Wildlife

 

2007

Acevedo, P.; Vicente, J.; Hofle, U.; Cassinello, J.; Ruiz-Fons, F.; Gortazar, C.  Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment.  Epidemiology and Infection.  2007; 135 (3): 519-527.  ISSN:  0950-2688
URL:   http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG  
NAL Call Number:  RA651.A1E74
Descriptors:  wild boars (Sus scrofa), pigs, disease resevoirs, wildlife epidemiology, fecal dropping frequency, transects, spatial aggregation indices, runs test statistic, hunting data, porcine circovirus, Aujeszky's disease virus seroprevalences, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Metastrongylus spp. prevalence, Spain.

Bennett, R.; Willis, K.  Public opinions on badger populations and the control of tuberculosis in cattle in the UK.  Veterinary Record.  2007; 160 (8): 266-268.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  opinion survey questionnaire, prevention of bovine tuberculosis, badger management, telephone and mail survey, wildlife management sometimes necessary, role of government, opinions of population management of badgers, cost benefit, England, Wales.

Corner, L.A.L.  Bovine tuberculosis control in Australia, New Zealand and Ireland: wild animals and the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals.  Cattle Practice.  2007; 15 (1): 3-12.  ISSN:  0969-1251
URL:  http://www.bcva.org.uk  
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, wild animals as disease reservoirs, disease surveillance, control programs studies for Australia, New Zealand, Ireland.

Morar, D.; Tijhaar, E.; Negrea, A.; Hendriks, J.; Haarlem, D. van; Godfroid, J.; Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.  Cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (IFN-(Sd(B) and the production of rhinoceros IFN-(Sd(B specific antibodies.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2007 Jan 15; 115 (1-2): 146-154.  ISSN:  0165-2427
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.10.016  
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Abstract:  Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP).  In addition to buffalo, Mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in South Africa, including kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and lion (Panthera leo).  This has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservation of biodiversity.  Hence, procedures to screen for and diagnose BTB in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) need to be in place.  The Interferon-gamma (IFN-(Sd(B) assay is used as a routine diagnostic tool to determine infection of cattle and recently African buffalo, with M. bovis and other mycobacteria.  The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a rhinoceros IFN-(Sd(B (RhIFN-(Sd(B) assay.  The white rhinoceros IFN-(Sd(B gene was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a mature protein.  Amino acid (aa) sequence analysis revealed that RhIFN-(Sd(B shares a homology of 90% with equine IFN-(Sd(B.  Monoclonal antibodies, as well as polyclonal chicken antibodies (Yolk Immunoglobulin-IgY) with specificity for recombinant RhIFN-(Sd(B were produced.  Using the monoclonals as capture antibodies and the polyclonal IgY for detection, it was shown that recombinant as well as native white rhinoceros IFN-(Sd(B was recognised.  This preliminary IFN-(Sd(B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic assay for M. bovis infection in rhinoceros.
Descriptors:  white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) endangered species, Mycobacterium bovis, development of an IFN-(Sd(B ELISA), potential approach for a diagnostic assay. 

Muller, M.; Naumann, L.; Weber, A.; Ehrlein, J.; Ewringmann, T.; Krisch, A.; Kahlau, D.  Nachweis des Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Komplexes bei Wildschweinen mittels PCR.  [Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in wild boars by PCR.]  Tierarztliche Umschau.  2007; 62 (3): 140-143.  ISSN:  0049-3864.  Note:  In German with an English summary. 
URL:  http://www.tu-online.de  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 T445
Descriptors:  wild pigs, wild boar, lymph node tissue, PCR assay, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum; Mycobacterium triviale, culture medium, modified Middlebrook medium (BACTEC MGIT 960 System), Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink culture media, Bavaria, Germany.

Naranjo, Victoria; Villar, Margarita; Martin-Hernando, Ma Paz; Vidal, Dolors; Hoefle, Ursula; Gortazar, Christian; Kocan, Katherine M.; Vazquez, Jesus; de la Fuente, Jose.  Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of differential stress/inflammatory responses in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils of European wild boars naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  Proteomics.  2007; 7 (2): 220-231.  ISSN:  1615-9853
URL:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/76510741
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis pathogen, natural inection, Sus scrofa, European wild boar, wild animals as disease reservoirs, host, serum, oropharyngeal tonsil, dental and oral area, differential stress/inflammatory responses, mRNA and protein levels of mandibular lymph node, host-pathogen interactions.

Newton-Cross, Geraldine; White-Piran C.L.; Harris, Stephen.  Modelling the distribution of badgers Meles meles: comparing predictions from field-based and remotely derived habitat data.  Mammal Review.  2007; 37 (1): 54-70.  ISSN:  0305-1838
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mam?cookieSet=1   
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), habitat data, populations distribution and abundance, conservation and wildlife epidemiology, wildlife host for Mycobacterium bovis, digital survey, model accuracy, 4 large scale presence/absence models, 1980s and 1990;s survey data (field and digital), model accuracy, Britain.

Renwick, A.R.; White, P.C.L.; Bengis, R.G.  Bovine tuberculosis in southern African wildlife: a multi-species host-pathogen system.  Epidemiology and Infection.  2007; 135 (4): 529-540.  ISSN:  0950-2688
URL:   http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG  
NAL Call Number:  RA651.A1E74
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, marsh antelope (Kobus lechwe), leopards, lions, Mycobacterium bovis, baboon (Papio ursinus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Tragelaphus strepsiceros, savannah ecosystem, hosts for disease, spatial distribution and resource utilization patterns, disease susceptibility, disease transmission, pathogenicity of Mycobacterium pathogen, multi-host models, Southern Africa.

Seward, Nathan W.; Phillips, Gregory E.; Duquette, Jared F.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.  A frightening device for deterring deer use of cattle feeders.  Journal of Wildlife Management.  2007; 71 (1): 271-276.  ISSN:  0022-541X
URL:  http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=0022-541X&ct=1
NAL Call Number:  410 J827
Abstract:  The presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle can negatively impact a state's economy and cattle industry.  In Michigan, USA, wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a reservoir for reinfecting cattle herds.  Although direct TB transmission between deer and cattle is rare, infected deer may contaminate cattle feed.  To mitigate this risk, we designed and evaluated a deer-resistant cattle feeder (DRCF) device for deterring deer from feeders.  The device delivered negative stimuli to condition deer to avoid cattle feeders.  We tested the device by conducting a comparative change experiment at a high-density captive white-tailed deer operation in northeastern lower Michigan using pretreatment and treatment periods and random allocation of DRCF protection to 3 of 6 feeders during the treatment period.  We used animal-activated cameras to collect data on deer use of feeders.  Deer use was similar at protected and unprotected feeders during the pretreatment period but was lower at protected feeders during the treatment period.  Deer-resistant cattle feeders were 100% effective during the first 2 treatment weeks, 94% during the first 5 weeks, but effectiveness then dropped to 61% during the final week.  Excluding problems associated with low battery power and infrared sensors, DRCFs were 99% effective at deterring deer.  Our results suggest that DRCFs can effectively limit deer use of cattle feed, potentially with minimal impact on feeding behavior of cattle, thus reducing potential transmission of bovine TB through contaminated feed.  By employing DRCFs in bovine TB endemic areas, especially at times that deer are food stressed, agencies and producers can practically and economically reduce the potential for bovine TB to be transmitted from deer to cattle.
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, (Odocoileus virginianus), feeding patterns, negative stimulus deer resistant cattle feeder, long term effectiveness, feeding stations, disease transmission between species, Mycobacterium bovis, wild vs captive deer operation, Michigan, US.

Sharma, S.; Mallick, G.P.; Rishendra Verma; Ray, S.K.  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of IS6110 sequences to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of deer (Axis axis).  Veterinary Research Communications.  2007; 31 (1): 17-21.  ISSN:  0165-7380
URL:   http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103009  
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V38: 
Descriptors:  Axix deer (Cervus axis), diagnostic test, PCR IS6110 sequences, fixed tissue samples, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India.

Skoric, M.; Shitaye, E.J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trcka, I.; Heroldova, M.; Tkadlec, E.; Pavlik, I.  Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2007; 52 (4): 144-161.  ISSN:  0375-8427
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  Brucella, Francisella tularensis, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rodents, Salmonella, free living small land mammals, bacterial pathogens, morphology of tuberculoid lesions, tularemia.

Smith, G.C.; Bennett, R.; Wilkinson, D.; Cooke, R.  A cost-benefit analysis of culling badgers to control bovine tuberculosis.  Veterinary Journal.  2007; 173 (2): 302-310.  ISSN:
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233  
Descriptors:  cattle, herds, badgers (Meles meles), simulated culling strategies, badger trapping and gassing, disease control strategy Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission, UK Government's Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), UK.

Vicente, J.; Delahay, R.J.; Walker, N.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.  Social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger Meles meles population.  Journal of Animal Ecology.  2007; 76 (2): 348-360.  ISSN:  0021-8790
URL:   http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jae  
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, relationship between TB and badger ecology, animal demographics and behaviors, movement, pathogen excretion, individual and groups, stable social structure, males and females, culling may be negative, Britain.

Vicente, Joaquin; Hofle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M.; Fernandez de Maria, Isabel G.; Acevedo, Pelayo.; Juste, Ramon.; Barral, Marta.; Gortazar, Christian.  Risk factors associated with the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in fenced wild boar and red deer in south central  

SpainVeterinary Research (Les-Ulis).  2007; 38 (3): 451-464.  ISSN:  0928-4249
URL:  http://www.vetres.org/
NAL Call Number: SF602.A5
Descriptors:  red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), management of large game animals, epidemiology of diseases, complications for the eradication of tuberculosis for livestock, use of watering holes, feeding stations, scrubland, forests effects, habitat use, transmission factors, south central Spain.

2006

Abernethy, D.A.; Denny, G.O.; Menzies, F.D.; McGuckian, P.; Honhold, N.; Roberts, A.R.  The Northern Ireland programme for the control and eradication of Mycobacterium bovis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4):  231-237.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Northern Ireland and a comprehensive eradication scheme has been in operation since 1959.  The current programme involves annual testing, extensive computerized tracing, short-interval testing of herds contiguous to outbreaks and compulsory slaughter of positive cattle.  Despite initial reductions in disease prevalence, eradication has proved elusive and potential explanatory factors include high cattle density and potential for between-herd contact, the impact of exotic diseases on resource priorities, and significant levels of bovine tuberculosis in a wildlife reservoir, the European badger (Meles meles).  Both the role of the infected bovine and that of the badger in spreading disease have to be addressed to ensure progress towards eradication.  Current measures are described and future options for enhancing the programme are outlined.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, disease control, disease control programs, disease surveillance, disease outbreaks, culling animals, herd health, stocking rate, wildlife, disease reservoirs, disease transmission, risk assessment, disease eradication, Northern Ireland.

Barlow, A.M.; Monies, R.J.  Bovine tuberculosis in pigs in Cornwall and the west of England.  Pig Journal. 2006; 58: 204-211
URL:   http://www.pigjournal.co.uk   
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, pigs, historical pattern of mycobacterial infection, wild and domestic pigs, environmental contamination, Mycobacterium avium from infected birds, Mycobacterium bovis from scavenged dead carcasses or feed and water, ingestion of contaminated milk or milk products, interaction with badgers is a risk, UK

Beran, V.; Matlova, L.; Horvathova, A.; Bartos, M.; Moravkova, M.; Pavlik, I.  Mycobacteria in the animal's environment in the Czech Republic.  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2006; 76(Supplement): S33-S39.  ISSN:  0372-5480
URL:   http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6416
Descriptors:  farm and captive wild animals, environmental mycobacteria, breeding facilities, tanks, fish aquaria, peat as feed supplement, 1389 samples, 29 sites, bacteria cultured, Stonebrink's medium, Herrold's egg yolk medium, Sula's medium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium flavescens, zoonotic infections, Czech Republic.

Bourne, F.J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (19): 671-672.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, wildlife as disease reservoir, culling badgers, disease control policies.

Bourne, F.J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (12): 418. ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Bowen-Davies, J.  Mycobacterium bovis in British deer.  Deer Farming.  2006; (82): 17-21. 
Descriptors:  deer, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic infection, active disease surveillance, immunity reactions, lack of diagnostic tests, clinical picture, Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Muntiacus, Mycobacterium bovis, Britain.

Brook, R.K.; McLachlan, S.M.  Factors influencing farmers' concerns regarding bovine tuberculosis in wildlife and livestock around Riding Mountain National Park.  Journal of Environmental Management.  2006; 80 (2): 156-166.  ISSN:  0301-4797
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03014797  
NAL Call Number:  HC75.E5J6
Abstract:  Despite intensive efforts over the last century to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (TB) in North America, several hotspots of infected wildlife and livestock remain, raising concerns that the disease will never be eradicated.  The stress and frustration for a farmer caused by having a herd test positive for TB or living in an infected region can be substantial.  The goal of this study was to investigate the concerns of farmers around Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) regarding the presence of TB in wildlife and livestock and conduct an exploratory analysis of causal factors.  Data were collected from 786 farmers within 50 km of RMNP using a mail-back questionnaire.  Overall, farmers indicated a high level of concern toward diseases in both wildlife and cattle relative to other concerns.  The spatial variables that had the greatest influence on TB concern were both the distance of farms to the RMNP boundary and distance of farms to previous cases of TB.  The most important aspatial factor associated with high TB concern was the frequency with which farmers observed elk on their land.  These results underscore the important differences between 'objective' measures of risk, such as epidemiological estimates of disease prevalence, and subjective measures of disease concern, such as risk perception and acceptability of management actions.  Written responses suggest that concerns regarding disease may affect how farmers view wildlife on their land and their relationship with neighbouring protected areas.  Management activities that reduce the frequency of elk interactions with farms, but also recognize the complex relationship that farmers have with wildlife and protected areas, will be most effective in mitigating farmer concern regarding this important problem..
Descriptors:  cattle, elk, wildlife disease reservoirs, disease control programs, bovine tuberculosis, farmers/ranchers concerns, disease risks, private and protected lands, Canada.

Buddle, B.M.; Aldwell, F.E.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Hamel, K.L.; Lisle, G.W. de.  Oral vaccination of brushtail possums with BCG: investigation into factors that may influence vaccine efficacy and determination of duration of protectionNew Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2006; 54 (5): 224-230.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:   http://www.vetjournal.org.nz  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  brushtail possums, wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis BCG, oral pellets with dead and live bacteria, vaccine, efficacy tested, experimental infection, post challenge aerosol delivery of virulent pathogen, generated resistance.

Buddle, B.M.; Wedlock, D.N.; Denis, M.  Progress in the development of tuberculosis vaccines for cattle and wildlife.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 191-200.  ISSN: 0378-1135. Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Vaccination against bovine tuberculosis is likely to become an important disease control strategy in developing countries, which cannot afford a test and slaughter control programme, or in countries which have a wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection.  In the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the development and evaluation of tuberculosis vaccines for cattle and for a range of wildlife maintenance hosts including possums, badgers, deer and African buffaloes.  Experimental challenge systems have been established for the different target species and the resulting disease process has mimicked that seen in the field.  In cattle, neonatal vaccination with BCG appeared to be more effective than vaccination of 6-month-old calves and in most situations no other vaccine has been shown to be better than BCG.  However, prime-boost strategies involving combinations of BCG with a protein or DNA vaccine, to improve on BCG vaccination alone, have produced very encouraging results.  Differential diagnostic tests have been developed using mycobacterial antigens that are only present in virulent M. bovis to differentiate between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected cattle.  BCG vaccine has been shown to reduce the spread of tuberculous lesions in a range of wildlife species and a prototype oral bait delivery system has been developed.  Prospects for the development of improved vaccines against bovine tuberculosis are promising and vaccination approaches could become very valuable in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, vaccines, vaccine development, wild animals, wildlife vaccination program, animal diseases, tuberculosis, vaccination, disease control, disease control programs, disease reservoirs, BCG vaccine, virulence, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques.

Buxton, David.  Wildlife and the risk to humans and domestic animals: A case for disease surveillanceVeterinary Journal.  2006; 171 (2): 204-205.  ISSN:  1090-0233
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623077/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  wildlife as disease reservoirs, zoonotic diseases, humans, domestic animals, parasites, bison, wolf, red deer, reindeer, sika deer, elk, Mycobacterium bovis, nematodes, sarcosystis.

Cagnacci, F.; Massei, G.; Coats, J.; Leeuw, A. de; Cowan, D.P.  Long-lasting systemic bait markers for Eurasian badgers.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2006; 42 (4): 892-896.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles) long-lasting markers, Rhodamine B, PrIPA, and EtIPA, bait markers around badger setts, serum samples, hair samples, whiskers collected, UK

Caley, P.  Bovine tuberculosis in brushtail possums: models, dogma and data.  New Zealand Journal of Ecology.  2006; 30 (1): 25-34.  ISSN:  0110-6465
NAL Call Number:  QH540.N43
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, 3 disease models evaluated, issue of spatial clustering of possums, concerns for loss of data sets, possum management, wild animal disease reservoir, New Zealand

Clarke, K.R.; Firlgerald, S.D.; Hattey, J.A.; Bolin, C.A.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Reed, W.MExperimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis.  Avian Diseases.  2006; 50 (1): 131-134.  ISSN:  0005-2086
URL: http://avdi.allenpress.com/avdionline/?request=index-html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5
Descriptors:  susceptibility of birds to Mycobacterium bovis, wild turkeys, experimental inoculation, trachea and oral routes, fecal cultures negatives, 30days, 60 days, 90 days, sampling, passive persistence, no lesions, minimal disease reservoir.

Corner, L.A.L.  The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk.  Veterinary Mcrobiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 303-312.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Tuberculosis is present in wild animal populations in North America, Europe, Africa and New Zealand.  Some wild animal populations are a source of infection for domestic livestock and humans.  An understanding of the potential of each wild animal population as a reservoir of infection for domestic animals is reached by determining the nature of the disease in each wild animal species, the routes of infection for domestic species and the risk of domestic animals encountering an infectious dose.  The mere presence of infection in a wild animal population does not of itself provide evidence of a significant wildlife reservoir.  Although at times counterintuitive, wildlife populations with high disease prevalence may not necessarily have a role in the epidemiology of disease in domestic livestock.  The key concepts used in deciding whether an infected wild animal population is involved in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic livestock is illustrated by reference to six well-researched cases: the feral pig (Suis scrofa) and feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia, white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and other species, such as the ferret (Mustela furo), in New Zealand.  A detailed analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Ireland and their role as a reservoir of infection for cattle is also presented.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, wild animals, wildlife, animal diseases, tuberculosis, alternative hosts, risk assessment, disease transmission, infection, disease prevalence, disease outbreaks, case studies, disease reservoirs.

Coryn, H.D.  Badgers, TB and modern farming practice.  Veterinary Record.  2006; 158 (17): 604.  ISSN:  0042-4900.  Note:  Correspondence.
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, relationship with modern farming practicesm, UK.

Costello, E.; Flynn, O.; Quigley, F.; O'Grady, D.; Griffin, J.; Clegg, T.; McGrath, G.  Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 159(19): 619-623.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers, tissue sampling of 2310 animals, RFLP analysis with IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS), direct repeat sequence (DR) probes, 398 isolates, 52 RFLP types identifies, movement of badgers between territories, Republic of Ireland.

Costello, E.; Flynn, O.; Quigley, F.; O ' Grady, D.; Griffin, J.; Clegg, T.; McGrath, G.  Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006 Nov 4; 159 (19): 619-623.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:    http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/   
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles Meles, Mycobacterium bovis strains, genotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism, epidemiology, Ireland.

Crawford, G.C.; Ziccardi, M.H.; Gonzales, B.J.; Woods, L.M.; Fischer, J.K.; Manning, E.J.B.; Mazet, J.A.K.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) herd.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2006; 42 (4): 715-723.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Abstract:  Between 2 August and 22 September 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the Grizzly Island Wildlife Area, California, USA, for evidence of paratuberculosis.  Elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture.  Acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that discriminates among members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).  Histopathologic evaluations were completed, and animals were tested for antibodies using a Johne's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion.  In addition, 104 fecal samples from tule elk remaining in the herd were collected from the ground and submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture.  No gross lesions were detected in any of the hunter-killed animals.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was cultured once from ileocecal tissue of one adult elk and was determined to be a strain (A18) found commonly in infected cattle.  One or more isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) were isolated from tissues of five additional adult elk.  Gastrointestinal tract and lymph node tissues from 17 of the 37 elk (46%) examined had histopathologic lesions commonly seen with mycobacterial infection; however, acid-fast bacteria were not observed.  All MAC infections were detected from adult elk (P=0.023).  In adult elk, a statistically significant association was found between MAA infection and ELISA sample-to-positive ratio (S/P)>=0.25 (P=0.021); four of five MAA culture-positive elk tested positive by ELISA.  Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA S/P>=0.25 for detection of MAA in adult elk were 50% and 93%, respectively.  No significant associations were found between MAC infection and sex or histopathologic lesions.  Bacteriologic culture confirmed infection with MAP and MAA in this asymptomatic tule elk herd.  The Johne's ELISA was useful in signaling mycobacterial infection on a population basis but could not discriminate between MAA and MAP antibodies.  The multiplex PCR was useful in discriminating among the closely related species belonging to MAC..
Descriptors:  tule elk, Cervus elaphus nannodes, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, red deer, disease survey, PCR, ELISA, California, USA.

