation of alpha beta class II dimers associated with the Cat S substrate Ii p10 fragment.  In contrast, infection with BCG was shown to induce secretion of IL-10, and addition of blocking anti-IL-10 Abstracts to cell cultures restored both expression of active Cat S and export of mature class II molecules to the surface of infected cells.  Consistent with these findings, expression of mature class II molecules was also restored in cells infected with BCG and transfected with active recombinant Cat S.  Thus, M. bovis BCG exploits IL-10 induction to inhibit Cat S-dependent processing of Ii in human macrophages.  This effect results in inhibition of peptide loading of class II molecules and in reduced presentation of mycobacterial peptides to CD4+ T cells.  This ability may represent an effective mycobacterial strategy for eluding immune surveillance and persisting in the host.
Descriptors:  humans, animal diseases, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, immune response, immunopathology, gene expression, interferon, interleukin 10, macrophages, cathepsins.

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Ahn, Jongsam; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitch V.; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George; Mosaad, Abdelaziz A.; Park, Kun Taek; Jung, Woo Kyung; Hwang, In Yeong; Cho, Sang Nae; Shin, Sang Jae; Davis, William C.  Use of rMPB70 protein and ESAT-6 peptide as antigens for comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunochromatographic, and latex bead agglutination assays for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; Sep 43 (9) 4498-4506.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract: Current assays used to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection lack accuracy, especially for recently infected animals, or are impractical for rapid field diagnostic applications.  To overcome these limitations with serological assays, a synthetic peptide derived from early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT6-p) and a recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70) of M. bovis were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), an immunochromatographic assay (ICGA), and a latex bead agglutination assay (LBAA).  Sera from noninfected, M. bovis-infected, or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected (by natural and experimental routes) animals were evaluated.  Receiver operating characteristic analysis comparing optical density values from the EIA with results of bacterial culture or skin test, the reference test, established suitable cutoff values for assessing sensitivity and specificity.  The EIA and LBAA, respectively, had sensitivities of 98.6 and 94.8%, specificities of 98.5 and 92.6%, and kappa values of 0.97 and 0.88 with ESAT6-p.  The EIA, ICGA, and LBAA, respectively, had sensitivities of 96.8, 83.0, and 86.7%, specificities of 90.1, 99.4, and 97.8%, and kappa values of 0.87, 0.85, and 0.83 with rMPB70.  Examination of serial samples of sera collected from experimentally M. bovis-infected cattle and deer revealed that ESAT6-p-specific responses developed early after infection whereas responses to rMPB70 developed later in the course of disease.  The advantage of the LBAA and ICGA as initial tests for multiple species is a rapid reaction obtained in 2 to 3 h by LBAA or 20 min by ICGA without species-specific secondary antibodies under field conditions, thus allowing immediate segregation of suspect animals for further testing before culling.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, infection detection, synthetic peptide derived from early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT6-p), recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70), ELISA, immunochromatographic assay (ICGA), latex bead agglutination assay (LBAA).

Kumar, Ashwani; Chandolia, Amita; Chaudhry, Uma; Brahmachari, Vani; Bose, Mridula.  Comparison of mammalian cell entry operons of mycobacteria: in silico analysis and expression profilingFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology.  2005; 43 (2): 185-195.  ISSN:  0928-8244
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0928-8244&site=1
NAL Call Number:  QR180.F46
Descriptors:  mycobacteria host cell entry, mammalian cell entry operons, pathogenic and saprophytic species, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, silico analysis, Tt2B and Ttg2C domains, differential expression under different culture conditions, mce1 operon, mce2 operon, mce3 operon, growth phase, redundancy in genome.

Lindstedt, Bjorn Arne.  Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria.  Electrophoresis.  2005; 26 (13): 2567-2582.  ISSN:  0173-0835. Note: Literature review.
URL:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110515951/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
NAL Call Number:  QD79.E44E44
Descriptors: DNA fingerprinting, typing pathogenic bacteria, short sequence repeats, SSR, variable number of tantem repeats, VNTR, genetic polymorphisms, many bacterial families tested, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia pestis, Escherichia coli strain-0157, Enterococcus faecium, Leptospira interrogans, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenza, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Liu Zhi hui; Cai Xing shan; Zhu Peng bo; Guan Ping; Xu Wan hua; Wu Long zhang.  Study on species identification of mycobacteria by gas chromatography analysis of whole-cell fatty acid.  Zhonghua Jiehe He Huxi Zazhi.  2005; 28 (6): 403-406.  ISSN:  1001-0939.  Note:  In Chinese.  
Descriptors:  species identification, gas chromatography analysis, accuracy and applicability, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium, scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gordnae.

Mackowiak, Philip A.; Blos, Vera Tiesler; Aguilar, Manuel; Buikstra, Jane E.  On the origin of American tuberculosis.  Clinical Infectious Diseases.  2005; 41 (4): 515-518,507.  ISSN:  1058-4838
Descriptors:  humans, animals, tuberculosis in the US, pre-Columbian infection status, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, history of the disease, USA.

Mishra, A.; Singhal, A.; Chauhan, D.S.; Katoch, V.M.; Srivastava, K.; Thakral, S.S.; Bharadwaj, S.S.; Sreenivas, V.; Prasad, H.K.  Direct detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in bovine samples by a novel nested PCR assay: correlation with conventional techniques.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005 Nov.; 43 (11): 5670-5678.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46 J6
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis infect animals and humans.  Their epidemiologies in developed and developing countries differ, owing to differences in the implementation of preventive measures (World Health Organization, 1999).  Identification and differentiation of these closely related mycobacterial species would help to determine the source, reservoirs of infection, and disease burden due to diverse mycobacterial pathogens.  The utility of the hupB gene (Rv2986c in M. tuberculosis, or Mb3010c in M. bovis) to differentiate M. tuberculosis and M. bovis was evaluated by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with 56 characterized bovine isolates (S. Prabhakar et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:2724-2732, 2004).  The degree of concordance between the PCR-RFLP assay and the microbiological characterization was 99.0% (P < 0.001). A nested PCR (N-PCR) assay was developed, replacing the PCR-RFLP assay for direct detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in bovine samples.  The N-PCR products of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis corresponded to 116 and 89 bp, respectively.  The detection limit of mycobacterial DNA by N-PCR was 50 fg, equivalent to five tubercle bacilli. M. tuberculosis and/or M. bovis was detected in 55.5% (105/189) of the samples by N-PCR, compared to 9.4% (18/189) by culture.  The sensitivities of N-PCR and culture were 97.3 and 29.7, respectively, and their specificities were 22.2 and 77.7%, respectively.  The percentages of animals or samples identified as infected with M. tuberculosis or M. bovis by N-PCR and culture reflected the clinical categorizations of the cattle (P of <0.05 to <0.01).  Mixed infection by N-PCR was detected in 22 animals, whereas by culture mixed infection was detected in 1 animal.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, animals, humans, identification, differentiation, epidemiology, source, disease reservoirs, disease burden due to multiple infections, RFLP assay, 56 bovine isolates, nested PCR assay, 116 and 89 bp, sensitivities.

Monincova, M.; Jesenska, A.; Pavlova, M .; Strouhal, M.; Tisinska, I.; Chaloupkova, R.; Prokop, Z.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I.; Rychlik, I.; Mobius, P.; Nagata, Y.; Damborsky, J.  Mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases.  FEBS Journal.  2005; 272 (Suppl. 1): 514-515.  ISSN:  1742-464X1742-4658.  Note:  A poster at the 30th Congress of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS)/9th IUBMB Conference, Budapest, Hungary; July 02 -07, 2005
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium species, Escherichia coli, species, expression system, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis strain-MC2-155; Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain-K10; Mycobacterium bovis strain-5032-66 dmbA-gene, haloalkane dehalogenase 95990-29-7, EC-3.8.1.5.

Mostowy, Serge; Inwald, Jackie; Gordon, Steve; Martin, Carlos; Warren, Rob; Kremer, Kristin; Cousins, Debby; Behr, Marcel A.  Revisiting the evolution of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2005; 187 (18): 6386-6395.  ISSN:  0021-9193
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, genomics, variability, strain differences, distinct distributions of disease, polymorphisms, broad host capacity, variety of mammals.

Murry, Jeffrey; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Moreira, Jonathan; Lane, James; Rubin, Eric J. A new site-specific integration system for mycobacteria.  Tuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2005; 85 (5-6): 317-323.  ISSN  1472-9792.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/638428/description?navopenmenu=-2
Descriptors:  Streptomyces phi C31 integration system; integrate vector DNA into Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, site-specific recombination, stable transformants, useful in studying mycobacterial genetics.

Nascimento, Ivan P.; Leite, Luciana C.C.  The effect of passaging in liquid media and storage on Mycobacterium bovis - BCG growth capacity and infectivity.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2005; 243(1): 81-86.  ISSN:  0378-1097
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506058/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Moreau strain; recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine preparation strain; effects of freezing, storage and thawing; three rounds of freezing and thawing limit ability for growth; culture density; macrophage infectivity tested, important factors, use fresh, low-passage and/or growth and infection capacity-controlled vaccine stocks.

Neill, S.D.; Skuce, R.A.; Pollock, J.M.  Tuberculosis - new light from an old window.  Journal of Applied Microbiology.  2005; 98 (6): 1261-1269.  ISSN:  1364-5072
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jam
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J687
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, zoonotic aspects, new information about Mycobacterium bovis, recent developments, pathogenesis, epidemiology, disease eradication, diagnosis, vaccination.

Newell, D.; Belcher, T.  Med Vet Net: integrating research on zoonoses.  GVJ-Government Veterinary Journal. 2005; 15 (2): 12-17.  ISSN:  0269-5545
URL:  http://www.defra.gov.uk/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)
Descriptors:  animal diseases, pathogens, zoonotic organisms, Echinococcus, Escherichia coli; Mycobacterium bovis, listerellosis, Salmonella infections, studies, trichinellosis, viral infections; zoonotic infections, UK.  

Olin, Michael R.; Choi, K. Hwa; Lee, Jinhee; Molitor, Thomas W.  Gamma delta T-lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against Mycobacterium bovis analyzed by flow cytometry.  Journal of Immunological Methods.  2005; 297 (1-2): 1-11.  ISSN: 0022-1759
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506022/description#description
Descriptors:  post animal vaccination, gamma delta T lymphocytes, response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG, proliferation of IFN gamma production, innate cytolytic functions, cytolytic assay, flow cytometry, K562 cells as targets, optimizing the assay, conclusion was that the assay is sensitive and reliable for cytolytic activity of gamma delta T lymphocytes.

Prasad, H.K.; Singhal, A.; Mishra, A.; Shah, N.P.; Katoch, V.M.; Thakral, S.S.; Singh, D.V.; Chumber, S.; Bal, S.; Aggarwal, S.; Padma, M.V.; Kumar, S.; Singh, M.K.; Acharya, S.K.  Bovine tuberculosis in India: Potential basis for zoonosisTuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2005; 85(5-6): 421-428.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/638428/description?navopenmenu=-2
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, diagnosis, transmission, genetics, diagnosis, etiology, Mycobacterium bovis, nested PCR, genetic techniques, diagnostic assay techniques, clinical techniques, mixed infections, zoonotic diseases.

Perez, O.A.  Mycobacterium avium implicated in zoonoses.  Revista de Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires.  2005; 86 (6): 263-264.  ISSN:  0325-6391.  Note:  In Spanish.  
Descriptors:  avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, taxonomy, subspecies, indentification, seroagglutination testing, immunological methods, infection prevalence, Crohn’s disease, paratuberculosis, review article,.

Price, S.J.; Hope, J.C.; Howard, C.J.  Bovine WC1+gamma delta T cells are synergistically stimulated by IL-12 and IL-18 to secrete high levels of IFN gamma.  Immunology.  2005; 116 (Suppl. 1): 77.  ISSN:  0019-2805.  Note:  Abstract, Annual Congress of the British-Society-for-Immunology, Harrogate, England; December 06 -09, 2005 
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0019-2805&site=1
NAL Call Number:  448.3 IM6
Descriptors:  cytokines, interferon-gamma, CD40, interleukin 18; interleukin-12, mycobacterial infections, synergistic stimulation, Mycobacterium bovis.

Rosenkrands, Ida; Agger, Else Marie; Olsen, Anja W.; Korsholm, Karen S.; Andersen, Claire Swetman; Jensen, Klaus T.; Andersen, Peter.  Cationic liposomes containing mycobacterial lipids: a new powerful Th1 adjuvant system.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73 (9): 5817-5826.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: The immunostimulation provided by the mycobacterial cell wall has been exploited for many decades, e.g., in Freund's complete adjuvant.  Recently, the underlying mechanism behind this adjuvant activity, including Toll receptor signaling, has begun to be unraveled, confirming the potential of mycobacterial constituents to act as adjuvants.  In this study, the immunostimulatory properties of a Mycobacterium bovis BCG lipid extract were tested for their adjuvant activity. Administration of the lipids in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide-based cationic liposomes induced a powerful Th1 response characterized by markedly elevated antigen-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) isotype antibodies and substantial production of gamma interferon.  The adjuvant formulation (designated mycosomes) elicited high levels of gamma interferon both in C57BL/6 as well as in Th2-prone BALB/c mice.  Furthermore, the mycosomes induced immune responses to protein antigens from several sources including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia muridarum, and tetanus toxoid.  In a tuberculosis challenge model, the mycosomes combined with the Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein were demonstrated to have a unique ability to maintain sustained immunological memory at a level superior to live BCG.
Descriptors:  adjuvant activity, mycobacterial cell wall, Freunds complete adjuvant, immunostimulatory properties, Mycobacterium bovis BCG lipid extract, Th2-prone Balb/c mice.

Skuce, R.A.; McDowell, S.W.; Mallon, T.R.; Luke, B.; Breadon, E.L.; Lagan, P.L.; McCormick, C.M.; McBride, S.H.; Pollock, J.M.  Discrimination of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Northern Ireland on the basis of variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs).  Veterinary Record.  2005 Oct. 22; 157 (17): 501-504.  ISSN: 0042-4900
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission, genetic techniques and protocols, Northern Ireland.

Wheeler, Paul R.; Coldham, Nicholas G.; Keating, Lisa; Gordon, Stephen V.; Wooff, Esen E.; Parish, Tanya; Hewinson, R. Glyn.  Functional demonstration of reverse transsulfuration in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex reveals that methionine is the preferred sulfur source for pathogenic mycobacteria.  Journal of Biological Chemistry.  2005; 280 (9): 8069-8078.  ISSN:  0021-9258.
URL:  http://www.jbc.org/
Abstract: Methionine can be used as the sole sulfur source by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex although it is not obvious from examination of the genome annotation how these bacteria utilize methionine.  Given that genome annotation is a largely predictive process, key challenges are to validate these predictions and to fill in gaps for known functions for which genes have not been annotated.  We have addressed these issues by functional analysis of methionine metabolism.  Transport, followed by metabolism of S-35 methionine into the cysteine adduct mycothiol, demonstrated the conversion of exogenous methionine to cysteine.  Mutational analysis and cloning of the Rv1079 gene showed it to encode the key enzyme required for this conversion, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL).  Rv1079, annotated metB, was predicted to encode cystathionine gamma-synthase (CGS), but demonstration of a gamma-elimination reaction with cystathionine as well as the gamma-replacement reaction yielding cystathionine showed it encodes a bifunctional CGL/CGS enzyme.  Consistent with this, a Rv1079 mutant could not incorporate sulfur from methionine into cysteine, while a cysA mutant lacking sulfate transport and a methionine auxotroph was hypersensitive to the CGL inhibitor propargylglycine.  Thus, reverse transsulfuration alone, without any sulfur recycling reactions, allows M. tuberculosis to use methionine as the sole sulfur source.  Intracellular cysteine was undetectable so only the CGL reaction occurs in intact mycobacteria.  Cysteine desulfhydrase, an activity we showed to be separable from CGL/CGS, may have a role in removing excess cysteine and could explain the Ability of M. tuberculosis to recycle sulfur from cysteine, but not methionine.
Descriptors:  Escherichia coli strain DH5 alpha, Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv; Mycobacterium bovis strain-BCG-Pasteur, pathogenic strain metablolism, biochemistry of methionine as sulfur source.

