Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.; Esfandiari, J.; Stutzman, L.; Gibson, S.; Didier, P.; McCombs, C.  Prima-TB STAT-PAK (R) assay, a novel rapid test for tuberculosis in nonhuman primates.  American Journal of Primatology.  2007; 69(Suppl. 1): 120.  ISSN:  0275-2565.  Note:  30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20-23, 2007 
Descriptors:  Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaque, host, Macaca fascicularis, cynomolgus macaque, common, host, pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial pathogens.

Martino, M; Hubbard, G.B.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N.  Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in a pregnant baboon (Papio cynocephalus).  Journal of Medical Primatology.  2007; 36 (2): 108-112
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Papio cynocephalus anubis, captive baboon, case report, clinical picture, diagnostic tests, histological exam of tracheobronchial lymph nodes, latent tuberculosis infection.


Freitas, J de A; Ueki, S.Y.M.; Curcio, M.; Tury, E.  Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an outbreak of tuberculosis infection of a Cebus apella monkey's colony.  Revista de Ciencias Agrarias.  2004; (42): 165-168.  ISSN:  1517-591X.  Note:  In English with a Portuguese summary.
Descriptors:  Cebus paella, research monkey colony, case report, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sanitary control measures.

Siegal-Willott, J.; Isaza, R.; Fiorello, C.; Reinhard, M.  Mycobacterium asiaticum infection in a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.  2006; 37 (3): 413-415.  ISSN:  1042-7260
NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6
Abstract:  A 4-yr old, intact male red-handed tamarin was evaluated because of a 6-mo history of an enlarging axillary mass.  Diagnostic findings included a positive intradermal tuberculin test, 16s ribosomal DNA sequencing, HPLC.
Descriptors:  monkeys, 4 y/o male, red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas), case study, axillary mass, postitive tuberculin test, leukocytoses, hyperglobulineamis, Mycobacterium asiaticum isolated.

Singh, T.; Thomas, S.; Baruah, D.K.  Impact of free living macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the health of captive animals at the Assam State zoo.  Zoos’  Print.  2006; 21 (5): 11-12.  ISSN:  0971-6378
Descriptors:  144 free living rhesus macaques, tuberculosis testing sputum and blood, throat swabs, 2 positive for Mycobacterium ssp. Assam Zoo, India.


Garcia, Manuel A. Bouley, Donna M. Larson, Mchael J.; Lifland, Barry; Moorhead, Roberta ; Simkins, Mikele D.; Borie, Dominic C.; Tolwani, Ravi; Otto, Glen.  Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in a conditioned colony of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques.  Comparative Medicine (Memphis).  2004; 54 (5): 578-584.  ISSN:  1532-0820
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, disease outbreak, captive colony, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) macaques, natural exposure, species differences in clinical disease, coughing, inappetance, pulmonary lesion, disease effects less in cynomolgus macaques, differences should be considered in developing a screening program, alternative screening methods, PRIMAGAM, ESAT-6 ELISA.

Garcia, M.A.; Yee, J.; Bouley, D.M.; Moorhead, R.; Lerche, N.W.  Diagnosis of tuberculosis in macaques, using whole-blood in vitro interferon-gamma (PRIMAGAM) testing.  Comparative Medicine.  2004; 54 (1): 86-92.  ISSN: 1532-0820
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract:  During the fall of 2001, a tuberculosis outbreak caused by Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a conditioned colony of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques at Stanford University School of Medicine.  During this outbreak, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a new in vitro tuberculosis screening test (PRIMAGAM).  The PRIMAGAM test measures the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) response to purified protein derivatives (PPDs) of M. bovis and M. avium.  On the basis of the results of the last test administered before necropsy, the PRIMAGAM test had good sensitivity (68%) and excellent specificity (97%), compared with the disease status, as determined by the presence or absence of gross and/or histologic lesions indicative of tuberculosis.  By contrast, sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculin skin test (TST) was 84 and 87%, respectively.  Both tests suffered from intermittent positive and negative reactions on repeat testing.  Overall, however, there was no significant difference (P = 0.09, McNemar's chi2-test) and moderate agreement (kappa = 0.52) between these two tests.  Lastly, the IFNc response to bovine PPD was significantly lower in infected cynomolgus macaques.  Moreover, each test failed to detect tuberculosis in three cynomolgus macaques.  Fortunately, they were different animals; therefore, we recommend the parallel use of the TST and PRIMAGAM test for maximal overall sensitivity in a tuberculosis screening program, especially for cynomolgus macaques.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, laboratory animals, interferons, disease diagnosis, TST and PRIMAGAM test, tubuculosis screening animal health.

