Anonymous; Gicquel, Brigitte; Berthet, Francois-Xavier.  Mycobacterium strains with modified erp gene and vaccine composition containing same.  Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents.  2007.  ISSN:  0098-1133.  Note:  Patent Number:  US 07160548
Abstract:  Mycobacterium strains in which the erp gene is modified, and vaccine compositions comprising such Mycobacterium strains are provided.  The modification of the erp gene may decrease the virulence and the persistence of the Mycobacterium strains.
Descriptors:  modified Mycobacterium strains, erp gene, effect on virulence and persistence.

Harris, N. Beth; Payeur, Janet; Bravo, Doris; Osorio, Ruben; Stuber, Tod; Farrell, David; Paulson, Debra; Treviso, Scarlett; Mikolon, Andrea; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Cernek-Hoskins, Shannon; Rast, Robert; Ginsberg, Michele; Kinde, HailuRecovery of Mycobacterium bovis from Soft Fresh Cheese Originating in Mexico.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM)  2007 Feb; 73 (3): 1025-1028.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  Recent outbreaks of human tuberculosis in the United States caused by Mycobacterium bovis have implicated cheese originating in Mexico as a source of these infections.  A total of 203 samples of cheese originating in Mexico were cultured, and M. bovis was recovered from one specimen.  Therefore, M. bovis can be recovered from cheese and may be a source of human infections.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, public health concerns, contaminated Mexican cheese, sick cattle, cattle diseases as potential source of human infection.

Stronen, A.V.; Brook, R.K.; Paquet, P.C.; Mclachlan, S.  Farmer attitudes toward wolves: implications for the role of predators in managing disease.  Biological Conservation.  2007; 135 (1): 1-10.  ISSN:  0006-3207
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207
NAL Call Number:  S900.B5
Abstract:  The potential for disease transmission between wild and domestic animals may interfere with wildlife and habitat conservation on lands surrounding protected areas.  Recently, possible transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) from wild ungulates to domestic livestock has affected the Riding Mountain National Park region in Manitoba, Canada.  Wolf (Canis lupus) predation on ungulate populations may help lessen the risk of disease transmission to livestock.  We conducted an exploratory analysis of causal factors associated with farmer attitudes toward observing wolves on their farms.  A survey to 4220 farms within 50 km of the Park resulted in an adjusted response rate of 25%.  We constructed several logistic regression models with factors hypothesized to influence whether farmers agreed with the statement "I enjoy seeing wolves on my land", and three candidate models received reasonable support.  Factors most affecting attitudes were, in order of importance, perceived wolf population size, frequency of seeing wolves, perceived seriousness of wolf damage, distance to Park boundary and number of beef cattle (Bos taurus) owned.  The factors least influential on attitudes were education and age.  Concern over bovine tuberculosis in wild elk also had minimal influence.  Of respondents who perceived the wolf population as "too high", 60% were extremely concerned about bovine tuberculosis in wild elk.  Although the role of wolf predation as a potential natural regulator of disease in wild ungulates might not be widely recognized in many areas, we believe this provides a unique opportunity to re-examine the significance of maintaining viable wolf populations..
Descriptors:  wolves, effects of natural predation on disease status of prey species, Mycobacterium bovis; role of viable populations of wolves, Manitoba, Canada.


Adaekambi, Toeidi; Ben Salah, Skandar; Khlif, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel.  Survival of environmental mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM).  2006 Sept; 72 (9): 5974-5981.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  Free-living amoebae in water are hosts to many bacterial species living in such an environment.  Such an association enables bacteria to select virulence factors and survive in adverse conditions.  Waterborne mycobacteria (WBM) are important sources of community- and hospital-acquired outbreaks of nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections.  However, the interactions between WBM and free-living amoebae in water have been demonstrated for only few Mycobacterium spp.  We investigated the ability of a number (n = 26) of Mycobacterium spp. to survive in the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.  All the species tested entered the trophozoites of A. polyphaga and survived at this location over a period of 5 days.  Moreover, all Mycobacterium spp. survived inside cysts for a period of 15 days.  Intracellular Mycobacterium spp. within amoeba cysts survived when exposed to free chlorine (15 mg/liter) for 24 h.  These data document the interactions between free-living amoebae and the majority of waterborne Mycobacterium spp.  Further studies are required to examine the effects of various germicidal agents on the survival of WBM in an aquatic environment.
Descriptors:  Acanthamoeba polyphaga free-living amoebae, survival of Mycobacterium in A. polyphaga cysts, source of waterborne Mycobacterium infections.

Bannalikar, A.S.; Rishendra Verma.  Characterization of Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates from animals and their environment by PCR-RFLP analysis (PRA) of hsp65 and rpoB genes.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2006; 76 (2): 109-113.  ISSN:  0367-8318
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium fortuitum I and II, isolates of soil, water, animal tissue, biochemical testing, Mycobacterium fortuitum, amplification generated a 439 bp product, RFLP patterns, BSTEII digests, HaeIII digests, MspI digestion, species and subspecies identification.

Bourne, F.J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (19): 671-672.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:  www.bvapublications.com
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, wildlife as disease reservoirs, culling badgers, disease control policies.

Cole, Stewart; Buchrieser-Brosch, Roland; Gordon, Stephen; Billault, Alain.  Method for isolating a polynucleotide of interest from the genome of a mycobacterium using a BAC-based DNA library: application to the detection of mycobacteria.  Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents.  2006.  ISSN:  0098-1133.  Note:  This is a description of a patent.
URL:  http://www.uspto.gov/go/og/index.html
NAL Call Number:  T223.A21
Abstract:  A method for isolating a polynucleotide of interest that is present in the genome of a first mycobacterium strain and/or is expressed by the first mycobacterium strain, where the polynucleotide of interest is also absent or altered in the genome of a second mycobacterium strain and/or is not expressed in the second mycobacterium.  The method includes (a) contacting the genomic DNA of the first mycobacterium strain under hybridizing conditions with the DNA of a least one clone that belongs to a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic DNA library of the second mycobacterium strain, and (b) isolating the polynucleotide of interest that does not form a hybrid with the DNA of the second mycobacterium strain.  This invention further pertains to a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv genomic DNA library, as well as a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain Pasteur genomic DNA library, and the recombinant BAC vectors that belong to those genomic DNA libraries.  This invention also relates to mycobacterial nucleic acids, and methods and kits for using these nucleic acids to detect mycobacteria in a biological sample.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, method, isolation of polynucleotide, BAC-based DNA library, detection method, patent.

Courtenay, O.; Reilly, L.A.; Sweeney, F.P.; Hibberd, V.; Bryan, S.; Ul Hassan, A.; Newman, C.; Macdonald, D.W.; Delahay, R.J.; Wilson, G.J.; Wellington, E.M.H.  Is Mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis?  Biology Letters.  2006; 2 (3): 460-462.  ISSN:  1744-9561
URL:  http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/biol_lett
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, prevalence of pathogen in environment, detectability of M. bovis, badger setts and latrines, environmental reservoir, endemic on cattle farms, Britain.

de Araujo, Cristina Pires; Leite, Clarice Queico Fugimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; Jorge, Klaudia dos Santos Goncalves; Osorio, Ana Luiza Alves Rosa.  Mycobacterium bovis identification by a molecular method from post-mortem inspected cattle obtained in abattoirs of Mato Grosso do Sul, BrazilMemorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.  2005; 100(7): 749-752.  ISSN:  0074-0276
URL:  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php/script_sci_serial/pid_0074-0276/lng_en/nrm_iso
NAL Call Number:  448.9 IN74
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, post-slaughter testing, carcass samples, acid-fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR with primers specific to Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium sp., Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Dietrich, J.; Weldingh, K.; Andersen, P.  Prospects for a novel vaccine against tuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 163-169.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  The development of a new and improved vaccine against tuberculosis has in the last 10 years been accelerated tremendously from the completed Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and the progress in molecular biology.  This has resulted in the identification of a large number of antigens with potential in tuberculosis vaccines.  The next phase of this work has now started-putting the most relevant molecules back together as fusion molecules and cocktails.  This requires carefully monitoring of aspects as immunodominance, recognition in different populations as well as the influence of different adjuvants and delivery systems.  The most advanced of these vaccines such as the fusion between ESAT6 and Ag85B have been evaluated in a range of animal models including non-human primates and are now entering into clinical trials.  For these vaccines to be successfully implemented in future vaccination programmes it is necessary to understand the immunological background for the failure of BCG and optimize the vaccines for their ability to boost the immuneresponse primed by BCG.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease control, disease control programs, vaccines, vaccination, bacterial antigens, subunit vaccines, genome, microbial genetics, vaccine adjuvants, drug delivery systems, recombinant fusion proteins, animal models, BCG vaccine, epidemiology,  immune response, immunodominance.