Daly, M.; Diegel, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Schooley, A.; Berry, D.E.; Kaneene, J.B.  Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Michigan wildlife and bovine isolates of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2006 July; 18 (4): 401-404.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial isolates, wildlife and bovine sources, susceptibility to  antibacterial compounds.

Daykin, J.; Pepper, B.; Green, R.; Howe, C.; Swarbrick, O.  Badger culling consultation. Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 159 (7): 220.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:  http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, rules, UK.

Delahay, R.J.; Smith, G.C.; Barlow, A.M.; Walker, N.; Harris, A.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L.  Bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the south-west region of England: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to cattle.  Veterinary Journal.  2007; 173 (2): 287-301.  ISSN:  1090-0233
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233 
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles); pathogen survey of wild mammals; post mortem examination and tissue collection; microbiological culture; infection found in: fox, stoat, polecat, common shrew, yellow-necked mouse, wood mouse, field vole, grey squirrel, roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and muntjac; deer species carried a significant level of bacteria, UK.

Donnelly, C.A.; Woodroffe, R.; Cox, D.R.; Bourne, F.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Wei, G.; Gettinby, G.; Gilks P.; Jenkins H.  Positive and negative effects of widespread badger culling on tuberculosis in cattle \h [electronic resource].  Nature.  2006 Feb. 16; 439 (7078): 843-846.  ISSN:  1476-9679
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04454  
NAL Call Number:  472 N21
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, disease reservoirs, badgers, Meles meles, culling animals, disease prevalence, disease incidence, geographical distribution, United Kingdom.

Duckworth, J.A.; Byrom, A.E.; Fisher, P.; Horn, C.  Pest control: Does the answer lie in new biotechnologies?  In:  R.B. Allen and W.G. Lee.  Ecological Studies.  Springer-Verlag Berlin, Berlin.  2006; 186: 421-434.  ISSN:  0070-8356.  ISBN:  3540300228
URL: http://www.springer.com/dal/home/new+%26+forthcoming+titles+%28default%29?SGWID=1-40356-22-92732336-0
NAL Call Number:  QH540.E288
Descriptors:  pest control, zoonotic disease control, wildlife management, population control, disease control and prevention, mammals, viral diseases, microorganisms, foxes, rates, skunks, weasels, brushtail possums and raccoons, immunology, mycobacterial infection, New Zealand. 

Everett, R.E.  Eradication of bovine TB: learning from other countries.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (18): 640.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:  http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  buffalo, cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control and eradication, Australia, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia.

Fontenot, D.K.; Terrell, S.P.; Malakooti, K.; Medina, S.  Health assessment of the Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni) population in the Guam rail recovery program.  Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery.  2006; 20 (4): 225-233.  ISSN:  1082-6742
URL:   http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=1082-6742  
NAL Call Number:  SF994.J6
Descriptors:  captive island animals, Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni), health assessment for pre-release, domestic chickens, blood counts, plasma analysis, ELISA for Mycopbacterium bovis, enteric pathogens, Guam, Rota.

Gallagher, J.; Muirhead, R.H.; Turnbull, A.T.; Davies, J.I.; Ashton, W.L.G.; Smith, J.; Daykin, J.; McDiarmid, A.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (9): 310-311.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, disease eradication and control, government policies, UK.

Gallagher, J.; Muirhead, R.H.; Turnbull, A.T.; Davies, J.I.; Ashton, W.L.G.; Smith, J.; Daykin, J.; McDiarmid, A.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 159 (7): 220.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, policies, wildlife disease reservoirs, disease transmission, culling of badgers.

Gallagher, J.; Muirhead, R.H..; Turnbull, A.T.; Davies, J.I.; Ashton, W.L.G.; Smith, J.; Daykin, J.; McDiarmid, A.  TB policy and the badger culling trials.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (15): 524.  ISSN:  0042-4900
URL:  http://www.bvapublications.com  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Glawischnig, W.; Steineck, T.; Spergser, J.  Infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in Austria, 2001-2004.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2006; 42 (4): 724-731.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), clinical picture, postmortem exam, lymphadenitis, nodular lesion in thickened intestinal wall, mixed infections, Mycobacterium avium ssp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis; PCR, Austria.

Good, M.  Bovine tuberculosis eradication in Ireland.  Irish Veterinary Journal.  2006; 59 (3): 154-162.  ISSN:  0368-0762
URL:    http://www.veterinary-ireland.org  
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IR4
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine tuberculosis, eradication program started in 1950, European trading condition for live animals, reduction in disease levels, Mycobacterium bovis levels, wild badgers (Meles meles), disease reservoirs, disease transmission, disease prevention and control in wild animals, Ireland.

Griffin, J.F.T.; Rodgers, C.R.; Liggett, S.; Mackintosh, C.G.  Tuberculosis in ruminants: characteristics of intra-tonsilar Mycobacterium bovis infection models in cattle and deer.  Tuberculosis.  2006; 86 (6): 404-418.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14729792  
Descriptors:  cattle, red deer (Cervus elaphus), Mycobacterium bovis, intra-tonsilar, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, resistance to disease, susceptibility to disease, species comparison.

Javed, Muhammad-Tariq; Usman, Mahmood; Irfan, Muhammad; Cagiola, Monica.  A study on tuberculosis in buffaloes: some epidemiological aspects, along with haematological and serum protein changes.  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2006; 76 (3): 193-206.  ISSN:  0372-5480
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6416
Descriptors:  buffalo, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, blood chemistry changes, blood cell changes, red cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, leukocytes, monocytes, immune system, globulin.

Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, David V.; Levin, Simon A.  Hidden effects of chronic tuberculosis in African buffalo.  Ecology (Washington DC).  2005; 86 (9): 2358-2364.  ISSN:  0012-9658
NAL Call Number:  410 Ec7
Descriptors:  African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), population level effects of pathogens in wild host populations, Mycobacterium bovis, disease seems mild and chronic, affects adult survival and fecundity, Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

Hancox, M.  Confusion over cattle tuberculosis.  Letters in Applied Microbiology.  2006; 43 (2): 236.  ISSN:  0266-8254
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01959.x  
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, species differences in lung lesions, transmission between cattle and badgers, routes of infection.

Heisey, D.M.; Joly, D.O.; Messier, F.   The fitting of general force-of-infection models to wildlife disease prevalence data.  Ecology.  2006 Sept; 87 (9): 2356-2365.  ISSN:  0012-9658
NAL Call Number:  410 Ec7
Descriptors:  wildlife diseases, disease prevalence, animal disease models, statistical models, mathematical models, equations, bison, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis, case studies.

Henault, S.; Karoui, C.; Boschiroli, M.L.  A PCR-based method for tuberculosis detection in wildlife.  New Diagnostic Technology: Applications in Animal Health and Biologics Control, Saint Malo, France, 3-5-October, 2005.  2006; 123-132.  ISBN:  3805581165; 9783805581165
Descriptors:  wildlife, disease reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis, transmission between domestic animals and wildlife species, alternative method for rapid screening, epidemiological species, PCR diagnostic method.

Hermoso de Mendoza, J.; Parra, A.; Tato, A.; Alonso, J.M.; Rey, J.M.; Pena, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Larrasa, J.; Teixido, J.; Manzano, G.  Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004).  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2006 May 17; 74 (2-3): 239-247.  ISSN:  0167-5877
URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.10.005  
NAL Call Number:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  cattle, cattle diseases, wild boars, Sus scrofa, red deer, Cervus elaphus, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis; epidemiological studies, disease transmission, wildlife livestock relations, game animals, risk assessment, ecosystems, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, disease detection, wildlife management, Spain.

Hofmeyr, M.S.  Disease-free buffalo breeding projectSmall Animal and Exotics.  Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference-Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006.  2006: 1802-1803.
URL:   http://www.tnavc.org  
Descriptors:  African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Brucella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Theileria, South Africa.

Jolles, A.E.; Etienne, R.S.; Olff, H.  Independent and competing disease risks: implications for host populations in variable environments.  American Naturalist.  2006; 167 (5): 745-757.  ISSN:  0003-0147
URL:   http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AN/journal  
NAL Call Number:  470 AM36
Abstract:  Disease models usually assume disease to act independently of other mortality-and morbidity-causing factors.  Alternatively, disease may function as a competing risk factor, for example, killing already moribund hosts.  Using tuberculosis (TB) in African buffalo as a model system, we explore consequences of competing or independent disease effects for host population dynamics.  We include scenarios with density-dependent and density-independent effects of environmental variation, exemplified by variable food availability (driven by rainfall) and catastrophic droughts, respectively.  Independent disease effects reduce population size linearly with prevalence, irrespective of the nature of environmental variation.  Competing disease risks alter population size only if density-independent variation is present; then, disease reduces population size nonlinearly.  Field data indicate that the net effect of TB on buffalo likely falls between the extremes of total independence and competition with other risk factors:  TB increases mortality and decreases fecundity in some prime-aged buffalo, suggesting independent disease risks in these individuals, while similar disease effects in senescent buffalo may act as competing risks.  Moreover, increased survival and fecundity of TB-negative buffalo may compensate for some disease-related losses.  Model assumptions on independent or competing disease risks and environmental variability should be considered explicitly when assessing disease effects on wildlife populations..
Descriptors:  wild life populations, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) Mycobacterium, death rate, competing and independent disease effects, disease risks, environmental effects, statistical model.

Kirberger, Robert M.; Keet, Dewald F.; Wagner, Wencke M.  Radiologic abnormalities of the appendicular skeleton of the lion (panthera leo): incidental findings and Mycobacterium bovis-induced changes.  Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound.  2006 Mar; 47 (2) 145-152.  ISSN: 1058-8183
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2006.00121.x 
NAL Call Number:  SF757.8.A4
Descriptors:  Panthera leo, musculoskeletal system, limb bones, bone fractures, mycobacterial diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, animal injuries, joint diseases, lesions animal, diagnostic techniques, radiography, animal age.

Kruuk, H.  Control of badgers and bovine TB.  Veterinary Record (London).  2006; 158 (13): 455.  ISSN:  0042-4900.  Note:  Correspondence. 
URL:   http://www.bvapublications.com 
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, disease, control, wildlife as a disease reservoir, UK

Lesellier, S.; Palmer, S.; Dalley, D.J.; Dave, D.; Johnson, L.; Hewinson, R.G.; Chambers, M.A.  The safety and immunogenicity of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine in European badgers (Meles meles).  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2006 July 15; 112 (1-2): 24-37.  ISSN:   0165-2427
URL:    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.009  
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Abstract:  European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Great Britain (GB) and the Republic of Ireland and therefore constitute a potential source of infection for cattle.  Reduction of badger densities in the Republic of Ireland has resulted in an associated reduction in the risk of a herd break-down with bovine tuberculosis and a study to determine whether this is also the case in GB has been running since 1997.  If badgers are a significant source of M. bovis infection for cattle, vaccinating badgers with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) might prove to be a long term, cost-effective strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis whilst preserving badger populations.  As a first step towards BCG vaccination of wild badgers, it was necessary to demonstrate safety of the vaccine in captive badgers.  Therefore, captive badgers were vaccinated with a commercial source of BCG that is already licensed for administration to humans in GB--BCG Danish SSI. Using a protocol prescribed by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) of GB, badgers were vaccinated with two consecutive doses of BCG via either the subcutaneous (s.c.) or intra-muscular (i.m.) routes.  The first dose was high, ranging from 16 to 22 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU), and was followed 15 weeks later by a lower dose in the range of 4-7 x 10(5) CFU.  Local reaction at the site of injection and general responses (body temperature, haematology and blood serum chemistry), behaviour and excretion of BCG were monitored for 28 weeks from the time of the first vaccination.  The only side-effect observed was the occurrence of localised swelling at the site of BCG injection that disappeared 48 days after i.m. vaccination but persisted longer in the group vaccinated by the s.c. route.  Immunological responses were measured at regular intervals.  Strong cellular responses were observed 13 days after the first vaccination, which persisted for 76 days.  The lower dose induced a weaker and shorter-lived response.
Descriptors:  European badgers (Meles meles), wildlife reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), vaccinating badgers with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), dose levels, subcutaneous injection, intro-muscular injection, reaction to vaccination, side effects, cellular responses tracked, potential  long term, cost-effective strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis,  preservation of  badger populations. Great Britain (GB), Republic of Ireland

Macdonald, D.W.; Riordan, P.; Mathews, F.  Biological hurdles to the control of TB in cattle: a test of two hypotheses concerning wildlife to explain the failure of control.  Biological Conservation.  2006; 131 (2): 268-286.  ISSN:  0006-3207
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207  
NAL Call Number:  S900.B5
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), wildlife as disease reservoirs, culling badgers, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, control programs, disease surveillance, Britain, United Kingdom.

Marco, V. di; Russo, M.; Tomaselli, A.; Calabro, A.; Leonardi, E.; Salerno, A.; Iozzia, G.; Reale, S.; Guarda, F.; Capucchio, M.T.  Anatomia patologica diffusione e persistenza della tubercolosi nel suino nero del Parco dei Nebrodi studio preliminare[Diffusion and persistence of tuberculosis in Nebrodi's feral black pig (Messina): preliminary data.]  Summa, Animali da Reddito.  2006; 1 (3): 37-42.  ISSN:  1125-6745.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  Nebrodi’s feral black pigs, tuberculosis, Mycabacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, disease eradication, disease levels in 969 wild pig carcasses, wild animals as disease reservoirs, Italy.

Martin-Atance, P.; Leon-Vizcaino, L.; Palomares, F.; Revilla, E.; Gonzalez-Candela, M.; Calzada, J.; Cubero-Pablo, M.J.; Delibes, M.  Antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Donana National Park (Spain).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2006; 42 (3): 704-708.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Abstract:  We conducted a retrospective serologic survey for antibodies against the MPB70 protein of Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Donana National Park (southwestern Spain).  Serum samples from 118 red foxes (Vulpes), 39 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles), five Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), four European genet (Genetta), and one Eurasian otter (Lutra) were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay.  Antibodies against the MPB70 protein of M. bovis were detected in seven badgers, five foxes, and one lynx.  The frequency of positive animals was significantly higher in badger (23%) than in lynx (3%) and fox (4%).  Antibodies were not detected in other species.  Annual antibody frequency peaked at 38% in badgers and 11% for red fox.  These species may contribute to persistence of bovine tuberculosis in Donana..
Descriptors:  carnivores, badgers (Meles meles), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), lynx (Lynx pardinus), Eurogean genet (Genetta), Egyptian mongoose, (Herpestes ichneumon), otter (Lutra lutra), Mycobacterium bovis, antibody detection, antibody tests, disease surveillance, ELISA, seroepidemiology, zoonotic infections, wildlife as a disease reservoir, Spain.

Michel, A.L.; Bengis, R.G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; de Klerk, L.M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, A.E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.  Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 91-100.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990.  Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected.  Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts.  Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa.  The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term.  Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists.  On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique.  From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species.  The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem.  Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion.
Descriptors:  African buffalo, (Syncerus caffer), wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, tuberculosis, wildlife, animal diseases, conservation areas, disease outbreaks, alternative hosts, disease transmission, endangered species, literature reviews, lions (Panthera leo), disease control, disease reservoirs, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

Miller, R.A.; Kaneene, J.B.  Evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in MichiganAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research.  2006 Apr; 67 (4): 604-615.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr?cookieSet=1
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A
Descriptors:  cattle, white tailed deer, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, disease reservoirs, spatial distribution, disease outbreaks, Odocoileus virginianus, temporal variation, risk factors, disease prevalence, wildlife livestock relations, population density, population size, environmental factors, animal husbandry, wildlife management, ribotypes, zoonoses, Michigan.

More, S.J.; Collins, J.D.; Gormley, E.; Good, M.; Skuce, R.A.; Pollock, J.M.  4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis: workshop reports.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006; 112 (2/4): 383-391.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  Note:  Special issue:  S.J. More; J.D. Collins; E. Gormley; M. Good; R.A. Skuce;  J.M. Pollock (editors).  Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August 2005.
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  conference workshop reports, policy, strategy, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, disease eradication programs, diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, wild animals as disease reservoirs, vaccines, vaccination of animals, cattle, livestock.

Naranjo, V.; Ayoubi, P.; Vicente, J.; Ruiz-Fons, F.; Gortazar, C.; Kocan, K.M.; De la Fuente, J.  Characterization of selected genes upregulated in non-tuberculous European wild boar as possible correlates of resistance to Mycobacterium bovis infection.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Aug 25; 116 (1-3): 224-231.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.013  
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex), is a zoonotic disease that affects cattle and wildlife worldwide.  These animal hosts can serve as reservoirs of infection, thus increasing the risk of human exposure and infection.  In this study we quantified by RNA macroarray fluorescent hybridization and real-time RT-PCR the mRNA levels of genes differentially expressed in oropharyngeal tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of three and seven individual non-tuberculous and tuberculous wild boars naturally exposed to M. bovis, respectively.  These results demonstrated upregulation of two genes, complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), in the non-tuberculous wild boars.  These upregulated genes may contribute to resistance of wild boars to bTB by modifying the innate immunity, which limits the ability of the mycobacterium to infect and persist within macrophages.  The C3 and MUT genes, therefore, are likely to be good candidates to study as markers of bTB resistance using functional genomics in animal model systems.  Identification of genes upregulated in wild animals resistant to bTB contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity and resistance to mycobacterial organisms.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, wild boars, wildlife disease reservoir,  up regulated genes, resistant of boars to tuberculosis, limits Mycobacterium to infect and persist in macrophages.

Naranjo, Victoria; Hofle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquin; Martin, M Paz; Ruiz Fons, Francisco; Gortazar, Christian; Kocan, Katherine M.; de la Fuente, Jose.  Genes differentially expressed in oropharyngeal tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of tuberculous and nontuberculous European wild boars naturally exposed to Mycobacterium bovis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology.  2006; 46 (2): 298-312.  ISSN:  0928-8244
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0928-8244&site=1
NAL Call Number:  QR180.F46
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex), zoonotic disease, host/pathogen interactions, differential gene expression analysis, suppression-subtractive hybridization, oropharyngeal tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes, field samples of tuberculous and non-tuberculosis European wild boars, real-time PCR, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR of selected genes, modulation of gene expression by mycobacterial infection, protective immunity, Spain.

Nishi, J.S.; Shury, T.; Elkin, B.T.  Wildlife reservoirs for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Canada: strategies for management and research.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 325-338.  ISSN: 0378-1135. Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  In Canada, there are two known regional foci where wildlife populations are infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and considered to be disease reservoirs.  Free-ranging populations of wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in and around Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP) and wapiti (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) in and around Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) are infected with bovine tuberculosis.  In this paper, we provide an overview of these diseased wild ungulate populations and the complexities of attempting to manage issues relating to bovine tuberculosis in and around protected areas.  We do not describe the quantitative science and epidemiological data in detail from these case histories, but instead compare and contrast these two cases from a broader perspective.  This is achieved by reviewing the context and process by which a diverse group of stakeholders engage and develop strategies to address the controversial problems that diseased wildlife populations often present.  We suggest that understanding the factors that drive the strategic-level management processes is equally important for addressing a wildlife disease problem as the tactical-level issues, such as design and implementation of technically sound field research and management programs.  Understanding the experiences within the WBNP and RMNP areas, particularly the strategies that have failed or succeeded, may prove useful to understanding and improving management approaches when wildlife are infected with M. bovis.  Applying this understanding is consistent with the principles of adaptive management in which we learn from previous experiences to develop better strategies for the future.
Descriptors:  cattle, food animals, Mycobacterium bovis, wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), Wood Buffalo National Park, wapiti (Cervus elaphus manitobensis), Riding Mountain National Park, diseased wild ungulate populations, disease management issues in protected areas, how to approach strategic level management processes, disease vectors, disease transmission, control programs, literature reviews, wildlife management, wild animals, wildlife, animal diseases, tuberculosis, alternative hosts, disease outbreaks, disease transmission, conservation areas, case studies, disease control programs, disease reservoirs, Alberta, Canada.