Winters, A. Driver, C.; Macaraig, M.; Clark, C.; Munsiff, S.S.; Pichardo, C.; Driscoll, J.; Salfinger, M.; Kreiswirth, B.; Jereb, J.; LoBue, P.; Lynch, M.  Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis New York City, 2001-2004.  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.  2005; 54 (24): 605-608.  ISSN:  1057-5987
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic disease potential, epidemiology, infant contracted the disease, diagnostic techniques, genetic techniques, spoligotyping.

Yeruva, Veena C.; Sundaram, C.A.S. Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula.  Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.  Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics.  2005; 42 (1): 28-33.  ISSN:  0301-1208
Descriptors:  iron sufficient and deficient concentration in growth media, expression and activity of the different isoforms, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmati, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii, M. vaccae, differences in catalase/peroxidase activity, susceptibility to heat inactivation, isoforms had variable heat responses.  

Young, Jamie-S.; Gormley, Eamonn; Wellington, ElizAbstracteth M. H.  Molecular detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71 (4): 1946-1952.  ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract: PCR primers specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were used to detect the presence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil microcosms and Mycobacterium bovis in environmental samples taken from a farm in Ireland with a history of bovine tuberculosis.  M. bovis genes were detected in soil at 4 and 21 months after possible contamination.  Gene levels were found in the range of 1 x 103 to 3.6 x 103 gene copies g of soil-1, depending on the sampling area.  Areas around badger setts had the highest levels of detectable genes and were shown to have the highest levels of gene persistence.  M. bovis-specific 16S rRNA sequences were detected, providing evidence of the presence of viable cells in Irish soils.  Studies of DNA turnover in soil microcosms proved that dead cells of M. bovis BCG did not persist beyond 10 days. Further microcosm experiments revealed that M. bovis BCG survival was optimal at 37+C with moist soil (-20 kPa; 30% [vol/wt]).  This study provides clear evidence that M. bovis can persist in the farm environment outside of its hosts and that climatic factors influence survival rates.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, environmental sampling of soils, PCR primers, areas of badger setts had highest levels of gene persistance, 10 day persistence, optimal conditions, Ireland.

Young, Jamie S.; Gormley, Eamonn; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.  Molecular detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(4): 1946-1952.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Descriptors:  PCR primers specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium bovis, environmental samples, soil microcosms, farm land, around badger setts locations, 16SrRNA sequences, evidence of viable cells in soil, dead cells persisted for less than 10 days, optimal moist soil survival temperature was 37degrees C, Ireland.

Zanini, M.S.; Moreira, E.C.; Salas, C.E.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Barouni, A.S.; Roxo, E.; Telles, M.A.; Zumarraga, M.J.  Molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from south-east Brazil by spoligotyping and RFLP.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2005 Apr; 52 (3) 129-133.  ISSN: 0931-1793
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, beef cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, pathogen identification, microbial genetics, strains, genetic polymorphism, molecular genetics, antibiotic resistance, diagnostic techniques, spoligotyping, ethionamide rifampicin, isoniazid, strain differences, disease surveillance, diagnostic-techniques, post slaughter tissue collection, identification of 163 strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microbiological tests, 252 tuberculous-like lesions, 3 genotyping techniques, IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymorphic guanine-cytosine-rich sequence (PGRS)-RFLP and direct repeat (DR)-spoligotyping, fails to show a correlation between main cluster found by the 3 techniques, Brazil.

Zanini, M.S.; Moreira, E.C.; Salas, C.E.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Barouni, A.S.; Roxo, E.; Telles, M.A.; Zumarraga, M.J.  Molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from south-east Brazil by spoligotyping and RFLP.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine  Series B.  2005 Apr; 52 (3) 129-133.  ISSN: 0931-1793
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, beef cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, pathogen identification, microbial genetics, strains, genetic polymorphism, molecular genetics, antibiotic resistance, diagnostic techniques, spoligotyping, ethionamide rifampicin, isoniazid, strain differences, disease surveillance, diagnostic-techniques, post slaughter tissue collection, identification of 163 strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microbiological tests, 252 tuberculous-like lesions, 3 genotyping techniques, IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymorphic guanine-cytosine-rich sequence (PGRS)-RFLP and direct repeat (DR)-spoligotyping, fails to show a correlation between main cluster found by the 3 techniques, Brazil.

Zumarraga, M.J.; Meikle, V.; Bernardelli, A.; Abdala, A.; Tarabla, H.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.  Use of touch-down polymerase chain reaction to enhance the sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis detection.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17 (3): 232-238.  ISSN: 1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, PCR, detection, diagnosis, sensitivity of testing.

2004

Adcock, V.; Durr, P.A.  Use of scalable vector graphics for a web-delivered interactive digital atlas of bovine tuberculosis.  GISVET' 04: Second International Conference on the Applications of GIS and Spatial Analysis to Veterinary Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 23rd 25th June. 2004: 22-25.  ISBN:  189951323X.  Note:  Published by Veterinary Laboratories Agency.  Addlestone, UK.
Abstract: Scalable vector graphics (SVG) is a new XML-based web technology combining high quality graphics, enhanced browser-based interactivity and rapid load times.  This technology is useful for the production of interactive disease maps.  The author describes its use for the successful implementation of an historical atlas of bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales, by permitting direct map production from the source data without requiring intermediate processing within a GIS.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, computer programs, England.

Barouni, A.S.; Augusto, C.J.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Zanini, M.S.; Salas, C.E.  A pncA polymorphism to differentiate between Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Molecular and Cellular Probes.  2004; 18 (3): 167-170.  ISSN:  0890-8508
Descriptors:  pyrazinamidase gene coding, polymorphic site preserved in Mycobacterium bovis, synthesized primers, 180 pb fragment, 726 bp fragment with pncA gene, PCR, digestion with Eco065I, differential identification of unique fragments for each species.

Brandt, L.; Skeiky, Y.A.W.; Alderson, M.R.; Lobet, Y.; Dalemans, W.; Turner, O.C.; Basaraba, R.J.; Izzo, A.A.; Lasco, T.M.; Chapman, P.L.; Reed, S.G.; Orme, I.M.  The protective effect of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine is increased by coadministration with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 72-kilodalton fusion polyprotein Mtb72F in M. tuberculosis-infected guineapigs.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72 (11): 6622-6632.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL:    http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/Abstractstract/72/11/6622
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: A tuberculosis vaccine candidate consisting of a 72-kDa polyprotein or fusion protein based upon the Mtb32 and Mtb39 antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and designated Mtb72F was tested for its protective capacity as a potential adjunct to the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in the mouse and guineapig models of this disease.  Formulation of recombinant Mtb72F (rMtb72F) in an AS02A adjuvant enhanced the Th1 response to BCG in mice but did not further reduce the bacterial load in the lungs after aerosol challenge infection.  In the more stringent guineapig disease model, rMtb72F delivered by coadministration with BCG vaccination significantly improved the survival of these animals compared to BCG alone, with some animals still alive and healthy in their appearance at >100 weeks post-aerosol challenge.  A similar trend was observed with guinea pigs in which BCG vaccination was boosted by DNA vaccination, although this increase was not statistically significant due to excellent protection conferred by BCG alone.  Histological examination of the lungs of test animals indicated that while BCG controls eventually died from overwhelming lung consolidation, the majority of guinea pigs receiving BCG mixed with rMtb72F or boosted twice with Mtb72F DNA had mostly clear lungs with minimal granulomatous lesions. Lesions were still prominent in guinea pigs receiving BCG and the Mtb72F DNA boost, but there was considerable evidence of lesion healing and airway remodeling and reestablishment.  These data support the hypothesis that the coadministration or boosting of BCG vaccination with Mtb72F may limit the lung consolidation seen with BCG alone and may promote lesion resolution and healing. Collectively, these data suggest that enhancing BCG is a valid vaccination strategy for tuberculosis that is worthy of clinical evaluation.
Descriptors:  guinea pigs, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fusion proteins, antigens, bacterial proteins, candidate vaccines, DNA vaccines, immune response, immunity, immunization, lungs, niceritrol, tuberculosis, vaccination, vaccine development.

Broxmeyer, L.  Is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?  Medical Hypotheses.  2004; 63(4): 731-739.  ISSN:  0306-9877
Descriptors:  TSE, BSE, CJD, scrapie, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, prion, causes of disease, misfolded proteins, bacterial DNA, Mycobacterium bovis, isolation from clinical and histopathological signs of mad cow, UK areas of BSE where M. Bovis is highest, tuberculosis spongiform encephalitis, Mycobacterium avium, ssp paratuberculosis (fowl tuberculosis), mycobacteria hypothesis for mad cow disease.

Chambers, M.A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Hewinson, R.G.  Antibody bound to the surface antigen MPB83 of Mycobacterium bovis enhances survival against high dose and low dose challenge.  FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 2004; 41 (2): 93-100.  ISSN: 0928-8244     
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0928-8244&site=1
NAL Call Number:  QR180.F46
Abstract:    Tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis is a significant disease of man and animals. Whilst cellular immunity is the major immunological component required for protection against these organisms, recent reports have suggested that monoclonal antibodies can modify infection with M. tuberculosis.  To test whether the same was true for M. bovis infection, we determined the effect of preincubation of M. bovis with a monoclonal antibody on subsequent intravenous infection of mice.  Antibodies bound to the surface of M. bovis increased the survival time of mice infected with M. bovis and changed the morphology of granulomas and the distribution of acid-fast bacilli in the lung. These studies suggest that antibodies directed to the surface of virulent mycobacteria can modulate their virulence in vivo.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, infection, virulence, monoclonal antibodies, surface antigens, mice.

Coffey, Michael Joseph; Phare, Susan M.; Peters-Golden, Marc.  Role of leukotrienes in killing of Mycobacterium bovis by neutrophils.  Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids.  2004; 71 (3): 185-190.  ISSN:  0952-3278
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, host defense, phagocytosis an killing processes, leukotrines (LT), role in killing, LT synthesis inhibitor MK 886 affected ability of neutrophils to kill Mycobacterium bovis, LT increased when neutrophils were incubated with Mycobacterium bovis.

Collins, D.M.C.; For, R.; Skou, B.; Collins, L.; Bassett, S.; de Lisle, G.W.  Signature tag mutagenesis with Mycobacterium bovis.  Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.  2004: 104: 628.  ISSN:  1060-2011.  Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004. 
NAL Call Number:  QR1.A5
Descriptors:  guinea pigs, Mycobacterium bovis, mutagenesis.

Denis, Michel; Wedlock, D. Neil; Buddle, Bryce M.  Ability of T cell subsets and their soluble mediators to modulate the replication of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine macrophages.  Cellular Immunology.  2004; 232 (1-2): 1-8.  ISSN:  0008-8749
Descriptors:  vaccinated cattle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium bovis virulent strain, modulation of replication between exposure of cells from vaccinated to virulent pathogen, compared to contols, neutralizing antibody IFN-gamma, addition of T-cells, neutralizing of nitric oxide by inclusion of monomethyl-L arginine, immune resistance.

Dhama, K.; Bansal, M.P.; Rathore, R.; Ram, G.C.  Evaluation of the role of Con-A and PHA-P induced leucocyte conditioned medium in activating bovine blood monocytes pulsed with Mycobacterium bovis BCG.  Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology.  2004; 6 (2): 24-27.  ISSN:  0972-0561.
Descriptors:  calves, tuberculosis free, intramuscular inoculation, pure culture of Mycobacterium bovis, sensitization by DTH skin testing, ELISA, LTT using PPD as antigen, blood monocytes,  in vitro stimulated, role of concanavalin A (Con-A) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-P) induced leukocyte conditioned medium, cell behaviors, phagocytosis, immune phagocytosis, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, nitrite production, intracellular killing of M. bovis BCG.

Diguimbaye, C.; Schelling, E.; Pfyffer, G.E.; Baggi, F.; Ngandolo, R.; Ndoutamia, G.; Tanner, M.; Zinsstag, J.  Premiers isolements de mycobacteries tuberculeuses chez l'homme et l'animal au Tchad.  [First isolation of tuberculous mycobacteria in man and animals in Chad.]  Medecine Tropicale.  2004; 64 (5): 482-485.  ISSN:  0025-682X.  Note;  In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  first isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antibiotic resistance, pyrazinamide, control policies needed, Chad.

Fritsche, A.; Engel, R.; Buhl, D.; Zellweger, J.P.  Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis: from animal to man and back. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.  2004; 8 (7): 903-904.  ISSN:  1027-3719.  Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.  
Descriptors:   humans, cattle, other infected animals, Mycobacterium bovis, strains, zoonotic disease, disease transmission from animal to human and back to animal, case reports, clinical aspects, disease course, disease transmission, exposure, human diseases, strains, tuberculosis, Switzerland.

Haddad, Nadia; Masselot, Monique; Durand, B.  Molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates.  Review of main techniques and applications.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2004; 76 (1): 1-18.  ISSN:  0034-5288
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, typing techniques, genetic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, genome studies, IS6110 insertion sequence markers, direct repeat region, poly (GC)rich sequences, variable number tandem repeats sequences, description of techniques, examples of typing application reviewed, epidemiology problems.

Hammer, P.  Heat inactivation of classical mycobacteria in milk - a historical review.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 42-48.  ISSN:  0250-5118.  Note:  International workshop on "Revisiting Heat Resistance of Microorganisms in Milk, Kiel, Germany, 5-8 May 2003.”
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial inactivation in milk, high temperature short time pasteurization, research variables in articles, food contamination, food safety, bacterial heat tolerance, historical literature review.

Hope, J.C.; Thom, M.L.; McCormick, P.A.; Howard, C.J.  Interaction of antigen presenting cells with mycobacteria.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2004; 100 (3/4): 187-195.  ISSN:  0165-2427.  Note:  Host Pathogen Interactions.  Plenary Papers Presented at the CVIG Session of the AVTRW Annual Conference, Scarborough, UK, 16 April 2003.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journalabstracting.cws_home/503319/abstracting
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, bovine antigen presenting cells, dendritic cell infection with mycobacteria, cell-based immunity, antigens, innate and adaptive immune responses induced, cytokines, immune response, interleukins, macrophage activation, major histocompatibility complex, strain, T-lymphocytes, tumour necrosis factor.

