Dvorska, L.; Matlova, L.; Ayele, W.Y.; Fischer, O.A.; Amemori, T.; Weston, R.T.; Alvarez, J.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Pavlik, I.  Avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the Ardeideae and Threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, IS901 RFLP typing, and virulence for poultry.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2007; 119 (2/4): 366-374.  ISSN:  0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families Ardeideae (n=20) and Threskiornithidae (n=18).  Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA, serotype 1, genotype IS901+ and IS1245+) was more often (p=0.01) detected in tissue and/or fecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus).  Avian tuberculosis was not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia).  Tuberculous lesions were found in nine birds.  MAA isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 were present in all of the 20 infected birds and in all environmental isolates.  A mixed infection with the MAA isolates of three RFLP types F-C3 (tissue isolate), G-C3, and T-C3 (fecal isolates) was found in one sacred ibis.  All 20 tissue isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 from 20 birds and 8 environmental MAA isolates were fully virulent in pullets, whilst the isolates of RFLP types G-C3 and T-C3 were non-virulent in pullets.  All of the tested MAA isolates had the same IS1245 RFLP "bird profile".  In 12 of 20 infected birds with MAA M.a. hominissuis isolates of serotypes 4, 8, 9 and genotype IS901- and IS1245+ were detected and in 8 other birds mycobacteria not belonging to the M. avium complex were found.  The presence of MAA in the environment may be a source for further spread of the causal agent of avian tuberculosis among other groups of animals in zoological gardens, farm animals, and also among their keepers..
Descriptors:  bird diseases; wildlife disease reservoirs; Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris); comparison to two birds of the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus); avian tuberculosis not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia).

Travis, Erika K.; Junge, Randall E.; Terrell, Scott P.  Infection with Mycobacterium simiae complex in four captive Micronesian kingfishers.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2007; 230 (10): 1524-1529.  ISSN:  0003-1488
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AM3
Abstract:  Case Description - 4 captive adult Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) at 3 zoologic institutions were examined routinely or because of dyspnea or lethargy.  Clinical Findings - All birds had marked hepatomegaly.  Two birds had dyspnea caused by compression of air sacs by the enlarged liver, and 1 bird had generalized weakness and lethargy.  Three birds had distended coelomic cavities, and 3 birds were thin or had lost weight.  There were no consistent abnormalities in blood analytes.  Results of most ancillary diagnostic tests such as acid-fast staining of cloacal or fecal swab specimens and culture of feces for acid-fast bacteria were negative.  Results of examination of hepatic biopsy specimens in 2 of 4 birds were suggestive of mycobacteriosis.  Treatment and Outcome - 3 birds died or were euthanized soon after diagnosis.  One kingfisher was isolated and monitored for 4 months without treatment and died during anesthesia for disease monitoring.  Postmortem histologic examination revealed histiocytic hepatitis and acid-fast bacteria in all 4 birds.  Bacteriologic culture of liver specimens yielded Mycobacterium simiae complex in all 4 birds.  Clinical Relevance - Infection with M simiae complex should be considered in ill Micronesian kingfishers, and further monitoring is warranted to determine whether this is an emerging pathogen in this species.
Descriptors:  captive birds, adult Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), clinical picture, Mycobacterium simiae complex, pathogy of various organs, liver, digestive system, feces, lung.


Ahmed, J.S.; Alp, H.; Aksin, M.; Seitzer, U.  Animal transboundary diseases: European Union and Asian network of veterinary research cooperation for quality livestock production.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2006; 53 (Suppl. 1): 2-6.
Descriptors:  livestock, trans-country boundary diseases, rapidly expanding and acute in nature, effects, regional cooperation needed, early recognition of disease, keep disease localized, FMD, Mycobacterium bovis, peste des petits ruminants virus, avian flu, cattle, plague, bird grippe, EU.

Atasever, A.; Beyaz, L.; Kbar, M.; Gumussoy, K.S.  A case of tuberculosis and aspergillosis in a Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus).  Revue de Medecine Veterinaire.  2006; 157 (1): 26-29.  ISSN:  0035-1555.  Note:  In English with a French summary.  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R32
Descriptors:  Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), 4 year old female, mass under wing, case study, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium, necrotic masses, differential diagnosis, Ziehl-Neelsen, Gridley's staining, Gram (+) and acid-fast bacteria, Turkey.