O'Brien, D.J.; Schmitt, S.M.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Berry, D.E.; Hickling, G.J. Managing the wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis: The Michigan, USA, experience.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 313-323.  ISSN: 0378-1135. Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Historical, social and economic factors combined to provide a focus where bovine tuberculosis has become established in free-ranging wildlife in northeastern lower Michigan. White-tailed deer, the primary reservoir and maintenance host of tuberculosis, are highly valued by the public, and particularly hunters, for cultural and economic reasons.  Since 1995, significant progress has been made in defining and reducing the reservoir of tuberculosis in deer.  As yet, no other wildlife species has been shown to play an epidemiologically important role in the disease cycle.  The importance of deer and deer hunting to Michigan has uniquely shaped tuberculosis control policies, and poses ongoing challenges as wildlife managers strive to maintain momentum for broad control strategies, and develop focused strategies that are publicly acceptable.  Even if momentum and funding can be maintained, tuberculosis will likely continue to be present for a decade or longer.  Thus, cattle producers waiting for tuberculosis to be eradicated from wildlife to eliminate risks to their herds and markets face disappointment for the foreseeable future.  Such unrealistic expectations also place Michigan's federal tuberculosis accreditation status at perpetual risk.  Accredited free status is unlikely to be regained without accompanying changes in cattle management.  In Michigan, management of tuberculosis has clearly demonstrated that social issues and public approval are likely to be the critical limiting factors in control.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, wildlife management, deer, wild animals, wildlife, tuberculosis, alternative hosts, disease outbreaks, disease transmission, case studies, social barriers, public opinions, sport hunting, disease control programs, disease control programs, disease reservoirs, Michigan.

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.  Survival of Mycobacterium bovis on feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2006; 42 (4): 853-858.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), supplemental feeding in winter, testing M. bovis survival in feed (i.e., apples, corn, carrots, sugar beets, potatoes, and hay), varying temperatures, pathogen survived, recommend ending supplemental feeding, Michigan, USA.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Thacker, T.C.; Stoffregen, W.C.; Thomsen, B.V.  Experimentally induced infection of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2006 Jan; 18 (1): 52-60.  ISSN: 1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  reindeer, animal diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, epidemiology, disease detection, diagnostic techniques, tuberculin, skin tests, lesions animal, immune response, risk assessment, animal pathology, pathogenicity, comparative cervical test.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.  Advances in bovine tuberculosis diagnosis and pathogenesis: what policy makers need to know.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4) 181-190.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  The mainstay of tuberculosis diagnosis in cattle and deer has been the tuberculin skin test.  Recent advances have allowed the incorporation of blood based assays to the diagnostic arsenal for both cattle and deer.  Use of defined and specific antigens has allowed for improved specificity of cell mediated assays in both cattle and deer and advances in antibody tests for tuberculosis have potential for use in free-ranging and captive cervid populations.  Combined use of blood-based assays with skin testing will require further understanding of the effect of skin testing on the accuracy of blood based assays.  Models of experimental infection of cattle have allowed for increased understanding of natural disease pathogenesis.  Differences likely exist; however, between cattle and deer in both disease distribution and primary route of inoculation in naturally infected animals.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease diagnosis, pathogenesis, disease course, agricultural policy, health policy, zoonoses, diagnostic techniques, deer, wild animals, animal diseases, tuberculosis, disease transmission, epidemiology, interferons, tuberculin, bacterial antigens.

Parra, A.; Garcia, A.; Inglis, N.F.; Tato, A.; Alonso, J.M.; de Mendoza, M Hermoso; de Mendoza, J Hermoso; Larrasa, J.  An epidemiological evaluation of Mycobacterium bovis infections in wild game animals of the Spanish Mediterranean ecosystem.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2006; 80 (2): 140-146.  ISSN:  0034-5288
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312
Abstract:  Recreational hunting of indigenous wild artiodactyls has been one of the most lucrative and rapidly growing industries in Western Spain over the last five years. In the absence of careful ecological management, one consequence of the commercial exploitation of this natural resource has been the appearance of outbreaks of infectious disease; most notably bovine tuberculosis. From the outset of the study in 1997, we have observed a steady increase in prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in both species reaching 1.74 (+/-0.17) in deer in 2002 and 2.32 (+/-0.24) in wild boar. The latter species seems to be most severely affected with pulmonary lesions appearing more chronic than those observed in deer. In this study, we describe the epidemiology of M. bovis in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Extremadura (W. Spain); a region where there are large areas of natural habitat for these species.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, European wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), disease levels, epidemiology, Spain.

Pavlik, I.; Trcka, I.  Bovinni tuberkuloza u zvirat v Ceske republice a v ostatnich statech stredni Evropy v letech 1990-2004.  [Bovine tuberculosis in animals in the Czech Republic and other Central European countries between 1990 and 2004.]  Veterinarstvi.  2006; 56 (5): 294-298.  ISSN:  0506-8231.  Note:  In Czech with an English summary.
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6439
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, farms, circuses, wild game, zoos, disease surveillance, review of published results, disease occurrence, wild and domestic animals, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, Czech Republic, 6 Central European countries.

Pena, Laura; Garcia, Pilar; Angeles-Jimenez, M.; Benito, Alberto; Perez-Alenza, M. Dolores; Sanchez, Belen.  Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in lymphoid tissues of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  2006; 29 (2-3): 114-126.  ISSN:  0147-9571
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/496/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62
Descriptors:  Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), survey of causes of death, diseases, pathology, peripheral lymphoid tissues and thymus, neoplasia, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, B and T cell depletion, immune systems.

Ramsey, D.S.L.; Coleman, J.D.; Coleman, M.C.; Horton, P.  The effect of fertility control on the transmission of bovine tuberculosis in wild brushtail possums.  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2006; 54 (5): 218-223.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:   http://www.vetjournal.org.nz   
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  brushtail possoms (Trichosurus vulpecula), fertility control on transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, sterilization resulted in reduced rates via gonadectomy, in females there was an increase.

Reynolds, D.  TB policy developments.  GVJ-Government Veterinary Journal.  2006; 16 (1): 5-10.  ISSN:  0269-5545
URL:  http://www.defra.gov.uk/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)
Descriptors:  cattle. Mycobacterium bovis, badgers (Meles meles), eradication and control programs, lessons learned, disease distribution, zoonotic infections, UK

Rishendra Verma; Samir Das.  Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in India.  Intas Polivet.  2006; 7 (2): 227-235.  ISSN:  0972-1738 
Descriptors:  zoonotic tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, economic losses, humans, animals, wildlife, diagnosis, clinical picture, antiobiotic treatment, disease surveillance, zoonotic infections, India.

Rudolph, B.A.; Riley, S.J.; Hickling, G.J.; Frawley, B.J.; Garner, M.S.; Winterstein, S.R.  Regulating hunter baiting for white-tailed deer in Michigan: biological and social considerations.  Wildlife Society Bulletin.  2006; 34 (2): 314-321.  ISSN:  0091-7648
URL:   http://www.wildlife.org/publications  
NAL Call Number:  SK357.A1W5
Abstract:  Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB) from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) requires mortality rates of infected deer exceed the rate of new infection.  Efforts to reduce TB transmission in Michigan, USA, are based on 2 assumptions: (1) deer mortality may be increased through recreational hunting and (2) encounter rates between infected and noninfected deer may be reduced by prohibiting baiting and supplemental feeding.  Spatial correlation of TB-infected deer and supplemental feeding sites detected using aerial surveys validated a ban on artificial feeding in Michigan.  Similar analysis could not be used to evaluate the effects of a baiting ban because bait distribution was unknown.  Furthermore, a ban on deer baiting could confound attempts to increase deer mortality through reduced hunter participation or efficacy.  We reviewed the process used to evaluate a strategy for regulating bait use by hunters.  This review included an assessment of 5 factors: statewide spatial analysis of apparent TB prevalence, deer intraspecific interactions at bait sites, effects of bait on hunter harvest rates, impacts of disease presence and practice of eradication efforts on hunting participation in the infected area and input from law enforcement personnel.  Our analysis suggested that restricting baiting to a limited, consistent region incurred less biological risk than allowing bait to be used statewide and less political risk than a statewide ban..
Descriptors:  cattle, white tailed deer (Odocoileus-virginianus ), Mycobacterium bovis, feeding wild white-tailed deer, transmission of disease, death rates, intraspecific interactions at bait sites, restricting baiting to a consistant region, feeding regulations, Michigan, USA.

Ryan, T.J.; Livingstone, P.G.; Ramsey, D.S.L.; de Lisle, G.W.; Nugent, G.; Collins, D.M.; Buddle, B.M.  Advances in understanding disease epidemiology and implications for control and eradication of tuberculosis in livestock: the experience from New ZealandVeterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 211-219.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:   A deteriorating tuberculosis problem in cattle and deer in New Zealand has been halted and then reversed over the last decade.  Mycobacterium bovis infection in both wild and domestic animal populations has been controlled.  This has been achieved by applying a multi-faceted science-based program.  Key features of this have been a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in animals, confidence in sampling wild animal populations, effective application of diagnostic tests in cattle and deer, and the ability to map M. bovis genotypes.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease control, disease control programs, deer, wildlife, animal diseases, tuberculosis, disease transmission, disease surveillance, diagnostic techniques, disease diagnosis, genotype, microbial genetics, strains, strain differences, pathogen eradication, serodiagnosis, New Zealand.

Scantlebury, M.; Harris, S.; Allcroft, D.J.; Hutchings, M.R.  Individual trade-offs between nutrition and risk of interspecific transmission of disease by grazing: cows, badger latrines and bovine tuberculosis.  Behaviour.  2006; 143 (2): 141-158. 
URL:  http://www.brill.nl  
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle behaviors, dairy cows, use of pastures, correlations with physiological states, disease transmission from pastures, badger excreta, milk levels, differences in cattle behavior with just badger urine alone, disease risks, UK.

Singh, J.P.N.; Rishendra Verma; Chaudhuri, P.  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of Mycobacterium bovis strain in IndiaIndian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2006; 76 (11): 873-877.  ISSN:  0367-8318
NAL Call Number:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  buffalo, cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis AN5, M. bovis BCG, 20 field isolates, strain typing, RAPD-PCR, polymorphic amplicons, genetic defects, hereditary defects, heterogeneity, India.

Smith, G.C.  Persistence of disease in territorial animals: insights from spatial models of Tb.  New Zealand Journal of Ecology.  2006; 30 (1): 35-41.  ISSN:  0110-6465
NAL Call Number:  QH540.N43
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine tuberculosis, wildlife disease transmission, disease, modeling factors, chance, model artifacts, population (e.g. demographic, genetic) heterogeneity, environmental heterogeneity.

Soares-Magalhaes, R.; Smith, N.H.; Dale, J.; Gover, K.; Mitchell, A.; Mawdsley, J.; Stoker, N.G.  Investigating the cluster of Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype 13 strains in the southeast of England.  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Exeter, UK, 29-31 March 2006.  2006: 215-227.  ISBN:  0948073748
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), high concentration of bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis isolates, clonal relationships, spoligotype 13, cluster analysis, wildlife as disease reservoirs, East Sussex county England.

Thacker, Tyler C. ; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W Ray.  Correlation of cytokine gene expression with pathology in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with Mycobacterium bovisClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  2006; 13(6): 640-647.  ISSN:  1556-6811
URL:  http://cvi.asm.org/
NAL Call Number:  RB46.5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, infected white-tailed deer, wildlife disease reservoir, immune response, cytocine gene expression, compared infected and uninfected animals, peripheral blood leukocytes analysis, role of IFN-gamma, interleukin-12p40 JL-12p40, IL-4 mRNA, locations of lesions in infected animals, lung and associated lymph nodes, northeast Michigan.

Thoen, C.; LoBue, P.; Kantor, I. de.  The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 339-345.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Mycobacterium bovis and closely associated acid-fast bacilli cause disease in humans. Epidemiologic investigations reveal that the organism may be ingested or inhaled.  Extra pulmonary lesions may occur associated to the consumption of infected milk, even though with the practice of boiling milk, and the growth of milk pasteurization plants all over the world, the digestive route of infection became less important.  On the other hand, airborne infection continues to occur among meat industry and slaughterhouse workers, in regions where the infection is still prevalent in cattle.  Evidence of person to person transmission is rare.  Main causes of concern related to M. bovis in industrialized countries are: epizootics in domesticated and wild mammals and latent infection in immigrants.  Although multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of M. bovis have been identified, case reports reveal that anti-tuberculosis drugs routinely used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients are effective when properly administered.
Descriptors:  cattle, food animals, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, zoonoses, humans, tuberculosis, disease transmission, lesions animal, health hazards, occupational health and safety, livestock and meat industry, slaughterhouses, disease outbreaks, wild animals, latent period, multiple drug resistance, asymptomatic infections.

Trcka, I.; Lamka, J.; Kopecna, M.; Beran, V.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I.  Mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic.  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2006; 76(Supplement): S27-S32
URL:  http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv  
Descriptors:  wild boar (Sus scrofa), bovine tuberculosis, wildlife disease reservoir, wild and game parks, boars, sows, piglets, yearlings, tuberculous lesions, intestinal lymph nodes, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium terrae, Central Europe, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia.

Trcka, I.; Lamka, J.; Suchy, R.; Kopecna, M.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Horvathova, A.; Bartos, M.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I.  Mycobacterial infections in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic during the years 2002 to 2005.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2006; 51 (5): 320-332.  ISSN:  0375-8427
URL:   http://vetmed.vri.cz  
NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  842 wild boar (Sus scrofa), wild pigs, hunting season screening, game parks, tissue sampling, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium ssp hominissuis, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triviale, Czech Republic.

UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs.  Special Issue: Bovine TB. GVJ-Government Veterinary Journal.  2006; 16 (1): 91 pp.  ISSN:  0269-5545.  Note:  Special issue contains 10 articles on TB. 
URL:  http://www.defra.gov.uk/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)  
Descriptors:  cattle, other species, Mycobacterium bovis, TB disease levels and distribution, TB policies, disease modeling, Bovigam assay, antemortem diagnosis, tuberculin skin test, zoonotic infections, control programs, issues limiting eradication, EC, USA, Africa, Canada, New Zealand, EU.

Vengust, G; Zele, D.  Nekatere infekcijske bolezni pri jelenjadi v oborah s poudarkom na zoonozah.  [Some infectious diseases of deer in enclosures with emphasis on zoonosis.]  Veterinarske Novice.  2006; 32 (3/4): 57-62.  ISSN:  0351-5842.  Note:  In Slovenian with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  deer farming, fallow deer, red deer, venison, diseases of farmed deer, zoonotic diseases, Bacillus anthracis; Brucella abortus; Herpesviridae, Leptospira, Listeria monocytogenes, malignant catarrhal fever virus; Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Slovenia.

Vicente, J.; Hofle, U.; Garrido, J.M.; Fernandez de Mera, I.G.; Juste, R.; Barral, M.; Gortazar, C.  Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in SpainVeterinary Research.  2006; 37 (1): 107-119.  ISSN:  0928-4249
URL:  http://www.vetres.org/
NAL Call Number: SF602.A5
Descriptors: wild boar, red deer, lesions, prevalence, Spain.

Vidal, Dolors; Naranjo, Victoria; Mateo, Rafael; Gortazar,-Christian; de la Fuente, Jose.  Analysis of serum biochemical parameters in relation to Mycobacterium bovis infection of European wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Spain.  European Journal of Wildlife Research.  2006; 52 (4): 301-304.  ISSN:  1612-4642
URL:  http://www.springerlink.com/content/110828/
Descriptors:  European wild boar (Sus scrofa), wild animals disease reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis pathogen, biomarkers for predicting TB, effective control programs, no real marker found, Spain.

Wahlstrom, H.; Englund, L.  Adopting control principles in a novel setting.  Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Feb. 25; 112 (2-4): 265-271.  ISSN: 0378-1135.  Note:  Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis, Held August 22-26, 2005, Dublin, Ireland.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  The paper describes the introduction of Mycobacterium bovis into Swedish deer herds and its possible consequences.  The different control strategies applied are summarized as well as their shortcomings under the conditions of the Swedish outbreak.  An alternative control, to be used in extensive deer herds, based only on slaughter and meat inspection is described.  Finally, the efficiency of the implemented control and surveillance systems are discussed and possible improvements suggested.
Descriptors:  deer, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bovine tuberculosis, literature reviews, disease control, disease control programs, disease outbreaks, disease transmission, meat inspection, disease surveillance, slaughter, tuberculin, zoonoses, humans, tuberculosis, slaughterhouses, Sweden.

Ward, A.I.; Tolhurst, B.A.; Delahay, R.J. Farm husbandry and the risks of disease transmission between wild and domestic mammals: a brief review focusing on bovine tuberculosis in badgers and cattle.  Animal Science (Penicuik). 2006; 82 (Part 6): 767-773.  ISSN:  1357-7298. 
URL:  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ASC
Descriptors:  wildlife as disease rervoirs, mammals, domesticated animals, disease transmission, European badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), culling strategies, changing livestock husbandry, farm management, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Slaughter, R.E.; Jones, S.L.; Pitzer, J.E.; Minion, F.C.  Diagnostic implications of antigen-induced gamma interferon production by blood leukocytes from Mycobacterium bovis-infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).  Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  2006; 13 (1): 37-44.  ISSN:  1556-6811
URL:  http://cvi.asm.org/
Abstract:  The only approved method of tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of reindeer within the United States is tuberculin skin testing; however, skin testing has an apparent lack of specificity, since numerous reindeer are classified as reactors, yet Mycobacterium bovis is not isolated from tissues upon necropsy.  The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of an in vitro assay (the Cervigam assay) to detect gamma interferon (IFN- gamma ) produced by blood leukocytes in response to mycobacterial antigens from M. bovis-infected reindeer.  Thirteen male reindeer ~9 months of age were inoculated with 105 CFU M. bovis in their tonsillar crypts.  Stimulation of whole-blood cultures with a mitogen resulted in significant production of IFN-gamma  compared to that by nonstimulated samples.  Responses by infected reindeer to M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) were as much as 3.5-fold higher than those by noninfected reindeer (n=4).  Despite differences in responses to PPD by the two groups, reindeer within the noninfected group had responses of >0.1 change in optical density ( Delta OD) (a level generally considered positive) to PPD.  Mean responses by infected reindeer to a rESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion protein (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific) were as much as 20-fold higher than respective responses by noninfected reindeer at all time points.  Additionally, responses by 3/4 noninfected reindeer were <0.1  Delta OD (considered negative) at each time point.  To further evaluate the specificity of the assay, samples were collected from reindeer in a TB-free herd.  All reindeer had responses to mitogen; however, only 1 of 38 had a response to PPD, and none of the reindeer responded to rESAT-6-CFP-10.  Together, these findings indicate that IFN-gamma-based tests may prove useful for TB surveillance of reindeer..
Descriptors:  reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), experimental infection, TB surveillance, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, IFN-gamma–based tests, fusion protein.

Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Minion, F Chris; Davis, William C.  Antigen-specitic proliferation and activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected reindeer.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2006; 111 (3-4): 263-277.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journalabstracting.cws_home/503319/abstracting
NAL Call Number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  reindeer, Mycobacterium bovis infected animals, blood mononuclear cells, proliferation and activation-associated responses, experimental infection, host resistance to progressive disease, rESAT6:CFP10 stimulation, MHC II fluorescence intensity increased on CD4(+), gamma delta TCR+, CD172a(+), and IgM(+) cells from infected reindeer.

Woodroffe, R.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Bourne, F.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Delahay, R.J.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.  Effects of culling on badger Meles meles spatial organization: implications for the control of bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Applied Ecology.  2006; 43 (1): 1-10.  ISSN:  0021-8901
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jpe  
NAL Call Number:  410.J828ll
Abstract:  The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle has risen markedly over the last two decades.  Failure to control the disease in cattle has been linked to the persistence of a reservoir of infection in European badgers Meles meles, a nationally protected species.  Although badger culling has formed a component of British TB control policy for many years, a recent large-scale randomized field experiment found that TB incidence in cattle was no lower in areas subject to localized badger culling than in nearby areas where no experimental culls occurred.  Indeed, analyses indicated that cattle incidence was higher in culled areas.  One hypothesis advanced to explain this pattern is that localized culling disrupted badgers' territorial behaviour, potentially increasing the rate of contact between cattle and infected badgers.  This study evaluated this hypothesis by investigating badger activity and spatial organization in 13 study areas subjected to different levels of culling.  Badger home ranges were mapped by feeding colour-marked baits at badger dens and measuring the geographical area in which colour-marked faeces were retrieved. Badger home ranges were consistently larger in culling areas.  Moreover, in areas not subjected to culling, home range sizes increased with proximity to the culling area boundary.  Patterns of overlap between home ranges were also influenced by culling. Synthesis and applications.  This study demonstrates that culling badgers profoundly alters their spatial organization as well as their population density.  These changes have the potential to influence contact rates between cattle and badgers, both where culls occur and on adjoining land.  These results may help to explain why localized badger culling appears to have failed to control cattle TB, and should be taken into account in determining what role, if any, badger culling should play in future control strategies..
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), bovine tuberculosis, culling of wild badger, wild animal disease reservoirs, home ranges, increased contact between badgers and cattle, UK

2005

Acevedo Whitehouse, K.; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Hofle, U.; Fernandez de Mera, I.G.; Amos, W.  Genetic resistance to bovine tuberculosis in the Iberian wild boar.  Molecular Ecology.  2005 Sept; 14 (10): 3209-3217.  ISSN: 0962-1083
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mec
NAL Call Number:  QH540.M64
Descriptors:  wild boars, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease resistance, genetic resistance, heterosis, heterozygosity, inbreeding, animal diseases, Spain.