Fenner, D.C.; Beurge, B.; Kayser, H.P.; Wittenbrink,-M.M.  The anti-microbial activity of electrolysed oxidizing water against microorganisms relevant in veterinary medicine.   Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe-B.  2006 Apr; 53 (3): 133-137.  ISSN:  0931-1793
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00921.x
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52
Abstract:  Standards of the German Association of Veterinary Medicine (DVG) for the evaluation of chemical disinfectants were used to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing water (EOW).  Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were exposed to anode EOW (pH, 3.0 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.1; oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), +1100 * left-pointing-double-angle * 50 mV; free chlorine, 400 * left-pointing-double-angle * 20 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B) and combined EOW (7 : 3 anode : cathode, v/v; pH, 8.3 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.1; ORP, 930-950 mV; free chlorine, 271 * left-pointing-double-angle * 20 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B). In water of standardized hardness (WSH), all bacterial strains were completely inactivated by a 30 min exposure to maximum 10.0% anode EOW ([approximately]40.0 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B) or 50.0% combined EOW ([approximately]135.5 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B). The sensitivity ranking order for anode EOW to the bacterial test strains was P. mirabilis > S. aureus > M. avium ssp. avium > E. faecium > P. aeruginosa. P. mirabilis and S. aureus decreased to undetectable levels after 5 min of exposure to 7.5% anode EOW ([approximately]30.0 mg/l Cl subscript 2(B). Candida albicans was completely inactivated by a 5-min exposure to 5.0% anode EOW. Both, anode and combined EOW exhibited no anti-microbial activities in standardized nutrient broth or after addition of 20.0% bovine serum to the WSH. Further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of EOW as a disinfectant under operating conditions in animal production facilities.
Descriptors:  cattle, animal pathogens, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, oxidants, chlorine, duration, nutrient solutions, blood serum, water hardness, Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, electrolysed oxidizing water, oxidation resistance, anodes, cathodes.

Food and Agriculture Organization.  Capacity building for surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, FAO/WHO/OIE Expert and Technical Consultation, Rome, 14-16 June 2005.  FAO Animal Production and Health Proceedings.  2006; (7): 112 pp.  ISSN:  1810-0732
URL:   http://www.fao.org
Abstract:  This proceeding contains 14 papers.  This publication is intended to assist veterinary public health services in Developing Countries and countries in transition in the implementation of capacity-building programmes on surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases.  Specific recommendations were made on implementation of surveillance methodologies for zoonotic diseases.  There is a special emphasis on Developing Countries.  The topics include: recommendations for training programs in surveillance methodologies at veterinary and para-veterinary levels; surveillance program in taeniasis/cysticercosis; capacity building for the surveillance, prevention and control of BSE; control of zoonotic disease under emergency conditions; surveillance and control programs in brucellosis, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, anthrax, salmonellosis and other foodborne pathogens; surveillance, early weaning and early reaction to zoonoses outbreaks; and surveillance approaches in antimicrobial resistance.
Descriptors:  animal health, training programs, disease surveillance programs, major bacterial diseases, parasites, Burcella, Mycobacterium bovis, BSE, Developing Countries.

Freeman, R.; Geier, H.; Weigel, K.M.; Do, J.; Ford, T.E.; Cangelosi, G.A.  Roles for cell wall glycopeptidolipid in surface adherence and planktonic dispersal of Mycobacterium avium.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2006; 72 (12): 7554-7558.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL:  http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call Number:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems.  M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs).  Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. avium and by other Mycobacterium species.  In order to test this hypothesis in a directed fashion, three model systems were used to examine biofilm formation by mutants of M. avium with transposon insertions into pstAB (also known as nrp and mps). pstAB encodes the nonribosomal peptide synthetase that catalyzes the synthesis of the core GPL.  The mutants did not adhere to polyvinyl chloride plates; however, they adhered well to plastic and glass chamber slide surfaces, albeit with different morphologies from the parent strain.  In a model that quantified surface adherence under recirculating water, wild-type and pstAB mutant cells accumulated on stainless steel surfaces in equal numbers.  Unexpectedly, pstAB mutant cells were >10-fold less abundant in the recirculating-water phase than parent strain cells.  These observations show that GPLs are directly or indirectly required for colonization of some, but by no means all, surfaces. Under some conditions, GPLs may play an entirely different role by facilitating the survival or dispersal of nonadherent M. avium cells in circulating water.  Such a function could contribute to waterborne M. avium infection..
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, biofilms, waterborne pathogen infection, DNA insertion elements, insertion sequences, lipids, mobile genetic elements, mobile sequences, PVC, transposons.

Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Majlessi, Laleh; Simsova, Marcela; Morova, Jana; Rojas, Marie-Jesus; Nouz_e, Clemence; Brodin, Priscille; Sebo, Peter; Leclerc, Claude.  High frequency of CD4[superscript +] T cells specific for the TB10.4 protein correlates with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  Infection and immunity (IAI.)  2006; 74: (6): 3396-3407.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  TB10.4 is a newly identified antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recognized by human and murine T cells upon mycobacterial infection.  Here, we show that immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a strong, genetically controlled, Th1 immune response against TB10.4 in mice.  BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains behave as high and low responders to TB10.4 protein, respectively.  The TB10.4:74-88 peptide was identified as an immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope for H-2d mice.  Since recent results, as well as the present study, have raised interest in TB10.4 as a subunit vaccine, we analyzed immune responses induced by this antigen delivered by a new vector, the adenylate cyclase (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis.  CyaA is able to target dendritic cells and to deliver CD4+  or CD8+ T-cell epitopes to the major histocompatibility complex class II/I molecule presentation pathways, triggering specific Th1 or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses.  Several CyaA harboring either the entire TB10.4 protein or various subfragments containing the TB10.4:20-28 CTL epitope were shown to induce TB10.4-specific Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses.  However, none of the recombinant CyaA, injected in the absence of adjuvant, was able to induce protection against M. tuberculosis infection.  In contrast, TB10.4 protein administered with a cocktail of strong adjuvants that triggered a strong Th1 CD4+ T-cell response induced significant protection against M. tuberculosis challenge.  These results confirm the potential value of the TB10.4 protein as a candidate vaccine and show that the presence of high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific to this strong immunogen correlates with protection against M. tuberculosis infection.
Descriptors:  mice, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB10.4, newly identified antigen, possible vaccination candidate, immune response in mice, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells.

Hicks, D.J.; Johnson, L.; Mitchell, S.M.; Gough, J.; Cooley, W.A.; La-Ragione, R.M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Wangoo, A.  Evaluation of zinc salt based fixatives for preserving antigenic determinants for immunohistochemical demonstration of murine immune system cell marker.  Biotechnic and Histochemistry.  2006; 81(1): 23-30.  ISSN:  1052-0295
URL:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713692932
NAL Call Number:  QH613.B56
Descriptors: immunohistochemical techniques antigen, cytokine and cytomorphological markers; fixatives; mouse models for Mycobacterium bovis infection; tissues from RIII mice; zinc salt fixative; buffered formalin; tested CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45, CD54, F4/80, Interferon-gamma, MIP2.