Fontenot, D.K.; Terrell, S.P.; Malakooti, K.; Medina, S.  Health assessment of the Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni) population in the Guam rail recovery program.  Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery.  2006; 20 (4): 225-233.  ISSN:  1082-6742
NAL Call Number:  SF994.J6
Descriptors:  captive island animals, Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni), health assessment for pre-release, domestic chickens, blood counts, plasma analysis, ELISA for Mycopbacterium bovis, enteric pathogens, Guam, Rota.

Fragkiadaki, E.; Ikonomopoulos, J.; Balaskas, C.; Gazouli, M.  Mycobacterial infections of fowl.  Deltion tes Ellenikes Kteniatrikes Etaireia. [Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society.]  2006; 57 (2): 127-139.  ISSN:  0257-2354.  Note:  In Greek with an English summary.  
NAL Call Number:  41.9 SO18
Descriptors:  fowls, chickens, domestic birds, mycobacteriosis, numerous species found to infect birds, clinical picture, public health concerns, zoonotic diseases, serotypes, diagnositic tests, PCR, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium genavense, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium ssp avium, Mycobacterium avium ssp hominissuis.

Bertelsen, M.F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, S.B.  Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis).  Avian Pathology.  2006 Aug; 35 (4): 316-319.  ISSN:  0307-9457
NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9
Abstract:  An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses.  Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney.  Histological examination revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen.  Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing.  This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species.
Descriptors:  wild birds, zoo animals, Mycobacterium celatum, mycobacterial diseases, poultry diseases,  female, case study, new host records, histopathology, inflammation, animal tissues, pathogen identification, nucleotide sequences, Trogon viridis, molecular sequence data.  

Clarke, K.R.; Firlgerald, S.D.; Hattey, J.A.; Bolin, C.A.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Reed, W.MExperimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis.  Avian Diseases.  2006; 50 (1): 131-134.  ISSN:  0005-2086
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5
Descriptors:  susceptibility of birds to Mycobacterium bovis, wild turkeys, experimental inoculation, trachea and oral routes, fecal cultures negatives, 30days, 60 days, 90 days, sampling, passive persistence, no lesions, minimal disease reservoir.

Orosz, S.E.  PCR diagnostics: what they do and don't do.  Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006.  2006; 1570-1572
Descriptors:  birds, avian influenza virus, beak and feather disease virus, Herpesviridae, Mycobacterium, Polyomavirus, West Nile virus, Chlamydophila, bird grippe, DNA, RNA, PCR.

Rosenthal, K.L.  Microbiology: revisiting the gram stain and culture.  Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006.  2006: 1575-1577
Descriptors:  pet birds, bacterial infections, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydophila, Gram stain, culture methods.

Sabocanec, R.; Konjevic, D.; Curic, S.; Cvetnic, Z.; Spicic, S.  Spontaneous Mycobacterium avium serovar 2 infection in a Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) - a case report.  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2006; 76 (2): 185-192.  ISSN:  0372-5480.  Note:  In English with a Croatian summary.  
NAL Call Number:   41.8 V6416
Descriptors:  male Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium serovar 2, case study, clinical picture, granulomatous lesions, liver and spleen, tubercules, histopathology, PCR analysis, insertion sequence Is901, Croatia.


Beregi, A.; Fodor, L.; Molnar, V.; Sos, E.; Gal, J.; Fancsi, G.; Felkai, F.  Madarak altal terjesztett zoonosisok. Irodalmi osszefoglalas.  Zoonoses spread by birds. Literature review.  Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja.  2005; 127 (12): 733-742.  ISSN:  0025-004X.  Note :  In Hungarian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  pet birds, veterinary care, zoonotic pathogens, Newcastle disease, influenza, equine encephalomyelitis (eastern and western), flavivirus infections, rabies, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, campylobacteriosis, chlamydiosis and some other diseases caused by bacteria (colibacteriosis, erysipelas and listeriosis), fungi (histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and trichophytosis) and parasites (toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis).  