Jacobs, William R .Jr; Bloom, Barry; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; McAdam, Ruth.  Insertional mutations in mycobacteria.  Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. 2004; 1283 (4).  ISSN:  0098-1133
URL:  http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/patdata.html
Abstract: A mutated mycobacterium selected from the class consisting of mutated M. bovis BCG, mutated M. tuberculosis, and mutated M. leprae.  The mutation of M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis, or M. leprae is preferably effected through an insertional mutation of a mycobacterial gene.  The insertional mutagenesis may be effected, for example, through illegitimate recombination or by a mycobacterial transposon.  Such mutated mycobacteria may then be transformed with an expression vector(s) containing a complement gene to the gene which is mutated, and preferably also including a heterologous gene.
Descriptors:  mycobacteria, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, insertional mutations.

Jiang, XiuYun; Wang, ChunFeng; Wang, ChunFang; He, ZhaoYang.  Cloning and sequence analysis of Mycobacterium bovis Ag85A gene.  Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology.  2004; 34 (9): 21-24.  ISSN:  1000-6419.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis strain Vallee111, DNA extraction, secreted Ag85A gene, amplified using PCR, clone vectorpGEM-T,85A, cloned into pGEM-T vector using T-A clone technique, immunogenicity, gene expression, DNA sequencing.

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Ahn, Jongsam; Waters, W. Ray; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George; Mosaad, Abdelaziz A.; Palmer, Mitch V.; Shin, Sang; Davis, William C.  New latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Myobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisClinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2004; 11 (6): 1070-1074.  ISSN:  1071-412X
Descriptors: cattle, identification of animals infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, current assays not sensitive and specific to identify diseased animals, latex bead agglutination assay (LBAA) using specific immunodominant epitope (ESAT6-p) of M. bovis, compared assay to culture method and skin test, experimental infection and non-infected animals, species specific diagnosis, sera testing, data suggest a rapid, sensitive and specific assay can be developed.

Kurabachew, Mekonnen; Enger, Oivind; Sandaa, Ruth Anne; Skuce, Robin; Bjorvatn,-Bjarne.  A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for genus-, group- and species- specific detection of mycobacteria.  Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  2004; 49(2): 99-104.  ISSN:  0732-8893
Descriptors:  multiplex PCR assay, single step, differential between species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and other non TB Mycobacterium species using 16S and 23S rDNA, and, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis species using oxyl? gene, 156 clinical samples and reference stains used, Mycobacterium africanum, oxyRTB2.1 loxyRMB-1 primers, 1pg of purified genomic DNA for identification.

Kutalik, Zoltan; Razaz, Moe; Inwald, Jackie; Gordon, Steve V.; Wolkenhauer, Olaf.  A novel statistical approach in comparative genomics to reveal new immunogenic antigens in M. bovis.  Tissue Antigens.  2004; 64 (4): 427.  ISSN: 0001-2815.  Note: Meeting abstract.  1st International Conference on Basic and Clinical Immunogenomics, Budapest, Hungary; October 03-07, 2004.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, comparative genomics, cattle pathogen, molecular genetics methods and techniques, immunology, immunogenic antigens, immunostimulant drug, tuberculin PPD, diagnostic antigen, Bayesian analysis, PCR, spoligotype-specific-deletion.

Kutalik, Zoltan; Inwald, Jacqueline; Gordon, Steve V.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Butcher, Philip; Hinds, Jason; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Wolkenhauer, Olaf.  Advanced significance analysis of microarray data based on weighted resampling: a comparative study and application to gene deletions in Mycobacterium bovis.  Bioinformatics (Oxford).  2004; 20(3): 357-363.  ISSN:  1367-4803
Descriptors:  methods, analyzing microarray data, differences in gene expression levels, normalizezed channel intensity levels, different experimental conditions, SAM, regularized t-test, mixture modeling, Wilk’s lambda score, variance stabilization, weighted resampling approach, gene deletions, Mycobacterium bovis, assumptions, model structure, computation, applicability.

Larson, Jean A, Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.).  Tuberculosis in animals : Mycobacterium bacilli that cause devastating zoonotic diseases in many animals.  AWIC Resource Series; no. 2004-01.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center.  Beltsville, MD [2004]  
URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/TB/TBMain.htm
NAL Call Number:  aHV4701.A94 no. 2004-01
Abstract: The focus of this publication is on information related to tubercular diseases of animals caused by the bacterial genus Mycobacterium.  Livestock diseases are mostly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  Many species of animals are included: large ruminants, wildlife, wild animals as disease reservoirs, deer, elephants, birds, fish, etc.  Topics are varied and include clinical aspects of the disease, the disease process, disease prevention and control, vaccines, immunology, bacterial genetics, zoonotic aspects, etc.
Descriptors:  tuberculosis in animals, bibliography, Mycobacterium sp, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonoses, production animals, zoo animals, wild animals, disease control, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, microbial genetics, disease incidence worldwide, control programs worldwide, immune response, wild animal vectors, treatments, animal disease models, aquatic animals, diagnostic methods, disease pathology, disease incidence worldwide.

Lucca, E.; Canal, A.M.; Pachoud, J.C.; Gollan, A.; Bergamasco, M.; Latini, M.; Lopez, M.; Nicola, A.; Tomatis, I.; Scarpin, V.  Diagnostico de tuberculosis bovina: correlacion entre pruebas diagnosticas.  [Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis: correlation between different diagnostic tests.]  Veterinaria Argentina.  2004; 21 (203): 196-203.  ISSN:  0326-4629.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle; Mycobacterium bovis; blood sampling, diagnostic tests; correlation between tuberculin skin test, bacteriological cultures, microscopic lesions of lymph nodes and other organs, and interferon-gamma assay; interferon-gamma assay not sufficient at detecting M. bovis, Argentina.

Manuel-Tibata, Victor; Eugenia-Gonzalez, Clara; German-Rodriguez, Juan; del Portillo, Patricia.  [Transcriptional analysis of genetic region RvD1 of Mycobacterium bovis.]  Revista Colombiana de Biotecnologia. 2004; 6(2): 62-66.  ISSN: 0123-3475.  Note:  In Spanish.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, 99.9% of genomic identity with M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. microti, 2 genetic regions deleted in M. tuberculosis--H37Rv: RvD1, RvD2, RNA from M. bovis BCG, Rtq-PCR, ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024, were transcribed constitutively, RvD1 possible role in pathogenesis, interaction with both cattle and humans.

Milian-Suazo, F.; Serna-Gonzalez, C.O.; Banda-Ruiz, V.; Robles P., G.; Arriaga-Diaz, C.; Anaya-Escalera, A.M.  Genetic stability of a Mycobacterium bovis strain by serial infections in guinea pigs.  Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico.  2004; 42 (3): 315-323.  ISSN:  0040-1889.  Note:  In Spanish and English.  
Descriptors:  guinea pigs, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle isolated strain, disease model, “direct repeat” region variability, serial passage, intraperitoneal inoculation, 103 pathogens/animal, non-lethal mutation developed during bacterial reproduction.

Pate, Mateja; Zdovc, Irena; Pirs, Tina; Krt, B.; Ocepek, M.  Isolation and characterisation of Mycobacterium avium and Rhodococcus equi from granulomatou lesions of swine lymph nodes in Slovenia.  Acta Veterinaria Hungarica.  2004; 52 (2): 143-150. ISSN:  0236-6290
Descriptors:  cattle; swine; lymph nodes; mixed infections; Mycobacterium hominissuis (IS901-, IS1245+ genotype); Mycobacterium avium avium (IS901+, IS1245+ genotype); typed using IS1245, IS901 and FR300 PCR; Rhodococcus equi isolates; tested for virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB).

Roring, Solvig; Scott, Alistair N.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Neill, Sydney D.; Skuce, Robin A.  Evaluation of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Ireland.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 101 (1): 65-73.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  strain typing, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium bovis, exact tandem repeats (ETRs), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci,spoligotyping using 47 field isolates, suggest a panel of VNTI markers for molecular epidemiological studies.

Shah, D.H.; Singh, S.K.; Rishendra Verma.  Mycobacterium bovis-specific 500 bp DNA fragment is also present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a growing evidence.  In:  C.T.N.F. Iskandar; L. Hassan; G.K. Dhaliwal; R. Yusoff; A.R. Omar; M.A.K.G. Khan; (et-al).  Animal Health: A Breakpoint in Economic Development? The 11th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and 16th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August 2004, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.  2004; 224-225.  ISBN:  9832871662
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, multiplex-PCR assay, 500bp DNA fragment, 185 bp PNCA product, human sputum samples.

Singh, Jitendra; Joshi, Mohan Chandra; Bhatnagar, Rakesh.  Cloning and expression of mycobacterial glutamine synthetase gene in Escherichia coli.  Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  2004; 317(2): 634-638.  ISSN:  0006-291X
Descriptors:  extracellular glutamine synthetase (GS) gene, prominent proteins secreted by pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei do not secrete this protein, structure gene amplified, fusion protein with hexahistidine residues in E. coli, solubilized inclusion bodies, purified process for recombinant glutamine synthetase, first report of cloning and expression of mycobacterial GS in E. coli.

Singh, S.K.; Rishendra Verma; Shah, D.H.  Molecular fingerprinting of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from India by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).  Journal of Veterinary Science.  2004; 5 (4): 331-335.  ISSN:  1229-845X
URL:  http://www.vetsci.org/2004/pdf/331.pdf
Abstract: Forty mycobacterial strains comprising clinical Indian isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28 field isolates +1H37 Rv) and Mycobacterium bovis (10 field isolates +1 AN5) were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using IS6110 and IS1081 probes. Most of these strains originated from dairy cattle herd and human patients from Indian Veterinary research Institute (IVRI) campus isolated from the period of 1986 to 2000. Our study showed presence of 8 copies of IS6110 in most of the M.tuberculosis (96.6%) strains irrespective of their origin with the exception of one M.tuberculosis strain with presence of an extra copy (3.4%). All M.bovis strains showed a single copy of IS6110 on the characteristic 1.9 kb restriction fragment. RFLP analysis with IS1081 invariably showed the presence of 5 copies in all isolates of M.bovis and M.tuberculosis at the same chromosomal location. Similarity of IS6110 RFLP fingerprints of M.tuberculosis strains from animals and human suggested the possibility of dissemination of single M.tuberculosis strain among animals as well as human. It was not possible to discriminate within the isolates of either M.tuberculosis or M.bovis, when IS1081 was used as target sequence. The IS6110 RFLP is a valuable tool for disclosing transmission chain of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis among humans as well as animals.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, disease transmission between species, 40 mycobacterial strains, clinical and field isolates, RFLP, IS6110 and IS1081 probes, dairy cattle herds, patients, Indian Veterinary Research Institute campus, strains and species compared, India.

Stermann, M.; Sedlacek, L.; Maass, S.; Bange, F.C.  A promoter mutation causes differential nitrate reductase activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Bacteriology.  2004; 186 (9): 2856-2861.  ISSN: 0021-9193
URL:  http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/Abstractstract/186/9/2856
Abstract: The recent publication of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis showed >99.95% identity to M. tuberculosis.  No genes unique to M. bovis were found.  Instead numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified.  This has led to the hypothesis that differential gene expression due to SNPs might explain the differences between the human and bovine tubercle bacilli.  One phenotypic distinction between M. tuberculosis and M. bovis is nitrate reduction, which not only is an essential diagnostic tool but also contributes to mycobacterial pathogenesis.  We previously showed that narGHJI encodes a nitrate reductase in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis and that NarGHJI-mediated nitrate reductase activity was substantially higher in the human tubercle bacillus.  In the present study we used a genetic approach to demonstrate that an SNP within the promoter of the nitrate reductase gene cluster narGHJI is responsible for the different nitrate reductase activity of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis.  This is the first example of an SNP that leads to differential gene expression between the human and bovine tubercle bacilli..
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pathogenesis, chromosomes, cosmids, cytosine, enzyme activity, gene expression, genes, genome analysis, genomes, mutations, nitrite, promoters, thymine, no genes unique to Mycobacterium bovis found, single nucleotide polymorphisms identified, differential gene expression hypothesis, SNP in nitrate reductase gene cluster nar GHJI different nitrate reductase between 2 pathogens.

Vesosky, B.; Turner, O.C.; Turner, J.; Orme, I.M.  Gamma interferon production by bovine gammadelta T cells following stimulation with mycobacterial mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72 (8): 4612-4618.  ISSN:  0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org
NAL Call Number: QR1.I57
Abstract: A large percentage of lymphocytes in the blood of cattle express the gammadelta T-cell receptor, but specific functions for these cells have not yet been clearly defined.  There is evidence, however, that human, murine, and bovine gammadelta T-cells have a role in the immune response to mycobacteria.  This study investigated the ability of bovine gammadelta T-cells to expand and produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in response to stimulation with mycobacterial products.  Bovine gammadelta T-cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy cattle, expanded following in vitro stimulation with live mycobacteria, mycobacterial crude cell wall extract, and Mycobacterium bovis culture filtrate proteins.  In addition, purified gammadelta T-cells, co-cultured with purified monocytes and interleukin-2, consistently produced significant amounts of IFN-gamma in response to mycobacterial cell wall.  The IFN-gamma-inducing component of the cell wall was further identified as a proteolytically resistant, non-sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble component of the mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan.
Descriptors:  cattle, gamma interferon production, bovine gammadelta T-cells, lymphocytes, ability to expand and produce IFN-gamma, stimulation, live mycobacteria, mycobacterial crude cell wall extract, Mycobacterium bovis culture filtrate, cell biochemistry.

Zink, A.R.; Nerlich, A.G.  Molecular strain identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in archival tissue samples.  Journal of Clinical Pathology (London).  2004; 57 (11): 1185-1192.  ISSN:  0021-9746
URL:  http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/57/11/1185
Descriptors:  identify human pathogenic mycobacteria, 49 archival tissue sources, formalin fixed or paraffin wax embedded material, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti, or Mycobacterium canettii, and/or substrains, identifying individual infection traits and superinfection by different strains, DNA analysis, IS6110 positive characterized by spoligotypin.

Zubrzycki, Igor Z.  Analysis of the products of genes encompassed by the theoretically predicted pathogenicity islands of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis.  Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics. 2004; 54 (3): 563-568.
URL:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/106567464/PDFSTART
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosisi, Mycobacterium bovis, sequencing genomes, biology of pathogens, computational detection, anomalous gene clusters, cross genomic comparisons, identified unique proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2003

Aranaz, Alicia; Cousins, Debby; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez,-Lucas.  Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov.  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.  2003; 53(6): 1785-1789.  ISSN:  1466-5026
URL: http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/53/6/1785?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=aranaz&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I577
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Spanish goat isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ssp. caprae, reclassification to Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov, biochemical and epidemiological parameters, combination of pncA, oxyR, katG and gyrA gene polymorphisms, special nucleotide substitutions, isolated from other animals, cattle, wild boar, pigs, genetic studies show older than Mycobacterium bovis, France, Austria, Germany.

Buddle, B.M.; McCarthy, A.R.; Ryan, T.J.; Pollock, J.M.; Vordermeier, H.M.; Hewinson, R.G.; Andersen, P.; De  Lisle, G.W.  Use of mycobacterial peptides and recombinant proteins for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in skin test-positive cattle.  Veterinary Record.  2003; 153 (20): 615-620.  ISSN: 0042-4900
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, cattle, synthetic peptides, antigen detection, skin lesions, skin tests, paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, cross reaction, tuberculin, recombinant proteins, disease diagnosis, Mycobacterium bovis, interferons, skin folds, vaccination, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria.