Johnston, A.M.  The 1901 Congress on Tuberculosis: John McFadyean and beyond.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006; 112 (2/4): 347-368.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  Note:  Special issue:  S.J.More, More; J.D. Collins; E. Gormley; M. Good; R.A. Skuce; J.M. Pollock (editors).  Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August 2005.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, humans, historical congress discussed, disease transmission, epidemiology, tuberculin testing.

Moda, G. Non-technical constraints to eradication: the Italian experience.  Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 253-258.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Although technical constraints to eradication of bovine tuberculosis are well-recognized, non-technical constraints can also delay progress towards eradication, leading to inefficiency and increased programme costs.  This paper seeks to analyze the main non-technical constraints that can interfere with the successful implementation of tuberculosis eradication plans, based on experiences from an area of high tuberculosis prevalence in Regione Piemonte, Italy.  The main social and economic constraints faced in the past 20 years are reviewed, including a social reluctance to recognize the importance of seeking eradication as the goal of disease control, effective communication of technical issues, the training and the organization of veterinary services, the relationship between the regional authority and farmers and their representatives, and data management and epidemiological reporting.  The paper analyses and discusses the solutions that were applied in Regione Piemonte and the benefits that were obtained.  Tuberculosis eradication plans are one of the most difficult tasks of the Veterinary Animal Health Services, and non-technical constraints must be considered when progress towards eradication is less than expected.  Organizational and managerial resources can help to overcome social or economic obstacles, provided the veterinary profession is willing to address technical, but also non-technical, constraints to eradication.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease control, disease control programs, disease prevalence, pathogen eradication, economic analysis, economic costs, social behavior, social barriers, veterinarians, social environment, Italy.

More, S.J.; Collins, J.D.; Gormley, E.; Good, M.; Skuce, R.A.; Pollock, J.M.  4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis: workshop reports.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006; 112 (2/4): 383-391.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  Note:  Special issue:  S.J. More; J.D. Collins; E. Gormley; M. Good; R.A. Skuce;  J.M. Pollock (editors).  Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August 2005.
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  conference workshop reports, policy, strategy, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, disease eradication programs, diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, wild animals as disease reservoirs, vaccines, vaccination of animals, cattle, livestock.

Osek, J.  Zoonozy i ich czynniki etiologiczne w krajach Unii Europejskiej oraz w Norwegii w 2004 r.  [Zoonoses and their etiological agents in European Union countries and Norway in 2004.]  Zycie Weterynaryjne.  2006; 81 (3): 180-187.  Note:  In Polish. 
URL:  http://www.vetpol.org.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=61
Descriptors:  zoonotic disease incidence, Brucella, Campylobacter, Echinococcus, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Mycobacterium bovis, rabies virus, Salmonella, Toxoplasma, Trichinella, Yersinia, EU countries.

Pignone, Michelle; Greth, Kimberly M.; Cooper, Jason; Emerson, David; Tang, Jane.   Identification of mycobacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 June; 44 (6): 1963-1970.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/6/1963
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract:  Classical methods for identification of Mycobacterium species rely on morphology and biochemical profiles.  Speciation of a Mycobacterium isolate using these standard methods is a lengthy process based on subjective data interpretation.  In this study, Mycobacterium species were characterized by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).  This technology is designed to provide a characteristic mass spectral fingerprint based on desorbed ions from the cell surface.  Thirty-seven strains were analyzed; these represented thirteen species and five subspecies that included the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the M. avium M. intracellulare complex, as well as rapid- and slow-growing mycobacteria.  All 37 strains were analyzed in triplicate, and a database was generated.  This method produced species-specific patterns for all but 1 of the 37 isolates and provided reliable differentiation at the strain level.  The data suggest that whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS has potential as a rapid and reproducible method for the identification and characterization of Mycobacterium species. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, species identification, mass spectrometry methods and techniques, mass spectral fingerprint, desorbed ions from cell surface, species specific patterns, Mycobacterium identification method.

Radunz, B.  Surveillance and risk management during the latter stages of eradication: experiences from AustraliaVeterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb 25;  112(2-4): 283-290.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  The paper reviews the eradication of bovine tuberculosis from Australia with special reference to surveillance and managing the risk of animals exposed to tuberculosis infected animals during the latter stages of eradication.  The successful eradication was based on a sound technical program with strong industry and government support.  The model of joint industry and government funding and decision-making first used during the brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication campaign (BTEC) has been successfully incorporated within subsequent livestock disease control programs in Australia.  An overview of the history of tuberculosis eradication in Australia provides a background to the surveillance approach.  Australia was fortunate that there were no wildlife reservoir hosts.  Feral animal reservoir hosts were removed during the eradication program.  Surveillance to detect rare diseases is recognized to be statistically challenging with high resource requirements.  Australian veterinary authorities have a high level of confidence that the combination of increasing sensitivity of abattoir surveillance systems by the submission of all granulomas detected at slaughter with increasing risk management of animals exposed to tuberculosis infected animals during the final stages of eradication provides a high level of assurance that Mycobacterium bovis has been eradicated.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease control programs, disease outbreaks, disease transmission, risk management, disease surveillance, decision making, agricultural history, wildlife, animal diseases, tuberculosis, disease reservoirs, slaughter houses, meat inspection, pathogen eradication, culling animals, Australia

Reynolds, D.  TB policy developments.  GVJ-Government Veterinary Journal.  2006; 16 (1): 5-10.  ISSN:  0269-5545
URL:  http://www.defra.gov.uk/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)
Descriptors:  cattle. Mycobacterium bovis, badgers (Meles meles), eradication and control programs, lessons learned, disease distribution, zoonotic infections, UK

Richter, Elvira; Reusch Gerdes, Sabine; Hillemann, Doris.  Evaluation of the genotype Mycobacterium assay for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 May; 44 (5): 1769-1775.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/5/1769
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract:  A new commercially available DNA strip assay (GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS; Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) was evaluated for the ability to differentiate mycobacterial species.  The test is based on a PCR technique targeting a 23S rRNA gene region, followed by reverse hybridization and line probe technology.  The GenoType CM is capable of identifying 23, the GenoType AS a further 14, species either alone or in combination with one or more species.  Both tests were evaluated with 156 mycobacterial strains composed of 61 validly published species including different subspecies, 6 not validly published species, and 3 strains other than mycobacterial species.  All strains were precharacterized by sequencing of the 5' region of the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical tests. In total, results for 151 strains were interpretable.  Concordant results were obtained for 137 (92.6%) of 148 mycobacterial strains with the CM assay and 133 (89.9%) of 148 mycobacterial strains with the AS assay, and all three non-Mycobacterium species were identified.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium species, 2 diagnostic test strips, culture testing,

Rothschild, B.M.; Laub, R.  Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis.  Naturwissenschaften.  2006; 93 (11): 557-564.  ISSN:  0028-1042
URL:   http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100479
Abstract:  The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support.  A unique pathologic zone of resorption in 52% of metacarpels and metatarsals was first noticed in a 113 skeletons of Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpals.  There was also associated rib periosteal reaction that is suggestive of tuberculosis.  Foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis.  The high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was pandemic, a hyperdisease.  Such pandemic tuberculosis could have been one of several factors contributing to mastodon extinction.
Descriptors:  paleozoology, fossils, mammals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial infections in feet bones, bacterioses, bone destruction, Mammut americanum, Pleistocene era.