Coburn, H.L.; Snary, E.L.; Kelly, L.A.; Wooldridge, M.  Qualitative risk assessment of the hazards and risks from wild game. Veterinary Record (London).  2005; 157(11): 321-322.  ISSN:  0042-4900. 
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  zoonotic disease hazards, risk assessment, bacterial diseases, game animal meat, birds, ducks, deer, larger animals, rabbits, food contamination, food hygiene, food safety, health hazards, human diseases, lead shot, meat animals, meat quality, risk factors, risk assessment, risk factors, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Chlamydophila psittaci, hazard analysis and critical control point.

Fitzgerald, S.D.; Boland, K.G.; Clarke, K.R.; Wismer, A.; Kaneene, J.B.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Hattey, J.A.; Bolin, C.A.  Resistance of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to experimental inoculation with Mycobacterium bovis.  Avian Diseases.  2005; 49 (1): 144-146.  ISSN:  0005-2086
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5
Descriptors:  mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), susceptibility to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, possible reservoir for pathogen, experimental infection, high dose oral or intra-tracheal inoculation, no evidence of disease found, unlikely reservoir of disease pathogens, disease resistance levels.

Gerhold, R.W.; Fischer, J.R.  Avian tuberculosis in a wild turkey.  Avian Diseases.  2005 Mar; 49 (1): 164-166.  ISSN:  0005-2086.  Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5
Abstract:  A liver from a hunter-harvested wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kansas was evaluated by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study.  Grossly, the liver contained several grayish-white masses ranging from 0.5-3 cm in diameter. These masses were scattered throughout the parenchyma and bulged from the capsular surface.  Histologic examination revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomas with low numbers of acid-fast bacilli within multinucleated giant cells at the periphery of the granulomas.  Culture of the liver yielded Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium and low numbers of Staphylococcus intermedius.
Descriptors:  wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo, game birds, avian tuberculosis, bird diseases, case studies, liver, histopathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium; animal pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus intermedius, new host records, Kansas.

Kul, O.; Tunca, R.; Hazroglu, R.; Dker, K.S.; Karahan, S.  An outbreak of avian tuberculosis in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in a zoological aviary in Turkey.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2005; 50 (10): 446-450.  ISSN: 
NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  peafowl (Pavo cristatus), pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), turkeys, avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium ssp avium, lung granulosas, caseo necrosis, multinucleated giant cells, tissue sampling, captive fowl, Turkey.

Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A.M.; Wood, J.L.N. (Editors).  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Nairn, Inverness, Scotland, 30th March-1st April 2005.  Published by the Society.   2005.  277 pp.  ISBN:  0948073691.
Descriptors:  many papers, topics include animals diseases, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease transmission and spread, disease control and prevention, diagnosis, reservoir hosts, public health aspects, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, classical swine fever, rabies, pancreatic necrosis virus, foot and mouth disease, avian influenza A virus, Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, broilers, domestic livestock, wild animal disease carriers, UK.

Styles, D.K.  Bacterial disease and antimicrobial therapy in avian species.  Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005.  2005: 1235-1236
Descriptors:  birds, bacterial diseases, antiobiotic therapy, Chlamydia psittaci, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Psittaciformes, Salmonella.

Takahashi, K.; Akiba, Y.  Single administration of xylitol to newly hatched chicks enhances growth, digestive enzyme activity and immune responses by 12d of age.  British Poultry Science.  2005 Oct; 46 (5): 635-640.  ISSN:  0007-1668
NAL Call Number:  47.8 B77
Abstract:  1. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a single administration of xylitol to newly hatched chicks on growth, digestive enzyme activity and immune responses at 12 d of age.  2. Female broiler chicks (Cobb) were given 0.5 ml of either 20% glucose, 20% xylitol or water alone within 24 h after hatch.  Thereafter, all chicks were reared under conventional conditions and given a commercial broiler starter diet until 12 d of age in experiment 1.  In experiment 2, they were deprived of feed and water for 24 h and kept at 27 degrees C to mimic transportation stress before given feed and water.   3. Body weights at 5 d of age did not differ among the treatments, but at 12 d of age chicks given 20% xylitol showed greater body weight than those in the other treatment groups.  Bursa weight (mg per 100 g body weight) was greater in chicks given xylitol solution than in chicks given glucose solution or water at 5 and 12 d of age.  4. Amylase and chymotrypsin activities in the pancreas of chicks given xylitol solution were higher than in chicks given water or glucose solution at 5 and/or 12 d of age.  5. A single administration of xylitol within 24 h after hatch increased splenocyte proliferation against concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, and antibody titres to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and Mycobacterium butyricum (Mb) as compared to glucose, administration at 12 d of age, but not as compared to water administration.  6. These results indicated that xylitol may be a functional carbohydrate source to improve growth rate and health and to relieve transportation stress in broiler chicks.
Descriptors:  chicks, broilers, females, xylitol as carbohydrate source, chymotrypsin, enzyme activity,  immune responses, animal stress of animal transport, feed supplements, bacterial toxins, feed deprivation, broiler feeding, water deprivation, liveweight gain, amylases, pancreas, bursa of Fabricius, tissue weight, splenocytes, cell proliferation, poultry diseases, Mycobacterium butyricum, toxins, mycobacterial diseases