Aldwell, F.E.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Skinner, M.A.; Lisle, G.W. de; Buddle, B.M.  Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid formulation induces resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in brushtail possums.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 457-463.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  Note:  Reprinted from Vaccine, 2003; 22: 70-60.
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, brushtailed possoms (Trichosurus vulpecula), disease vectors, BCG vaccine, oral vaccination, disease prevention and control, disease resistance, disease vectors, drug formulations, experimental infections, lymphocytes, immune response, immunity, lymphocytes, wild animals, New Zealand.

Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Francoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A.  Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC).  Veterinary Research (Les Ulis).  2005; 36(3): 411-436.  ISSN:  0928-4249. 
URL:  http://www.edpsciences.org/journal/index.cfm?edpsname=vetres
NAL Call Number:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare complex, epidemiology, zoonotic diseases, transmission between environment and wildlife, etiology, possibilities of control and management, Europe, North American New Zealand.

Bradley, Mark; Wilmshurst, John  The fall and rise of bison populations in Wood Buffalo National Park: 1971 to 2003.  Canadian Journal of Zoology.  2005; 83 (9): 1195-1205.  ISSN:  0008-4301.

NAL Call Number: 470 C16D
Descriptors:  bison decline, disease predation, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella abortus, historical changes in bison population, temporal and spatial factors, census data, reproductive rates, stochastic population model, survival of juveniles, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Wood Buffalo, National Park, Canada.

Bourne, J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, I.; Woodroffe, R. Bovine tuberculosis: towards a future control strategy.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 289-294.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  Note:  Reprinted from Veterinary Record.  2003; 167: 207-210.
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, pathogenesis, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease control programs, disease prevention, wildlife as disease reservoirs, disease transmission, UK.

Bourne, J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.  Bovine tuberculosis - towards a science based control strategy.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 319-322.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  Note:  Reprinted from Science in Parliament. 2005; 62: 25-28.
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), wild animal disease reservoir, transmission risks, Mycobacterium bovis, animal welfare, control programs; culling, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevalence and prevention, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, vaccination, vaccines.

Caley, Peter; Hone, Jim.  Assessing the host disease status of wildlife and the implications for disease control: Mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferrets.  Journal of Applied Ecology.  2005; 42(4): 708-719.  ISSN:  0021-8901
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-8901&site=1
NAL Call Number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  feral ferrets, Mustela furo, Mycobacterium bovis, host status of disease, wildlife as pathogen reservoir, wildlife management, field observations, field experiments, modeling, level of reservoir population related to Mycobacterium bovis levels, New Zealand.

Chambers, M.A.; Pressling, W.A.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Hewinson, R.G.  Value of existing serological tests for identifying badgers that shed Mycobacterium bovis.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 333-336.  ISSN:  0969-1251
Descriptors:  wild badgers (Meles meles), wild animals as disease reservoirs, testing techiques, value of testing, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Chen, SanPing; Morley, R.S.  Observed herd size and animal association.  Ecological Modelling.  2005; 189 (3/4): 425-435.  ISSN:  0304-3800
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503306/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QH541.15.M3E25
Descriptors: Bison bison, Brucella abortus, brucellosis, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis in wild animals, risk assessment, disease transmission, animal behavior, animal ecology, migration, movement, population density, seasonal variation, statistical analysis, wildlife management, free-ranging bison Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta, north western Canada.

Cleaveland, S.; Mlengeya, T.; Kazwala, R.R.; Michel, A.; Kaare, M.T. Jones, S.L.; Eblate, E.; Shirima, G.M; Packer, C.  Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2005; 41 (2): 446-453.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, free ranging wildlife, 11.1% (2/ 18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus), lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis), 4% Serengeti lions (Panthera leo), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Tanzania.

Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Wilesmith, J.W.  Tuberculosis in deer: a review.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 369-379.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  Note:  Reprinted from Veterinary Record1991; 129: 5-12.
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  captive deer, deer farming, game animals, Mycobacterium bovis, clinical aspects, postmortem examination, diagnosis, histopathology, pathogenesis, therapy, disease control, control programs, disease prevalence, disease pathology, disease prevention, wild animal disease reservoirs, Denmark, New Zealand, UK.

Clifton-Hadley, R.S.  Tuberculosis vaccination: the long road to a better BCG.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 465-466.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  Note:  Reprinted from the Veterinary Journal. 2003 166: 1-2. (2003)
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, BCG vaccine, disease control programs, disease prevention; wild animals as disease reservoirs, disease vectors, vaccination, vaccine development, vaccines, immune response to vaccination.

Coburn, H.L.; Snary, E.L.; Kelly, L.A.; Wooldridge, M.  Qualitative risk assessment of the hazards and risks from wild game. Veterinary Record (London).  2005; 157(11): 321-322.  ISSN:  0042-4900. 
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  zoonotic disease hazards, risk assessment, bacterial diseases, game animal meat, birds, ducks, deer, larger animals, rabbits, food contamination, food hygiene, food safety, health hazards, human diseases, lead shot, meat animals, meat quality, risk factors, risk assessment, risk factors, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Chlamydophila psittaci, hazard analysis and critical control point.

Coleman, J.; Fraser W.  Bovine Tb persistence in low-density possum populations - the patchiness problem.  13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2-6 May, 2005.  2005: 81-86
Descriptors:  control brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), density characterics of possum populations, disease in patchy locations, persistence of disease in wild populations, cattle, New Zealand.

Collins, J.D.  The control of tuberculosis in cattle: an Irish view.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 361-367.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, Irish Republic.

Corner, L.A.L.; Norton, S.; Buddle, B.M.; Morris, R.S.  The efficacy of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 447-455.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), New Zealand.

Corner, L.A.L.; Buddle, B.M.  Conjunctival vaccination of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) with bacille Calmette-Guerin.  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2005; 53 (2): 133-136.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:  http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/nzvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Trichosurus vulpecula, BCG vaccine, eyes, conjunctival vaccination, drug delivery systems, immune response, challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, efficacy of vaccination method, cell mediated immunity, immune response, lymphocyte transformation, post mortem organ sampling, lungs, spleen, tuberculosis, prevention by aerosolised vaccine to eyes and nose.

Cousins, D.V.; Florisson, N.  A review of tests available for use in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in non-bovine species.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2005 December; 24 (3): 1039-1059.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  Note:  In English with an English, French and Spanish summary.
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, negative social and economic impacts, affects domestic and wild animals, animal diversity, zoonotic diseases, intradermal tuberculin test, ELISA, prescribed test for diagnosis in cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, review of various tests used for diagnosis, validated diagnostics for different species, number of animals used for test validation.

Cox, D.R.; Donnelly, C.A.; Bourne, F.J.; Gettinby, G.; McInerney, J.P.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.  Simple model for tuberculosis in cattle and badgers.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  2005; 102 (49): 17588-17593.  ISSN:  0027-8424
URL:   http://www.pnas.org/  
NAL Call Number:  500 N21P
Abstract:  As an aid to the study of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a simple model has been developed of an epidemic involving two species, cattle and badgers.  Each species may infect the other.  The proportion of animals affected is assumed relatively small so that the usual nonlinear aspects of epidemic theory are avoided.  The model is used to study the long-run and transient effect on cattle of culling badgers and the effect of a period without routine testing for TB, such as occurred during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain.  Finally, by examining the changes in cattle TB over the last 15 years, and with some other working assumptions, it is estimated that the net reproduction number of the epidemic is ~1.1.  The implications for controlling the disease are discussed..
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, modeling disease transmission, effects of culling badgers, testing interruption, disease control, UK.

Delahay, R.J.; Cheeseman, C.L; Mallinson, P.J; Rogers, L.M.; Smith, G.C.  Badgers and bovine tuberculosis: a review of studies in the ecology of a wildlife disease reservoir.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13(4): 295-299.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  wild badgers (Meles meles), cattle, wild animals as disease reservoirs, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Delahay, R.J.; Leeuw, A.N.S. de; Barlow, A.M.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L.  The status of Mycobacterium bovis infection in UK wild mammals: a review.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 427-440.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  wild animals, mammalian disease reservoirs, cats, foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pigs, rats (Rattus norvegicus), bats, voles Apodemus, badgers (Meles meles), goats, Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus), Cervus nippon, deer, hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), fallow deer; ferrets, hares (Lepus europaeus), equines, horses, otters (Lutra lutra), Microtus, mink (Mustela erminea), Muntiacus reevesi, mice, weasel (Mustela nivalis), Mycobacterium bovis, Neomys, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), squirrels (Sciurus), Sorex shrews, moles (Talpa europaea), UK.

Denis, Michel; Keen, Denise L.; Wedlock, D. Neil; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.; Buddle, Bryce M.  Susceptibility of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) infected with Mycobacterium bovis is associated with a transient macrophage activation profile.  Tuberculosis (Amsterdam).  2005; 85 (4): 235-244.  ISSN:  1472-9792
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/638428/description?navopenmenu=-2
Descriptors:  Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), wildlife reservoir for pathogen, Mycobacterium bovis virulent strain, pathogenesis, disease process, experimental infection, aerosol exposure, lung lesions, livers, spleens, blood lymphocytes proliferated, nitric oxide levels in lungs, tumor necrosis factor alpha, transient activation of alveolar macrophages, New Zealand.

Denis, Michel; Wedlock, D. Neil; Buddle, Bryce M.; Vaccination of brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, with Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces T lymphocytes that reduce Mycobacterium bovis replication in alveolar macrophages via a contact-dependent/nitric oxide-independent mechanism.  Immunology and Cell Biology.  2005; 83 (1): 57-66.  ISSN:  0818-9641
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/icb
NAL Call Number:  QR180.I43
Descriptors:  brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacertium bovis, permissiveness of alveolar macrophages for pathogen replication, bacterial metabolism via 3H uracil, effects of the addition of lymphokines or recombinant-possum TNF-alpha enhanced permissiveness, nitric oxide release, comparison of effects between pathogen and BCG strains.

Drake, John M.  Risk analysis for invasive species and emerging infectious diseases: Concepts and applications.  American Midland Naturalist.  2005; 153 (1): 4-19.  ISSN:  0003-0031
URL:  http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=0003-0031
Descriptors:  zoonotic diseases, emerging infectious diseases, modeling invasive species and epidemics as a stochastic process, more effective policies for risk assessment, dynamics of feral nutria (Mycastor coypus), Mycobacterium bovis in various species, Allee effect model, Ricker model, bovine epidemics possible with introductions into brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) or badgers (Meles meles), culling as a control measure.

Efford, M.; Norbury, G.  Ferret population assessment: progress and challenges.  In:  13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Wellington, New-Zealand, 2-6 May 2005.  Published by Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research.  Lincoln, New Zealand.  2005: 75-80. 
Descriptors:  cattle, ferrets, Mycobacterium bovis, wild animal disease reservoirs, disease vectors, bait traps; baiting, baits, capture of feral animals, control programs, dispersal of feral animals, invasions, population levels, methodology, pest control, pest management, population density, population dynamics, reservoir hosts, trapping, vertebrate pests, wild animals, New Zealand.

Forrester, G.J.; Delahay, R.J.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.  Screening badgers (Meles meles) for Mycobacterium bovis infection by using multiple applications of an ELISA.  Cattle Practice. 2005; 13 (4): 327-332.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), screening badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, various applicaions, ELISA, UK.

Gallagher, J.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.  Tuberculosis in badgers; a review of the disease and its significance for other animals.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 401-417.  ISSN:  0969-1251.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles) cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Irish Republic; UK.

Gallagher, J.  Tuberculosis: tracing the dilemma.  Veterinary Times.  2005; 35 (27): 14-17.  ISSN:  1352-9374
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles) as pathogenic disease reservoirs, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiology, disease prevalence and transmission, seasonal effects, disease control strategies, trapping, pathobiology, absesses, various organs with lesions, latent infections, vaccines, bites, wounds, mortality rates, England.

Garnett, B.T.; Delahay, R.J.; Roper, T.J.  Ranging behaviour of European badgers (Meles meles) in relation to bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) infection.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science.  2005; 94(3-4): 331-340.  ISSN:  0168-1591
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503301/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QL750.A6
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, infected and uninfected member of a pair, wild animals as disease reservoirs, comparison of ranging and foraging behaviors, radio telemetry tracking, direction observations, infected animals increased ranging behavior.

Gerhold, R.W.; Fischer, J.R.  Avian tuberculosis in a wild turkey.  Avian Diseases.  2005 Mar; 49 (1): 164-166.  ISSN:  0005-2086.  Note:  In English with a Spanish summary. 
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5
Abstract:  A liver from a hunter-harvested wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kansas was evaluated by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study.  Grossly, the liver contained several grayish-white masses ranging from 0.5-3 cm in diameter.  These masses were scattered throughout the parenchyma and bulged from the capsular surface.  Histologic examination revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomas with low numbers of acid-fast bacilli within multinucleated giant cells at the periphery of the granulomas.  Culture of the liver yielded Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium and low numbers of Staphylococcus intermedius.
Descriptors:  wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo, game birds, avian tuberculosis, bird diseases, case studies, liver, histopathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium; animal pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus-intermedius,  new host records; Kansas.

Godfroid, Jacques; Delcorps, Cathy; Irenge, Leonid M.; Walravens, Karl; Marche, Sylvie; Gala, Jean-Luc.  Definitive differentiation between single and mixed mycobacterial infections in red deer (Cervus elaphus) by a combination of duplex amplification of p34 and f57 sequences and Hpy188I enzymatic restriction of duplex amplicons.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005 Sep; 43 (9): 4640-4648.  ISSN: 0095-1137
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1489394
NAL Call Number:  QR46 .J6
Abstract:  Severe emaciation and mortalities suggestive of mycobacterial infections were recently reported for both adult and young wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the southeastern part of Belgium.  In deer, tuberculous lesions are not pathognomonic of Mycobacterium bovis infection due to gross and microscopic similarities with lesions caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium subsp. avium.  The aim of this study was to improve molecular methods for the species-specific identification of M. bovis, M. avium subsp. avium, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in mycobacterial infections of deer.  DNA banding patterns were assessed prior to and after Hpy188I restriction of f57-upstream (us)-p34 duplex amplicons.  The duplex f57-us-p34 PCR differentiated M. bovis from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium infections, whereas the restriction step differentiated single M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium subsp. avium infections from mixed M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/M. avium subsp. avium infections.  The endonuclease Hpy188I cleaves DNA between nucleotides N and G in the unique TCNGA sequence.  This restriction site was found at position 168 upstream of the us-p34 initiation codon in all M. avium subsp. avium strains tested, regardless of their origin and the results of IS901 PCR.  In contrast, the restriction site was abrogated in all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains tested, independent of their origin, Mycobactin J dependency, and IS900 PCR results.  Consequently, a two-step strategy, i.e., duplex us-p34-f57 PCR and Hpy188I restriction, allowed us to exclude M. bovis infection and to identify single (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium subsp. avium) or mixed (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/M. avium subsp. avium) infections in wild red deer in Belgium.  Accordingly, we propose to integrate, in a functional molecular definition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the absence of the Hpy188I restriction site from the us-p34 amplicon.
Descriptors:  red deer, Cervus elaphus, mixed mybacterial infections, diagnosis, excluding some species, 2-step strategy, duplex us-p34-f57 PCR and Hpy188I restriction, Belgium.

Griffin, J.M.; Williams, D.H.; Kelly, G.E.; Clegg, T.A.; O' Boyle, I.; Collins, J.D.; More, S.J.  The impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2004; 67: 237-266.  ISSN:  0167-5877
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503315/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.P7
Abstract:  In Ireland, the herd prevalence of bovine tuberculosis has remained stable for several decades, and in common with several other countries, progress towards eradication has stalled. There is evidence in support of the potential role of infected badgers (Meles meles, a protected species) in bovine tuberculosis in Ireland and Britain. However, this evidence on its own has not been sufficient to prove disease causation. Field trials are likely to offer the best opportunity to define this role. Building on the earlier East Offaly project, our objectives were to assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. The study was conducted from September 1997 to August 2002 in matched removal and reference areas (average area of 245.1km(2)) in four counties: Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan. Badger removal was intensive and proactive throughout the study period in the removal areas, but reactive (in response to severe tuberculosis outbreaks in cattle) in the reference areas. Removal intensity in the removal and reference areas during the first 2 years of the study averaged 0.57 and 0.07 badgers/km(2)/year, respectively. The outcome of interest was restriction of cattle herds due to confirmed tuberculosis, where tuberculous lesions were detected in one or more animals. Data were analysed using logistic regression (modelling the probability of a confirmed herd restriction) and survival analysis (modelling time to a confirmed herd restriction). During the study period, there was a significant difference between the removal and reference areas in all four counties in both the probability of and the time to a confirmed herd restriction due to tuberculosis. In the final year of the study, the odds of a confirmed herd restriction in the removal (as compared to the reference areas) were 0.25 in Cork, 0.04 in Donegal, 0.26 in Kilkenny and 0.43 in Monaghan. Further, the hazard ratios (removal over reference) ranged from 0.4 to 0.04 (a 60-96% decrease in the rate at which herds were becoming the subject of a confirmed restriction).
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, disease prevention and control programs, disease-prevalence, wild life as disease reservoirs, epidemiology, regression analysis, trapping, vector control, wild animals, Irish Republic.

Griffin, J.M.; Clegg, T.A.; Kelly, G.E.; Williams, D.H.; O'Boyle, I.; Collins, J.D.; More, S.J.  The impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland.  In:  D.J. Mellor; A.M. Russell; J.L.N. Wood (Editors).  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Nairn, Inverness, Scotland, 30th March 1st April 2005.  Published by Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine.  Roslin, UK2005; 42-54.  ISBN:  0948073691
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, disease vectors, risk assessment, survival, tuberculosis, Ireland.

Jahans, K.L.; Worth, D.; Brown, J.; Monies, R.J.  Detection of bovine tuberculosis in spill-over hosts.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2005; 78 (Suppl. A): 23-24.  ISSN:  0034-5288.  Note:  Meeting abstract.  59th Annual Conference of the Association for Veterinary Teaching and Research Work, Scarborough, England; March 21 -23, 2005 
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, buffalo, bison, sheep, goats, dogs, deer, cats, badgers, pigs, domestic and wildlife species, spill over hosts, end hosts, animal pathogen reservoirs, maintenance hosts.

Ji, W.; White, P.C.L.; Clout, M.N.  Contact rates between possums revealed by proximity data loggers.  Journal of Applied Ecology.  2005 June; 42 (3): 595-604.  ISSN: 0021-8901
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-8901&site=1
NAL Call Number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  Trichosurus vulpecula, opossums, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, animal behavior, data collection, population density, wildlife habitats, mating systems, disease transmission, pest control, wildlife as disease reservoirs, New Zealand.

Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, David V.; Levin, Simon A.  Hidden effects of chronic tuberculosis in African buffalo.  Ecology (Washington, DC).  2005 September; 86 (9): 2358-2364.  ISSN:  0012-9658
NAL Call Number:410 EC7 
Abstract:  Infectious diseases can bring, about population declines and local host extinctions, contributing significantly to the global biodiversity crisis.  Nonetheless, studies measuring population-level effects of pathogens in wild host populations are rare, and taxonomically biased toward avian hosts and macroparasitic infections.  We investigated the effects of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium bovis, on African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa.  We tested 1180 buffalo for bTB infection between May 2000 and November 2001.  Most infections were mild, confirming the chronic nature of the disease in buffalo.  However, our data indicate that bTB affects both adult survival and fecundity.  Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that the pathogen can reduce population growth rate drastically; yet its effects appear difficult to detect at the population level: bTB causes no conspicuous mass mortalities or fast population declines, nor does it alter host-population age structure significantly.  Our models suggest that this syndrome-low detectabtility coupled with severe impacts on population growth rate and, therefore, resilience-may be characteristic of chronic diseases in large mammals.
Descriptors:  African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Mycobacterium bovis, disease impacts adult survival and fecundity, age structures model, no conspicuous mass mortalities, hidden population dynamics, chronic disease effects of chronic infections, Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

Joly, Damien O.; Messier, Francois.  The effect of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis on reproduction and survival of wood bison in Wood Buffalo National Park.  Journal of Animal Ecology.  2005; 74 (3): 543-551.  ISSN:  0021-8790
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jae
NAL Call Number:  410 J826
Descriptors:  wood bison, Bison bison athabascae, effects of pathogens, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella abortus, field study, capture and release with radio transmitters, survival survey, some double infections, lower pregnancy probability and winter survival, not sufficient test for role of disease in population levels, Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada.