Kanaujia, G.V.; Motzel, S.; Garcia, M.A.; Andersen, P.; Gennaro, M.L.  Recognition of ESAT-6 sequences by antibodies in sera of tuberculous nonhuman primates.  Clinical and Diagnostic Lzboratory Immunology.  2004; 11 (1): 222-226.  ISSN:  1071-412X
Descriptors:  rhesus monkeys, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, ESAT-6 protein, antibody response, experimentally or naturally infected nonhuman primates, epitope level antibodies to overlapping, synthetic peptides, span of ESAT-6 sequence, COOH-terminal portion of protein, possible diagnostic antibody detection assay.

Larson, Jean A, Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.).  Tuberculosis in animals : Mycobacterium bacilli that cause devastating zoonotic diseases in many animals.  AWIC Resource Series; no. 2004-01.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center.  Beltsville, MD [2004]  
NAL Call Number:  aHV4701.A94 no. 2004-01
Abstract:  The focus of this publication is on information related to tubercular diseases of animals caused by the bacterial genus Mycobacterium.  Livestock diseases are mostly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  Many species of animals are included: large ruminants, wildlife, wild animals as disease reservoirs, deer, elephants, birds, fish, etc.  Topics are varied and include clinical aspects of the disease, the disease process, disease prevention and control, vaccines, immunology, bacterial genetics, zoonotic aspects, etc.
Diseases:  tuberculosis in animals, bibliography, Mycobacterium sp, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonoses, production animals, zoo animals, wild animals, disease control, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, microbial genetics, disease incidence worldwide, control programs worldwide, immune response, wild animal vectors, treatments, animal disease models, aquatic animals, diagnostic methods, disease pathology, disease incidence worldwide.


Goto, S.; Suzuki, J.; Mokuno, Y.; Yanai, T.; Matsubayashi, N.; Miwa, N.; Matsubayashi, KClinical management of tuberculosis infection in nonhuman primates.  Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2003. 8 (1) 35-40.  Note:  In Japanese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cercopithecid monkeys, chimpanzees, Rhesus macaques, laboratory animals, tuberculosis outbreaks, 1971-1984, introduced animals as disease reservoirs, drug treatments, Isoniazid and Rifampicin daily/one year, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan.

Kanaujia, G.V.; Garcia, M.A.; Bouley, D.M.; Peters, R.; Gennaro, M.L.  Detection of early secretory antigenic target-6 antibody for diagnosis of tuberculosis in non-human primates.  Comparative Medicine.  2003; 53 (6): 602-606.  ISSN: 1532-0820
NAL Call Number:  SF77-.C65
Abstract:  Tuberculosis is one of the most economically devastating, zoonotic infections of captive non-human primates.  The limitations of the tuberculin skin test, which is currently used to diagnose tuberculosis in living non-human primates, make it necessary to find new, simple, and economical diagnostic methods.  We describe use of an enzyme-linked immunoassay to detect IgG antibodies against early secretory antigenic target (ESAT)-6, a small protein secreted by virulent tubercle bacilli, in paired (pre- and post-outbreak) sera from 57 non-human primates involved in an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a research colony.  Of 25 animals with tuberculosis lesions at necropsy, 22 (88%) had high serum levels of the ESAT-6 antibody.  The ESAT-6 antibody was found in 16% (5/32) of post-outbreak sera from animals in which tuberculosis could not be confirmed at necropsy.  The strong association between the ESAT-6 antibody and tuberculosis in non-human primates documented in this study, together with the robustness of the serologic assay, make the ESAT-6 ELISA a valuable tool for diagnosis of tuberculosis in captive non-human primates.
Descriptors:  monkeys, laboratory animals, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease detection, early diagnosis, zoonoses, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, disease outbreaks, quarantine, immunoglobulin G, gene expression.