Tadesse, S.; Woldemeskel, M.; Molla, B.; Tibbo, M.; Kidane, D.; Medhin.; Britton, S.  Avian mycobacteriosis in domestic chickens from selected agro-climatic regions in Ethiopia.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine.  2004, 1(1) 17-25.  ISSN: 1542-2666.
NAL call number:  SF601.J63
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, avian mycobacteriosis, natural host, postmortem examinations,  histopathology, culture and virulence testing, granulomas, prevalence, virulence, chickens, Ethiopia.

Zsivanovits, H.P.; Neumann, U.; Brown, M.J.; Cromie, R.L.  Use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent asay to diagnose avian tuberculosis in a captive collection of wildfowl.  Avian Pathology.  2004 Dec; 33 (6): 571-575.  ISSN:  0307-9457
NAL Call Number:   SF995.A1A9
Descriptors:  wild birds, geese, ducks, swans, avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, accuracy of disease diagnosis, test sensitivity, test specificity, clinical examination, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, Wales.


Coe, A. Causes of death in wild birds. Veterinary Times. 2002, 32 (33) 20.  ISSN: 1352-9374
Descriptors:  birds, carcasses, disease mortality, nervous system diseases, encephalitis poisoning, salmonellosis, toxicity, trichomoniasis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, wild birds, zoonoses, Escherichia coli, paramyxovirus, Salmonella typhimurium, Trichomonas,West Nile virus.

Gonzalez, M.; Rodriguez-Bertos, A.; Gimeno, I.; Flores, J.M.; Pizarro, M. Outbreak of avian tuberculosis in 48-week-old commercial layer hen flock. Avian Diseases. 2002, 46 (4) 1055-1061.  ISSN:  0005-2086  Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 AV5
Descriptors:  chickens, hens, disease outbreaks, mortality levels, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, egg production, emaciation, epidemiology, feed intake, granuloma, histopathology, mortality, Mycobacterium avium, Spain.

Hoop, R.K. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a canary (Serinus canaria L.) and a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona amazona aestiva).  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2002. 46 (2) 502-504. ISSN: 0005-2086. Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 AV5
Abstract:  I report two cases of mycobacteriosis in pet birds due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discuss the zoonotic implications. The canary with a tuberculous knot in the lung is the first description of M. tuberculosis in a nonpsittacine bird species.
Descriptors:  canaries, Serinus canara, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, Amazon parrot, Amazona amazona aestiva, case reports, zoonoses, lungs, new host records.

Reball, HZubildung im Bereich des Karpalgelenks bei einem Wanderfalken. [Swelling in the carpal joint region of a peregrine falcon.]  Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2002, 30 (5) 385, 389-392.  ISSN:  1434-1239. Note: In German.
NAL call number:  SF603.V4
Descriptors:  Falco peregrinus, 2 year old animal, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, case reports, diagnosis, joint diseases, post-mortem examination, Germany.   


Beytut, E.; Atabay, H.I.; Akca, A. Tuberculosis and sarcosporidiosis in the periorbital region of a hen.  Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 2001. 7 (2) 213-217. Note:  In Turkish with an English summary.
Descriptors:  case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, hen eyes, histopathology, mixed infections, postmortem examinations, poultry, sarcocystosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Sarcocystis, parasitic protozoa, chickens, Turkey.