Shah, N.P.; Singhal, A.; Jain, A.; Kumar, P.; Uppal, S.S.; Srivatsava, M.V.P.; Prasad, H.K. Occurrence of overlooked zoonotic tuberculosis: detection of Mycobacterium bovis in human cerebrospinal Fluid.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2006 Apr; 44 (4): 1352-1358.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/4/1352
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract:  The paucibacillary nature of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been a major obstacle in the diagnosis of human tuberculous meningitis (TBM).  This study shows that with molecular techniques direct precise determination to the species level of mycobacterial pathogens can be made.  The present report describes the utility of a nested PCR (N-PCR) assay (A. Mishra, A. Singhal, D. S. Chauhan, V. M. Katoch, K. Srivastava, S. S. Thakral, S. S. Bharadwaj, V. Sreenivas, and H. K. Prasad, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:5670-5678, 2005) in detecting M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in human CSF.  In 2.8% (6/212) of the samples, M. tuberculosis was detected, and in 17% (36/212), M. bovis was detected.  Mixed infection was observed in 22 samples.  Comparative analysis of clinical diagnosis, smear microscopy, and N-PCR in 69 patients (TBM, 25; non-TBM, 44) showed that the sensitivity of N-PCR (61.5%) was greater than that of smear microscopy (38.4%).  Determination to the species level is important from the viewpoint of determining the prevalence of these mycobacteria in a community and would influence strategies currently adopted for the prevention of tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, nested PCR assay, pathogen identification, cerebralspinal fluid testing, human tissue.

Slinina, K.N.; Lazovskaya, A.L. Vorob' eva, Z.G.; Kul' chitskaya, M.A.; Druchkova, M.V.  A method for storage of cultures in the laboratory.  Russian Agricultural Sciences.  2006; (12): 24-25.  ISSN:  1068-3674.  Note:  Translated journal. 
NAL Call Number:  S1.S68
Descriptors: storage methods, bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium strains, preservation of biochemical characteristics and properties.

Sweeney, F.P.; Courtenay, O.; Ul Hassan, A.; Hibberd, V.; Reilly, L.A.; Wellington, E.M.H.  Immunomagnetic recovery of Mycobacterium bovis from naturally infected environmental samples.  Letters in Applied Microbiology.  2006 Oct; 43 (4): 364-369.  ISSN:  0266-8254
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01983.x
NAL Call Number:  QR1.L47
Abstract:  To adapt an immunomagnetic capture (IMC) technique to concentrate and cultivate Mycobacterium bovis from environmental samples including soil, faeces and urine.  Cells of Myco. bovis BCG and wild-type Myco. bovis were successfully isolated and cultured from seeded and naturally infected materials respectively.  The IMC cell recovery estimated by colony forming units (CFUs) counts ranged from 0* diaeresis *10% to 0* diaeresis *16% for spiked media, and 0* diaeresis *15-0* diaeresis *36% for naturally infected soil and faeces. Recovery estimated by cell counts calculated using semi-quantitative PCR ranged from 80* diaeresis *3% to 88* diaeresis *6% for spiked and 84* diaeresis *1-88* diaeresis *2% for naturally infected material.  The differences in the recovery rates estimated by CFUs compared with pixel intensity is likely to be due to clustering of cells on culture plates, thereby underestimating the true cell count.  The IMC techniques can be applied to isolate viable wild type Myco. bovis from naturally contaminated environmental samples.  Cultivation of Myco. bovis from environmental samples using traditional methods is extremely problematic.  Here, we demonstrate a novel development of IMC techniques that will greatly facilitate the study of the organism in situ in order to assess its epidemiological importance in bovine tuberculosis persistence.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, immunomagnetic capture techinique, concentrate and cultivate bacteria, environmental sampling, soil, feces, urine, pathogen persistance.

UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs.  Special Issue: Bovine TB. GVJ-Government Veterinary Journal.  2006; 16 (1): 91 pp.  ISSN:  0269-5545.  Note:  Special issue contains 10 articles on TB. 
URL:  http://www.defra.gov.uk/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)
Descriptors:  cattle, other species, Mycobacterium bovis, TB disease levels and distribution, TB policies, disease modeling, Bovigam assay, antemortem diagnosis, tuberculin skin test, zoonotic infections, control programs, issues limiting eradication, EC, USA, Africa, Canada, New Zealand, EU.

Vordermeier, M.; Hewinson, R.G.  Development of cattle TB vaccines in the UK.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2006; 112 (1/2): 38-48.  ISSN:  0165-2427
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, House of Commons Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee's report on Bovine TB (2004), findings of the Independent Scientific Group Vaccine Scoping Sub-committee, vaccine as control solution, vaccine development, DNA or protein subunit vaccines with BCG vaccine, Britain, UK.

Waddington, K.  The Bovine Scourge: Meat, Tuberculosis and Public Health, 1850-1914.  Boydell Press.  Suffock, UK2006; i-ix + 226 pp.  ISBN:  1843831937.  Note:  A book with 10 chapters on the topic of meat and TB.
NAL Call Number:  SF967.T8 W33 2006
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, public health, food safety concerns, meat form infected cattle, transmissibility between species and humans, meat inspection, eradication, etc.


Fend, R.; Geddes, R.; Lesellier, S.; Vordermeier, H.M.; Corner, L.A.L.; Gormley, E.; Costello, E.; Hewinson, R.G.; Marlin, D.J.; Woodman, A.C.; Chambers, M.A.  Use of an electronic nose to diagnose Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and cattle.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43 (4): 1745-1751.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/4/1745
NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6
Abstract:  It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses.  Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB.  The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles).  Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control.  Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem.  Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992).  Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers.  For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable.  To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample.  Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers.  Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge.  The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers..
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis detection, electronic nose, badgers (Meles meles), cattle, sero testing.

Kubica, T.; Ruesch-Gerdes, S.; Niemann, S.  Human Mycobacterium bovis ssp bovis and ssp caprae tuberculosis cases in Germany.  Infection.  2005; 33 (3): 197.  ISSN:  0300-8126.  Note:  Meeting abstract.  8th Congress of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; June 09 -11, 2005.
URL:  http://www.springerlink.com/content/1439-0973/
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis ssp bovis, Mycobacterium bovis ssp caprae, zoonotic animal pathogen, human infection, epidemiology, pyrazinamide 98-96-4, antibacterial drug, anti-infective drug, spoligotype patter, cluster rate, geographical prevalence.

Mackowiak, Philip A.; Blos, Vera Tiesler; Aguilar, Manuel; Buikstra, Jane E.  On the origin of American tuberculosis.  Clinical Infectious Diseases.  2005; 41 (4): 515-518,507.  ISSN:  1058-4838
Descriptors:  humans, animals, tuberculosis in the US, pre-Columbian infection status, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, history of the disease, USA.

Mahendra-Pal  Importance of zoonoses in public health.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2005; 75 (5): 586-591.  ISSN:  0367-8318
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  cattle, humans, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, Yersinia pestis, zoonotic diseases, animal diseases, disease prevalence, control programs, disease prevention, epidemiology, human diseases, morbidity, mortality, plague, public health, sanitation, hygiene, zoonoses, Gujarat, Maharashtra, India, USA.

Mays, Simon A.  Tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease in antiquity. In:  Davies J.; Fabis M.; Mainland I; Richards M.; Thomas R.  Diet and Health in Past Animal Populations: Current Research and Future Directions.  Oxbow books, Oxford, UK2005; 125-134.  ISBN:  1842171178.  Note a book chapter from the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ), Durham, England; August 23 -28, 2002. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, zoonotic pathogen, pathogen prevalence, domestic animals, humans, levels in early human populations, documentary and archaeological evidence.

Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A.M.; Wood, J.L.N. (Editors).  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Nairn, Inverness, Scotland, 30th March-1st April 2005.  Published by the Society.  2005.  277 pp.  ISBN:  0948073691.
Descriptors:  many papers, topics include animals diseases, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease transmission and spread, disease control and prevention, diagnosis, reservoir hosts, public health aspects, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, classical swine fever, rabies, pancreatic necrosis virus, foot and mouth disease, avian influenza A virus, Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, broilers, domestic livestock, wild animal disease carriers, UK.