Collins, Desmond M.; Kawakami, R Pamela; Buddle, Bryce M.; Wards, Barry J.; De Lisle, Geoffrey W.  Different susceptibility of two animal species infected with isogenic mutants of Mycobacterium bovis identifies phoT as having roles in tuberculosis virulence and phosphate transport.  Microbiology (Reading).  2003; 149 (11): 3203-3212.  ISSN:  1350-0872
URL:  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: QR1.J65
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium bovis, ATCC35721, mutation, principal sigma factor gene, sigA, accessory transcription factor WhiB3, M. bovis, Wag320, guinea pigs, brushtail possum (Tricuosurus vulpecula), virulence restoring factor, phoT, role in phosphate uptake at low phosphate concentrations, 2 point deletions,  use of different animal species.

Haddad, N.; Masselot, M.; Durand, B.  Molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates.  Review of main techniques and applications.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2004: 76 (1): 1-18.  ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312   
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria strains, strain differences, phylogeny, molecular genetics, transposons, repetitive sequences, tandem repeat sequences, nucleotide sequences, literature reviews, genetic polymorphism, epidemiology, population genetics, genetic markers, pathogen identification, molecular markers.

Kurabachew, M.; Enger, O.; Sandaa, R.A.; Eshetu-Lemma; Bjorvatn, B.  Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis in the differentiation of related species of mycobacteria.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2003; 55 (1): 83-90. ISSN:  0167-7012
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, intra and inter species identification, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 16S and 23S rDNA, 16S-23SrDNA spacer, 121 isolates, 13 different mybacterial species, restriction digestion, restriction enzymes, CfoI, HaeIII, RsaI, MspI, TaqI, method to recognize strains of M. tubuculosis complex and others.

Lewin, A.; Freytag, B.; Meister, B.; Sharbati Tehrani, S.; Schaefer, H.; Appel, B.  Use of a quantitative TaqMan-PCR for the fast quantification of mycobacteria in broth culture, eukaryotic cell culture and tissue.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2003; 50 (10): 505-509.  ISSN:  0931-1793
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1863-1959&site=1
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, quantification, in vitro samples, in vivo samples, growth curves, broth cultures, quantitative TaqMan PCR, multiplication within eukaryotic cells, load in tissue before colony counts.

Lis, Henryk.  Wystepowanie i zwalczanie gruzlicy bydla w niektorych panstwach Unii Europejskiej i w Polsce. [Incidence and eradication of bovine tuberculosis in some EU countries and in Poland.]  Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 2003; 59 (11): 1040-1042.  ISSN:  0025-8628.  Note:  In Polish.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogen, farm animals, disease distribution, outbreaks can still occur in Poland, present in other EU countries, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain. 

Marano, Nina; Pappaioanou, Marguerite.  Historical, new, and reemerging links between human and animal health.  Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004; 10 (12): 2065-2066.  ISSN:  1080-6040
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?linkbar=plain&db=journals&term=1080-6040
NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46
Descriptors:  human and animal disease interactions, zoonotic disease, transmission of disease between species,  historical information, Hantavirus, Salmonella Newport, West Nile virus, Mybacterium bovis-tuberculosis, Nipah virus, infectious diseases, epidemiology, prevention and control, global trade, human behaviors, international travel of humans and animals, rapid microbial adaptation, wildlife reservoirs.

Maslow, Joel N.; Irani, Vida R.; Lee, Sun Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M.; Inamine, Julia M.; Belisle, John T. Biosynthetic specificity of the rhamnosyltransferase gene of Mycobacterium avium serovar 2 as determined by allelic exchange mutagenesis.  Microbiology (Reading).  2003; 149 (11): 3193-3202.  ISSN:  1350-0872
URL:  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: QR1.J65
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis serovar strain 2 TMC724 derived via a plasmid, Mycobacterium smegnatis, rhamnosyltransferase, rtfA gene, catalyses addion of rhamnose to 6-deoxytalose of serover 2-specific glycopeptidolipid, alaninol, lipipeptide, system of allelic exchange for M. avium as a tool for future genetic studies.

Quesniaux, V.; Fremond, C.; Jacobs, M.; Shreemanta Parida; Nicolle, D.; Yeremeev, V.; Bihl, F.; Erard, F.; Botha, T.; Drennan, M.; Soler, M.N.; Bert, M. le; Schnyder, B.; Ryffel, B.  Toll-like receptor pathways in the immune responses to mycobacteria.  Microbes and Infection.  2004; 6 (10): 946-959.
Descriptors:  mice, laboratory animals, disease model, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial antigens, bacterial proteins, biochemical receptors, cell cultures, disease models, experimental infections, immune response, in vitro, ligands, mycobacterial diseases, literature reviews tuberculosis toll-like receptors.

Ramarokoto, H.; Andrianasolo, D.; Rasolonavalona, T.; Ramaroson, F.; Razafitsiarovana, I.; Vincent, V.; Ratsimba, L.; Rasolofo Razanamparany, V.  Un cas de tuberculose pulmonaire a Mycobacterium bovis multiresistant a Madagascar.  [A case of pulmonary multi-resistant tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Madagascar.]  Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar.  2003; 69 (1-2): 37-40.  ISSN:  0020-2495.  Note:  Note: In French.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, case study, animal to human transfer, multi-drug resistant strain, Malagasy citizen. 

Sinha, I.; Boon, C.; Dick, T.  Apparent growth phase-dependent phosphorylation of malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), a major fatty acid synthase II component in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2003; 227 (1): 141-147.  ISSN: 0378-1097
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506058/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract: Probing protein extracts from exponentially growing and stationary phase cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with anti-phospho amino acid antibodies revealed a 31-kDa anti-phospho threonine antibody-reactive protein specific to growing culture.  The corresponding protein was purified via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified via mass spectrometry to be malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), a component of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway.  MCAT tagged with histidine reacted with anti-phospho threonine antibody and was positive in an in-gel chemical assay for phospho proteins. Analysis of the growth phase dependence of MCAT-His phosphorylation and protein levels showed that phosphorylated MCAT-His can be detected only in growing culture.  In contrast, MCAT-His protein level was growth phase-independent.  These results suggest that MCAT may be a substrate of a protein kinase and phosphatase, and that aspects of fatty acid synthesis in tubercle bacilli are regulated by protein phosphorylation.
Descriptors:  animal pathogenic bacteria, Mycobacterium bovis, phosphorylated MCAT-His, MCAT-His protein levels, fatty acid synthesis.

Smith, N.H.; Dale, J.; Inwald, J.; Palmer, S.; Gordon, S.V.; Hewinson, R.G.; Smith, J.M.  The population structure of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain: clonal expansion.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  2003 Dec. 9; 100 (25):15271-15275.  ISSN: 0027-8424
NAL Call Number:  500 N21P
URL: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/25/15271
Abstract: We have analyzed 11,500 isolates of Mycobacterium bovis (the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and other mammals) isolated in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland)] and characterized by spoligotype. Genetic exchange between cells is rare or absent in strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex so that, by using spoligotypes, it is possible to recognize "clones" with a recent common ancestor. The distribution of variable numbers of tandem repeats types in the most common clone in the data set is incompatible with random mutation and drift. The most plausible explanation is a series of "clonal expansions," and this interpretation is supported by the geographical distribution of different genotypes. We suggest that the clonal expansion of a genotype is caused either by the spread of a favorable mutation, together with all other genes present in the ancestral cell in which the mutation occurred, or by the invasion of a novel geographical region by a limited number of genotypes. A similar pattern is observed in M. tuberculosis (the main cause of tuberculosis in humans). The significance of clonal expansion in other bacteria that have recombination is discussed.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, population structure, mini-satellite repeats, evolution, geographical distribution, bovine tuberculosis, spoligoypes, clones with recent common ancestor, distribution of different genotypes, clonal expansion,England, Wales, Scotland.

Sreedevi, B.; Krishnappa, G.  Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from cattle.  Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases.  2003; 24 (1): 59-62.  ISSN:  0970-9320
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cattle, different mycobacterial cultures, bovine macrophage cell cultures, NBT dye reduction test, disease transmission, levels of pathogenisity, phagocytosis, cattle as host organisms.

Taylor, S.J.; Ahonen, L.J.; De Leij, F.A.A.M.; Dale, J.W.  Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii with Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG and survival of M. bovis within the amoebae.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2003; 69 (7): 4316-4319.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract: Survival of Mycobacterium bovis after ingestion by protozoa would provide an environmental reservoir for infection of cattle.  We have shown that M. bovis survived ingestion by Acanthamoeba castellanii.  In contrast, two strains of M. bovis BCG did not survive well within Acanthamoeba.
Descriptors:  possible environmental reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, animal pathogenic bacteria, ingestion by Acanthamoeba castellanii, pathogen survival, disease reservoirs, bovine tuberculosis, soil fauna, cattle pastures.

Varela, E.; Paez, A. Montano, L.F.; Masse, F:  Isolation and characterization of Mycobacterium bovis 19 kDa native protein distinct from MPB 70/80.  Molecular and Cellular Proteomics.  2003; 2 (9): 967.  ISSN:  1535-9476.  Note:  Meeting abstract.  Meeting:  HUPO (Human Proteomics Organisation) 2nd Annual and IUBMB (International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) XIX World Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; October 08-11, 2003
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogen, 19-kDa-native protein characterization, isolation, MPB70-80 isoelectric focusing, electrophoretic techniques.

Zhang, XiYue; Wu, YanGong; Wang, ZhiLiang; Xu, PeiLian; Zhao, YunLing.  Study on ELISA for detecting bovine tuberculosis.  Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine.  2004; 21 (7): 21-22.  ISSN:  1005-944x.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, improved classical ELISA, sodium azide as protective agent, PPD coated plates, cattle serum diluent, TMB as substrate, good specificity.

Zhang, XiYue; Wang, JunWei; Gao, YunHang; He, ZhaoYang.  Study on detection of tuberculosis antibodies in serum of cattle by Dot-IGSS.  Journal of Jilin Agricultural University.  2004; 26 (2): 217-219.  ISSN:  1000-5684.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, detection of serum antibodies, Dot IGSS (Dot-immunogold silver staining, diagnostic technique.

2002

Gutierrez-Pabello, J.A.; McMurray, D.N.; Adams, L.G.  Upregulation of thymosin beta-10 by Mycobacterium bovis infection of bovine macrophages is associated with apoptosisInfection and Immunity.  2002; 70 (4): 2121-2127. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: Bovine macrophages underwent apoptosis as a result of infection with a Mycobacterium bovis field strain. Macrophages infected with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 25:1 developed chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation at 4 h and 8 h, respectively, whereas changes in chromatin condensation induced by MOIs of 10:1 and 1:1 required more time and had a reduced number of apoptotic cells.  Not only infected macrophages underwent apoptosis, but also uninfected bystander macrophages became apoptotic.  Increased differential expression of thymosin beta-10 was identified in M. bovis-infected bovine macrophages by differential display reverse transcriptase PCR.  Phagocytosis of latex beads had no effect on the expression of thymosin beta-10, whereas bacterial suspensions upregulated thymosin beta-10 expression, suggesting that M. bovis or mycobacterial products are essential in the process.  Heat-inactivated M. bovis induced a slight increase in thymosin beta-10 mRNA, whereas live virulent and attenuated M. bovis organisms increased the gene expression almost twofold.  A mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) overexpressing the bovine thymosin beta-10 transgene had spontaneous apoptosis at a higher rate (66.5%) than parental cells (4.7%) or RAW cells harboring the empty vector (22.8%).  The apoptotic rates of the overexpressing cells were significantly higher when compared with both the empty vector transfected (P < 0.01) and parental cells (P < 0.001). Our evidence suggests that upregulation of thymosin beta-10 in M. bovis-infected macrophages is linked with increased cell death due to apoptosis.
Descriptors:  molecular sequence data, cattle, messenger RNA, complementary DNA, nucleotide sequences.

Jesenska, A.; Bartos, M.; Czernekova, V.; Rychlik, I.; Pavlik, I.; Damborsky, J. Cloning and expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase gene dhmA from Mycobacterium avium N85 and preliminary characterization of DhmA.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2002. 68 (8) 3724-3730.
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Descriptors:  carbon, catalysts, cleavage, DNA cloning, enzyme activity, gene expression, genetics, genomes, halogens, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Photobacterium, Xylella fastidiosa.

Kwong, L.S.; Hope, J.C.; Thom, M.L.; Sopp, P.; Duggan, S.; Bembridge, G.P.; Howard, C.J.  Development of an ELISA for bovine IL-10.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2002; 85 (3/4): 213-223.  ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journalabstracting.cws_home/503319/abstracting
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The objective of the study was to develop an assay for bovine IL-10 that could be applied to analyses of immune responses and advance understanding of a variety of diseases of cattle.  Recombinant bovine IL-10 (rbo IL-10) was transiently expressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to inhibit the synthesis of IFNgamma by bovine cells stimulated with antigen in vitro.  Mice were immunised with a plasmid containing a cDNA insert encoding rbo IL-10 and inoculated with rbo IL-10.  A number of monoclonal antibodies (mab) were generated that reacted with rbo IL-10 in an ELISA.  Some of these mab neutralised the ability of rbo IL-10 to inhibit IFNgamma synthesis by antigen-stimulated bovine cells.  A pair of mabs was identified that together could be used to detect both recombinant and natural bovine IL-10 present in supernatant of PBMC stimulated with ConA.  A luminescent detection method was applied to the ELISA making it more sensitive.  Using this method native IL-10 was detected in supernatants of PBMC, diluted blood and undiluted blood from cattle immunised with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or ovalbumin and incubated in vitro with antigen indicating the applicability of the assay to a number of in vitro culture systems.
Descriptors:  cattle, interleukin 10, ELISA, monoclonal antibodies, interferon, recombinant DNA, complementary DNA, protein synthesis, inhibition.

Lysenko, A.P.; Krasnikova, E.L.; Poloz, A.I.  Morphological characteristics of Mycobacterium species cultured in new VKG medium.  Veterinarnaya Nauka Proizvodstvu.  2002; (36): 69-75.  Note:  In Russian.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacteriology, culture media effects, VKG medium.

Milian-Suazo, F.; Banda-Ruiz, V.; Ramirez-Casillas, C.; Arriaga-Diaz, C. Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis by geographic location within Mexico. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2002. 55 (4) 255-264.
NAL Call Number:  SF601 P7
Descriptors:  spoligotyping, differentiate 62 Mycobacterium bovis isolates, dairy cattle, genetic differences, detection of infection sources.

Niemann, S.; Richter, E.; Rusch-Gerdes, S. Biochemical and genetic evidence for the transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to the species Mycobacterium bovis Karlson and Lessel 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.  Mar 2002. 52 (pt.2) 433-436. ISSN: 1466-5026.
URL:
http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I577
Descriptors:  new combination, new subspecies, descriptions, taxonomy, chemotaxonomy, Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae.