Yanai, T.; Goto, S.; Mokuno, Y.; Hirata, A.; Sakai, H.; Masegi, T.; Yoshikawa, Y. Pathology of mycobacteriosis in monkeys.  Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2003. 8 (1) 41-48.   Note:  In Japanese with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  Macaca mulatto, monkeys, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, animal pathology, clinical aspects, digestive tract mucosa, lesions, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, macrophages, spleen, disease outbreaks, Japan.


de Vos, V.; Bengis, R.G.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Michel, A.; Keet, D.F.; Raath, J.P.; Huchzermeyer, H.F.K.A. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2001. 68 (2) 119-130.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, disease survey results 1990-1996, transmission, infected cattle herds, chacma baboon, Papio ursinus, lion Panthera leo, cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, leopard, Panthera pardus.

Kilbourn, A.M.; Godfrey, H.P.; Cook, R.A.; Calle, P.P.; Bosi, E.J.; Bentley-Hibbert, S.I.; Huygen, K.; Andau, M.; Ziccardi, M.; Karesh, W.B. Serum antigen 85 levels in adjunct testing for active mycobacterial infections in orangutans. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2001. 37 (1) 65-71. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pongo pygmaeus, Colorado, Malaysia, USA.

Shrivastav, A.B.; Chaturvedi, V.K.; Jatav, J.; Chaudhary, R.B.; Neithampuii, C.  Tuberculosis in common langur and rhesus macaque.  Intas Polivet.  2001; 2 (2): 256.  ISSN:  0972-1738
Descriptors:  Macaca mulatta; Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, case reports, disease transmission, lesions, lungs, mortality, postmortem examinations, respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, zoonoses,  Madhya Pradesh, India.


Bengis, R.G.; Keet, D.F. Bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. [Gainesville, Fla.].  Eastern States Veterinary Association. 2000. v. 14,  p. 1034-1036. Note:  Meeting held on January 15-19, 2000. Orlando, Florida.
NAL Call Number:  SF605.N672
Descriptors:  Bovidae, Papio ursinus, Felidae, Mycobacterium bovis, clinical aspects, epidemiology, South Africa.

Keet, D.F.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Bengis, R.G.; Grobler, D.G.; Michel, A. The rise and fall of tuberculosis in a free-ranging chacma baboon troop in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2000. 67 (2) 115-122.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  free ranging chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, Mycobacterium bovis,  feeding on infected animal remains, RFLP analysis, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, apparent disease sources, behavior, infected sleeping places, transmission.

Rensing, Hermann. Untersuchungen zur Tuberkuloseproblematik unter Verwendung verschiedener Nachweisverfahren in der Totenkopfaffenkolonie des Deutschen Primatenzentrums. [Establishing the incidence of tuberculosis in the German Primate Center squirrel monkey colony using different diagnostic methods.] Hannover, 2000. 103 p. Note:  Thesis (doctoral)--Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, 2000.  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  DISS F2000346
Descriptors:  diagnosis, laboratory animals, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Saimiri sciureus, Germany.


Calle, P.P.; Fowler, M.E. (ed.); Miller, R.E. Tuberculin responses in orangutans. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders. 1999. Ed. 4, p. 392-396.
NAL Call Number:  SF996 Z66 1999
Descriptors:  tuberculin, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, Pongo pygmaeus, primates, zoo animals, diagnosis.

Hasselschwert, D.L.; Ostrowski, S.R. An atypical case of Mycobacterium bovis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) imported from the Philippines. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science. 1999. 38 (6) 36-38. 
NAL Call Number:  SF405.5 A23
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cynomologus macaque, laboratory animal, case study, Philippines.

Mehrotra, P.K.; Sudhir, Bhargava; Sheela, Chaudhary; Mathur, B.B.L.; Bhargava, S.; Chaudhary, S. Tuberculosis in a captive Lion-tailed monkey. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. 1999. 20 (2) 159.
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, zoo animals, histopathology, pathology, case reports, monkeys, Mycobacterium, primates, India.

Rishendra, Verma; Sharma, A.K.; Bhardwaj, K.R.; Verma, R. Spontaneous disease conditions in monkeys under captivity. Indian Journal of Veterinary Research. 1999. 8 (2) 20-27. Note:  In English with a Hindi summary.
Descriptors:  pathology, laboratory animals, Macaca, monkeys, hepatitis, liver diseases, abscesses, tuberculosis.

Verma, R. Observations on tuberculin testing in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999. 76 (1) 962-964.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN2
Descriptors:  laboratory animals, Macaca mulatto, rhesus monkeys, tuberculin testing, delayed type hypersensitivity, disease prevalence, diagnostic techniques, non-reactive animals.

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