Meyer, S.; Naumann, L.; Landthaler, M.; Vogt, T.  Lupus vulgaris caused by Mycobacterium bovis ssp capraeBritish Journal of Dermatology.  2005; 153 (1): 220-222.  ISSN:  0007-0963
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae, zoonotic disease, human skin disease, etiology, lupus vulgaris.

Schuebel, N.; Rupp, J.; Kramme, E.; Gottschalk, S.; Zabel, P.; Dalhoff, K. Six cases of Mycobacterium bovis infections in northern Germany between 1999 and 2004Infection.  2005; 33 (3): 215.  ISSN:  0300-8126.  Note:  Meeting abstract.  8th Congress of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; June 09 -11, 2005 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, humans, zoonotic disease, epidemiology, Germany.

Vordermeier, H.M.; Chambers, M.A.; Buddle, B.M.; Pollock, J.M.; Hewinson, R.G.  Progress in the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents to control tuberculosis in cattle.  Veterinary Journal.  2006 Mar; 171 (2): 229-244.  ISSN:  1090-0233
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.11.001
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V484
Abstract:  The sharp rise of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Great Britain and the continuing problem of wild life reservoirs in countries such as New Zealand and Great Britain have resulted in increased research efforts into the disease.  Two of the goals of this research are to develop (1) cattle vaccines against TB and (2) associated diagnostic reagents that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (differential diagnosis).  This review summarizes recent progress and describes efforts to increase the protective efficacy of the only potential TB vaccine currently available, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and to develop specific reagents for differential diagnosis.  Vaccination strategies based on DNA or protein subunit vaccination, vaccination with live viral vectors as well as heterologous prime-boost scenarios are discussed.  In addition, we outline results from studies aimed at developing diagnostic reagents to allow the distinction of vaccinated from infected animals, for example antigens that are not expressed by vaccines like Mycobacterium bovis Bacille-Calmette-Guerin, but recognised strongly in Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle.
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, drugs, vaccine development, literature reviews, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, BCG vaccine, live vaccines, subunit vaccines, disease detection, analytical methods, reagents, laboratory techniques, immunologic techniques, serodiagnosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex .

Young, Jamie-S.; Gormley, Eamonn; Wellington, ElizAbstracteth M. H.  Molecular detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71 (4): 1946-1952.  ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  PCR primers specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were used to detect the presence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil microcosms and Mycobacterium bovis in environmental samples taken from a farm in Ireland with a history of bovine tuberculosis.  M. bovis genes were detected in soil at 4 and 21 months after possible contamination.  Gene levels were found in the range of 1 x 103 to 3.6 x 103 gene copies g of soil-1, depending on the sampling area.  Areas around badger setts had the highest levels of detectable genes and were shown to have the highest levels of gene persistence.  M. bovis-specific 16S rRNA sequences were detected, providing evidence of the presence of viable cells in Irish soils.  Studies of DNA turnover in soil microcosms proved that dead cells of M. bovis BCG did not persist beyond 10 days.  Further microcosm experiments revealed that M. bovis BCG survival was optimal at 37+C with moist soil (-20 kPa; 30% [vol/wt]).  This study provides clear evidence that M. bovis can persist in the farm environment outside of its hosts and that climatic factors influence survival rates.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, environmental sampling of soils, PCR primers, areas of badger setts had highest levels of gene persistence, 10 day persistence, optimal conditions, Ireland.

Zumarraga, M.J.; Meikle, V.; Bernardelli, A.; Abdala, A.; Tarabla, H.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.  Use of touch-down polymerase chain reaction to enhance the sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis detection.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17 (3): 232-238.  ISSN: 1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, PCR, detection, diagnosis, sensitivity of testing.


Abalos, P.; Retamal, R.  Tuberculosis: ?una zoonosis re-emergente?  [Tuberculosis: a re-emerging zoonosis?]  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2004; 23(2): 583-594.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  Note:  In Spanish. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic disease, prevention and control of the disease needed, human and animal health efforts, more effective diagnostic techniques and effective vaccines, issues in developing countries, resistant strains, spread of HIV, wild animals as disease reservoirs.

Adcock, V.; Durr, P.A.  Use of scalable vector graphics for a web-delivered interactive digital atlas of bovine tuberculosis.  GISVET' 04: Second International Conference on the Applications of GIS and Spatial Analysis to Veterinary Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 23rd 25th June. 2004: 22-25.  ISBN:  189951323X.  Note:  Published by Veterinary Laboratories Agency.  Addlestone, UK.
Abstract:  Scalable vector graphics (SVG) is a new XML-based web technology combining high quality graphics, enhanced browser-based interactivity and rapid load times.  This technology is useful for the production of interactive disease maps.  The author describes its use for the successful implementation of an historical atlas of bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales, by permitting direct map production from the source data without requiring intermediate processing within a GIS.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, computer programs, generating  interactive disease maps, England.

Bengis, R.G.; Leighton, F.A.; Fischer, J.R.; Artois, M.; Morner, T.; Tate, C.M.  The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2004; 23 (2): 497-511.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  ISBN:  9290446218. 
Note:  Alternate title--Emerging zoonoses and pathogens of public health concern.  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
Descriptors:  zoonotic diseases, humans and animal diseases, wild animals, public and animal health concerns, disease reservoir, disease hosts, Mycobacterium bovis, leptospirosis. Lyme disease, monkeypox, plague, rabies, Rift Valley fever, tuberculosis, tularaemia, West Nile, avian influenza virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella, Coronavirus, Ebola virus, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Francisella tularensis, Hantavirus, HIV,  SIV, Leptospira interrogans, Lyssavirus, Marburg virus, Paramyxovirus  Rift Valley fever virus, Yersinia pestis, Ehrlichia ewingii, ehrlichiosis, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, SARS coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, world wide.

Hammer, P.  Heat inactivation of classical mycobacteria in milk - a historical review.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 42-48.  ISSN:  0250-5118.  Note:  International workshop on "Revisiting Heat Resistance of Microorganisms in Milk, Kiel, Germany, 5-8 May 2003.”
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial inactivation in milk, high temperature short time pasteurization, research variables in articles, food contamination, food safety, bacterial heat tolerance, historical literature review.

Imberechts, H.; Dierick, K. Report on zoonotic agents in Belgium in 2002.  2004.  65p.
Descriptors:  zoonoses, zoonotic agents, living animals, animal diseases, animal based foods, humans, zoonotic tuberculosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis, trichinellosis, rabies, Campylobacter, echinococcosis, listeriosis, yersiniosis, verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, cysticercosis, foodborne diseases, animal diseases, cysticerci, food safety, Listeria, Salmonella, trichinosis, Belgium.

Jing, Wang; Shuhan, Sun; Zhenlin, Hu; Fengjuan, Zhou; Yiling, Ling.  Ion-exchange chromatography method for the purification of genomic DNA fraction from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.  Journal of Chromatography B.  2004; 811 (2): 103-107.  ISSN:  1570-0232
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784347
Descriptors:  purification process for genomic DNA from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, ion-exchange chromatography, multistep process, sonication, heating, trypsin digestion, ion exchange chromatography, gel-filter chromatography, lyophilization.

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Ahn, Jongsam; Waters, W. Ray; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George; Mosaad, Abdelaziz A.; Palmer, Mitch V.; Shin, Sang; Davis, William C.  New latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Myobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisClinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2004; 11 (6): 1070-1074.  ISSN:  1071-412X
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=524750
Descriptors: cattle, identification of animals infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, current assays not sensitive and specific to identify diseased animals, latex bead agglutination assay (LBAA) using specific immunodominant epitope (ESAT6-p) of M. bovis, compared assay to culture method and skin test, experimental infection and non-infected animals, species specific diagnosis, sera testing, data suggest a rapid, sensitive and specific assay can be developed.