Butler, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Reed, W.M.; Kaneene, J.B.  Experimental inoculation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) with Mycobacterium bovis.  Avian Diseases.  2001;  45 (3): 709-718.  ISSN: 0005-2086.  Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5
Abstract:  The purpose of this series of pilot studies was to determine whether the passerine species studied are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.  Separate experiments were conducted on wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).  In each experiment, four birds were challenged intraperitoneally and four were challenged orally with microorganisms.  Challenge dose was 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis cultured from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) case in Michigan.  Birds were euthanatized at 1 and 2 mo postinoculation.  Histologic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis, without the presence of acid-fast bacilli, were noted in all experimental groups. Mycobacterial cultures performed on pooled tissue samples were positive for M. bovis in only some of the intraperitoneal inoculates of each species.  
Descriptors:  Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus brachyrhynchos, Mycobacterium bovis, experimental infection, intraperitoneal injection, oral administration, mycobacterial diseases, susceptibility, lesions, postmortem examinations.

Cheng, ShiPeng; Wang, KeJian; Chen, LiZhi; Liu, XiaoYing; Zhang, JunFeng. Development of pheasant tuberculosis vaccine and immunological test.  Journal of Economic Animal. 2001. 5 (2) 27-31. Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  antibodies, combined vaccines, immunity, immunization, inactivated vaccines, tuberculosis, vaccination, Mycobacterium avium, Phasianus, pheasants.

Hadjiev, G.  Zdravstvena zastita zivine u Bugarskoj. [Veterinary care for poultry in Bulgaria.] Zivinarstvo. 2001. 36 (6-7) 129-132. Note:  In Serbian.
Descriptors:  broiler chicken hens, chicken meat, egg production, exports, imports, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, pasteurellosis, poultry farming, tuberculosis, Pasturella, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella pullorum, Bulgaria.

Kauppinen, J.; Hintikka, E.L.; Iivanainen, E.; Katila, M.L. PCR-based typing of Mycobacterium avium isolates in an epidemic among farmed lesser white-fronted geese (Anser erythropus). Veterinary Microbiology. July 3, 2001. 81 (1) 41-50. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Mycobacterium avium is an important veterinary pathogen causing avian tuberculosis in birds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness in M. avium isolates from deep tissues of farmed lesser white-fronted geese with avian tuberculosis and in samples from the farm environment. The strains were analyzed by two PCR-based typing methods, inverted repeat (IR) typing and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The primers for the inverted repeats of the insertion sequences IS1245 and IS1311 were used in IR typing, and the RAPD analysis was performed with six primers. Seven of the nine avian strains yielded an identical pattern in the IR typing, but they could be divided into two groups in the RAPD analysis. The remaining two bird isolates had an identical IR pattern (IR cluster II) which they shared with two environmental isolates. However, the RAPD analysis revealed that these environmental isolates had a RAPD pattern (RAPD cluster VI) distinct and different from either of the bird isolates (RAPD clusters II and IV). In all, four M. avium strains were verified as being inducers of avian tuberculosis in birds, and all were distinct from the three environmental strains identified. Thus, the results did not confirm the preliminary idea that a single strain had caused the epidemic. The polymorphism among M. avium strains highlighted the great biodiversity among an M. avium population even in a limited environmental setting during a short time span, and indicated the high susceptibility to avian tuberculosis of lesser white-fronted geese.
  Anser erythropus, geese, Mycobacterium avium, polymerase chain reaction, genotypes, identification, strain differences, genetic distance, random amplified polymorphic DNA, nucleotide sequences, epidemics, genetic diversity, susceptibility.

Ozcan, K.; Beytut, E.; Aydin, F.; Tuzcu, M. Tuberculosis in geese (Anser anser) in Turkey. Avian Diseases.  July/Sept 2001. 45 (3) 755-759. ISSN: 0005-2086. Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5
Abstract:  Tuberculosis was detected in seven geese at the breeding unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University, during 1998. In the necropsy, lesions of nodular type were seen in the liver, spleen, and lungs. Histopathologically, the lesions were characterized by central areas of caseous necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and an outer fibrous capsule. Acid-fast bacilli were visualized by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method in paraffin sections and smears. Inoculation into Lowenstein-Jensen media with glycerin yielded Mycobacterium spp. 
Descriptors:  geese, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, liver, spleen, lungs, histopathology, case reports, Turkey.