Nishimori, K.; Uchida, I.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimori, T.; Imai, K.; Kashiwazaki, Y.; Murata, N.; Jinma, KMolecular epidemiological manual for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium avium using VNTR (Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats) typing.  Bulletin of the National Institute of Animal Health. 2002, No.109, 25-32.  ISSN:  1347-2542  Note:  In Japanese with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.9 T572 
Descriptors:  bacterial typing, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, phylogeny.  

Poloz, A.I.; Lysenko, A.P.; Krasnikova, E.L.  [Differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical Mycobacterium strains using immunofluorescent microscopy.] Veterinarnaya Nauka Proizvodstvu.  2002; (36): 141-144.  Note:  In Russian.  
Descriptors: Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, differential diagnosis, immunofluorescence, diagnostic techniques, strain differences.

Roring, S.; Scott, A.; Brittain, D.; Walker, I.; Hewinson, G.; Neill, S.; Skuce, R.  Development of variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium bovis: comparison of results with those obtained by using existing exact tandem repeats and spoligotyping.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2002; 40 (6): 2126-2133.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:   http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number: QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, repetitive DNA.

Shah, D.H.; Verma, R.; Bakshi, C.S.; Singh, R.K. A multiplex-PCR for the differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  Aug 27, 2002. 214 (1) 39-43. ISSN: 0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract:  A multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on one-step amplification and detection of two different mycobacterial genomic fragments was designed for differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The oligonucleotide primers were chosen from a 500-bp genomic fragment which is well conserved in M. bovis and the pncA gene (based on M. tuberculosis-specific nucleotide polymorphism, a cytosine residue at position 169), specific for M. tuberculosis. The multiplex-PCR allowed detection of a single product of 500 bp in M. bovis isolates while M. tuberculosis isolates generated a single product of 185 bp, with or without an additional product of 500 bp. None of the atypical mycobacterial isolates revealed any amplification products. The method was found to be highly specific and could detect as little as 20 pg of pure DNA. This multiplex-PCR assay, based on the 500-bp fragment and the pncA gene, may be very useful for the rapid and specific differentiation of these two closely related mycobacteria and easy to use in medical and veterinary microbiological laboratories.
Descriptors:  polymerase chain reaction, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, species differentiation, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rapid testing method.

Shyam Unniraman; Monalisa Chatterji; Valakunja Nagaraja. DNA gyrase genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a single operon driven by multiple promoters. Journal of Bacteriology. 2002. 184 (19) 5449-5456. ISSN: 0021-9193
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J822
Descriptors:  auto-regulation, genes, genomes, isomerases, molecular genetics, nucleotide sequences, operons, promoters, transcription, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DNA topoisomerase (ATP hydrolysing).

Roring, S.; Scott, A.; Brittain, D.; Walker, I.; Hewinson, G.; Neill, S.; Skuce, R. Development of variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium bovis: comparison of results with those obtained by using existing exact tandem repeats and spoligotyping. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2002. 40 (6) 2126-2133.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  fingerprinting, Mybacterium tuberculosis complex, RFLP typing, alleles, genes, genetic polymorphism, loci, molecular genetics, nucleotide sequences, repetitive DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, Mycobacterium bovis.

Skuce, R.A.; McCorry, T.P.; McCarroll, J.F.; Roring, S.M.M.; Scott, A.N.; Brittain, D.; Hughes, S.L.; Hewinson, R.G.; Neill, S.D. Discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria using novel VNTR-PCR targets. Microbiology. Feb 2002. 148 (pt.2) 519-528. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, variable number tandem repeats, polymerase chain reaction, spoligotyping.

Smits, T.H.M.; Balada, S.B.; Witholt, B.; van Beilen, J.B. Functional analysis of alkane hydroxylases from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.  Journal of Bacteriology. 2002. 184 (6) 1733-1742.
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  alkanes, amino acid sequences, enzyme activity, gene expression, genetic analysis, gram negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria, oxidoreductases, oxygenases, soil bacteria, Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Alcanivorax borkumensis, Prauserella rugosa, rubredoxin NAD+-reductase.

Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W.R.  Strain variation in Mycobacterium marinum fish isolates.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology. ISSN:  0099-2240 Nov 2002, 7(11) 6114-6120.
NAL Call Number:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors: fish pathogen, Mycobacterium marinum, genetics, strain variations.

Welsh, M.D.; Kennedy, H.E.; Smyth, A.J.; Girvin, R.M.; Andersen, P.; Pollock, J.M.  Responses of bovine WC1+ gammadelta T cells to protein and nonprotein antigens of Mycobacterium bovis.  Infectious Immunity.  2002; 70 (11): 6114-6120.  ISSN: 0019-9567.
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: WC1(+) gammadelta T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE).  In mycobacterial infections of other species, gammadelta T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components.  The present study sought to characterize the WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets, together with the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2), in the context of M. bovis infection.  This was achieved by testing crude and defined antigens to assess protein versus nonprotein recognition by WC1(+) gammadelta T cells in comparison with CD4(+) alpha beta T cells.  Both cell types proliferated strongly in response to MBSE, with CD4(+) T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma).  However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed its ability to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell responses, whereas some WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation remained.  The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell cultures was found to be ESAT-6, which is a potential novel diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate.  In addition, WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation was observed in response to stimulation with prenyl pyrophosphate antigens (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and monomethyl phosphate).  High levels of cellular activation (CD25 expression) resulted from MBSE stimulation of WC1(+) gammadelta T cells from infected animals.  A similar degree of activation was induced by IL-2 alone, but for WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell division IL-2 was found to act only as a costimulatory signal, enhancing antigen-driven responses.  Overall, the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in M. bovis infection, with nonprotein antigens inducing significant proliferation.  These findings have important implications for diagnostic and vaccine development.
Descriptors:  T lymphocytes, the WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets, bacterial antigens, lymphocyte transformation.

 

2001

Arraiz, N.; Takiff, H. Analisis de ARNm de un factor de supervivencia en micobacterias. [mRNA analysis of a survival factor in mycobacteria.]  Kasmera. 2001. 29 (1) 65-82. Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterisum bovis BCG, the sigma ECF factor SuoM, SuoM-lac Z, transcriptional fusion reporters, beta-glactosidase activity, heat shock effects, cell growth, survival functions.

Caimi, K.; Romano, M.I.; Alito, A.; Zumarraga, M.; Bigi, F.; Cataldi, A. Sequence analysis of the direct repeat region in Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001. 39 (3) 1067-1072.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  DNA sequencing, Mycobacterium bovis, nucleotide sequences, cattle tuberculosis.

Chambers, M.A.; Williams, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Whelan, A.; Hughes, C.; Hall, G.; Lever, M.S.; Marsh, P.D.; Hewinson, R.G.   A guinea pig model of low-dose Mycobacterium bovis aerogenic infection.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2001;  80 (3): 213-226.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: In order to develop a model of Mycobacterium bovis infection with pathogenetical relevance, a modified version of the Henderson apparatus was used to deliver infectious aerosols directly to the snouts of guinea pigs.  Aerosols generated from 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) CFU/ml M. bovis suspensions established disease in every animal, with estimated retained doses of 10, 100, 1000 CFU, respectively.  For comparison, other guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 CFU M. bovis intramuscularly (i.m.).  Pathology and bacterial colonisation of lungs and spleen varied according to the dose and route of inoculation.  Animals inoculated i.m. gave a significant cutaneous tuberculin hypersensitivity reaction earlier after testing than those infected aerogenically.  A serological response to M. bovis antigens was detected in all infected animals.  Intensity of antigen recognition was dose-dependent and although the range of antigens recognised varied between animals, a 25 kDa antigen present in the cell fraction was serodominant.  Thus, a reproducible guinea pig model has been defined that may be suitable for virulence, vaccination, and immunological studies.
Descriptors:  guinea pigs, Mycobacterium bovis, experimental infections, animal models, disease models, inoculum density, pathogenesis, airborne infection, intramuscular injection, application methods, lungs, spleen, colonization, antigens, dosage effects.

Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Sauter Louis, Carola M.; Lugton, Ian W.; Jackson, Ronald; Durr, Peter A.; Wilesmith, John W. Mycobacterial diseases.  Mycobacterium bovis infections.  In:  Elizabeth S. Williams; Ian K. Barker (editors). Infectious diseases of wild mammals.  Third edition.  Iowa State University Press, Ames.  2001: 340-361.  ISBN:  0813825563
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis, ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), badgers (Meles meles), brush tailed possoms (Trichosurus vulpecula) wildlife as disease reservoirs, domestic animals, cattle, zoonotic diseases.

Collins, D.M.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Virulence factors of Mycobacterium bovis. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 97-102. Note:  Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000.
Descriptors:  genes, mutant strains, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, disease screening for virulence, cattle.

Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Pathogenesis of pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection: basic principles established by the rabbit model. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 87-96. Note:  Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000.
Descriptors:  pathogenesis, rabbit disease model, Mycobacterium bovis strains, species differences, antibodies, antigens, cell mediated immunity, immune response, chemokines, cytokines, delayed type hypersensitivity, disease control, experimental infections, laboratory animals, lungs, macrophage activation, respiratory diseases, T lymphocytes, tuberculosis.

De Mendonca-Lima, L.; Picardeau, M.; Raynaud, C.; Rauzier, J.; de la Salmoniere, Y.O.G.; Barker, L.; Bigi, F.; Cataldi, A.; Gicquel, B.; Reyrat, J.M. Erp, an extracellular protein family specific to mycobacteria. Microbiology.  2001. 147 (8) 2315-2320.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Descriptors:  exported repeated protein, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, ubiquitous extracellular protein, genetic conservation.

Gordon, S.V.; Eiglmeier, K.; Garnier, T.; Brosch, R.; Parkhill, J.; Barrell, B.; Cole, S.T.; Hewinson, R.G.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Genomics of Mycobacterium bovis.  Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 157-163. Note:  Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000
Descriptors:  genetic variation, genetics, genomes, nucleotide sequences, Mycobacterium bovis, BCG strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pathogenicity, phenotypes, proteins, virulence, reviews.

Haddad, N.; Durand, B. Interet et limites des differentes techniques de caracterisation des isolats. Exemple de la tuberculose. [Interest and limits of different technics for the study of strains: Example of tuberculosis.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2001. No. 39, 43-57. Note:  In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  epidemiology, molecular biology, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium.

Haddad, N.; Ostyn, A.; Karoul, C.; Masselot, M.; Thorel, M.F.; Hughes, S.L.; Inwald, J.; Hewinson, R.G.; Durand, B. Spoligotype diversity of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in France from 1979 to 2000. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Oct 2001. 39 (10) 3623-3632. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle tuberculosis, strains, genetic diversity, Mycobacterium.

Hotter, G.S.; Wilson, T.; Collins, D.M. Identification of a cadmium-induced gene in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  June 25, 2001. 200 (2) 151-155. ISSN: 0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract:
A 17-kDa protein (CadI) was induced by cadmium in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Comparison of the N-terminal sequence from M. bovis CadI with the annotated M. tuberculosis genome database identified Rv2641 as the encoding gene. Long and short promoter fragments from M. bovis cadI were fused to the lacZ reporter gene in pYUB76. Only the long fragment directed cadmium-inducible activity when electroporated into M. bovis. The CadI promoter has potential for both constitutive and inducible expression studies in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, CadI, cadmium, genetics, promoter fragments, lacZ reporter gene, expression studies.

Inglis, N.F.; Stevenson, K.; Davies, R.C.; Heaslip, D.G.; Sharp, J.M. Unique expression of a highly conserved mycobacterial gene in IS901+ Mycobacterium avium.  Microbiology.  June 2001. 147 (pt. 6) 1557-1564. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Abstract:
Expression of a gene encoding a novel protein antigen of 40 kDa (p40) was detected in IS901+ strains of Mycobacterium avium, but not in any other species or subspecies of Mycobacterium tested, including IS901- M. avium and the other members of the M. avium complex. Although Southern hybridization revealed that the p40 gene is widely distributed within the genus, expression of the antigen could not be detected on Western blots of mycobacterial cell lysates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned p40 gene, and a database search, revealed high levels of sequence identity with a homologous gene in IS901- M. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Further analysis of upstream sequences identified a putative promoter region. The p40 gene is the first example of a gene that is widely distributed within the genus Mycobacterium  but expressed only in association with the presence of a genomic insertion element, in this case IS901, in strains of M. avium isolated from birds and domestic livestock.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium  avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, novel protein antigen, Western blot method.

Kato, Maeda M.; Rhee, J.T.; Gingeras, T.R.; Salamon, H.; Drenkow, J.; Smittipat, N.; Small, P.M. Comparing genomes within the species Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genome Research. 2001. 11 (4) 547-554.
NAL Call Number:  QP606 D46P34
Descriptors:  genetic variability, natural populations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, evolution, pathogenesis, small scale genomic deletions, 19 isolates.

Kauppinen, J.; Hintikka, E.L.; Iivanainen, E.; Katila, M.L. PCR-based typing of Mycobacterium avium isolates in an epidemic among farmed lesser white-fronted geese (Anser erythropus). Veterinary Microbiology. July 3, 2001. 81 (1) 41-50. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract: 
Mycobacterium avium is an important veterinary pathogen causing avian tuberculosis in birds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness in M. avium isolates from deep tissues of farmed lesser white-fronted geese with avian tuberculosis and in samples from the farm environment. The strains were analyzed by two PCR-based typing methods, inverted repeat (IR) typing and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The primers for the inverted repeats of the insertion sequences IS1245 and IS1311 were used in IR typing, and the RAPD analysis was performed with six primers. Seven of the nine avian strains yielded an identical pattern in the IR typing, but they could be divided into two groups in the RAPD analysis. The remaining two bird isolates had an identical IR pattern (IR cluster II) which they shared with two environmental isolates. However, the RAPD analysis revealed that these environmental isolates had a RAPD pattern (RAPD cluster VI) distinct and different from either of the bird isolates (RAPD clusters II and IV). In all, four M. avium strains were verified as being inducers of avian tuberculosis in birds, and all were distinct from the three environmental strains identified. Thus, the results did not confirm the preliminary idea that a single strain had caused the epidemic. The polymorphism among M. avium strains highlighted the great biodiversity among an M. avium population even in a limited environmental setting during a short time span, and indicated the high susceptibility to avian tuberculosis of lesser white-fronted geese.
Descriptors:
  Anser erythropus, geese, Mycobacterium avium, polymerase chain reaction, genotypes, identification, strain differences, genetic distance, random amplified polymorphic DNA, nucleotide sequences, epidemics, genetic diversity, susceptibility.

Koul, A.; Choidas, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Drlica, K.; Singh, Y.; Ullrich, A. Serine/threonine protein kinases PknF and PknG of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: characterization and localization. Microbiology.  2001. 147 (8) 2307-2314.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Descriptors:  serine protein kinases, threonine protein kinases, genes, phosphorylation, trans-membrane proteins, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pathogenesis, cellular signaling network.

Li, MingShi; Monahan, I.M.; Waddell, S.J.; Mangan, J.A.; Martin, S.L.; Everett, M.J.; Butcher, P.D. cDNA-RNA subtractive hybridization reveals increased expression of mycocerosic acid synthase in intracellular Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Microbiology. 2001. 147 (8) 2293-2305.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Descriptors:  gene expression, genes, ligases, macrophages, molecular genetics, Mycobacterium bovis, mycocerosic acids.