Pasquali, P. (Paolo).  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.  HIV infections and zoonoses.  FAO Animal Production and Health Paper ; 163. 2004.  31p.  ISBN: 9251051690 (pbk.).  Note:  chapter titles:  HIV and the immune system. Zoonoses and AIDS. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis. Enteric infection due to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Toxoplasmosis. Cryptosporidiosis. Giardiasis. Microsporidiosis. Fungal infections.
NAL Call Number: SF1.F64 no. 163
Abstract:     Infections between animals and humans are truly complex, and health care providers should be aware of the potential role of animals in infectious diseases of HIV-infected patients.   The aim of this guideline is to outline the most important zoonoses that play a significant role in the epidemiology of AIDS and to provide a practical and manageable tool for health workers involved in the care of HIV infected humans.
Descriptors:  various zoonotic diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, infection potential for immune challenged people, HIV, animals as disease reservoirs.

Savey, M.; Dufour,  BDiversite des zoonoses. Definitions et consequences pour la surveillance et la lutte.  [Diversity of zoonosis. Definitions and consequences for their surveillance and control.]  Epidemiologie et Sante Animale.  2004; (46): 1-16.  ISSN:  0754-2186.  ISBN:  2840390779.  Note:  In French with an English abstract. 
URL:  http://aeema.vet-alfort.fr/public/pdf/revue/46.02.pdf
Descriptors:  humans, animals, re-emergent diseases, cowpox virus, Mycobacterium bovis, public health decisions, disease control, disease surveys, neurocysticercosis, zoonoses, definitions, resevior, reservoir host, incidental host, liaison host, reviews.

Shkaeva, N.A.  Spread of bovine tuberculosis in a radiocontaminated area of Chelyabinsk Oblast.  Russian Agricultural Sciences.  2004; (4): 30-32.  ISSN:  1068-3674.  Note:  Translated from Doklady Rossiiskoi Akademii Sel'skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk (2004) No. 2: 41-43 (Ru).  publisher is AllertonPress, Inc, NY, NY
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, relationship between epizootic situation and local radioactive waste contamination, soil pollution, study 1984-2002, high level of disease, remedial measures taken, positive relationship between disease and contamination, Russia.

UK, Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs.  Zoonoses Report United Kingdom 2003.  Published by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affrairs (DEFRA).  2004; 71  ISBN:  0855211407
URL:    http://www.defra.gov.uk
Descriptors:  humans cattle, livestock, avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, foodborne diseases, vector borne diseases, waterborne diseases, West Nile fever, Borrelia, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli, Hantavirus, Leptospira, Listeria, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Streptococcus, Toxocara, Toxoplasma, Trichinella, zoonoses, UK.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Nonnecke, B.J.; Whipple, D.L.; Horst, R.L.  Mycobacterium bovis infection of vitamin D-deficient NOS2-/- mice.  Microbial Pathogenesis.  2004; 36 (1): 11-17.  ISSN: 0882-4010
NAL Call Number:  QR175.M53
Descriptors:  mice, animal models, Mycobacterium bovis, vitamin D, vitamin deficiencies, tuberculosis, mice.

Wei, Cheng Yu; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chou, Wen Jen; Lee, Chan Ping; Tsao, Wen Long.  Molecular and histopathologic evidence for systemic infection by Mycobacterium bovis in a patient with tuberculous enteritis, peritonitis, and meningitis: A case report.  Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.  2004; 20 (6): 302-307.  ISSN:  1607-551X
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic bacterial pathogen, man consumed fresh deer blood and unpasteurized deer’s milk, clinical presentation, acute abdominal pain, tuberculosis enteritis, and colon perforation, PCR assay and single strand conformation polymorphism assay, oral route of infection.

Yesilkaya, Hasan; Barer, Michael R.; Andrew, Peter W.  Antibiotic resistance may affect alkali decontamination of specimens containing mycobacteria.  Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  2004; 50 (2): 153-155.  ISSN:  0732-8893
Descriptors:  genetic modification, mycobacteria, Mycobacterium bovis BCG wild type, isogenic mutant strain, killing effect of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, denaturing effect was more severe on the genetically modified strain.


Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Bartl, J.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; du Maine, R.; Melicharek, I.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I. Earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) and mycobacteria. Veterinary Microbiology. 2003. 91 (4) 325-338.  ISSN:  0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle, goats, earthworms, disease transmission, disease vectors, disease reservoirs, epidemiology, feces, livestock, Lumbricus rubellus, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Pavlik, I.  Nymphs of the Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis) as passive vectors of causal agents of avian tuberculosis and paratuberculosis.  Medical and Veterinary Entomology. June 2003. 17 (2) 145-150.  ISSN: 0269-283X
NAL Call Number:  RA639.M44
Descriptors:  cockroach, Blatta orientalis, transmission of bacteria, Mycobacterium avium, nymphs role as passive disease vectors.

Howard, C.J.; Charleston, B.; Stephens, S.A.; Sopp, P.; Hope, J.C.  The role of dendritic cells in shaping the immune response.  Animal Health Research Reviews.  2004; 5 (2): 191-195.  Note:  Proceedings of the 3rd International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, University of Guelph, Canada, 13-18 July 2003.
Descriptors:  cattle, livestock, dendritic cells, immune responses, stimulating naïve T cells, adaptive immunity, in vivo, ex-vivo, subpopulations of myeloid dendritic cells, cytokines, vaccination, Mycobacterium bovis.

King, G.M.  Uptake of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at environmentally relevant concentrations by mycobacteria.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2003; 69(12): 7266-7272.  ISSN:  0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  Liquid culture assays revealed a previously unreported capacity for Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. gordonae, and M. marinum to oxidize CO and for M. smegmatis to consume molecular hydrogen.  M. bovis BCG, M. gordonae, M. smegmatis, and M. tuberculosis H37Ra oxidized CO at environmentally relevant concentrations (<50 ppm); H2 oxidation by M. gordonae and M. smegmatis also occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations (<10 ppm).  CO was not consumed by M. avium or M. microti, although the latter appeared to possess CO dehydrogenase (CODH) genes based on PCR results with primers designed for the CODH large subunit, coxL. M. smegmatis and M. gordonae oxidized CO under suboxic (10 and 1% atmospheric oxygen) and anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrate; no oxidation occurred under anoxic conditions without nitrate.  Similar results were obtained for H2 oxidation by M. smegmatis.  Phylogenetic analyses of coxL PCR products indicated that mycobacterial sequences form a subclade distinct from that of other bacterial coxL, with limited differentiation among fast- and slow-growing strains..
Descriptors:  various Mycobacterum species, strain differences, ability to oxidize carbon monoxide, bacterial biochemistry, hydrogen, uptake mechanisms, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium microti.

Lewin, A.; Freytag, B.; Meister, B.; Sharbati Tehrani, S.; Schaefer, H.; Appel, B.  Use of a quantitative TaqMan-PCR for the fast quantification of mycobacteria in broth culture, eukaryotic cell culture and tissue.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2003; 50 (10): 505-509.  ISSN:  0931-1793
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, quantification, in vitro samples, in vivo samples, growth curves, broth cultures, quantitative TaqMan PCR, multiplication within eukaryotic cells, load in tissue before colony counts.

Lungeanu, L.; Neagoe, G.; Huza, I.  The bacterial contamination estimation of the soil by the method of the successive mean samples.  Proceedings 11th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians and OIE Semina on Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand, 9-13 November, 2003.  2003; P156.  ISBN:  9741325894
Descriptors:  soil contamination estimate, Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial diseases, methodology, microbial contamination, soil pollution, soil types, tuberculosis, Romania.

Moore, Jude A.H.; Roper, Timothy J.  Temperature and humidity in badger Meles meles setts.  Mammal-Review.  2003 Sep-Dec; 33 (3-4): 308-313.  ISSN:  0305-1838
Descriptors:  12 badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacteriumn bovis, habitat utilization, burrows, setts, temperature and humidity of setts, Mycobacterium bovis, survival in setts, seasonal variations, nest chambers, East Sussex, Lewes, England.