Resanovic, R.  Bolesti kaveznih ptica prenosive na ljude. [Diseases of caged birds transmissible to humans.] Zivinarstvo. 2001. 36 (8-9) 175-177. Note:  In Serbian.
Descriptors:  pet birds, 150 zoonoses, transmission, Chlamydia psittaci, Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium, Campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni, Mycobacterium avium, Giardia lamblia, treatment.

Rodwell, T.C.; Whyte, I.J.; Boyce, W.M.  Evaluation of population effects of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Journal of Mammalogy. 2001. 82 (1) 231-238. ISSN: 0022-2275
NAL call number:  410 J823
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, buffalo, age differences in susceptibility, epidemiology, herd surveys, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Syncerus caffer.

Rodwell, T.C.; Kriek, N.P.; Bengis, R.G.; Whyte, I.J.; Viljoen, P.C.; de Vos, V.; Boyce, W.M. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2001. 37 (2) 258-264. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, free ranging African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, disease prevalence, culling program, prevalence, disease transmission risks, population effects, South Africa.

Schulze, C.; Heidrich, R. Megabakterien-assoziierte Proventrikulitis beim Nutzgeflugel in Brandenburg. [Megabacteria-associated proventriculitis in poultry in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2001. 108 (6) 264-266. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 D482
Descriptors:  avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, clinical aspects, coccidiosis, cocks, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, hens, egg laying performance, mortality, laying hens, turkey, proventriculus, runting, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, Chlamydia, Histomonas, Germany.

Thorel, M.F.; Huchzermeyer, H.F.; Michel, A.L.  Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in mammals. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 204-218. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  domestic animals, immunosuppression, post slaughter survey, soil microbes, tuberculosis, water, cats, dogs, small mammals, wild animals, wild birds, zoonotic diseases.

Wozikowski, R. Gruzlica u fermowych strusi afrykanskich. [Tuberculosis in farmed ostriches.] Zycie Weterynaryjne. 2001. 76 (12) 664-665. Note:  In Polish.
NAL call number:  SF604 Z9
Descriptors:  case reports, pathology, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, ostriches, Poland.


Cromie, R.L.; Ash, N.J.; Brown, M.J.; Stanford, J.L.; Higgins, D.A. (ed.); Warr, G.W. Avian immune responses to Mycobacterium avium: the wildfowl example. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. Special issue:  The avian immune response to infectious diseases. 2000. 24 (2-3) 169-185.
NAL call number:  QR180 D4
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, wildbirds, immune response, antibody formation, antigens, cell mediated immunity, diagnostic assay, poultry, environment, immunity, mycobacterial diseases, tuberculosis, vaccination, possible vaccine, wild birds, bacterial diseases, perching ducks, geese, swans, screamers.

Fan, G.L.; Zhou, H.C.; Xi, Y.M.; Cao, Y.H.; Fu, W.K.; Lu, B.Z.; Nakaya, Y.; Fujihara, N. Pathological characteristics of a dead domestic Crested ibis in China.  Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2000. 5 (1) 93-97. Note:  In English with a Japanese summary.
Descriptors:  ibis, case report, degeneration, enteritis, kidney diseases, liver cells, lungs, pathology, population density, survival, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, wild birds, Ciconiiformes, China.

Haagsma, J. Avian tuberculosis. Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. List A and B Diseases of Mammals, Birds and Bees. 2000. Ed. 4, 718-725. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France.
NAL call number:  SF771 M36 2000
Descriptors:  animal diseases, diagnostic techniques, bird diseases, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, intestines, liver, poultry, spleen, tuberculin test, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex.

Phalen, D.N.; Bonagura, J.D. Avian mycobacteriosis.  Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIII:  Small Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA 2000. p. 1116-1118.
NAL call number:  SF745 K57
Descriptors:  epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, zoonoses, treatment, pets birds, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Ragg, J.R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Moller, H. The scavenging behaviour of ferrets (Mustela furo), feral cats (Felis domesticus), possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) and harrier hawks (Circus approximans) on pastoral farmland in New Zealand: implications for bovine tuberculosis transmission. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2000. 48 (6) 166-175.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  ferrets, feral cats, possums, hedgehogs, harrier hawks, time lapse video, carrion feeding behavior on carcasses, communal feeding behavior, impact on tuberculosis transmission, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium, New Zealand.