Kalema-Zikusoka, G.; Bengis, R.G.; Michel, A.L.; Woodford, M.H.  A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.  Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 72 (2): 145-151.  ISSN:  0030-2465
URL:  http://www.journals.co.za/ej/ejour_opvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 ON1
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, disease survey, disease prevalence, African free range buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer), gamma interferon test, emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethippicus), foot and mouth disease, brucellosis, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

Lisle, G.W. de; Yates, G.F. Caley, P.; Corboy, R.J.  Surveillance of wildlife for Mycobacterium bovis infection using culture of pooled tissue samples from ferrets (Mustela furo).  2005; 53 (1): 14-18.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:  http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/nzvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  ferrets (Mustello furo), Mycobacterium bovis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, wildlife management, pooled lymph nodes, with and without macroscopic lesions, disease prevalence, surveillance cost benefit analysis, tissue culture, wildlife management, New Zealand.

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Berlie-Surujballi, G.; Barbeau, Y.; Bergeson, D.  Strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis from a 1978 case of tuberculosis in a wolf (Canis lupis) from Manitoba.  Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne.  2005; 46 (6): 502.  ISSN: 0008-5286.  Note:  Journal in French and English.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, wolf Canis lupis), wild animal infection, Manitoba.

Lutze Wallace, C.; Turcotte, C.; Sabourin, M.; Berlie-Surujballi, G.; Barbeau, Y.; Watchorn, D.; Bell, J.  Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates found in Manitoba.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire.  2005 Apr; 69 (2): 143-145.  ISSN: 0830-9000.  Note:  In English with a French summary.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=133
NAL Call Number:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  deer, cattle, elk, Cervus elaphus Canadensis, Mycobacterium bovis, microsatellite repeats, 44 isolates, tissue sources, hybridized with oligonucleotide 12 (MB-1 type), oligonucleotide 12 (MB-1 type), oligonucleotide 12 (MB-2 type), Manitoba, Canada.

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Turcotte, C.  Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2004.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 46 7(9): 797-799.  ISSN:  0008-5286.  Note:  In English and French.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  wild animals, zoo animals, livestock, bison, cattle, Cervus elaphus, deer, elephants, equines, cats, bacterial disease, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium terrae, red deer, pigs, Suiformes, disease diagnosis, disease surveys, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Machackova-Kopecna, M.; Bartos, M.; Straka, M.; Ludvik, V.; Svastova, P.; Alvarez, J.; Lamka, J.; Trcka, I.; Treml, F.; Parmova, I.  Paratuberculosis and avian tuberculosis infections in one red deer farm studied by IS900 and IS901 RFLP analysis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005 Feb 25; 105 (3-4): 261-268.  ISSN:  0378-1135
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Cervus elaphus, farmed game animals, red deer parks, animal diseases, avian tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, case study, mixed infection, disease detection, disease diagnosis, histopathology, microbial detection, pathogen identification, RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism, epidemiology, disease outbreaks, Czech Republic.

Martin-Atance, P.; Palomares, F. ; Gonzalez-Candela, M.; Revilla, E.; Cubero, M.J.; Calzada, J.; Leon-Vizcaino, L.  Bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Donana National Park (Spain).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2005; 41 (2): 435-436.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  carnivores survey, seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one Eurasian badger (Meles meles), and two polecats (Mustela putorius), epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis found in 1 red fox, Spain.

Maslow, J.N.; Mikota, S.K.; Zhu, M.; Riddle, H.; Peloquin, C.A.  Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB) in elephants.  Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.  2005; 28 (3): 321-323.  ISSN:  0140-7783
Descriptors:  African elephants, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, blood and lymphatics, ethambutol, antibacterial, isoniazid, pharmacokinetics, drug expulsion.

Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A.M.; Wood, J.L.N. (Editors).  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Nairn, Inverness, Scotland, 30th March-1st April 2005.  Published by the Society.   2005.  277 pp.  ISBN:  0948073691.
Descriptors:  many papers, topics include animals diseases, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease transmission and spread, disease control and prevention, diagnosis, reservoir hosts, public health aspects, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, classical swine fever, rabies, pancreatic necrosis virus, foot and mouth disease, avian influenza A virus, Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, broilers, domestic livestock, wild animal disease carriers, UK.

More, S.J. Towards eradication of bovine tuberculosis in Ireland: a critical review of progress.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 313-318.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis control program, disease transmission from wildlife to cattle, wildlife disease reservoir, cattle to cattle transmission, epidemiology, development of a vaccine for badgers, Meles meles, eradication strategy, Irish Republic.

More, S.J.  Towards eradication of bovine tuberculosis in Ireland: a critical review of progress.  In:  D.J. Mellor; A.M. Russell; J.L.N. Wood. (Editors).  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Nairn, Inverness, Scotland, 30th March-1st April, 2005.  Published by the Society.  2005; 13-23.  ISBN:  0948073691
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, eradication program, evidence of disease transmission badgers to cattle, wildlife reservoirs difficult to control, program for effective vaccine for badgers, Ireland.

Morgan, D.; Nugent, G.; Warburton, B.  Local elimination of possum populations - feasibility and benefits.  13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Wellington, New Zealand 2-6-May 2005.  2005: 160-167
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), wildlife as disease reservoirs, culling of possums, effects on cattle disease, density levels, feasibility of possum elimination, disease eradication, New Zealand.

Norton, S.; Corner, L.A.L.; Morris, R.S.  Ranging behaviour and duration of survival of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) infected with Mycobacterium bovisNew Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2005; 53 (5): 293-300.  ISSN:  0048-0169. 
URL:  http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/nzvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  survival of possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, infected with Mycobacterium bovis, behavior important in disease transmission, field study, naturally infection, experimental infection, non-infected, comparison study, radio telemetry, denning behavior, total ranges, foray behavior, mortal infections, dead found in activity zones and scrub and pasture, consideration for control efforts, Castlepoint on the Wairarapa coast of the North Island in New Zealand

Olea-Popelka, F.J.; Flynn, O.; Costello, E.; McGrath, G.; Collins, J.D.; O'Keeffe, J.; Kelton, D.F.; Berke, O.; Martin, S.W. Spatial relationship between trains in cattle and badgers in four areas in Ireland.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 71 (1-2): 57-70.  ISSN:  0167-5877
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503315/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis strains, cattle, Meles meles, badgers setts, centroid of a cattle farm, logistic model, spatial clusters of strains, can be both in cattle and badgers, wild animals as reservoirs, dynamics of badger movements, epidemiology, transmission of bacteria from badgers to cattle, 4 areas of Ireland.

Olea-Popelka, F.J.; Phelan, J.; White, P.W.; McGrath, G.; Collins, J.D.; O' Keeffe, J.; Duggan, M.; Collins, D.M.; Kelton, D.F.; Berke, O; More, S.J.; Martin, S.W.  Quantifying badger exposure and the risk of bovine tuberculosis for cattle herds in county Kilkenny, IrelandPreventive Veterinary Medicine.  2006; 75 (1/2): 34-46.  
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503315/description#description
NAL Call Number: SF601.P7
Descriptors:  Meles meles, quantifying badger exposure, cattle, bovine tuberculosis risk, Ireland.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Thacker, Tyler C.; Stoffregen, William C.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Slaughter, Ralph E.; Jones, Stephen L.; Pitzer, Josh E.; Minion, F. Chris.  Experimental infection of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with Mycobacterium bovis: pathological & immunological findings.  Proceedings.  Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association.  2005; 108: 113-116.  ISSN:  0082-8750
URL:  http://www.usaha.org/Meetings.aspx
NAL Call Number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, experimental infection, disease pathology, disease process, immunological responses, diagnostic techniques.

Parra, A.; Larrasa, J.; Garcia, A.; Alonso, J.M.; Hermoso de Mendoza, J.  Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in wild animals in Spain: A first approach to risk factor analysis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005 Oct. 31; 110 (3-4): 293-300.  ISSN: 0378-1135
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathogenic bacteria, risk factors, epidemiology, bovine tuberculosis, wild animals, ungulates, genetic markers, hosts, loci, symptoms, seasonal variation, disease prevalence, molecular epidemiology, reproductive season, hunting season, Spain.

Pollock, J.M.; Skuce, R.A.; Mackie, D.P.; Neill, S.D.  Bovine tuberculosis: research in Northern IrelandCattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 301-303.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Northern Ireland

Ramsey, Dave; Efford, Murray; Ball, Steve; Nugent, Graham.  The evaluation of indices of animal abundance using spatial simulation of animal trapping .  Wildlife Research.  2005; 32 (3): 229-237.  ISSN:  1035-3712
Descriptors:  computer simulation of animal trapping, field studies, brushtail possums, population density, leg hold trap catches, accuracy of data, relative abundance, removal estimate near trip, trap-catch index, biases.

Segales, J.; Vicente, J.; Lujan, L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Gruys, E.; Gortazar, C.  Systemic AA-amyloidosis in a European wild boar (Sus scrofa) suffering from generalized tuberculosis.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A.  2005; 52 (3): 135-137.  ISSN:  0931-184X
Descriptors:  European wild boar, Sus scrofa, adult female moribund animals, emaciated carcass, body with 25.9 kg, parenchymatous organs, variable-sixed granulomas, Mycobacterium bovis confirmed in mandibular lymph node, eosinophilic, liver, kidney, intestine, immunohistochemical results, first report of amyloidosis these animals, Cabaneros National Park, central Spain.

Skinner, M.A.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Hamel, K.L.; Yates, G.F.; Buddle, B.M.   Improving protective efficacy of BCG vaccination for wildlife against bovine tuberculosis.  Research in Veterinary Science.  2005; 78 (3): 231-236.  ISSN:  0034-5288
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623070/description#description
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), wildlife vector, bovine tuberculosis, control, vaccination of possums with Mycobacterium BCG, effect of ranitidine on gastric acidity for oral administration of BCG, challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, proliferative responses of blood lymphocytes to M. bovis antigens, procedure shows promise, New Zealand.

Spraker, T.R.  Diseases of free-ranging and captive North American cervids.  In:  Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005.  Published by the Eastern States Veterinary Association. Gainesville.  2005; 326-330.
Descriptors:  wild cervids, animals diseases, disease prevention and control, disease distribution, disease transmission, host ranges, diagnosis, clinical aspects, techniques, epidemiology, many organisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, brucellosis, malignant catarrhal fever virus, etc.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Bannantine, J.P.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Andersen, P.; McNair, J.; Pollock, J.M.; Lyashchenko, K.P.  Antibody responses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12 (6): 727-735.  ISSN: 1071-412X
URL:   http://cdli.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/6/727  
Descriptors:  reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, experimental infection and non-infected, ELISA, immunoblotting, multiantigen print immunoassay, antibody testing, seeking serological early testing.

Wedlock, D.N.; Aldwell, F.E.; Keen, D.; Skinner, M.A.; Buddle, B.M.  Oral vaccination of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) with BCG: immune responses, persistence of BCG in lymphoid organs and excretion in faeces.  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2005; 53 (5): 301-306.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:  http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/nzvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), oral vaccination, immune response, development of strong cell mediated immunity, excretion, feces, persistence in gut associated lymphoid tissues, lung, spleen, liver, unlikely to result in undue environmental contamination.

Welz, Miroslaw; Anusz, Krzysztof; Salwa, Andrzej; Zaleska, Magdalena; Bielecki, Wojciech; Osinska, Barbara; Kaczor, Stanislaw; Kita, Jerzy.  Gruzlica bydleca u zubrow w Bieszczadach.  [Bovine tuberculosis in European bison on the Bieszczady region.]  Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2005; 61 (4): 441-444.  ISSN:  0025-8628.  Note:  In Polish. 
Descriptors:  wild animals and domestic cattle, transfer of disease, wildlife as disease reservoirs, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus), deer, winter feeding sites as places of transfer, Brzegi Dolne herd, Poland.

White, P.C.L.; Whiting, S.J.  Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle.  Cattle Practice.  2005; 13 (4): 419-426.  ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL Call Number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, wild animal disease reservoirs, disease control strategies, culling of badgers, public opinions, UK.

Woodroffe, R.; Donnelly, C.A.; Johnston, W.T.; Bourne, F.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cox, D.R.; Gettinby, G.; Hewinson, R.G.; Le Fevre, A.M.  Spatial association of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and badgers Meles meles.  Journal of Applied Ecology.  2005 Oct 42 (5 ): 852-862.  ISSN: 0021-8901
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-8901&site=1
NAL Call Number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers, Meles Meles, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, strains, zoonoses, spatial distribution, disease prevalence, disease reservoirs, disease transmission, disease control, cluster analysis, Great Britain.

Young, Jamie-S.; Gormley, Eamonn; Wellington, ElizAbstracteth M. H.  Molecular detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71 (4): 1946-1952.  ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5
Abstract:  PCR primers specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were used to detect the presence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil microcosms and Mycobacterium bovis in environmental samples taken from a farm in Ireland with a history of bovine tuberculosis.  M. bovis genes were detected in soil at 4 and 21 months after possible contamination.  Gene levels were found in the range of 1 x 103 to 3.6 x 103 gene copies g of soil-1, depending on the sampling area.  Areas around badger setts had the highest levels of detectable genes and were shown to have the highest levels of gene persistence.  M. bovis-specific 16S rRNA sequences were detected, providing evidence of the presence of viable cells in Irish soils.  Studies of DNA turnover in soil microcosms proved that dead cells of M. bovis BCG did not persist beyond 10 days.  Further microcosm experiments revealed that M. bovis BCG survival was optimal at 37+C with moist soil (-20 kPa; 30% [vol/wt]).  This study provides clear evidence that M. bovis can persist in the farm environment outside of its hosts and that climatic factors influence survival rates.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, environmental sampling of soils, PCR primers, areas of badger setts had highest levels of gene persistance, 10 day persistence, optimal conditions, Ireland.

2004

Aranaz, A.; Juan, L. .de; Montero, N.; Sanchez, C.; Galka, M.; Delso, C.; Alvarez, J.; Romero, B.; Bezos, J.; Vela, A.I.; Briones, V.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.  Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in Spain.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(6): 2602-2608.  ISSN:  0095-1137
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/2602  
Descriptors:  cattle, red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), hares(Lepus europaeus), lynx (Lynx pardina), pigs (Sus scrofa), Mycobacterium bovis, wild life, feral species, epidemiology, disease reservoirs, bacteriological culture, spacer oligonucleotide typing, various geographic locations, transmission and distribution of M. bovis strains. Spain.

Belgium Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain.  Report on Zoonotic Agents in Belgium 2003: Working Group on Foodborne Infections and Intoxications.  Published by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC). Brussels.  2004; 74 pp.
Descriptors:  common disease agents, domestic and wild animals, zoonotic potential, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., rabies virus, Campylobacter spp., Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Taenia saginata, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suihominis, Toxoplasma gondii, food borne illness, clinical aspects, routes of infection, recommendations, numbers of animals slaughtered in 2003, Belgium.

Bengis, R.G.; Kock, R.A.; Thomson, G.R.; Bigalke, R.D.  Infectious diseases of animals in sub-Saharan Africa: the wildlife/livestock interface.  In: J.A.W. Coetzer and R.C. Tustin (editors).  Infectious Diseases of Livestock, Volume One.  2004; (Ed.2).  Oxford University Press.  Oxford.  2004:  225-238.  ISBN:  01915761693.  Note:  A book chapter.
Descriptors:  cattle, goats, pigs, horses, dogs, wildlife diseases, ruminants, Syncerus caffer, animal diseases, epidemics, African horse sickness; African swine fever, anthrax, brucellosis, epidemiology, foot and mouth disease, bovine tuberculosis, malignant catarrhal fever; rabies, Rift Valley fever, rinderpest, trypanosomiasis, etc.

Bengis, R.G.; Leighton, F.A.; Fischer, J.R.; Artois, M.; Morner, T.; Tate, C.M.  The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2004; 23 (2): 497-511.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  ISBN:  9290446218. 
Note:  Alternate title--Emerging zoonoses and pathogens of public health concern.  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
Descriptors:  zoonotic diseases, humans and animal diseases, wild animals, public and animal health concerns, resevior disease hosts, Mycobacterium bovis, leptospirosis. Lyme disease, monkeypox, plague, rabies, Rift Valley fever, tuberculosis, tularaemia, West Nile, avian influenza virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella, Coronavirus, Ebola virus, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Francisella tularensis, Hantavirus, HIV,  SIV, Leptospira interrogans, Lyssavirus, Marburg virus, Paramyxovirus  Rift Valley fever virus, Yersinia pestis, Ehrlichia ewingii, ehrlichiosis, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, SARS coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, world wide.

Butchko, Peter H.; Schmitt, Stephen M.  Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan: the work on the wildlife side.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference.  2004 October; 21: 202-205.  ISSN:  0507-6773
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), wild animals, transmission between domestic and wild animals, management of disease in wild herds, prevalence, Michigan.

Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, J.O.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Hofmeyr, M.; Getz, W.M.  Integrating association data and disease dynamics in a social ungulate: bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo in the Kruger National Park.  Annales Zoologici Fennici.  2004; 41 (6): 879-892.  ISSN:  0003-455X
URL:  http://www.sekj.org/anz/anz416.htm#879
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, African buffalo, (Syncerus caffer), wild animal population, disease dynamics, radio tracking data, dynamic social network model, cluster analysis, seasonal/climate effects, disease transmission, epidemiology, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Green, P.  Tuberculosis in wild deer on ExmoorDeer.  Journal of the British Deer Society.  2004; 13(3): 14-17.  ISSN:  0141-4259
Descriptors:  red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild game animals, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, animal pathology, clinical aspects; culling of sick animals, diagnosis legislation, postmortem examinations, animal welfare, UK.

Hars, J.; Boue, F.; Boireau, P.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Potier, M.F. le; Mesplede, A.; Rossi, S.; Saint Andrieux, C.; Toma, B.  Impact sanitaire de l'augmentation des effectifs de sangliers sauvages (Sus scrofa) en France.  [Sanitation impacts due to the increase of wild-boar (Sus scrofa) populations in France.]  Game and Wildlife Science.  2004; 21 (4): 513-528.  ISSN:  1622-7662.  Note:  In: P. Chardonnet; F. Lamarque; M. Birkan (editors).  Wildlife: A Natural Resource.  Proceedings of the 6th International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, 6-9 July 2004, Paris, France.  In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  red deer, wild boar (Sus scrofa), game animals, disease reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella suis, viral diseases, pigs, Trichinella, disease prevalence, serological disease surveys, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemiology, mortality, parasitoses, population density, population distribution, reservoir hosts, Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fish and Rural Affairs and the National Hunting and Wildlife Agency, France.

Joly, Damien O.; Messier, Francois.  Testing hypotheses of bison population decline (1970-1999) in Wood Buffalo National Park: synergism between exotic disease and predation.  Canadian Journal of Zoology.  2004; 82 (7): 1165-1176.  ISSN:  0008-4301
NAL Call Number: 470 C16D
Descriptors:  bison populations, population declines, disease predation hypothesis, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella abortus, historical data, stochastic population simulation, disease possibly leading to predation by wolves, Wood Buffalo National Park from 1970 to 1999, Canada.

Joly, D.O.; Messier, F.  Factors affecting apparent prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in wood bison.  Journal of Animal Ecology.  2004; 73 (4): 623-631.  ISSN:  0021-8790
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-8790&site=1
NAL Call Number:  410 J826
Descriptors:  wood bison (Bison bison), live capture study, disease effects on wild populations,  49% positive for Mycobacterium bovis, 30.9% positive for Brucella abortus, bacterial diseases introduced in 1920s, reduced reproduction and survival, caudal fold test and/or fluorescent polarization assay, serotesting for brucellosis by complement fixation of titre of gtoreq1 : 10, disease prevalence, pathogens endemic in the Park, age, gender, density, Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada.