Pan American Health Organization.  Intersectoral coordination between health and agriculture: zoonoses, food safety and foot-and-mouth disease. Final Report and Proceedings, XII Inter-American Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2-4 May 2001.  2003: 251.  ISBN:  9275124507.  Note:  Published by the Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Washing DC, US.
Descriptors:  human and animal health, impact of zoonotic diseases, brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, hydatidosis, rabies, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, of and mouth disease, importance of disease control, epidemiology, food safety, food borne diseases, international trade, Latin America.

Zhang, XiYue; Wu, YanGong; Wang, ZhiLiang; Xu, PeiLian; Zhao, YunLing.  Study on ELISA for detecting bovine tuberculosis.  Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine.  2004; 21 (7): 21-22.  ISSN:  1005-944x.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, improved classical ELISA, sodium azide as protective agent, PPD coated plates, cattle serum diluent, TMB as substrate, good specificity.

Zhang, XiYue; Wang, JunWei; Gao, YunHang; He, ZhaoYang.  Study on detection of tuberculosis antibodies in serum of cattle by Dot-IGSS.  Journal of Jilin Agricultural University.  2004; 26 (2): 217-219.  ISSN:  1000-5684.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, detection of serum antibodies, Dot IGSS (Dot-immunogold silver staining, diagnostic technique.


Chambers, M.A.; Williams, A.; Hatch, G.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Hall, G.; Huygen, K.; Lowrie, D.; Marsh, P.D.; Hewinson, R.G.  Vaccination of guinea pigs with DNA encoding the mycobacterial antigen MPB83 influences pulmonary pathology but not hematogenous spread following aerogenic infection with Mycobacterium bovisInfection and Immunology.  2002; 70 (4): 2159-2165.  ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  Protection of cattle against bovine tuberculosis by vaccination could be an important control strategy in countries where there is persistent Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and in developing countries where it is not economical to implement a tuberculin test and slaughter control program.  The main aim of such a vaccination strategy would be to reduce transmission of infection by reducing the lung pathology caused by infection and preventing seeding of the organism to organs from which M. bovis could be excreted.  Recent reports of successful DNA vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in small-animal models have suggested that DNA vaccines act by reducing lung pathology without sensitizing animals to tuberculin testing.  We therefore evaluated the ability of vaccines consisting of DNA encoding the mycobacterial antigens MPB83 and 85A to reduce lung pathology and prevent hematogenous spread in guinea pigs challenged with a low dose of aerosolized M. bovis.  Vaccination with MPB83 DNA reduced the severity of pulmonary lesions, as assessed by histopathology, and resembled M. bovis BCG vaccination in this respect.  However, unlike BCG vaccination, MPB83 DNA vaccination did not protect challenged guinea pigs from hematogenous spread of organisms to the spleen.  In contrast, vaccination with antigen 85A DNA, a promising DNA vaccine for human tuberculosis, had no measurable protective effect against infection with M. bovis.
Descriptors:  recombinant vaccines, vaccine development, mycobacterial antigens MPB83 and 85A.

Fuller, W.A. Canada and the "buffalo", Bison bison: a tale of two herds.  Canadian Field Naturalist. January-March, 2002. 116 (1) 141-159.  ISSN:  0008-3550
NAL Call Number:  410.9 OT8
Descriptors:  Bison bison, plains buffalo, conservation measures, hear relocation, disease control, bacterial diseases, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, Mycobacterium, Brucella abortus, Wood Buffalo National Park, relocation, herd management and culling, historical review, Alberta, Canada.   

Poloz, A.I.  Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium species.  Veterinarnaya Nauka Proizvodstvu.  2002; (36): 137-140.  Note:  In Russian. 
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, animal housing, environmental contamination, Russia.

Surujballi, O.P.; Romanowska, A.; Sugden, E.A.; Turcotte, C.; Jolley, M.E.  A fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle sera.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2002; 87 (2): 149-157.  ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  A fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) utilizing fluorescein-labelled MPB70 protein as the antigen was developed and evaluated for its ability to detect antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle sera.  Three panels of sera were examined in this study.  These included: (A) sera (n = 28) obtained from cattle from which M. bovis was cultured; (B) sera (n = 5666) from Canadian field cattle which were presumed to be free from M. bovis; (C) sera (n = 10) from cattle infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and known to contain antibodies to this organism.  Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the results of panels A and B yielded an area under the curve value of 0.975 (95% confidence interval = 0.971-0.979), which indicated that this FPA is an accurate indicator of M. bovis infection.  At the cut-off point recommended by the ROC curve analysis, the FPA sensitivity and specificity estimates were 92.9% (95% confidence interval = 76.5-98.9%) and 98.3% (95% confidence interval = 97.9-98.6%) respectively.  The FPA results were compared to the results of the single intradermal (SID) test for the 28 infected cattle.  Fifteen of these animals were scored positive with the SID test (sensitivity = 53.6%).  The FPA detected 15/15 (100%) of the SID test-positive animals and 11/13 (84.6%) of the SID test-negative animals.  Two of the culture-positive cattle were not detected by either test.  None of the sera that were obtained from the M. paratuberculosis-infected animals cross-reacted in this assay.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, fluorescence, detection, antibodies, diagnostic techniques, serodiagnosis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, cross reaction.

 Varela, E.; Masso, F.; Paez, A.; Zenteno, R.; Zenteno, E.; Montano, L.F.  Isolation of a 19-kDa Mycobacterium, bovis-specific antigen, different from MPB70/80, by chromatofocusing.  Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology.  2002; 32 (4): 329-340.  ISSN: 1082-6068
NAL Call Number:QD415.A1P7
Descriptors:  diagnostic techniques, mycobacterium bovis, specific antigen, chromatofocusing technique.

Vysotskii, A.E.  [Application of KDP preparation in disinfection of cattle housing in herds with endemic tuberculosis.]  Veterinarnaya Nauka Proizvodstvu.  2002; (36): 25-33.  Note:  In Russian.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal housing, contamination, disinfection.


Bonenberger, T.E.; Ihrke, P.J.; Naydan, D.K.; Affolter, V.K.  Rapid identification of tissue micro-organisms in skin biopsy specimens from domestic animals using polyclonal BCG antibody.  Veterinary Dermatology.  2001; 12 (1): 41-47.  ISSN: 0959-4493
NAL Call Number: SF901.V47
Descriptors:  dogs, cats,  horses, cattle, llamas, skin, biopsy, microorganisms, antibodies, Mycobacterium bovis  BCG strain, staining, diagnostic techniques, rapid methods, screening, immunostaining.


Castro-Ramos, M.; Errico, F.; Trelles, A.; Curbelo, R.; Laborde, M.  Mycobacterias aisladas de fuentes hidricas en la cuenca lechera de Uruguay.  [Mycobacteria associated with water sources in the milk basin of Uruguay.]  Veterinaria Montevideo.  1999/2000; 35(141): 21-23.  ISSN:  0376-4362.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary. 
  dairy cattle, dairy farming, Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium vaccae, microbial contamination of water, monitoring of drainage water and drinking water, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, Uruguay

Hird, D.W.; Arzt, J.; Morfin, S.A.; Hayes, R.H.; Magliano, D.J.; Conrad, P.A.  Problem-oriented instruction in epidemiology using web-based teaching modules in international veterinary medicine.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: ld 665. 
Descriptors:  cattle, horses, Mycobacterium bovis, classroom materials, educational methods, instruction, instructional materials, neuropathy, teaching aids, teaching equipment, Chile, Mexico, South Africa.


Bulling, E.; Schonberg, A. Robert von Ostertag (1864-1940). A veterinarian contemporary with R. Virchow and R. Koch. Historia Medicinae Veterinariae. 1999. 24 (4) 97-120. Note:  In English with a German summary.
NAL Call Number:  SF615 A1V4
Descriptors:  veterinary history, biographical information, slaughter houses, abattoirs, meat hygiene, infectious diseases, meat inspection, meat products, pathology, slaughter, bovine tuberculosis and other zoonotic diseases, veterinary contributions.