Salt, S.; Ozbilgin, S.; Ozmen, O.; Misirlioglu, D. Bazi yabani ve kafes kuslarinda gozlenen klinik ve patolojik bulgular. [Clinical and pathological findings of some wild and captive birds.] Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 2000. 19 (1-2) 127-132. Note:  In Turkish with an English summary.
NAL call number:  SF1 I78
Descriptors:  bird diseases, turkeys, budgerigars, pigeons, parrots, canaries, seagull, heron, peacock, various pathologies including tuberculosis, cysts pathological, encephalitis, enteritis, hemorrhage, hepatitis, hyperkeratosis, mycoses, neoplasms, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium.


Asdrubali, G.; Franciosini, M.P.; Casagrande-Proietti, P.; Rabissi, A.; del Rossi, E. Su di un episodio di tubercolosi nel fagiano. [A tuberculosis outbreak in pheasants.] Selezione Veterinaria. 1999. No. 8-9, 669-675. Note:  XXXVII Convegno della Societa Italiana di Patologia Aviare, Flori, Italy, 1-2 October 1998. In Italian with an English summary.
NAL Call Number: 241.71 B75
Descriptors:  pheasants, Mycobacterium avium, case reports, pathology, histopathology, clinical aspects, symptoms, diagnosis, outbreaks, tuberculosis, Italy.

Gyimesi, Z.S.; Stalis, I.H.; Miller, J.M.; Thoen, C.O.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of captive exotic birds using polymerase chain reaction.  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 1999. 30 (3) 348-353.
NAL Call Number:   SF601.J6
Descriptors:  archival avian tissues, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, PCR testing, diagnosis of avian tuberculosis, captive exotic birds, amplification of a 189 bp fragment.

Kock, N.D.; Kock, R.A.; Wambua, J.; Kamau, G.J.; Mohan, K.  Mycobacterium avium-related epizootic in free-ranging lesser flamingos in Kenya.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  1999, 35 (2) 297-300.  ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium serovar I, free ranging lesser flamingos, Phoeniconaias minor, epidemics, avian bacterial diseases, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, liver, spleen lesions, gross and histopathological evaluations, African lakes, Lake Bogoria, Lake Nakuru, Kenya.   

Morita, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Hashizaki, F.; Katsube, Y. Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium complex serovar 9 isolated from painted quail (Excalfactoria chinensis).  Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 1999. 61 (12) 1309-1312.
NAL call number:  SF604 J342
Descriptors:  serovars of Mycobacterium avium, painted quail, zoo animals, lesions of liver and spleen, tuberculosis, diagnosis, case reports, experimental infections in chickens, Ueno Zoological Garden, Japan.

Sevcikova, Z.; Ledecky, V.; Capik, I.; Levkut, M. Unusual manifestation of tuberculosis in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Veterinary Record.  Dec 11, 1999. 145 (24) 708. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  ostriches, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, conjunctiva, eyelids, histopathology, atypical course, case reports.

Thornton, C.G.; Cranfield, M.R.; MacLellan, K.M.; Brink, T.L. Jr.; Strandberg, J.D.; Carlin, E.A.; Torrelles, J.B.; Maslow, J.N.; Hasson, J.L.B.; Heyl, D.M.; Sarro, S.J.; Chatterjee, D.; Passen, S. Processing postmortem specimens with C18-carboxypropylbetaine and analysis by PCR to develop an antemortem test for Mycobacterium avium infections in ducks.  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 1999. 30 (1) 11-24.
NAL call number:  SF601.J6
Descriptors:  ducks, Anatidae, Mycobacterium avium, polymerase chain reaction, tuberculosis, antemortem screening test, zwitterionic detergent C18-carboxypropylbetaine, diagnostic test, restriction fragment length polymorphism, diagnosis, feces, blood bone marrow, bursa Fabricii, smears, culture techniques.


Bhowmik, M.K.; Cromie, R. A comparative study on the mortality pattern of three species of ducks at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Indian Journal of Animal Health. 1998. 37 (2) 55-58.
NAL call number:  SF1 I4
Descriptors:  duck mortality, Meller's ducks, White-Winged Wood ducks, Madagascar ducks, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, sex differences, septicaemia, pneumonia, avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, gangrenous dermatitis, yolk sac disease, bacterial agents, duck viral enteritis, parasitoses, toxicoses, neoplasms, egg peritonitis and ascites, UK.