Larson, Jean A, Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.).  Tuberculosis in animals : Mycobacterium bacilli that cause devastating zoonotic diseases in many animals.  AWIC Resource Series; no. 2004-01.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center.  Beltsville, MD [2004] 
URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/TB/TBMain.htm  
NAL Call Number:  aHV4701.A94 no. 2004-01
Abstract:  The focus of this publication is on information related to tubercular diseases of animals caused by the bacterial genus Mycobacterium.  Livestock diseases are mostly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  Many species of animals are included: large ruminants, wildlife, wild animals as disease reservoirs, deer, elephants, birds, fish, etc.  Topics are varied and include clinical aspects of the disease, the disease process, disease prevention and control, vaccines, immunology, bacterial genetics, zoonotic aspects, etc.

Diseases:  tuberculosis in animals, bibliography, Mycobacterium sp, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonoses, production animals, zoo animals, wild animals, disease control, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, microbial genetics, disease incidence worldwide, control programs worldwide, immune response, wild animal vectors, treatments, animal disease models, aquatic animals, diagnostic methods, disease pathology, disease incidence worldwide.

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Chen, S.; Turcotte, C.  Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2003.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 45(11): 915-916.  ISSN:  0008-5286
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  cattle, bison, pigs, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, tuberculosis, wild animals, zoo animals  Mycobacterium-avium subsp avium; Mycobacterium flavescens; Mycobacterium gordonae; Mycobacterium triviale, Cervus elaphus Canadensis, red deer, fallow deer, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium xenopi, Odocoileus virginianus, pigs, Canada.

Mackintosh, C.G.; Lisle, G.W. de; Collins, D.M.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Mycobacterial diseases of deer.  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2004; 52 (4): 163-174.  ISSN:  0048-0169
URL:  http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/nzvet.html
NAL Call Number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  captive farmed deer, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, disease prevention and control, epidemiology, mycobacteria diseases, zoonotic diseases, paratuberculosis, literature reviews, New Zealand.

O'Brien, D.J.; Schmitt, S.M.; Berry, D.E.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Vanneste, J.R.; Lyon, T.J.; Magsig, D.; Fierke J.S.; Cooley, T.M.; Zwick, L.S.  Estimating the true prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in hunter-harvested white-tailed deer in Michigan.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004; 40 (1): 42-52.  ISSN: 0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, Mycobacterium bovis levels, disease prevalence studies, hunter harvested animals, Michigan.

O'Brien, Daniel J.; Yereb, Daniel J.; Cosgrove, Melinda K.; Carlson, Elaine S.; Schmitt, Stephen M.; Wilkins, Melinda J.  From the field: An occupational safety program for wildlife professionals involved with bovine tuberculosis surveillance.  Wildlife Society Bulletin.  2004; 32 (3): 992-999.  ISSN:  0091-7648
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), free ranging wildlife, risks for Michigan Department Natural Resources staff and volunteers, occupational safety program, disease surveillance activities, training document following National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted field evaluation and validation, Michigan, USA.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L.; Slaughter, R.E.; Jones, S.L.  Evaluation of an in vitro blood-based assay to detect production of interferon- gamma by Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 

2004; 16 (1): 17-21.  ISSN:  1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Mycobacterium bovis, captive Cervidae added to the USDA Uniform Methods and Rules for eradication of bovine tuberculosis, wild animals as a disease reservoir, testing potential of a new blood-based assay for Cervidae, animal welfare, reduced handling, stress and injury and death, experimental inoculation, 300 colony forming units. tonsillar crypts, young males and females, serial blood collection up to 307 days, analyzed for production of  M. bovis, PPDb, M. avium PPDa, pokeweed mitogen or media alone, PPDb may serve diagnostic technique ante mortem, Michigan.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L.  Investigation of the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from deer to cattle through indirect contact.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2004; 65 (11): 1483-1489.  ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr?cookieSet=1
NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A
Descriptors:  calves, deer, Odocoileus virginianus, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, dietary exposure, animal diseases, feed contamination, wildlife livestock relations, wildlife food-habits,  infection via oral exposure, transmission of infected white-tailed deer to uninfected cattle, indirect contact, experimental infection study, pen exchanges or uneaten feed from deer pens, Clinical Relevance Results show calves were infected via sharing feed with infected deer.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Whipple, Diana L. Shared feed as a means of deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004; 40 (1): 87-91.  ISSN  0090-3558. 
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), experimentally inoculated, Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission to uninfected deer, indirect transmission of pathogen via sharing of feed, recommend not feeding of wild deer where cattle are infected, disease control.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Whipple, Diana L.  Shared feed as a means of deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004 January; 40(1): 87-91.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  captive, white-tailed deer, (Odocoileus virginianus), disease transmission, sharing feed, feeding behavior, experimental infection, Mycobacterium bovis, intra-tonsil inoculation of4X105 colony-forming units to some animals, naïve deer offered food not consumed by infected deer, recommend not feed deer where disease is endemic.

Parra, A.; Larrasa, J.; Garcia, A.; Alonso, J.M.; Hermoso de Mendoza, J.  Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in wild animals in Spain: a first approach to risk factor analysis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 110(3/4): 293-300.  ISSN:  0378-1135
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503320/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis; wild animals, Mycobcterium bovis strains; 59 from deer (Cervus elaphus); 112 from wild boar (Sus scrofa); 6 from bovines; 28 from wild pigs; 2 from goats; integration of epidemiological data into molecular classification data; wild ungulates; association of strains in clades; spoligotyping+VNTR typing, loci VNTR 2165, VNTR 2461, VNTR 0577, VNTR 0580, VNTR 3192 VNTR 2163a, andVNTR 2163b; 131 strains, 28 clusters, 76 unique profiles, Spain.

Scantlebury, M.; Hutchings, M.R.; Allcroft, D.J.; Harris, S.  Risk of disease from wildlife reservoirs: badgers, cattle, and bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2004; 87 (2): 330-339.  ISSN: 0022-0302
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  dairy cows, disease reservoirs, wildlife livestock relations, badgers, Meles meles, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle grazing intensity, rotational grazing, strip grazing, animal behavior, risk assessment, England.

Shury, Todd; Bergeson, Doug; Lutze-Wallice, Cyril; Surujballi, Om; Cattet, Marc.  Management of bovine tuberculosis in Riding Mountain National Park, Canada.  In:  Baer, Charlotte Kirk (editorProceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference, San Diego, California. August 28-September 3, 2004Published by the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  2004: 404-408.  Note:  Conference paper.
Descriptors:  elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis), deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevention and control, Riding Mountain National Park, Canada.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Slaughter, R.E.; Jones, S.L.   Immune responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004; 40  (1): 66-78.  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B
Abstract:  The objective was to evaluate cellular immune response of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to live Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination and to determine diagnostic implications of these responses.  In vitro proliferative and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) were detected beginning 9 days postvaccination.  Responses to Mycobacterium avium PPD, however, generally exceeded responses to M. bovis PPD.  Interferon-gamma responses to M. avium PPD were not detected prior to vaccination nor in nonvaccinated deer, suggesting that vaccination with BCG boosted prior quiescent M. avium-sensitized cells.  Both CD4+ and gammadelta T cells from vaccinated deer proliferated in response to M. bovis PPD stimulation.  Intradermal administration of M. bovis PPD resulted in increases in skin thickness of vaccinated deer beginning 24 hr postinjection.  Such early reactions were characterized by edema and minimal mononuclcar cell infiltration, whereas later reactions (i.e., 72 hr postinjection) were more typical of delayed type hypersensitivity. Upon in vitro activation with pokeweed mitogen, CD44 expression increased and CD62L expression decreased on lymphocytes from deer regardless of vaccination status.  Likewise, M. bovis PPD stimulation of lymphocytes from vaccinated deer resulted in increases in CD44 expression and decreases in CD62L expression.  These findings demonstrate the potential of BCG vaccination to elicit strong cell-mediated immune responses and appropriate alterations in CD44 and CD62L expression with in vitro stimulation of white-tailed deer lymphocytes.  In relation to M. bovis diagnosis, vaccination of white-tailed deer with BCG can induce skin test responses that classify the animal as a tuberculosis reactor.  In contrast, BCG vaccination will likely not interfere with tuberculosis testing by the IFN-gamma assay.
Descriptors:  captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), cellular immune response, vaccination, live Mycobacterium bovis, BCG, CD44, CD62L expression, in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes, skin test, IFN-gamma assay.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Bannantine, J.P.; Whipple, D.L.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Andersen, P.; McNair, J.; Pollock, J.M.; Lyashchenko, K.P.  Antigen recognition by serum antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovisClinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2004; 11(5): 849-855.  ISSN:  1071-412X
Descriptors:  White tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), wildlife reservoirs, Mycobacterium bovis, sera testing, evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), immunoglobulin specific to M. bovis antigens, experimental infections via intratonsillar inoculation, aerosol, exposure to infected deed, bands of reactivity at apprx24 to 26 kDa, apprx33 kDa, apprx42 kDa, and apprx75 kDa to M. bovis whole-cell sonicate detected, responses boosted by tuberculin injection for intradermal tuberculin skin testing, immunodominant protein was MPB83, a sensitive serodiagnosis test requires multiple antigens, northern America.

2003

Adams, S.J.R. Badgers and bovine TB: bio-indicator or source? Veterinary Times. 2003, 33 (9) 8-10. ISSN: 1352-9374
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission patterns, disease vectors, sentinel animals, vector potential, tuberculosis, reviews. 

Aldwell, F.E.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Skinner, M.A.; Lisle, G.W. de; Buddle, B.M.  Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid formulation induces resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in brushtail possums.  Vaccine.  2003; 22 (1): 70-76.  ISSN:  0264-410X
URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30521/description#description
Descriptors:  cattle diseases, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), Mycobacterium bovis BCG, oral vaccine against tuberculosis, lipid-based formulations, 2X108 colony forming units, lympnocyte proliferation responses to bovine purified protein derivative (PPD), peripheral blood lymphocytes, aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, animal models, disease resistance, drug formulations, immune response, immunization, New Zealand.

Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, Johan T.  Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo herds.  Ecological Applications.  2003; 13 (5): 1338-1345.  ISSN:  1051-0761
Descriptors:  African buffalo, bovine tuberculosis, affect on various parameters, calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, endoparasite load, comparisons between low, high and zero prevalence, vulnerability to drought, impact on lion health status, diseased prey, northern, central, southern regions, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Collins, Desmond M.; Kawakami, R Pamela; Buddle, Bryce M.; Wards, Barry J.; De Lisle, Geoffrey W.  Different susceptibility of two animal species infected with isogenic mutants of Mycobacterium bovis identifies phoT as having roles in tuberculosis virulence and phosphate transport.  Microbiology (Reading).  2003; 149 (11): 3203-3212.  ISSN:   1350-0872
URL:  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call Number: QR1.J65
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium bovis, ATCC35721, mutation, principal sigma factor gene, sigA, accessory transcription factor WhiB3, M. bovis, Wag320, guinea pigs, brushtail possum (Tricuosurus vulpecula), virulence restoring factor, phoT, role in phosphate uptake at low phosphate concentrations, 2 point deletions,  use of different animal species.

Cooke, M.M.; Alley, M.R.; Manktelow, B.W.  Experimental infection with BCG as a model of tuberculosis in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2003 June; 51(3) 132-138  ISSN:  0048-0169
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors: Trichosurus vulpecula, brushtail possum, bacterial disease, Mycobacterium bovis, infection modeling using experimental infection with BCG, development and progression of lesions, intra-dermal inoculations, percutaneous and respiratory, natural infection.  

Corner, L.A.L.; Stevenson, M.A.; Collins, D.M.; Morris, R.S. The re-emergence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (Trichosurus. vulpecula) after localised possum eradication. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2003, 51 (2) 73-80.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors: cattle, brushtail possums, Mycobacterium bovis, infection patterns, wild animal disease vectors and reservoirs, epidemiology, pest control, spatial distribution patterns, tuberculosis, vector potential, New Zealand.

Corner, L.A.L.; Norton, S. Resolution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).  New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2003, 51 (1) 40-42. 
NAL call number:  41.8 N483  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis; Trichosurus vulpecula, case reports, clinical aspects, disease control, tuberculosis, wild animals, New Zealand

Delahay, R.J.; Wilson, G.; Rogers, L.M.; Cheeseman, C.L.  Bovine tuberculosis in badgers: can culling control the disease?  Linnean Society Occasional Publication.  2003; 4: 165-171
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, wild animal disease reservoir, culling as a control measures, disease prevention and control strategy, success of control measures, UK

Diegel, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.  A novel cytologic evaluation technique for the detection of mycobacteria in veterinary samples.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 2003, 1 (1) 37-44.  ISSN: 1542-2666.
NAL call number:  SF601.J63
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium bovis, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, cytology-based procedure, acid-fast bacteria, antemortem diagnostic techniques, tuberculosis, standard culture method, experimental infection, sensitivity and reliability of diagnostic tests, confirming infection.  

Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Zwick, Laura S.; Diegel, Kelly L.; Berry, Dale E.; Church, Steven V.; Sikarskie, James G.; Kaneene, John B.; Reed, Willie M.  Experimental aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis in North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003 April; 39 (2) 418-423  ISSN:  0090-3558
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, Mycobacterium bovis, controlled experiment, aerosol inoculation, two dose levels, disease pathogenesis, fecal shedding, possible role as disease reservoir, disease transmission.

Frantz, A.C.; Pope, L.C.; Carpenter, P.J.; Roper, T.J.; Wilson, G.J.; Delahay, R.J.; Burke,T. Reliable microsatellite genotyping of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) using faecal DNA. Molecular Ecology. 2003 June; 12 (6) 1649-1661. ISSN:  0962-1083
NAL call number:  QH540.M64
Descriptors:  Eurasian badgers, Meles meles, microsatellite genotyping, population genetics techniques, population estimations, estimates based on fecal DNA based microsatellite genotyping data, molecular genetics, methodologies, wildlife reservoir for
Mycobacterium, England.

Gallaher, E.; Kelly, L.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Wooldridge, M.  A quantitative risk assessment for badger to cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis.  Proceedings of a meeting Society for Veterinary-Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. [Great Britain].  2003: 33-44.  ISSN: 0956-7496.  Note:  Meeting held March 31-April 2, 2003, Warwick, England.
NAL Call Number:  SF780.9.S63
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, disease transmission, risk assessment, mathematical models.

Garnett, B.T.; Roper, T.J.; Delahay, R.J. Use of cattle troughs by badgers (Meles meles).  A potential route for the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) to cattle.  Applied Animal Behavior Science.  2003. 80 (1): 1-8.  ISSN: 0168-1591
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503301/description#description
NAL Call Number:  QL750.A6
Descriptors:  badgers Meles meles, wild animals, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle feed troughs height, wild animals, cattle-diseases, disease transmission, feces, vertebrate-pests, wildlife-livestock interactions, wildlife food habits, bovine tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

Glawischnig, W.; Allerberger, F.; Messner C.; Schonbauer, M.; Prodinger, W.M.  Tuberkulose-Endemie bei freilebendem Rotwild (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in den nordlichen Kalkalpen.  [Tuberculosis in free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in the northern Alps.]  Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2003, 90 (2) 38-44.  Note:  In German with an English summary.  
NAL call number: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: Cervus elaphus, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, diagnosis, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, histopathology, postmortem examinations, zoonoses, Austria.

Gormley, E.; Costello, E. Tuberculosis and badgers: new approaches to diagnosis and control.  Society for Applied Microbiology Symposium Series. 2003, No.32, 80S-86S.   
NAL call number: 
QR1.S64 no. 32 
Descriptors:  Eurasian badger, Meles meles, wild animal disease reservoir, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis infection, disease control eradication programs, diagnosis of disease in badgers, profiles of disease episodes, possible vaccination, Ireland, Great Britain.

Jacques, C.N.; Jenks, J.A.; Jenny, A.L.; Griffin, S.L.  Prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in South Dakota.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003, 39 (1) 29-34.   
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  elk, deer, Cervus elaphus, Odocoileus, virginianus, Odocoileus hemionus, disease prevalence, disease surveys, chronic wasting disease, emaciation, spongiform encephalopathy, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, prion diseases, hunter harvested sampling, South Dakota. 

Luna, Janaina O.; Santos, Manoel A.A.; Durigon, Edison L.; Araujo, Joao P. Jr.; Duarte, Jose M.D.  Tuberculosis survey of free-ranging marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in Brazil . Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.  2003; 34 (4): 414-415.  ISSN:  1042-7260
Descriptors:  free ranging marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), assayed for tuberculosis, necropsy and histopathology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium africanum), esophageal-pharyngeal fluids, DNA extraction, amplified by PCR, specific primers, agarose get electrophoresis with ethidium bromide, all samples negative, deer not shedding, probably negative for the disease, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Miller, R.A.; Kaneene, J.B.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Schmitt, S.M. Evaluation of the influence of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Michigan wild deer population.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003, 39 (1) 84-95.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483   
Descriptors:  free ranging deer, Odocoileus virginianus, supplemental feeding, disease transmission, bovine TB, Mycobacterium, risk factors, multivariable Poisson regression modeling approach, control measures, banning supplemental feeding. 

Olea-Popelka, F.J.; Griffin, J.M.; Collins, J.D.; McGrath, G.; Martin, S.W.  Bovine tuberculosis in badgers in four areas in Ireland: does tuberculosis cluster?  Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2003, 59 (1-2) 103-111. ISSN:  0167-5877
NAL call number:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevalence and distribution, epidemiology, reservoir hosts, tuberculosis, wild animal distribution, badger setts, Republic of Ireland.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L.; Slaughter, R.E.; Jones, S.L.  Analysis of interferon-C production by Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using an in-vitro based assay. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Note:  In Press.
Descriptors:  TB, deer, immune response, interferon-C production, assay, Mycobacterium bovis, Odocoileus virginianus.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L Aerosol exposure of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003; 39 (4): 817-823. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org
NAL call number:
41.9 W64B
Abstract: Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis affects both captive and free-ranging Cervidae in the United States. Various animal models have been developed to study tuberculosis of both humans and animals. Generally, tuberculosis is transmitted by aerosol and oral routes. Models of aerosol exposure of large animals to M. bovis are uncommon. In order to develop a reliable method of aerosol exposure of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to M. bovis, 12 healthy white-tailed deer, aged 8-10 mo, were infected by aerosol exposure to 2x105 to 1x106 colony forming units (CFU) (high dose, n=4) of M. bovis or 6x102 to 1.6x103 CFU (low dose, n=8) of M. bovis. Tuberculous lesions were more widely disseminated in deer receiving the high dose, while lesions in deer receiving the low dose were more focused on the lungs and associated lymph nodes (tracheobronchial and mediastinal). Aerosol delivery of M. bovis to white-tailed deer results in a reliable manner of experimental infection that may be useful for studies of disease pathogenesis, immune response, mycobacterial shedding, and vaccine efficacy.. Add Descriptors: Mycobacterium bovis, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), animal models, experimental infection via aerosol exposure, granulomas, clinical picture, lesions on various organs, immune response, pathogenesis, tuberculosis, vaccination.

Popluhar, L.; Hyzova, A.  Tuberkuloza zvierat ako zoonoza aj ako antropozoonoza.  [Tuberculosis of animals as zoonosis as well as anthropozoonosis.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2003; 28 (6): 38-39.  ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  elimination of animal tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis; Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, BCG vaccine, vaccination, diagnosis, disease prevention and control, disease prevalence, zoonoses, Czechoslovakia.

Ramsey, D.; Cowan, P.  Mortality rate and movements of brushtail possums with clinical tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection).  New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2003 August; 51(4) 179-185  ISSN:  0048-0169
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, mortality rates affected by disease, movements, diseased animals, trapping, live capture, radio collars, New Zealand.

Roper, T.J.; Garnett, B.T.; Delahay, R.J. Visits to farm buildings and cattle troughs by badgers (Meles meles): a potential route for transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) between badgers and cattle. Cattle Practice. 2003, 11 (1) 9-12. ISSN:  0969-1251
NAL call number:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle, farms, tracking wild badgers, Meles meles, nighttime visits to farms, climate, Mycobacterium bovis, cats, foxes,disease transmission, feces, feed trough contamination, rain, urine, diasese control.  

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Olsen, S.C.; Sacco, R.E.; Whipple, D.L. Immune responses of elk to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination.  Vaccine. 2003, 21: 13-14, ISSN: 0264-410X. 
NAL call number:  QR189.V32  
Descriptors:  elk, Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium bovis, B lymphocytes, bacterial antigens, BCG vaccine, blood serum, delayed type hypersensitivity, IgG,  immune response, live vaccine immunization, lymphocyte transformation, wild animals, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, serum collections.

Zhu, Ping; She, FeiFei; Griffin, F.  Analysis of IFN- gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression in red deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis by real-time PCR.  Chinese Journal of Zoonoses.  2003; 19 (6): 49-51, 20.  ISSN:  1002-2694.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary. 
Descriptors:  red deer, Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine, experimental infection, immune response, interferon, cytokines, immune response; immunization, interleukin-4, messenger RNA, Fujian, China.