Njanpop-Lafourcade, B.M.; Inwald, J.; Ostyn, A.; Durand, B.; Hughes, S.; Thorel, M.F.; Hewinson, G.; Haddad, N. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Cameroon. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jan 2001. 39 (1) 222-227. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  molecular epidemiology, 75 Mycobacterium bovis isolates, spoligotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PFGE, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP, probe IS6110-RHS, homogeneity, geographical mapping of strains, cattle tuberculosis, biochemical techniques, control of disease, cattle, Cameroon.

Olsen, I.; Tryland, M.; Wiker, H.G.; Reitan, L.J. AhpC, AhpD, and a secreted 14-kilodalton antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis distinguish between paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2001. 8 (4) 797-801.
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, experimental infection, ELISA, species identification, antibodies, differential diagnostic techniques, antibody testing, sera.

Rastogi, N.; Legrand, E.; Sola, C. The mycobacteria: an introduction to nomenclature and pathogenesis. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 21-54. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call Number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  nomenclature, diagnosis, macrophages, mycobacterial diseases, pathogenesis, phylogeny, taxonomy, tuberculosis, Actinomycetales, Mycobacteriaceae, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Sales, M.P.U.; Taylor, G.M.; Hughes, S.; Yates, M.; Hewinson, G.; Young, D.B.; Shaw, R.J. Genetic diversity among Mycobacterium bovis isolates: a preliminary study of strains from animal and human sources.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2001; 39 (12): 4558-4562.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/39/12/4558
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, genetic studies, bacterial strains, mycobacterial diseases, human, animals, livestock, wild animals.

Sechi, L.A.; Zanetti, S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Molicotti, P.; Romano, L.; Leori, G.; Delogu, G.; Boccia, S.; la Sorda, M.; Fadda, G. Molecular basis of rifampin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Sardinia, Italy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2001. 45 (6) 1645-1648.
NAL Call Number:  RM265 A5132
Descriptors:  cattle, antimycobacterial agents, drug resistance, genetic analysis, isoniazid, leucine, mutations, nucleotide sequences, praline, rifampicin, strains, Mycobacterium bovis, Italy.

Sielaff, B.; Andreesen, J.R.; Schraeder, T.  A cytochrome P450 and a ferredoxin isolated from Mycobacterium sp. strain HE5 after growth on morpholine.  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2001, 56 (3/4) 458-464.  ISSN: 0175-7598.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.E9
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium strain HE5, Mycobacterium smegmatis, amino acid sequence, culture media, ferredoxin, iron-sulfur protein, molecular weight, cytochrome 450, morpholine, carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon monoxide, piperidine, pyrrolidine.

Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis: exploiting molecular data. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 169-175. Note:  Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000.
Descriptors:  antigenic variation, disease transmission, epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, molecular genetics, mycobacterial diseases, pathogenesis, Mycobacterium bovis strains, virulence, cattle, wild animals, wildlife, zoonotic diseases, New Zealand, reviews.

Smith, R.A.; Alvarez, A.J.; Estes, D.M.  The P2X7 purinergic receptor on bovine macrophages mediates mycobacterial death.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2001; 78 (3/4): 249-262.  ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journalabstracting.cws_home/503319/abstracting
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Abstract: P2X7 is an ATP gated purinoceptor that has been linked to various immune responses.  P2X7 appears to be expressed ubiquitously in the immune system and thus may be important as an effector pathway or play significant roles in cell activation/death.  2',3'-(4-Benzoyl)benzoyl ATP is the most potent agonist of this receptor and ATP in its fully dissociated form (ATP(4-)) also activates the receptor.  High concentrations of ATP can cause the P2X7 receptor to induce pore formation on the surface of the cell that allows molecules of considerable size to pass and can lead to cell death.  The P2X7 receptor has also been linked to various immune activities when the concentration of ATP is lower, including the release of IL-1beta.  The role P2X7 receptors have on immune cell activities is just beginning to be understood.  We sought to determine the role of P2X7 on bovine macrophages in eliminating the causative agent of bovine-type tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis.  Because high concentrations of ATP are linked to macrophage death, we determined if this method of cell destruction also leads to reduced bacterial viability.  We find that P2X7 is present on bovine macrophages from different sources, including both peripheral blood-derived as well as alveolar macrophages.  In addition, P2X7 mRNA is present in B and T lymphocytes.  The treatment of M. bovis-infected macrophages with ATP results in reduced macrophage viability as well as reduced M. bovis viability.
Descriptors:  cattle, macrophages, Mycobacterium bovis BCB-strain, receptors, messenger RNA, viability, death, cell growth, ATP, B Lymphocytes, T lymphocytes.

Smyth, A.J.; Welsh, M.D.; Girvin, R.M.; Pollock, J.M.  In vitro responsiveness of gamma delta T cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle to mycobacterial antigens: predominant involvement of WC1+ cells.  Infection and Immunity.  2001; 69 (1): 89-96.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract: It is generally accepted that protective immunity against tuberculosis is generated through the cell-mediated immune (CMI) system, and a greater understanding of such responses is required if better vaccines and diagnostic tests are to be developed.  gammadelta T cells from a major proportion of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the ruminant system and, considering data from other species, may have a significant role in CMI responses in bovine tuberculosis.  This study compared the in vitro responses of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected and uninfected cattle.  The results showed that, following 24 h of culture of PBMC with M. bovis-derived antigens, the majority of gammadelta T cells from infected animals became highly activated (upregulation of interleukin-2R), while a lower proportion of the alphabetaT-cell population showed activation.  Similar responses were evident to a lesser degree in uninfected animals.  Study of the kinetics of this response showed that gammadelta T cells remained significantly activated for at least 7 days in culture, while activation of alphabeta T cells declined during that period.  Subsequent analysis revealed that the majority of activated gammadelta T cells expressed WC1, a 215-kDa surface molecule which is not expressed on human or murine gammadelta T cells.  Furthermore, in comparison with what was found for CD4+ T cells, M. bovis antigen was found to induce strong cellular proliferation but relatively little gamma interferon release by purified WC1+ gammadelta T cells.  Overall, while the role of these cells in protective immunity remains unclear, their highly activated status in. response to M. bovis suggests an important role in antimycobacterial immunity, and the ability of gammadelta T cells to influence other immune cell functions remains to be elucidated, particularly in relation to CMI-based diagnostic tests.
Descriptors:  T lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, bacterial antigens. 

Sun, Z.; Cheng, S.J.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y. Salicylate uniquely induces a 27-kDa protein in tubercle bacillus. FEMS Microbiology Letters.  Sept 25, 2001. 203 (2) 211-216. ISSN: 0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract:
Salicylate was found to uniquely induce a 27-kDa protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms but not in Mycobacterium smegmatis or Escherichia coli. The structural analogue antitubercular para-amino-salicylate also induced the 27-kDa protein but to a somewhat lower level than salicylate. Other structural analogues such as benzoic acid and acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) did not induce the 27-kDa protein. Western blot analysis indicated that the 27-kDa protein was localized mainly in the cytoplasm. The 27-kDa protein was not expressed at different growth phases in the absence of salicylate. The 27-kDa protein was identified as a putative benzoquinone methyltransferase (Rv0560c), which has several homologues in the M. tuberculosis genome. The cloned 27-kDa gene was found to express constitutively in E. coli, M. smegmatis and BCG with or without salicylate.
Descriptors:  salicylates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, E. coli, phytochemicals.

Thorel, M.F.; Huchzermeyer, H.F.; Michel, A.L.  Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in mammals. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 204-218. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call Number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  domestic animals, immunosuppression, post slaughter survey, soil microbes, tuberculosis, water, cats, dogs, small mammals, wild animals, wild birds, zoonotic diseases.

Willumsen, P.A.; Nielsen, J.K.; Karlson, U.  Degradation of phenanthrene-analogue azaarenes by Mycobacterium gilvum strain LB307T under aerobic conditions.  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2001, 56 (3/4) 539-544. ISSN: 0175-7598.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.E9
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium gilvum, bacterial biodegradation of azaarenes, 5,6-benzoquinoline, 7,8-benzoquinoline, phenanthridine, aromatic hydrocarbons, sources of carbon, nitrogen and energy, substrates concentration levels.

Zanini, M.S.; Moreira, E.C.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Oliveira, R.S.; Leao, S.C.; Fioravanti, R.L.; Roxo, E.; Zumarraga, M.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.; Salas, C.E. Mycobacterium bovis: polymerase chain reaction identification in bovine lymphonode biopsies and genotyping in isolates from Southeast Brazil by spolygotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2001. 96 (6) 809-813.
NAL Call Number:  448.9 IN74
Descriptors:  diagnostic techniques, genotypes, lymph nodes, polymerase chain reaction, polymorphism, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis.

2000

Bigi, F.; Alito, A.; Romano, M.I.; Zumarraga, M.; Caimi, K.; Cataldi, A. The gene encoding P27 lipoprotein and a putative antibiotic-resistance gene form an operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Microbiology. 2000. 146 (4) 1011-1018.
NAL Call Number:  QR1 J64
Descriptors:  lipoproteins, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, genes, operons, promoters, antibiotics, drug resistance.

Braibant, M.; Gilot, P.; Content, J.  The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  FEMS Microbiology Reviews.  2000, 24 (4) 449-467.  ISSN: 0168-6445.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F46
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, inventory and assembly of subunits of ABC transporter genes, transporter genes occupy 2.5% of genome, genome analysis, antibiotic resistance, amino acid sequences, control resistance, proteins, bacterial attachment control, bacterial ability to synthesize essential compounds, few external essential compounds.

Coetsier, C.; Vannuffel, P.; Blondeel, N.; Denef, J.F.; Cocito, C.; Gala, J.L.  Duplex PCR for differential identification of Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000. 38 (8) 3048-3054.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle, deletions, differential diagnosis, DNA sequencing, genes, identification, nucleotide sequences, open reading frames, paratuberculosis, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Domingues-Junior, M.; Pinheiro, S.R.; Guerra, J.L.; Palermo-Neto, J.  Effects of treatment with amphetamine and diazepam on Mycobacterium bovis-induced infection in hamsters. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 2000. 22 (3) 555-574.
NAL Call Number:  RM370 I55
Descriptors:  hamster disease model, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, amphetamine (AMPH) and diazepam, impaired immune defense, effects of drugs on macrophage/lymphocyte activity.

Durr, P.A.; Hewinson, R.G.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. I. Mycobacterium bovis genotyping. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties. 2000. 19 (3) 675-688. Note: In English with Spanish and French summaries.
NAL Call Number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, epidemiology, restriction endonuclease analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequences, cattle.

Durr, P.A.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Hewinson, R.G. Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. II. Applications of genotyping.  Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties. 2000. 19 (3) 689-701. Note:  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
NAL Call Number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  cattle, molecular epidemiology, genotypes, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, restriction endonuclease analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, nucleotide sequences.

Hatfull, Graham F.; Jacobs, William R. Molecular genetics of mycobacteria. Washington, D.C.:  ASM Press, c2000. xii, 363 p.  ISBN:  1555811914
NAL Call Number:  QR82.M8 M64 2000
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium, bacterial genetics, tuberculosis, genetic aspects.

McGraw, L. Zoonoses. Agricultural Research.  Feb 2000. 48 (2) 18-20. ISSN: 0002-161X.
URL
: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/
NAL Call Number:  1.98 Ag84
Descriptors:  leptospirosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, disease control.

Ramakrishnan, L.; Federspiel, N.A.; Falkow, S.  Granuloma-specific expression of Mycobacterium virulence proteins from the glycine-rich PE-PGRS family.  Science. 2000, 288 (5470) 1436-1439.  ISSN:  0036-8075.
NAL Call Number:  470 SCI2
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, macrophage replication, virulence gene factor expression, PE-PGRS gene, host granulomas, glycine-rich proteins, 2 deficient mutants, incapable of replication in macrophages, decreased persistence in lesions.

Rishendra,Verma; Verma, R.; Verma, R. (ed.); Sharma, N. (ed.); Varma, T.K. (ed.); Bagherwal, R.K. (ed.); Jaiswal, T.N. TB: global emergency. Can man be infected with bovine TB? Advancements in Veterinary Science. Indian Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Research, Bareilly, 2000. p. 55-62. Note:  India Indian Veterinary Congress, Izatnagar, India, 18-19 February 2000.
Descriptors:  humans, cattle, zoonotic potential, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, treatment, disease control, disease transmission.

Roring, S.; Hughes, M.S.; Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis directly from bovine tissue specimens by spoligotyping. Veterinary Microbiology. 2000. 74 (3) 227-236.
NAL Call Number:  SF601 V44
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, rapid detection and strain typing, lesioned bovine lymph node specimens, PCR, spoligotyping, decontaminated and non-decontaminated lesioned lymph nodes, DNA, cattle.

Scanlon, M.P.; Quinn, P.J. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle slurry by five volatile chemicals. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000. 89 (5) 854-861.
NAL Call Number:  QR1 J687
Descriptors:  cattle slurry, Mycobacterium bovis, in vitro study, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, chloroform, ethyl alcohol, xylene, farm level use potential.

Sechi, L.A.; Dupre, I.; Leori, G.; Fadda, G.; Zanetti, S. Distribution of a specific 500-base-pair fragment in Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Sardinian cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000. 38 (10) 3837-3839.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:
 genetics, amplification of bacterial DNA, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, diagnosis, cattle, Italy, Sardinia, false negative results.

Torkko, P.; Suomalainen, S.; Iivanainen, E.; Suutari, M.; Tortoli, E.; Paulin, L.; Katila, M.L. Mycobacterium xenopi and related organisms isolated from stream waters in Finland and description of Mycobacterium botniense sp. nov.  International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.  2000, 50 (1) 283-289. ISSN: 1466-5026.
NAL Call Number:  442.8 IN82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, scotochromogenic organisms, stream water isolates, GLC-MS, biochemical test, internal transcribed spacer sequencing, lipid analysis, unique sequences, characteristics of new species, strains (E347(T) and E43), ATCC strains700701(T) and 700702. 

Vilcheze, C.; Morbidoni, H.R.; Weisbrod, T.R.; Iwamoto, H.; Kuo, M.; Sacchettini. J.C.; Jacobs, W.R. Jr. Inactivation of the inhA-encoded fatty acid synthase II (FASII) enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase induces accumulation of the FASI end products and cell lysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Journal of Bacteriology. 2000. 182 (14) 4059-4067.
NAL Call Number:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  lysis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fatty acid synthase, binding proteins, genes, isoniazid.

1999

Amadori, M.; Archetti, I.L.; Scaccaglia, P.; Modena, D.; Fossati, G.; Lucietto, P.; Mascagni, P. Chaperonin 10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a protective immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. Archives of Virology.  1999. 144 (5) 905-919. ISSN: 0304-8608
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23
Descriptors:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, FMD, aphthovirus, antibody formation, antiviral properties, heat shock proteins, stress response.

Anonomyous. Tuberculosis. Journal of Small Animal Practice. March 1999. 40 (3) 145-147. ISSN: 0022-4510. Note:  This article was prepared by the British Small Animal Veterinary Association's Scientific Committee.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 J8292
Descriptors:  dogs, cats, man, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, zoonoses.