Fischer, O. Vyznam dvoukridleho hmyzu (Diptera) pro prenos, sireni a prezivani puvodcu nekterych backerialnich a plisnovych onemocneni lidi a zvirat. [The importance of Diptera for transmission, spreading and survival of agents of some bacterial and fungal diseases in humans and animals.] Veterinarni Medicina. 1999. 44 (5) 133-160. Note:  In Czech with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:   zoonotic disease transmission, insect vectors, flies, Diptera, various diseases, brucellosis, cholera, conjunctivitis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, leprosy, leptospirosis, bovine mastitis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, anthrax, tularaemia, transovarial transmission.

Manaia, J.; Budge, G. Accreditation for TB testing - the requirements and the process.  Publication - Veterinary Continuing Education, Massey University. 1999. No. 189, 173-175. 29th Seminar of the Society of Sheep and Beef Cattle Veterinarians NZVA, Hastings, New Zealand, 1-3 March 1999.
NAL Call Number:  SF604 P82
Descriptors:  cattle tuberculosis, disease control, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, New Zealand.

Sakate, R.I.; Santos, F.L.; Cardoso, R.C.V.; Brandao, S.C.C. Elaboracao e planejamento do sistema HACCP para estabulo leiteiro. [Development and planning of a HACCP system for a dairy factory.]  Higiene Alimentar. 1999. 13 (65) 30-36. Note:  In Portuguese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  HACCP system, Brazil, type C dairy farms, quality control, dairy products and processes, animal diseases, milk cooling, cows, animal health, listeriosis, pathogens, pesticide residues, antibiotic residues laws and regulation, storage, toxins, tuberculosis, vaccination programs, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, FMD, brucellosis, coliform bacteria, anti-helmintics.


Calcero-Ordonez, V.; Ordonez, V.C.  Se puede y debe conocer mejor el sector lechero. [You can and should know more about the dairy industry.] Agricultura, Revista Agropecuaria. 1998. 67 (789) 301. Note:  In Spanish.
NAL Call Number:  15 Ag84
Descriptors:  dairy industry, milk contamination levels, dairy farms, information, availability, statistics, economics, lack of availability of governmental reports, Spain.

Cornejo, B.J.; Sahagun-Ruiz, A.; Suarez-Guemes, F.; Thornton, C.G.; Ficht, T.A.; Adams, L.G. Comparison of C18-carboxypropylbetaine and glass bead DNA extraction methods for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine milk samples and analysis of samples by PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  Aug. 1998. 64 (8) 3099-3101. ISSN: 0099-2240
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  The purpose of this prospective study was to compare two different milk preparation methods to assay for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis by PCR. Detection by a C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18)-based sample processing method was compared to extraction of DNA from milk with glass beads. Samples from 17 skin test-positive cattle were analyzed. Following CB-18 processing and glass bead extraction, the sensitivity of IS6110-based PCR was 94.1 and 58.8%, respectively (P < 0.025). Because CB-18 processing will permit the proficient use of PCR for diagnosis and surveillance of bovine tuberculosis, it will contribute to the more efficient detection and control of tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  polymerase chain reaction, detection methods, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, surveillance.

Dai, G.; McMurray, D.N. Altered cytokine production and impaired antimycobacterial immunity in protein-malnourished guinea pigs. Infection and Immuity. Aug. 1998. 66 (8) 3562-3568. ISSN: 0019-9567
NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  malnutrition effects, guinea pigs, tuberculosis, cytokines, immune responses, Mycobacterium.

Mainali, E.S.; McMurray, D.N. Adoptive transfer of resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in guinea pigs is altered by protein deficiency. Nutrition Research.  Feb. 1998. 18 (2) 309-317. ISSN: 0271-5317.  Note:  In the special festschrift issue:  to honor the academic achievements of Dr. Ranjit Kumar Chandra on his 60th birthday, February 2, 1998 / edited by S. Denduluri, E. O'Brien, Y. Bryne and G. Ramchandani.
NAL Call Number:  QP141.A1N88
Abstract:  Adoptive transfer of lymphoid cells was used to study the influence of dietary protein deficiency on the development and expression of resistance in inbred strain 2 guinea pigs infected by the respiratory route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Cells from the bronchotracheal lymph nodes of aerosol-infected donors and from the spleens of intravenously-infected donors transferred a significant level of protection when injected (0.5-1.0 x 10(8) cells) into syngeneic recipients by the intraperitoneal route. Nylon wool enrichment of T cells from both cell populations resulted in a marked increase in the level of resistance transferred. Adoptively-protected guinea pigs were as resistant, as measured by control of viable M. tuberculosis in the lungs, as animals actively vaccinated with M. bovis BCG. Donor lymphocytes were more effective when transferred into the recipients by the intraperitoneal, as compared to the subcutaneous, route of injection. Reciprocal adoptive transfer between well-nourished or protein-deficient donors and recipients revealed that protein deficiency prevented guinea pigs from generating a population of immune lymphocytes as indicated by the relative inability of such cells to protect normally-nourished recipients. However, protein-deprived recipients were perfectly capable of being protected by immune cells from well-nourished donors. Adoptively protected protein-deficient guinea pigs developed large, well-circumscribed tuberculous granulomas in their lungs, in contrast to their non-protected counterparts which developed numerous, small, poorly-defined granulomata. Our data suggest that the cellular and humoral environment of the protein-deficient guinea pig is not intrinsically suppressive, but that protein deficiency prevents infected animals from generating a population of protective lymphocytes.
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, protein deficiencies, disease resistance, adoptive immunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, experimental infections, lymph nodes, lungs, intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, intravenous injection, aerosols, donors, enrichment, T lymphocytes, nutritional state, immune response, inbred strains, guinea pigs, animal models.

Ruffo, G.C.; Lopez, M.C.; Pezza, F. Piani di risanamento degli allevamenti: sanzioni da applicare. [Sanctions of Italian legislation in treating infectious diseases.]  Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria. 1998. 30: 233-237. Note:  Congresso Nazionale, Piacenza, Italy, May 1998. In Italian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  infectious diseases, cattle, goats, sheep, legislation, tuberculosis, brucellosis, leucosis, disease control measures, Mycobacterium.

Warriner, K. North Australian farming - the corporate farm and its future.  Agriculture in the Commonwealth:  sustainable use of land and water. Eighteenth biennial conference, Darwin, Australia, 1998. Kensington Publications Ltd; London; UK. 1998. p. 35-38.
Descriptors:  corporate farming systems, disease eradication, brucellosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, export trade, agricultural development, agricultural production, vertical integration, structural change, trends, forecasts, exports, investment, Australia.


Chan, J.; Tanaka, K.; Mannion, C.; Carroll, D.; Tsang, M.; Xing, Y.; Lowenstein, C.; Bloom, B.R. Effects of protein calorie malnutrition on mice infected with BCG. Journal of Nutritional Immunology.  1997. 5 (1) 11-19. ISSN: 1049-5150.  Note:  In the special issue:  Nutritional abnormalities in infectious diseases: effects on tuberculosis and AIDS / edited by C.E. Taylor.
NAL Call Number:  QP141.A1J685
Descriptors:  protein energy malnutrition, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, BCG vaccine, infections, susceptibility, macrophages, nitrogen oxides, defense mechanisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, granuloma, immune response, mice, animal models.

Reuter, G. Veterinarmedizin und Gesundheitsvorsorge. [Veterinary medicine as part of preventive medicine.]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 1997. 110 (11/12) 431-435. Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  meat producing animals, food safety, role of veterinary medicine, preventive medicine, public health risks, foodborne diseases, tuberculosis, disease control and prevention, BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, drug residues, Mycobacterium, veterinary history.

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