2002

Bengis, R.G.; Kock, R.A.; Fischer, J.  Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2002. 21 (1) 53-65. Note:  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:
  analytical methods, animal diseases, brucellosis, Brucella, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, ecotourism, livestock, rinderpest, tuberculosis, wildlife conservation.

Blanchong, J.A.; Scribner, K.T.; Winterstein, S.R. Assignment of individuals to populations: Bayesian methods and multi-locus genotypes. Journal of Wildlife Management. Apr 2002. 66 (2) 321-329. ISSN: 0022-541X
NAL call number:  410 J827
Descriptors:
  Odocoileus virginianus, Bayesian theory, multi-locus genotype data, loci, microsatellites, tuberculosis, wildlife management, deer, maximum likelihood, Michigan.

Bollo, E.; Ferroglio, E. La tubercolosi negli animali selvatici. [Tuberculosis in wild animals, a review.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari. 2002. 23 (5) 57-67. Note:  In Italian.
Descriptors:
  reviews, tuberculosis, wild animals, disease reservoirs.

Buddle, B.M.; Skinner, M.A.; Wedlock, D.N.; Collins, D.M.; de Lisle, G.W.; Fossum, C. (ed.); Wattrang, E. New generation vaccines and delivery systems for control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and wildlife. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2002. 87 (3-4) 177-185. ISSN: 0165-2427.  Note: 6th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Ultuna Campus, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, July 2001.
NAL call number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:
  vaccines, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, wildlife.

Byrom, A.E. Dispersal and survival of juvenile feral ferrets Mustela furo in New Zealand. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2002. 39 (1) 67-78.
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:
  dispersal, pest population density and control, seasonal effects, sex effects, ferret survival, effect on tuberculosis spread, New Zealand.

Canfield, P.J.; Day, M.J.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Hewinson, R.G.; Chambers, M.A. Immunohistochemical characterization of tuberculous and non-tuberculous lesions in naturally infected European badgers (Meles meles).  Journal of Comparative Pathology. May 2002. 126 (4) 254-264. ISSN: 0021-9975
NAL call number:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:
  Meles meles, European badgers,  natural infection, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, granuloma, immunohistochemistry, antibodies, cross reaction, immunopathology, lymphocytes, phagocytes, immunological markers, immune serum, immune response.

Cavanagh, R.; Begon, M.; Bennett, M.; Ergon, T.; Graham, I.M.; de Haas, P.E.W.; Hart, C.A.; Koedam, M.; Kremer, K.; Lambin, X.; Roholl, P.; van Soolingen, D.  Mycobacterium microti infection (vole tuberculosis) in wild rodent population. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2002. 40 (9) 3281-3285.
NAL call number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  disease prevalence, genetic correlation, genetic diversity, molecular genetics, skin lesions, tuberculosis, field surveillance, disease incidence, wild animals, Mycobacterium microti, voles, England, UK.

Chambers, M.A.; Pressling, W.A.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Hewinson, R.G. Value of existing serological tests for identifying badgers that shed Mycobacterium bovis. Veterinary Microbiology. 2002. 86 (3) 183-189. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  In the UK there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of bovine tuberculosis since the early 1990s and the badger has been identified as an important wildlife reservoir for this infection. Infected badgers can excrete Mycobacterium bovis, putting other badgers and cattle at risk of becoming infected. Vaccination has been proposed as an approach to reducing the excretion of M. bovis by tuberculous badgers. In order to evaluate the efficacy of a badger vaccine it will be necessary to accurately determine the number of badgers excreting M. bovis without removing them for postmortem evaluation. The existing live tests for tuberculosis in the badger (culture, indirect ELISA, Western blot) have not been assessed for their ability to detect badgers excreting M. bovis. Over the past 18 years, badgers from 31 social groups have been trapped and sampled in a study area of the Cotswold escarpment. We have examined the serological responses of 128 badgers trapped between 1985 and 1998 from social groups where M. bovis infection was endemic. These responses were compared with culture from faeces, urine, tracheal aspirates and bite wound swabs taken from these animals while alive. ELISA was found to be more sensitive than Western blot in detecting badgers excreting M. bovis. The majority of culture-positive badgers excreted M. bovis intermittently over the period of study. As a result, there was only a 27.5% chance of sampling a badger for culture when it was excreting M. bovis. In contrast, a positive ELISA result correctly predicted 68.2% of badgers with a history of excreting M. bovis. In the absence of alternative live tests for the badger, the Brock Test indirect ELISA appears to be more valuable than culture for measuring the effect of vaccination on reducing the number of badgers at risk of transmitting tuberculosis.
Descriptors:  disease transmission, badgers as a disease reservoir, ELISA, immunoblotting, immunology, serology, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Cooper, J.E.  Diagnostic pathology of selected diseases in wildlife.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2002. 21 (1) 77-89. Note:  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  analytical methods, diagnostic techniques, encephalitis, infectious diseases, pathology, tubersulosis, rabies, Rift Valley fever, spongiform encephalopathy, wildlife, West Nile virus, poxviruses, Mycobacterium.

Corner, L.A.L.; Norton, S.; Buddle, B.M.; Morris, R.S. The efficacy of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).  Research in Veterinary Science. 2002. 73 (2) 145-152.
NAL call number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:  BCG vaccine, Mycobacterium, disease prevention, immunization, vaccine potency, tuberculosis, vaccination, efficacy, wild animals, Trichosurus vulpecula, brushtail possums, New Zealand.

Corner, L.A.L.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; de Lisle, G.W.; Morris, R.S.; Buddle, B.M.  Natural transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection in captive brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).  New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2002. 50 (4) 154-162.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  animal behavior, disease transmission, brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, experimental infection, immunization, social interaction, tuberculosis, vaccination, Mycobacterium bovis.

Corner, L.A.L.; Buddle, B.M.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Morris, R.S. Vaccination of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) against Mycobacterium bovis infection with bacille Calmette-Guerin: the response to multiple doses. Veterinary Microbiology.  Feb 4, 2002. 84 (4) 327-336. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  In New Zealand, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the principal wildlife vector of bovine tuberculosis. Control of infected possum populations contributes to the control of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. Vaccination is potentially a complementary strategy to population control, but to be cost-effective, administration of the vaccine to possums would need to be from an appropriately designed automatic vaccinator. Possums themselves would activate the vaccinator so that it would deliver an aerosol spray of vaccine. There would be no direct way to prevent possums receiving multiple doses of vaccine. This study examined the effect on protective immunity of repeated vaccination. Captive possums were vaccinated with BCG strain pasteur 1173P2 either 12 times at weekly intervals, twice at 6-weekly intervals, or once. Vaccination was by a combination of intranasal aerosol and conjunctival instillation. Eight weeks after the last dose of vaccine, all possums were challenged intratracheally with Mycobacterium bovis strain 83/6235. Vaccination induced a significant immune response as measured by the lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA). A significant level of protection, as measured by the response to challenge, developed in all the vaccinated possum groups, but protection was greatest in the group vaccinated 12 times. It was concluded that protection would be enhanced if vaccinations were repeated at short intervals (weekly), but no benefit or detriment resulted from revaccination after longer intervals (1-2 months).
Descriptors:  brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, Mycobacterium bovis, vaccination, infection, dosage, disease vectors, infections, population control, automation, equipment, aerosols, aerosol sprayers, immunity, experimental infections, lymphocytes, New Zealand.

de Lisle, G.W.; Bengis, R.G.; Schmitt, S.M.; O'Brien, D.J. Tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife: detection, diagnosis and management. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2002. 21 (2) 317-334. In English with Spanish and French summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  cell mediated immunity, diagnosis, serology, tuberculosis, wildlife, Mycobacterium bovis.

Delahay, R.J.; de Leeuw, A.N.S.; Barlow, A.M.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L. The status of Mycobacterium bovis infection in UK wild mammals: a review. Veterinary Journal. 2002. 164 (2) 90-105. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  disease prevalence, incidence, reservoir hosts, reviews, tuberculosis, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Diegel, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Berry, D.E.; Church, S.V.; Reed, W.M.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Kaneene, J.B. Experimental inoculation of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Apr 2002. 38 (2) 275-281. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, disease transmission, experimental infection, oral administration, intramuscular injection, susceptibility, Mycobacterium bovis, American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, Michigan.

Frolich, K.; Thiede, S.; Kozikowski, T.; Jakob, W.  A review of mutual transmission of important infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife in Europe.  In:  E.P.J. Gibbs and B.H. Bokma, B.H. (editors).  The Domestic Animal/Wildlife Interface: Issues for Disease Control, Conservation, Sustainable Food Production, and Emerging Diseases Conference and Workshop Organised by the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and the Wildlife Diseases Association Wildlife and Livestock, Disease and Sustainability: What Makes Sense? Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, 22-27July,-2001.  Annals of New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 969 2002; 4-13.  ISBN:  1573314382
Descriptors:  wild red foxes, oral vaccination against rabies, zoonotic disease such as hog cholera in wild boar and domestic pigs, cattle and roe deer get BVD, myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease in rabbits, Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, wild boars, badgers, deer, viral diseases, bacterial disease, serological surveys, various European countries.

Fuller, W.A. Canada and the "buffalo", Bison bison: a tale of two herds.  Canadian Field Naturalist. 2002 January-March; 116 (1) 141-159  ISSN:  0008-3550
NAL call number:  410.9 OT8  
Descriptors:  Bison bison, plains buffalo, conservation measures, hear relocation, disease control, bacterial diseases, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, Mycobacterium, Brucella abortus, Wood Buffalo National Park, Relocation, herd management and culling, historical review, Alberta, Canada.  

Garnett, B.T.; Delahay, R.J.; Roper, T.J. Use of cattle farm resources by badgers (Meles meles) and risk of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission to cattle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. July 22, 2002. 269 (1499) 1487-1491. ISSN: 0962-8452
NAL call number:  501 L84B
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers, Meles meles, disease transmission, cattle housing, feeds, contamination, Mycobacterium bovis.

Grobler, D.G.; Michel, A.L.; de Klerk, L.M.; Bengis, R.G. The gamma-interferon test: its usefulness in a bovine tuberculosis survey in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2002. 69 (3) 221-227.
NAL call number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, gamma interferon assay technique, herd health, culling of reactors, serological surveys, Olifants River, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Hancox, M. The great badgers and bovine TB debate.  Journal of Agricultural Science. 2002, 139 (2) 223-226.  ISSN: 0021-8596
NAL call number:  10 J822
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, wildlife disease reservoir, disease control program, public health risks,  risk assessment, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, zoonoses.

Hutchings, M.R.; Service, Katrina, M.; Harris, S. Is population density correlated with faecal and urine scent marking in European badgers (Meles meles) in the UK?  Mammalian Biology. 2002; 67 (5) 286-293  ISSN:  1616-5047  Note:  In English with English and German summaries.  
NAL call number: 
QL700 Z4
Descriptors:  badgers,  Meles meles, wild animal disease reservoir, fecal and urine scent marking behavior,  dispersed patterns vs use of latrines, population density relationships, transmission,  Mycobacterium bovis, differences in behavior vs population density.

Kaneene, J.B.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Granger, L.M.; Miller, R.; Porter-Spalding, B.A. Environmental and farm management factors associated with tuberculosis on cattle farms in northeastern Michigan. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Sept 15, 2002. 221 (6) 837-842. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call number:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  cattle, farms, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, farm management, environmental factors, risk factors, wild animals, disease prevalence, livestock numbers, ponds, streams, Michigan.

Kaneene, J.B.; VanderKlok, M.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Schmitt, S.M.; Miller, R.A. Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cervids on privately owned ranches.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2002. 220 (5) 656-659. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call number:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  analytical methods, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, epidemiology, tuberculosis, Cervidae, coyotes, deer, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, wildlife, slaughter and skin testing, disease transmission, Michigan.

Livingstone, P.; McInnes, J.; Carter, C.; Ryan, T.; Hancox, N.  Controlling bovine tuberculosis in cattle where there is a wildlife source of infection. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 2002. No. 372, 33-42. Note:  A fresh perspective for managing milk-borne diseases. Proceedings of the Animal Health Conference, IDF World Dairy Summit 2001, Auckland, New Zealand, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.
NAL call number:  44.9 In82B
Descriptors:  costs, dairy cattle, dairy herds, disease control, disease transmission, disease vectors, tuberculosis, vector control, wild animals, wild pigs, cattle, Cervus elaphus, ferrets, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pigs, red deer, Trichosurus vulpecula, bovine tuberculosis, New Zealand.

McKenzie, J.S.; Morris, R.S.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Dymond, J.R. Application of remote sensing to enhance the control of wildlife-associated Mycobacterium bovis infection.  Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2002. 68 (2) 153-159.
NAL call number:  325.28 P56
Descriptors:  cost benefit analysis, disease control, remote sensing, tuberculosis, disease vector control, Mycobacterium bovis, Trichosurus vulpecula, brushtail possums, New Zealand.

Michel, A.L.  Implications of tuberculosis in African wildlife and livestock.   In:  E.P.J. Gibbs and B.H. Bokma, B.H. (editors).  The Domestic Animal/Wildlife Interface: Issues for Disease Control, Conservation, Sustainable Food Production, and Emerging Diseases Conference and Workshop Organised by the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and the Wildlife Diseases Association Wildlife and Livestock, Disease and Sustainability: What Makes Sense? Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, 22-27 July, 2001.  Annals of New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 969. 2002: 251-255.  ISBN:  1573314382
Descriptors: cattle, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, Papio ursinus, Potamochoerus-porcus, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Tragelaphus scriptus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Panthero leo, Crocuta crocuta, disease control, disease transmission between wildlife species and domestic livestock.

Morley, C.G. Ferret (Mustela furo) abundance, survival and recruitment on farmland in North Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 2002. 29 (1) 23-31.
NAL call number:  QL1 A1N4
Descriptors:  wild animals, disease reservoirs, ferret behavior, trapping programs, Mycobacterium bovis, seasonal variation, population density, cost benefit analysis, control programs, New Zealand.

Nishi, J.S.; Elkin, B.T.; Ellsworth, T.R.  The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project: can a disease-free captive wood bison herd be recovered from a wild population infected with bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis?  In:  E.P.J. Gibbs and B.H. Bokma. (editors).  The Domestic Animal/Wildlife Interface: Issues for Disease Control, Conservation, Sustainable Food Production, and Emerging Diseases Conference and Workshop Organised by the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and the Wildlife Diseases Association Wildlife and Livestock, Disease and Sustainability: What Makes Sense? Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, 22-27-July,-2001.  Annals of New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 969 2002; 229-235.  ISBN:  1573314382
Descriptors:  captive disease free herd of wood bison, wildlife conservation, source herd has Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus, several strategies, removing newborn calves, testing calves for maternal antibodies before inclusion, isolating calves in pairs, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics, whole herd testing program to remove reactors, 58 member founder herd, disease prevention and control., Canada.

Nishi, J.S.; Stephen, C.; Elkin, B.T.  Implications of agricultural and wildlife policy on management and eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in free-ranging wood bison of Northern Canada.  In:  E.P.J. Gibbs and B.H. Bokma. (editors).  The Domestic Animal/Wildlife Interface: Issues for Disease Control, Conservation, Sustainable Food Production, and Emerging Diseases Conference and Workshop Organised by the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and the Wildlife Diseases Association Wildlife and Livestock, Disease and Sustainability: What Makes Sense? Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, 22-27-July,-2001.  Annals of New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 969. 2002: 236-244.  ISBN:  1573314382
Descriptors:  bison (Bison bison), free ranging wild animals, game animals, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella abortus, disease eradication, disease prevention and control, agricultural policy, epidemiology, wildlife conservation, wildlife management, domestic animal/wild life interface issues, Canada.

Nugent, G.; Whitford, J.; Young, N.  Use of released pigs as sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2002, 38 (4) 665-677. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors: feral pigs, Sus scrofa, disease surveys, epidemiology, sentinel animals, sentinel surveillance, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

O'Brien, D.J.; Schmitt, S.M.; Fierke, J.S.; Hogle, S.A.; Winterstein, S.R.; Cooley, T.M.; Moritz, W.E.; Diegel, K.L.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Berry, D.E.  Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer, Michigan, USA, 1995-2000.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2002; 54 (1): 47-63.  ISSN: 0167-5877
URL:  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503315/description#description
NAL Call Number:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  white tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiology, outbreaks surveillance, reservoir hosts, disease prevalence, risk factors, postmortem examinations, sex differences, age differences, geographical variation, Michigan.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L. Milk containing Mycobacterium bovis as a source of infection for white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus). Tuberculosis. 2002, 82 (4-5) 161-165.  ISSN:  1472-9792
Descriptors: deer, Mycobacterium bovis, Odocoileus virginianus, female animals, lymph nodes, contaminated milk transmammary transmission, tuberculosis.

Palmer, M.V.; Gosch, G.; Lyon, R.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L. Apoptosis in lymph node granulomas from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Comparative Pathology. 2002. 127 (1) 7-13.
NAL call number:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:  apoptosis, experimental infection, granuloma, inflammation, lymph nodes, morphometrics, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Odocoileus virginianus, intra-tonsillar injection.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L. Lesion development in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  Veterinary Pathology. 2002. 39 (3) 334-340.
NAL call number:  41.8 P27
Descriptors:  clinical aspects, pathogenesis, experimental infection, intra-tonsilar instillation, lesions, respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, white tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Iowa.

Palmer, M.V.; Waters, W.R.; Whipple, D.L. Susceptibility of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  Apr 2002. 38 (2) 266-274. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, disease transmission, experimental infection, oral administration, intravenous injection, Mycobacterium bovis, Michigan

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Butler, K.L.; Fitzerald, S.D.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Schmitt, S.M. Tonsillar lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Veterinary Record.  Aug 3, 2002. 151 (5) 149-150. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  lesions, tonsils, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium bovis, pathogenesis, tuberculosis, Michigan.

Pavlik, I.; Machackova, M.; Ayele, W.Y.; Lamka, J.; Parmova, I.; Melicharek, I.; Hanzlikova, M.; Kormendy, B.; Nagy,G.; Cvetnic, Z.; Ocepek, M.; Lipiec, M.  Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals other than cattle in six Central European countries during 1990-1999.  Veterinarni Medicina. 2002. 47 (5) 122-131.
NAL call number:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  disease prevalence, disease transmission, domestic animals, epidemiology, game animals, tuberculosis, sheep, boars, wild goats, Bison bison, Bison bonasus, Camelus bactrianus, Bactrian camels, Casuarius, cassowary, Cervus elaphus, Connochaetes taurinus, dogs, zoo animals, Felis concolor, puma, sitatungas, elands, gnu, Vietnamese pot-bellied pig. Giraffa camelopardalis, giraffes, Mycobacterium bovis, pigs, red deer, sheep, Tapirus terrestris, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus, Central Europe.

Payeur, Janet B.; Church, S.; Mosher, L.; Robinson-Dunn, B.; Schmitt, S.; Whipple, D.   Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2002; 969: 259-261 ISSN:  0077-8923
NAL call number:  500 N484
Descriptors:  wild animals, bacterial diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, prevalence in wildlife and livestock, wild animal as disease reservoirs, Michigan.

Pons, L. An easy, inexpensive test detects tuerculosis in livestock and wildlife.  Agricultural Research.  Nov 2002. 50 (11) 20-21. ISSN: 0002-161X
URL:
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/
NAL call number:  1.98 Ag84
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, animal diseases, livestock, wildlife, testing and disease control, Mycobacterium bovis, blood sampling, diagnostic techniques, assays, USA.

Prodinger, W.M.; Eigentler, A.; Allerberger, F.; Schonbauer, M.; Glawischnig, W. Infection of red deer, cattle, and humans with Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in western Austria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. June 2002. 40 (6) 2270-2272. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL call number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, red deer, cattle, zoonotic aspects, epidemiology, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae.

Ramsey, D.; Spencer, N.; Caley, P.; Efford, M.; Hansen, K.; Lam, M.; Cooper, D.  The effects of reducing population density on contact rates between brushtail possums: implications for transmission of bovine tuberculosis. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2002. 39 (5) 806-818.
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  animal behavior, animal ecology, breeding season, contacts, disease transmission, mating behavior, estrus, population density, reservoir hosts, tuberculosis, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

Schmitt, Stephen M.; O'Brien, Daniel J.; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S.; Fitzgerald, Scott D. Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife and livestock. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2002; 969: 262-268  ISSN: 0077-8923
NAL call number:  500 N484
Descriptors:  wild animals, bacterial diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, prevalence in wildlife and livestock, Michigan.