Clippinger, T.L.; Bennett, R.A.; Newell, S.M.  Radiographic diagnosis - granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional acid-fast bacilli in an Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 1998. 39 (3) 181-184.
NAL call number:  SF757.8 A4
Descriptors:  granulomatous pneumonia, tuberculosis, laparoscopy, pathology, histopathology, biopsy, radiography, captive birds, case report, Mycobacterium, Amazon parrot.

Jantosovic, J.; Saly, J.; Kozak, M.; Kapitancik, B.; Magic, D. Jr. Blood cell count at tuberculosis, cholera and salmonellosis in birds. Folia Veterinaria. 1998. 42 (4) 201-205.
NAL call number:  41.8 F712
Descriptors:  chickens, pigeons, blood cell counts, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, hemoglobin, hematology, tuberculosis, erythrocytes, leukocytes, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasturella multocida, cholera, eosinophils, basophils.

Levkut, M.; Sevcikova, Z.; Ledecky, V.; Pauer, T. Neobvykla manifestacia tuberkulozy u pstrosa dvojprsteho. [Unusual signs of tuberculosis in an ostrich.] Veterinarstvi. 1998. 48 (9) 380. Note:  In Slovakian with an English summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 V6439
Descriptors:  case reports, pathology, zoo animals, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, ostriches.

Morishita, T.Y.; Fullerton, A.T.; Lowenstine, L.J.; Gardner, I.A.; Brooks, D.L. Morbidity and mortality in free-living raptorial birds of Northern California: a retrospective study, 1983-1994. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 1998. 12 (2) 78-81.
NAL call number:  SF994 J6
Descriptors:  owls, hawks, free-living raptors, mortality, morbidity, pathology, nutritional state, aspergillosis, Escherichia infections, diagnosis, clinical aspects, nutritional disorders, causes of death, trauma and injuries, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, avian cholera, fractures, underlying diseases, California.

Prukner-Radovcic, E.; Culjak, K.; Sostaric, B.; Mazija, H.; Sabocanec, R. Generalised tuberculosis in pheasants at a commercial breeding farm. Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft. 1998. 44 (1) 33-39. Note:  In English with German and French summaries.
NAL call number:  SK351 Z45
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, farmed flock outbreaks, pheasants, Mycobacterium sp., Mycobacterium avium intracellular complex, pathology, zoonoses, disease control, diagnosis, bacterial diseases, carcass disposal, Croatia.

Washko, R.M.; Hoefer, H.; Kiehn, T.E.; Armstrong, D.; Dorsinville, G.; Frieden, T.R. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera): report with public health implications.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Apr 1998. 36 (4) 1101-1102. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL call number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Psittaciformes, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, public health risks, Ara chloroptera.


Gurel, A. ; Arun, S.S.; Yesildere, T. Uc farkli evcil guvercin surusunde spontan tuberkulozis olgulari. [Spontaneous tuberculosis in three different pigeon flocks.] Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 1997. 23 (1) 131-139. Note:  In Turkish with an English summary.
NAL call number:  SF1 I78
Descriptors:  pigeons, 3 flocks, Mycobacterium avium, tuberculosis, diagnosis, microscopy.

Quaranta, V.; Santagada, G.; Latorre, L.; Raimondi, P.  Grave episodio di tubercolosi aviare in un allevamento di fagiani (Phasianus colchicus). [Serious outbreak of tuberculosis on a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) farm.] Acta Medica Veterinaria. 1996, publ. 1997. 42 (3-4) 209-212. Note in Italian with an English summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 AC84
  Mycobacterium avium, pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, pathology, outbreaks, tuberculosis, farmed flock, Italy.

Sun, L.; Kang, D.; Ge, X.; Sun, J.H.; Li, R.Z. Application of PPA-ELISA for the detection of avian tuberculosis antibody in chicken serum. Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine. 1997. 14 (3) 11-13. Note:  In Chinese.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, antibodies, rabbit anti-chicken IgG immune serum, diagnostic test, PPA-ELISA, chickens, experimental infections, test sensitivity, test specificity and cost, SPF flocks.

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