Aranaz, A.; Liebana, E.; Gomez-Mampaso, E.; Galan, J.C.; Cousins, D.; Ortega, A.; Blazquez, J.; Baquero, F.; Mateos, A.; Suarez, G. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ssp. caprae ssp. nov.: a taxonomic study of a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from goats in Spain. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. July 1999. 49 (pt. 3) 1263-1273. ISSN: 0020-7713
NAL Call Number:  448.3 In8
Descriptors:  new subspecies, taxonomy description, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ssp. caprae ssp. nov., Spain. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/aj131120.

Bulling, E.; Schonberg, A. Robert von Ostertag (1864-1940). A veterinarian contemporary with R. Virchow and R. Koch. Historia Medicinae Veterinariae. 1999. 24 (4) 97-120. Note:  In English with a German summary.
NAL Call Number:  SF615 A1V4
Descriptors:  veterinary history, biographical information, slaughter houses, abattoirs, meat hygiene, infectious diseases, meat inspection, meat products, pathology, slaughter, bovine tuberculosis and other zoonotic diseases, veterinary contributions.

Costello, E.; O'Grady, D.; Flynn, O.; O'Brien, R.; Rogers, M.; Quigley, F.; Egan, J.; Griffin, J. Study of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping for epidemiological investigation of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1999. 37 (10) 3217-3222.
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  RFLP analysis, strain typing, Mycobacterium bovis, IS 6110, direct repeat sequence, polymorphic GC-rich sequence, spoligotyping, DNA fingerprinting, 452 isolates, cattle, badger, deer, pigs, sheep, goat, indicators of infection transmission between species, Irish Republic.

de Lisle, G.W.; Wilson, T.; Collins, D.M.; Buddle, B.M. Vaccination of guinea pigs with nutritionally impaired avirulent mutants of Mycobacterium bovis protects against tuberculosis. Infection and Immunity. May 1999. 67 (5) 2624-2626. ISSN: 0019-9567
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  Four nutritionally impaired strains of Mycobacterium bovis produced by illegitimate recombination were tested for their ability to protect guinea pigs against intratracheal challenge with virulent M. bovis. All four strains and M. bovis BCG induced significant levels of protection as measured by the reduced spread of infection to the spleen and liver. In animals vaccinated with BCG or two of the other strains, the bacterial counts from the lungs were significantly lower than those of the nonvaccinated animals.
Descriptors:  introtracheal challenge, virulent strain challenge, 4 strains, levels of protection, bacterial count, lungs.

Erler, W.; Schimmel, D.; Feist, H.; Geschwend, G.  Zur Differenzierung von Mykobakterien.  [Studies on the differentiation of mycobacteria.] Tierarztliche Umschau. 1999. 54 (10) 579-582. Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 T445
Descriptors: National Veterinary Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis, differentiation, microbial, biochemical and molecular biological methods, research studies completed, Mycobacterium, Germany.

Flesselles, B.; Anand, N.N.; Remani, J.; Loosmore, S.M.; Klein, M.H. Disruption of the mycobacterial cell entry gene of Mycobacterium bovis BCG results in a mutant that exhibits a reduced invasiveness for epithelial cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters.  Aug 15, 1999.  177 (2) 237-242. ISSN: 0378-1097
NAL Call Number:  QR1.F44
Abstract:
Mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have the ability to invade and replicate in nonphagocytic cells, an event that requires the presence of bacterial surface components capable of triggering a cell response and the subsequent internalization of the microorganism. In this study, we report the sequencing of the mycobacterial cell entry gene (mce) of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and the generation and characterization of a mutant BCG strain with an inactivated mce gene, by homologous recombination with double cross-over. This mutant strain does not express the mycobacterial cell entry protein (Mce) and exhibits a reduced ability to invade the non-phagocytic epithelial cell line HeLa as compared to wild-type BCG.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, cell invasion. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/af113402.

Gormley, E.; Fray, L.; Sandall, L.; Ke, GenPing; Dupont, C.; Carpenter, E. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis lymphocyte stimulating antigens in culture filtrates of a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis cosmid library. Vaccine. 1999. 17 (22) 2792-2801.
NAL Call Number:  QR189 V32
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, cultural filtrates, cosmid library, Mycobacterium smegmatis, lymphocyte stimulatory antigens, mononuclear cells from vaccinated cattle, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, IFN-gamma production, cellular response, antigen detection assay, heterogeneity.

Kouba, V. Historie eliminace bovinni tuberkulozy v Ceske Republice. [History of the eradication of bovine tuberculosis in the Czech Republic.]  Casopis Lekaru Ceskych. 1999. 138 (15) 456-459. Note:  In Czech with an English summary.
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, eradication, history, disease control, cattle, humans, slaughter, Czech Republic.

Montgomery, R.H. Mycobacteria in New Zealand. Surveillance. 1999. 26 (1) 6-8; 18.
NAL Call Number:  SF604.63 N45S87
Descriptors:  birds, possums, dogs, cats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, cattle, humans, Mycobacterium taxonomy, diagnosis, disease transmission, disease prevalence, disease control, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Erinaceidae, Mustela erminea, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, New Zealand.

Nelson, A.M. The cost of disease eradication: smallpox and bovine tuberculosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  1999. 894: 83-91. Food and agricultural security guarding against natural threats and terrorist attacks affecting health, national food supplies, and agricultural economics.”  Note:  Paper presented at the "International conference on food and agricultural security," September 28-30, 1998, Washington, D.C. ISBN:  1573312304.
NAL Call Number:  500 N484 v. 894
Descriptors:  disease control and eradication, smallpox, cattle diseases, tuberculosis, health care costs, disease prevention, zoonotic disease threat, economic impacts, Mycobacterium bovis.

Pavlas, M. The 30th anniversary of eradication of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Czechoslovakia.  Acta Veterinaria Brno. 1999. 68 (2) 155-162. Note:  In English with a Czech summary.
NAL Call Number:  SF604 B7
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cattle, humans, reviews, disease prevalence, control programs, disease control, culling of diseased animals, epidemiology, public health concerns.

Pereira, J.J.; Garbaccio, S.G.  Tuberculosis bovina. El veterinario y una enfermedad tan vieja como el mundo. [Bovine tuberculosis. The veterinarian and a disease as old as the world.] Revista de Medicina Veterinaria, Buenos Aires. 1999. 80 (4) 328-329. Note:  In Spanish.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 B86
Descriptors:  cattle, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, epidemiology, veterinarians.

Rauzier, J.; Gormley, E.; Gutierrez, M.C.; Kassa-Kelembho, E.; Sandall, L.J.; Dupont, C.; Gicquel, B.; Murray, A. A novel polymorphic genetic locus in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Microbiology. 1999. 145 (7) 1695-1701.
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microtum, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, polymorphism, tuberculosis, DNA probes, genetic markers, promoters, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP, strain differences, transposable elements, gene loci.

Reynolds, D. TB in cattle: the government's commitment to controlling the disease. Cattle Practice. 1999. 7 (4) 371.
NAL Call Number:  SF961 C37
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, legislation, zoonoses, slaughter, diagnosis, disease transmission, disease control, cattle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, wild badgers, Meles meles, UK.

Reynolds, R.C.; Bansal, N.; Rose, J.; Friedrich, J.; Suling, W.J.; Maddry, J.A. Ethambutol-sugar hybrids as potential inhibitors of mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. Carbohydrate Research.  Apr 30, 1999. 317 (1/4) 164-179. ISSN: 0008-6215
NAL Call Number:  385 C172
Abstract:
Ethambutol is an established front-line agent for the treatment of tuberculosis, and is also active against Mycobacterium avium infection. However, this agent exhibits toxicity, and is considered to have low potency. The action of ethambutol on the mycobacterial cell wall, particularly the arabinan, and comparison of the structure of ethambutol with several of the cell-wall saccharides, suggested that ethambutol-saccharide hybrids might lead to agents with a more selective mechanism of action. To this end, eight ethambutol-saccharide hybrids were synthesized and screened against M. tuberculosis and several clinical isolates of M. avium.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium, effectiveness, toxicity, glycosyltransferases.

Rodriguez, J.G.; Fissanoti, J.C.; del Portillo, P.; Patarroyo, M.E.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A. Amplification of a 500-base-pair fragment from cultured isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1999. 37 (7) 2330-2332.
NAL Call Number:  QR46 J6
Descriptors:  amplification, 500 bp DNA fragment, Mycobacterium bovis, 121 isolates, potential as a diagnostic assay, polymorphism, PCR, DNA probes, nucleotide sequences, cattle, sea lions, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico.

Romero, R.E.; Garzon, D.L.; Mejia, G.A.; Monroy, W.; Patarroyo, M.E.; Murillo, L.A. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine clinical samples by PCR species-specific primers.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Resources.  Apr 1999.  63 (2) 101-106. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL Call Number:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  dairy cows, Mycobacterium bovis, rapid methods, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, southern blotting, blood, mucus, milk, skin tests, disease surveys, tuberculosis, cross reaction, dot blotting, Colombia.

Romero, R.E.; Garzon, D.L.; Mejia, G.A.; Monroy, W.; Patarroyo, M.E.; Murillo, L.A. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine clinical samples by PCR species-specific primers. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 1999. 63 (2) 101-106.
NAL Call Number:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, diagnosis, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, diagnostic techniques, 470 bp fragment, intradermal tuberculin test, nasal mucus sampling, PCR more specific and tensitive diagnosis.

Roxo, E.  Importancia da medicina veterinaria nos programas de combate a tuberculose. [Importance of veterinary medicine in programs for combating tuberculosis.] O Biologico. 1999. 61 (2) 143-144. Note:  In Portuguese.
Descriptors:  disease control, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, zoonoses.

Sakamoto, S.M.; Heinemann, M.B.; Telles, M.A.S.; Roxo, E.; Richtzenhain, L.J.; Vasconcellos, S.A.; Ferreira-Neto, J.S. Deteccao e identificacao de Mycobacterium bovis pela reacao em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). [Detection and identification of Mycobacterium bovis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).]  Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo. 1999. 66 (2) 45-58. Note:  In Portugeuse with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  442.9 SA6
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, PCR, detection, identification techniques.

Santillan-Flores, M.A.; Sanchez-Zamorano, L.M.; Milian-Suazo, F.; Ramirez Casillas, I.C. Viabilidad de Mycobacterium bovis en solucion de tetraborato de sodio. [Viability of Mycobacterium bovis in a sodium tetraborate solution.]  Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico. 1999. 37 (1) 71-74. Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  49 T222
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, lymph nodes, sodium tetraborate storage, various storage periods, culturing, bacteria viability over time, tissue preservation, diagnostic method.

Sutmoller, P.  Risk of disease transmission by llama embryos.  Revue Scientifique et Technique  Office International des Epizooties. 1999. 18 (3) 719-728. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call Number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  disease transmission risks, embryos, brucellosis, contamination, embryo transfer, FMD, risk assessment, tuberculosis, zona pellucida, arboviruses, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, Bluetongue virus, Brucella, Mycobacterium, vesicular stomatitis virus, llamas.

Tanner, M; Michel, A.L.  Investigation of the viability of M. bovis under different environmental conditions in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 1999. 66 (3) 185-190.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  environment, wildlife, African buffalo, Kruger National Park, feces, lungs, lymph nodes, wild animals, viability, survival, habitats, seasons, bacterial diseases, Syncerus caffer, Mycobacterium bovis, seasonal effects, South Africa.

Wiker, H.G.; Michell, S.L.; Hewinson, R.G.; Spierings, E.; Nagai, S.; Harboe, M. Cloning, expression and significance of MPT53 for identification of secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbial Pathogenesis. 1999. 26 (4) 207-219.
NAL Call Number:  QR175 M53
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antigens, excretory-secretory products, amino acid sequences, amino acids, characterization, gene expression, immune response, antibodies, IgM, IgG1 anti-MPT53, cattle sera.

Vordermeier, H.M.; Cockle, P.C.; Whelan, A.; Rhodes, S.; Palmer, N.; Bakker, D.; Hewinson, R.G. Development of diagnostic reagents to differentiate between Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in cattle. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1999. 6 (5) 675-682.
Descriptors:  recombinant forms of antigens, BCG Pasteur (ESAT-6, MPB64, MPB70, MPB83), testing, Mycobacterium bovis, calf mononuclear cells, sensitized animals, M. bovis infected, BCG vaccinated, M. avium sensitized, in vitro proliferation and gamma interferon responses, peptide and protein cocktails formulations, T cell epitopes.

Zumarraga, M.; Bigi, F.; Alito, A.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A. A 12.7 kb fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is not present in Mycobacterium bovis. Microbiology.  Apr 1999. 145 (pt. 4) 893-897. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Abstract: Southern blotting, sequence analysis and PCR experiments showed that Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lack a 12(.)7 kb fragment present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This region is 337 bp downstream of the RD2 region, which was previously described as being absent from some M. bovis BCG strains. The 12(.)7 kb fragment should be useful as a target for a PCR test to differentiate M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. An analysis of the 12(.)7 kb region suggests that it represents a deletion in M. bovis rather than an insertion in M. tuberculosis. The deletion removes most of the mce-3 operon, one of four highly related operons which may be involved in cell entry, and therefore it may contribute to differences in virulence or host range in the two species.
Descriptors:  genetics, strain differences, RD2 region, Southern blotting, PRC, differentiate strains, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/al022073.

1998

Ballarini, G . Tubercolosi e micobatteriosi: ieri, oggi e domani. [Tuberculosis and mycobacterial infections: yesterday, today and tomorrow.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari. 1998. 19 (7-8) 35-42. Note:  In Italian.
Descriptors:  cattle, pigs, humans, veterinary history, epidemiology, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, cattle diseases, swine diseases.

Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Inwald, J.; Archer, J.; Hughes, S.; Palmer, N.; Sayers, A.R.; Sweeney, K.; Van Embden, J.D.A.; Hewinson, R.G. Recent advances in DNA fingerprinting using spoligotyping - epidemiological applications in bovine TB. Cattle Practice. 1998. 6 (2) 79-82.
NAL Call Number:  SF961 C37
Descriptors:  2668 Mycobacterium bovis isolates, cattle, badgers, other species, spoligotyping, epidemiology, DNA fingerprinting, UK.

Cornejo, B.J.; Sahagun-Ruiz, A.; Suarez-Guemes, F.; Thornton, C.G.; Ficht, T.A.; Adams, L.G. Comparison of C18-carboxypropylbetaine and glass bead DNA extraction methods for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine milk samples and analysis of samples by PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  Aug 1998. 64 (8) 3099-3101. ISSN: 0099-2240
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  The purpose of this prospective study was to compare two different milk preparation methods to assay for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis by PCR. Detection by a C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18)-based sample processing method was compared to extraction of DNA from milk with glass beads. Samples from 17 skin test-positive cattle were analyzed. Following CB-18 processing and glass bead extraction, the sensitivity of IS6110-based PCR was 94.1 and 58.8%, respectively (P < 0.025). Because CB-18 processing will permit the proficient use of PCR for diagnosis and surveillance of bovine tuberculosis, it will contribute to the more efficient detection and control of tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  polymerase chain reaction, detection methods, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, surveillance.

Cousins, D.; Williams, S.; Liebana, E.; Aranaz, A.; Bunschoten, A.; van Embden, J.; Ellis, T. Evaluation of four DNA typing techniques in epidemiological investigations of bovine tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jan 1998.  36 (1) 168-178. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, DNA typing techniques, comparative study, effectiveness.

Cousins, D.V.; Skuce, R.A.; Kazwala, R.R.; Van Embden, J.D.A. Towards a standardized approach to DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis.  International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 1998. 2 (6) 471-478.
Descriptors:  DNA strain typing standards, Mycobacterium bovis, RFLP, recommendations.

Dechering, K.J.; Cuelenaere, K.; Konings, R.N.H.; Leunissen, J.A.M. Distinct frequency-distributions of homopolymeric DNA tracts in different genomes. Nucleic Acids Research.  Sept 1, 1998. 26 (17) 4056-4062. ISSN: 0305-1048
NAL Call Number:  QD341.A2N8
Descriptors: 
Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, man, Plasmodium falciparum, Escherichia coli, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DNA, genomes, nucleosides, species differences, chemical composition, base composition.

Elleingand, E.; Gerez, C.; Un, S.; Knupling, M.; Lu, G.; Salem, J.; Rubin, H.; Sauge-Merle, S.; Laulhere, J.P.; Fontecave, M. Reactivity studies of the tyrosyl radical in ribonucleotide reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Arabidopsis thaliana: comparison with Escherichia coli and mouse. European Journal of Biochemistry. Dec 1998. 258 (2) 485-490. ISSN: 0014-2956
NAL Call Number:  QP501.E8
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, enzyme physiology, comparison study, ribonucleotide reductase.

Espinosa De Los Monteros, L.E.; Galan, J.C.; Gutierrez, M.; Samper, S.; Garcia-Marin, J.F.; Martin, C.; Dominguez, L.; de Rafael, L.; Baquero, F.; Gomez-Mampaso, E. Allele-specific PCR method based on pncA and oxyR sequences for distinguishing Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: intraspecific M. bovis pncA sequence polymorphism. [Erratum:  Aug 1998. 36 (8), p. 2398.]  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  Jan 1998. 36 (1) 239-242. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  pathogenic strain differentiation, Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pncA and oxyR sequences, sequence polymorphism.

Ficht, T.A.; Whipple, D.; Perumaalla, V.; Chacon,O.; Alford, P.; Slater, M.; Baca, D.; Hernandez, J.; Payeur, J.; Jarnagin, J.; Suarez, F.; Turcotte, C.; Rohonczy, E.; Adams, L.G.; Williams, E.I.  Molecular epidemiologic and geographic information system analyses of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from North America.  Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Conference American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Spokane, Washington, USA, 24-26 September, 1998. 1998. p. 279-281. American Association of Bovine Practitioners; Stillwater; USA
NAL Call Number:  SF961 A5
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiology, tuberculosis, DNA fingerprinting, RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism, isolates, epidemiology, geographical information, North America.

Fisanotti, J.C.; Alito, A.; Bigi, F.; Latini, O.; Roxo, E.; Cicuta, E.; Zumarraga, M.J.; Cataldi, A.; Romano, M.I. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from South America. Veterinary Microbiology. 1998. 60 (2/4) 251-257.
NAL Call Number:  SF601 V44
Descriptors:  cattle, DNA fingerprinting, 178 isolates, useful for epidemiological studies, tuberculosis, bacterial diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, Argentina, Paraguay, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil.

Fischer, N.H.; Lu, T.; Cantrell, C.L.; Castaneda-Acosta, J.; Quijano, L.; Franzblau, S.G. Antimycobacterial evaluation of germacranolides. Phytochemistry.  Sept 1998. 49 (2) 559-564. ISSN: 0031-9422
NAL Call Number:  450 P5622
Abstract: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium of parthenolide, costunolide, 1 (10)-epoxycostunolide and other germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones and derivatives were determined by use of a radiorespirometric bioassay. Structure-activity relationship studies with natural and semisynthetic sesquiterpene lactones suggested that the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety is an essential, but not sufficient, structural requirement for significant in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis and M. avium.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, phytosterols, sesquiterpenoid lactones, antibacterial properties, derivatives, bioassays, structure activity relationships, chemical structure, biochemical pathways.

Gallagher, J.; Jenkins, P.A.; Palmer, S.R. (ed.); Soulsby, Lord (ed.); Simpson, D.I.H. Mycobacterial diseases.  Zoonoses:  Biology, Clinical Practice and Public Health Control. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 155-164.
NAL Call Number:  RC113.5 Z673 1998
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, zoonotic diseases, epidemiology, disease prevention and control, treatment.

Gonzalez-Salazar, D.; Valero-Elizondo, G.; Monroy-Basilio, J.I.; Cordova-Lopez, D.  Comparacion entre tinciones especiales para bacterias acido-resistentes en cortes histologicos. [Comparison of stains for acid-fast bacteria for  histological sections.Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico. 1998. 36 (1) 89-94. Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  49 T222
Descriptors:  stains, staining, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, tuberculosis, diagnosis, acid-fast bacteria, comparison study.

Hamid, M.E.; Ridell, M.; Minnikin, D.E.; Goodfellow, M. Serotaxonomic analysis of glycolipids from Mycobacterium chelonae-M. fortuitum complex and bovine farcy strains. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie. 1998. 288 (1) 23-34.
NAL Call Number:  QR1 Z443
Descriptors:  cattle, humans, glycolipids, Mycobacterium strains, characterization, taxonomy, antigens, bacterial diseases, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium farcinogenes, Mycobacterium sengalense.

Joardar, S.N.; Ram, G.C.; Srivastava, S.K.; Joshi, P.; Bansal, M.P. Seroreactivity of Mycobacterium bovis AN5 culture filtrate antigens. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. 1998. 19 (1) 35-39.
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, immunological factors, antigens, bacterial antigens, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, tuberculosis, bacterial proteins, immunodiagnosis, diagnosis.

Majoros, T.; Cseh, K.; Guzsvany, M. A fureszpor szerepe a szarvasmarhak mycobacteriosisaban. [Role of sawdust in mycobacteriosis in cattle.] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 1998. 120 (9) 535-538. Note:  In Hungarian with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V644
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium gordonae, diagnosis, tuberculosis, sawdust, tuberculin skin tests, false positive results, sawdust litter/bedding, Hungary.

Ocepek, M.; Posedi, J. Evaluation of gen-probe amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test and AccuProbe culture identification test in diagnostic of animal tuberculosis.  Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana. 1998. 35 (1-2) 35-41. Note:  In English with a Slovenian summary.
NAL Call Number:  SF604 L52
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, accuracy of diagnostic techniques, efficacy of nucleic acid hybridization test identification, MTD test, domestic animal tuberculosis.

Pavlik, I. Bovinni tuberkuloza zvirat a lidi v Africe. [Bovine tuberculosis in animals and people in Africa.] Veterinarstvi. 1998. 48 (7) 312-314. Note:  In Czech.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6439
Descriptors:  animals, humans, Mycobacterium bovis, reviews, tuberculosis, Africa.

Roring, S.; Hughes, M.S.; Beck, L.A.; Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D. Rapid diagnosis and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis in radiometric culture by spoligotyping. Veterinary Microbiology. 1998. 61 (1/2) 71-80.
NAL Call Number:  SF601 V44
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, spoligotyping, BACTEC 12B broth cultures, bovine lymph node tissue, 7 types, ST1, ST2, ST14, ST21, ST25, diagnosis and detection, Northern Ireland.

Tameni, S.; Amadori, M.; Scaccaglia, P.; Quondam-Giandomenico, R.; Tagliabue, S.; Archetti, I.L.; Adone, R.; Ciuchini, F. Quality controls and in vitro diagnostic efficiency of bovine PPD tuberculins. Biologicals. 1998. 26 (3) 225-235.
NAL Call Number:  QH301 J68
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, quality controls, tuberculin, diagnosis, tuberculosis, antigens.

Tizard, M.; Bull, T.; Millar, D.; Doran, T.; Martin, H.; Sumar, N.; Ford, J.; Hermon-Taylor, J. A low G+C content genetic island in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. silvaticum with homologous genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiology.  Dec 1998. 144 (pt. 12) 3413-3423. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Abstract: The technique of representation difference analysis PCR has been applied to find genes specific to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. This generated a 671 bp fragment which was used to isolate a larger genetic element found in the enteric pathogens M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis and M. avium ssp. silvaticum but which was absent from the very closely related and relatively benign M. avium subsp. avium. This element, designated GS, is greater than 6(.)5 kbp in length and has a G+C content 9 mol% lower than other genes from this species. There is a previously uncharacterized insertion sequence associated with one end. The GS element encodes five ORFs in M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis and M. avium ssp. silvaticum, all of which have counterparts encoded in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Database searches revealed homologues for these ORFs in a number of bacterial species, predominantly Gram-negative organisms, including a number of enteric pathogens. These homologous genes encode functions related to LPS or extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis. This element has a number of features in common with pathogenicity islands such as its low G+C content, an association with a putative insertion sequence and a grouping of genes of related function with a possible link to virulence. No direct link to pathogenicity has been shown but GS may belong to a group of related 'genetic islands' and represents the first such element to be identified in mycobacteria.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium ssp. silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/aj223832, genbank/aj223833

UK, State Veterinary Service. Focus on aspects of tuberculosis research. State Veterinary Journal. 1998. 8 (3) 3-4.
NAL Call Number:  SF601 S8
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, DNA fingerprinting, tuberculosis, research, vaccine development, diagnostic techniques, UK.

United States Animal Health Association. Proceedings:  One Hundred and Second Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3-9 October, 1998. Richmond:  The Association. 1998. 756 pp.
NAL Call Number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  livestock, pigs, cattle, bison, horses, llamas, poultry, aquaculture species, wildlife, animal welfare, biotechnology, disease outbreaks, feeds, food safety, international trade, parasitoses, drugs, environment, rabies, bluetongue virus, Retroviridae, Leptospira, Aujeszky virus, Salmonella, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, USA.

Wang, Z.G. Isolation and identification of atypical mycobacteria from cattle.  Journal of Jilin Agricultural University. 1998. 20 (2) 73-77. Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  atypical strain, cattle, lymph nodes, post slaughter tissue harvesting, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium flavescens, an unknown rapid grower, China.

Wren, B.W.; Stabler, R.S.; Das, S.S.; Butcher, P.D.; Mangan, J.A.; Clarke, J.D.; Casali, N.; Parish, T.; Stoker, N.G. Characterization of a haemolysin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with homology to a virulence factor of Serpulina hyodysenteriae.  Microbiology. May 1998. 144 (pt. 5) 1205-1211. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Abstract: 
Scrutiny of sequence data from the Mycobacterium leprae genome sequencing project identified the presence of a gene encoding a 268-amino-acid polypeptide which is highly similar to a pore-forming haemolysin/cytotoxin virulence determinant, TlyA, from the swine pathogen Serpulina hyodysenteriae. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the TlyA sequences, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homologue was amplified and this product was used to obtain the clone and sequence a 2.5 kb fragment containing the whole M. tuberculosis tlyA gene. tlyA encodes a 267-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 28 kDa. TlyA homologues were identified by PCR in M. leprae, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but appeared absent in Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium phlei. The M. tuberculosis gene appeared to be the first gene in an operon containing at least two other genes. Introduction of the M. tuberculosis tlyA gene into M. smegmatis using a mycobacterial shuttle expression plasmid converted non-haemolytic cells into those exhibiting significant haemolytic activity. Similarly, inducible haemolytic activity was observed in sonicated bacteria when tlyA was expressed as a His6-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. tlyA mRNA was detected in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG using RT-PCR, confirming that this gene is expressed in organisms cultured in vitro.
Descriptors:  virulence facts, tlyA homologues, PCR, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium phlei. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/x98295.

Yao, J.Z.; Xu, C.B.; Jin, F.S.; Feng, S.Z.; Zhu, P. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the hsp 70 gene promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science. 1998. 18 (6) 562.
NAL Call Number:  SF604 C58
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genes, nucleotide sequences.

Yearsley, D.; O'Rourke, J.; O'Brien, T.; Egan, J. Comparison of three methods for the isolation of mycobacteria from bovine tissue lesions. Veterinary Record.  1998. 143 (17) 480-481. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  cattle, lymph nodes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isolation techniques, rapid methods, culture media, cell culture.

1997

Bigi, F.; Espitia, C.; Alito, A.; Zumarraga, M.; Romano, M.I.; Cravero, S.; Cataldi, A. A novel 27 kDa lipoprotein antigen from Mycobacterium bovis.  Microbiology.  Nov 1997. 143 (pt. 11) 3599-3605. ISSN: 1350-0872
NAL Call Number:  QR1.J64
Abstract: 
A novel Mycobacterium bovis antigen was identified from an expression library using sera from naturally infected cattle. The Escherichia coli recombinant clone expressed a 27 kDa protein, named P27. A rabbit serum against the recombinant antigen recognized a protein of 27 kDa in cellular extracts from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. No protein was recognized in the culture supernatant. Sequence analysis indicated that P27 has a molecular mass of 24 kDa, showing a characteristic signal sequence for lipoprotein modification (a signal peptidase type II site). The gene is identical to a gene identified in the M. tuberculosis genome sequencing project. Cellular fractionation experiments suggested that P27 is an integral membrane protein. The antigen was recognized by individual sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from diseased cattle. PCR experiments with specific primers directed to the P27 structural gene indicated that it is only present in the M. tuberculosis species complex. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic lipoprotein in M. bovis/M. tuberculosis has been identified. The results presented here and elsewhere suggest that mycobacterial lipoproteins should be considered in the design of new recombinant vaccines and diagnostic methods.
Descriptors:  cattle, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular sequence data:  genbank/aj000500.

Ficht, T.A.; Whipple, D.; Perumaalla, V.; Chacon, O.; Alford, P.; Slater, M.; Baca, D.; Hernandez, J.; Payeur, J.; Jarnagin, J.; Suarez, F.; Turcotte, C.; Rohonczy, E.; Adams, L.G. Molecular epidemiologic and geographic information system analyses of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from North America. Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997. Richmond, United States Animal Health Association. 1997, p. 534-542.
NAL Call Number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, strain isolates, epidemiology, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP, tuberculosis, DNA fingerprinting, USA, Mexico, Canada.

Sun, L.; Kang, D.; Ge, X.; Sun, J.H.; Li, R.Z. Application of PPA-ELISA for the detection of avian tuberculosis antibody in chicken serum. Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine. 1997. 14 (3) 11-13. Note:  In Chinese.
Descriptors: 
Mycobacterium avium, antibodies, rabbit anti-chicken IgG immune serum, diagnostic test, PPA-ELISA, chickens, experimental infections, test sensitivity, test specificity and cost, SPF flocks.

Wilson, T.; Wards, B.J.; White, S.J.; Skou, B.; de Lisle, G.W.; Collins, D.M. Production of avirulent Mycobacterium bovis strains by illegitimate recombination with deoxyribonucleic acid fragments containing an interrupted ahpC gene. Tubercle and Lung Disease. 1997. 78 (5/6) 229-235.
Descriptors:  DNA, recombination, illegitatimate recombinants, genes, vaccines, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis ATCC35723, electroporation, kanamycin resistance, inability for growth in minimal medium, linear fragment approach, avirulent auxotrophs.

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