Simpson, V.R. Wild animals as reservoirs of infectious diseases in the UK. Veterinary Journal.  Mar 2002. 163 (2) 128-146. ISSN: 1090-0233 
http://intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tvjl/
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Abstract:  This review aims to illustrate the extent to which wildlife act as reservoirs of infectious agents that cause disease in domestic stock, pet and captive animals and humans. More than 40 agents are described. In the case of some of these, e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli O157 and malignant catarrhal fever, the current evidence is that wildlife either does not act as a reservoir or is of limited importance. However, in the case of many important diseases, including bovine tuberculosis, Weil's disease, Lyme disease, avian influenza, duck virus enteritis and louping ill, wild animals are considered to be the principal source of infection. Wildlife may be involved in the epidemiology of other major diseases, such as neosporosis, Johne's disease, mucosal disease and foot and mouth disease, but further studies are needed. The UK would benefit from a more positive approach to the study of wildlife and the infections they harbour.
Descriptors:  wild animals, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, parasitoses, reservoir hosts, livestock, epidemiology, disease transmission, pathogens, literature reviews, UK.

Sleeman, D.P.; Cussen, R.E.; Southey, A.K.; O'Leary, D. The badgers Meles meles (L.) of Coney Island, Co Sligo.  Irish Naturalists' Journal. 2002; 27(1): 10-18  ISSN:  0021-1311
NAL call number:  410 IR42
Descriptors:  Meles meles, wild badgers as a bacterial disease reservoir, disease transmission, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, population dynamics, island habitat, Republic of Ireland.  

Rogers, L.M.; Hounsome, T.D.; Cheeseman, C.L. An evaluation of passive integrated transponders (PITs) as a means of permanently marking Badgers (Meles meles).  Mammal Review. 2002, 32 (1) 63-65. ISSN:  0305-1838
NAL call number:  QL700.M24
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, Meles meles, Mycobacterium bovis, identification, markers, sentinel animals, sentinel surveillance, transponders, tuberculosis,
England.

Rose, H.  Recognising the symptoms of tuberculosis in the field: a guide for deer stalkers. Deer, Journal of the British Deer Society.  2002. 12 (3) 160-161.
Descriptors:  deer, tuberculosis infections, clinical aspects, disease prevalence, epidemiology, symptoms, hunting, recognizing infected animals, Mycobacterium, UK.

Skinner, M.A.; Keen, D.L.; Parlane, N.A.; Yates, G.F.; Buddle, B.M. Increased protection against bovine tuberculosis in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) when BCG is administered with killed Mycobacterium vaccae. Tuberculosis. 2002. 82 (1) 15-22.
Descriptors:  immunization, tuberculin, tuberculosis, vaccination, Mycobacterium vaccae, Trichosurus vulpecula, wild brushtail possum as disease reservoir, New Zealand.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.  Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): detection of immunoglobulin specific to crude mycobacterial antigens by ELISA.  Journal Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  Nov 2002.  14 (6): 470-475.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL:  http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call Number:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium bovis, ELISA, antigens, antibody detection, antigen antibody reactions.

Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Sacco, R.E.; Whipple, D.L.  Nitric oxide production as an indication of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Apr 2002. 38 (2) 338-343. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, tuberculosis, immune response, nitrites, macrophage activation, Michigan.

2001

Allen, W.; Bosch, O.; Kilvington, M.; Oliver, J.; Gilbert, M. Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: applying the integrated systems for knowledge management approach to support animal pest control. Environmental Management. Feb 2001. 27 (2) 215-223. ISSN: 0364-152X
NAL call number:  HC79.E5E5
Descriptors:  diffusion of information, information services, internet, Bovidae, tuberculosis, case studies, Mycobacterium.

Anonymous. Notifiable disease and deer: BDS training committee notice. Deer, Journal of the British Deer Society. 2001. 11 (10) 554-556.
Descriptors:  deer, disease control, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemiology, foot and mouth disease, lesions, reservoir hosts, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Wales, Scotland, England, UK.

Artois, M.; Delahay, R.; Guberti, V.; Cheeseman, C. Control of infectious diseases of wildlife in Europe. Veterinary Journal. Sept 2001. 162 (2) 141-152. ISSN: 1090-0233
http://intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tvjl/
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Abstract:  During the last 30 years, new epidemiological patterns have emerged as free-ranging wildlife have become progressively more involved in the epidemiology of both common and emerging infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. This has been seen in rabies, bovine tuberculosis and more recently in wild-boar classical swine fever. Emerging diseases are of interest to veterinarians as well as public health officials but attempts to control these diseases have not always been successful as in wildlife populations control of either host or pathogen can present particular problems. Lessons should be learnt from previous experiences to help in the management of new emerging diseases in the future.
Descriptors:  wildlife, animal diseases, Mycobacterium, disease control, infectious diseases, disease prevalence, Europe.

Avylov, Ch. Problems of rat control on pig farms. Svinovodstvo. Moskva. 2001. No. 3, 17-20. Note:  In Russian.
NAL call number:  46.8 SV33
Descriptors:  rats as disease vectors, zoonotic disease, pig farms, dead and trapped rats, Brucella, brucellosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, leptospirosis, pest control and eradication.

Barlow, N.D.; Norbury, G. A simple model for ferret population dynamics and control in semi-arid New Zealand habitats. Wildlife Research. 2001. 28 (1) 87-94.
NAL call number:  S960 W5
Descriptors:
  Mustela furo, bovine tuberculosis, native fauna, population control of an invasive species, Ricker model, population dynamics, rabbit density, pest control.

Bengis, R.G.; Keet, D.F.; Michel, A.L.; Kriek, N.P.J. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, in a kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from a commercial game farm in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2001. 68 (3) 239-241.
NAL call number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  clinical aspects, diagnosis, lymph nodes, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, South Africa.

Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Schmitt, S.M.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Fierke, J.S.; Friedrich, P.D.; Kaneene, J.B.; Clarke, K.A.; Butler, K.L.; Payeur, J.B.; Whipple, D.L.; Cooley, T.M.; Miller, J.M.; Muzo, D.P. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  Jan 2001. 37 (1) 58-64. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  disease prevalence and transmission, wildlife, lynx, Lynx rufus, Mustelidae, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, deer, Odocoileus virginianus, coyotes, Procyon lotor, bears, Ursus americanus, Vulpes cinereoargenteus, foxes, Vulpes vulpes, raccoons, bobcat, Michigan, USA.

Byrom, A.E. Ferrets as vectors of bovine Tb in New Zealand: a review. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 2001. 61: 60-63. Note:  61st Conference, Lincoln University, New Zealand, 25-27 June 2001.
NAL call number:  49.9 N483
Descriptors:  age differences, disease prevalence, disease vectors, hosts, livestock, reviews, sex differences, tuberculosis, wild animals, cattle, ferrets, Mycobacterium bovis, New Zealand.

Caley, P.; Ramsey, D. Estimating disease transmission in wildlife, with emphasis on leptospirosis and bovine tuberculosis in possums, and effects of fertility control.  Journal of Applied Ecology. 2001. 38 (6) 1362-1370.
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  animal behavior, animal models, disease transmission coefficients in wildlife, epidemiology, mating behavior, sterilization, Leptospira interrogans, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, Trichosurus vulpecula.

Caley, P.; Coleman, J.D.; Hickling, G.J. Habitat-related prevalence of macroscopic Mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), Hohonu Range, Westland, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2001. 49 (3) 82-87.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  disease prevalence, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, epidemiology in brushtail possums, geographical distribution, high altitude habitats, infection, landforms, lowland areas, mountain areas, population density, slopes, spatial distribution, tuberculosis, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

Chambers, M.A.; Stagg, D.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Lowrie, D.; Newell, D.; Hewinson, R.G. A DNA vaccine encoding MPB83 from Mycobacterium bovis reduces M. bovis dissemination to the kidneys of mice and is expressed in primary cell cultures of the European badger (Meles meles). Research in Veterinary Science.  Oct 2001. 71 (2) 119-126. ISSN: 0034-5288
NAL call number:  41.8 R312
Abstract:  Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccination against tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) is one approach to addressing the escalating problem of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. The aim of vaccination is to reduce the burden of tuberculosis within the badger population and the shedding of Mycobacterium bovis to levels that would break the transmission of infection to cattle. To this end, the vaccine would be required to limit the amount of disseminated tuberculosis in the badger, especially dissemination to the kidney from where M. bovis can be shed in the urine. A promising candidate DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa major antigen (MPB83) of M. bovis was evaluated in a mouse model of disseminated M bovis infection. Using the DNA vaccine, protection against infection of the kidney was found to be greater than that achieved with the current live vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Kidney tissue and skeletal muscle from the badger was used to derive primary cell cultures in which to examine the expression of MPB83 following transfection with the DNA vaccine. Kidney cortex gave rise to a monotypic culture of epithelial cells whilst the muscle gave rise to a mixed culture of fibroblasts and myoblasts. During culture the myoblasts differentiated into multinucleated myotubes, verified by immunofluorescent detection of mammalian desmin. Successful expression of MPB83 by transfected epithelial and myotube cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody specific to the protein. These observations fulfill the early requirements for the development of a DNA vaccine for badger tuberculosis.
Descriptors: Meles meles, badgers, cell cultures, DNA vaccines, Mycobacterium bovis, antigens, morphology, kidneys, skeletal muscle, mice, transfection, vaccine development, tuberculosis.

Coleman, J.D.; Cooke, M.M. Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife in New Zealand. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (3) 191-202.
Descriptors:  wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, animal pathology, disease prevalence, epidemiology, hosts, tuberculosis, review, New Zealand.

Coleman, J.D. Possums as vectors of Tb in livestock. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 2001. 61:  57-59. Note:  61st Conference, Lincoln University, New Zealand, 25-27 June 2001.
NAL call number:  49.9 N483
Descriptors:  animal pathology, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemiology, lung lesions, cattle, livestock, lymph nodes, tuberculosis, vector control, wild animals, Mycobacterium bovis, Trichosurus vulpecula, brushtail possums, New Zealand.

Corner, L.A.L.; Buddle, B.M.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Morris, R.S. Aerosol vaccination of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) with bacille Calmette-Guerin: the duration of protection. Veterinary Microbiology.  July 26, 2001. 81 (2) 181-191. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call number:  SF601.V44
Abstract:  Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand. The disease is controlled by reducing or eliminating infected possum populations, but control methods do not kill all possums in the targeted area, leaving some tuberculous possums to maintain the disease. Vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to provide significant levels of protection. Vaccination is a potential alternative or complementary control strategy if protection is long lasting. Captive possums were vaccinated with a single dose of BCG by intranasal aerosol and challenged by intratracheal instillation of Mycobacterium bovis 2, 6 or 12 months after vaccination. Vaccination produced significant immunity as measured by the lymphocyte proliferative response to bovine PPD and protection in response to challenge. The protective response was seen as a decrease in the mass of pulmonary lesions and decreased dissemination to the abdominal organs and body lymph nodes. The protective effect was strongest at 2 months after vaccination but was still present at a lower level at 12 months. Delivery of an aerosol vaccine to possums in the wild using a self-delivery system could contribute substantially to wildlife tuberculosis control.
Descriptors:
  Trichosurus vulpecula, vaccination, aerosols, Mycobacterium bovis, reservoir hosts, disease control, duration, aerosol delivered live vaccines, immunity, lymphocyte transformation, lesions, symptoms, lymph nodes, tuberculosis control, New Zealand.

Correa, S.H.R.; de C. Passos, E.; Fowler, M.E. (ed.); Cubas, Z.S. Wild animals and public health. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. 2001. p. 493-499. Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA.
NAL call number:  SF996.4 B56 2001
Descriptors:  bacterial diseases, Chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, leptospirosis, occupational health, rabies, salmonellosis, shigellosis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, wild animals, zoonoses.

de Lisle, G.W.  Bovine tuberculosis: a view from down under. Veterinary Journal.  May 2001. 161 (3) 220-221. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL:
http://intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tvjl/
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, deer, badgers, disease control programs, tuberculosis disease control, UK, New Zealand.

de Vos, V.; Bengis, R.G.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Michel, A.; Keet, D.F.; Raath, J.P.; Huchzermeyer, H.F.K.A. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2001. 68 (2) 119-130.
NAL call number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, disease survey results 1990-1996, transmission, infected cattle herds, chacma baboon, Papio ursinus, lion Panthera leo, cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, leopard, Panthera pardus.

Delahay, R.J.; de Leeuw, A.N.S.; Claridge, M.; Harris, A.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Barlow, A.M.; Millar, M.F.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. First report of Mycobacterium bovis in a muntjac deer.  Veterinary Record. 2001. 149 (3) 95-96. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  case reports, wild animals, Muntiacus, Mycobacterium bovis, first recorded case, UK.

Delahay, R.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 43-49. Note: Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000.
Descriptors:  animal behavior, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, reservoir hosts, wildlife, cats, deer, cattle, foxes, ferrets, badgers, mink, rats, Rattus norvegicus, Talpa europaea, Great Britain, New Zealand.

Enticott, G. Calculating nature: the case of badgers, bovine tuberculosis and cattle. Journal of Rural Sudies.  Apr 2001. 17 (2) 149-164. ISSN: 0743-0167
NAL call number:  HT401.J68
Abstract:  The aim of the paper is to examine the governmentalities associated with attempts to manage nature. In particular, it assesses the role that numbers have played in rural governance. Numbers are seen as an important tool of modern government. However, like other aspects of science, their use in governing nature has been contested by other epistemologies. Drawing upon efforts to regulate the spread of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, the paper firstly examines how numbers have been used in this policy debate. Secondly, the paper outlines three epistemologies of nature--nature as numbers, nature as known and ecological nature--which have been employed in contesting government policy. Finally the paper concludes by analysing the interactions of these knowledges of nature and considering the voice of the badger in these constructions of its identity.
Descriptors:  badgers, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, disease control, disease transmission, Ministries of Agriculture, government policy, rural areas, farmers' attitudes, UK.

Forrester, G.J.; Delahay, R.J.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Screening badgers (Meles meles) for Mycobacterium bovis infection by using multiple applications of an ELISA. Veterinary Record. 2001. 149 (6) 169-172. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, diagnostic value, sensitivity of ELISA screening, badgers as disease vectors, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Meles meles, cattle, badgers.

Gavier-Widen, D.; Chambers, M.A.; Palmer, N.; Newell, D.G.; Hewinson, R.G. Pathology of natural Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles) and its relationship with bacterial excretion.  Veterinary  Record. Mar 10, 2001. 148 (10) 299-304. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:
  Meles meles, European badger, Mycobacterium bovis, shedding of Mycobacterium bovis organisma, tuberculosis, histopathology, trachea, lymph nodes, urine, lesions, lungs, animal tissues.

Hammond, R.F.; McGrath, G.; Martin, S.W.  Irish soil and land-use classifications as predictors of numbers of badgers and badger setts. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2001. 51 (3-4) 137-148.
NAL call number:  SF601 P7
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, land use, spatial distribution, disease reservoirs, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Irish Republic.

Hutchings, M.R.; Service, K.M.; Harris, S. Defecation and urination patterns of badgers Meles meles at low density in south west England. Acta Theriologica. 2001. 46 (1) 87-96.
NAL call number:  410 AC88
Descriptors:  defecation, disease transmission, feces, latrine areas, badgers, population distribution, population dynamics, risk assessment, cattle, risk factors, seasonal variations, spatial distribution, tuberculosis, urination patterns, urine, disease reservoirs, Meles meles, England.

Keet, D.F.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Bengis, R.G.; Michel, A.L. Tuberculosis in kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2001. 68 (3) 225-230.
NAL call number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  kudus, generalized tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, lymphadenitis, head, neck, thoras, mesentery, granulomatous pneumonia, control measures, sources of infection, disease transmission, DNA analysis, South Africa.

Mc Ilroy, J.C. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: feral pig.  Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 2001. 31 (1) 225-231.
NAL call number:  QH301 R62
Descriptors:  feral pigs, biological development, damage, food, geographical distribution, geographical variation, mortality, pest control, poisoning of animal pests, population density, population dynamics, reproduction, social behavior, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Montali, R.J.; Mikota, S.K.; Cheng, L.I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 291-303. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  diagnosis, disease survey, prevalence, wild and zoo animals, disease control, zoonotic diseases.

Moutou, F.; Artois, M.; de V Cheuiche, A.J. Os animais selvagens como reservatorios potenciais de zoonoses. [Wild animals as potential deposits of zoonoses.] A Hora Veterinaria. 2001. 21 (124) 29-32. Note:  In Portuguese with English and French summaries.
Descriptors:  disease transmission, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, wild animals, zoonoses.

O'Brien, D.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Lyon, T.J.; Butler, K.L.; Fierke, J.S.; Clarke, K.R.; Schmitt, S.M.; Cooley, T.M.; Berry, D.E. Tuberculous lesions in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2001. 37 (3) 608-613. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, wildlife disease surveys, epidemiology, lesions, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, white tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Michigan, USA.

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Waters, W.R. Experimental deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis. American Journal of Veterinary Research.  May 2001. 62 (5) 692-696. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call number:  41.8 Am3A
Descriptors:  deer, Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission, experimental infections, secretions saliva, pelleted feeds, tuberculosis, lungs, lymph nodes, urine, feces, hay, nasal secretions.

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Waters, W.R. Tuberculin skin testing in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2001. 13 (6) 530-533. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL call number:  SF774 J68
Descriptors:  cervical skin test, diagnosis of infection, tuberculin, white-tailed deer, Mycobacterium bovis, Odocoileus virginianus, skin thickness, antemortem diagnosis.

Perez, J.; Calzada, J.; Leon-Vizcaino, L.; Cubero, M.J.; Velarde, J.; Mozos, E. Tuberculosis in an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina).  Veterinary Record. Mar 31, 2001. 148 (13) 414-415. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:
  Iberian lynx, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, histopathology, lesions, postmortem examinations, case reports, Spain.

Smith, G.C.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Wilkinson, D. A model of bovine tuberculosis in the badger Meles meles: an evaluation of control strategies. Journal of Applied Ecology.  June 2001. 38 (3) 509-519. ISSN: 0021-8901
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, badgers, Meles meles, disease control, methods, simulation models, epidemiology, disease prevalence.

Smith, G.C.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Wilkinson, D.; Clifton Hadley, R.S. A model of bovine tuberculosis in the badger Meles meles: the inclusion of cattle and the use of a live test. Journal of Applied Ecology.  June 2001. 38 (3) 520-535. ISSN: 0021-8901
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, badgers, Meles meles, infection, disease control, disease transmission, culling, ELISA, stochastic models, simulation models, population dynamics, epidemiology, vectorial capacity, disease prevalence, England.

Smith, G.C.; Ellner, J.J. (ed.); Brennan, P.J. (ed.); Young, D. Models of Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife and cattle. Tuberculosis. 2001. 81 (1-2) 51-64. Note:  Third international conference on Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis 2000, Cambridge, UK, 13-16 August, 2000.
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, deer, Didelphidae, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, disease control, disease models, reviews, simulation models, wild animals, small mammals.

Southey, A.; Sleeman, D.P.S.; Lloyd, K.; Dalley, D.; Chambers, M.A.; Hewinson, R.G.; Gormley, E. Immunological responses of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette Guerin). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2001. 79 (3-4) 197-207. ISSN: 0165-2427
NAL call number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  antibodies, antigens, immune response, immunity, lymphocyte transformation, T lymphocytes, vaccination, Meles meles, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain.

Southey, A.K.; Sleeman, D.P.; Prendergast, J.; O'Sullivan, R.F.; Mulcahy, M.F. Use of biomarkers to assess the feasibility of delivering a vaccine to badgers (Meles meles). Journal of Zoology. 2001. 253 (1) 133-139.
NAL call number:  450 J829
Descriptors:  controlled study, effective biomarkers, iophenoxic, tetracycline, bait uptake study, free-living badgers, canine teeth sectioning, method to track vaccine update, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis control.

Skinner, M.A.; Wedlock, D.N.; Buddle, B.M. Vaccination of animals against Mycobacterium bovis.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 112-132. Note:  In English with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL call number:  SF781 R4
Descriptors:  disease control, immune response, immunology, recombinant vaccines, tuberculosis, vaccination, wildlife, cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis.

2000

Arora, B.M.; Verma, R. (ed.); Sharma, N. (ed.); Varma, T.K. (ed.); Bagherwal, R.K. (ed.); Jaiswal, T.N. Tuberculosis in wild mammals in India. Advancements in Veterinary Science. p. 92-105.  Note:  Indian Veterinary Congress, Izatnagar, India, 18-19 February 2000.
Descriptors:  wild animals, mammals, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, epidemiology, disease prevention, treatment, case reports, disease control, India.

Bengis, R.G.; Keet, D.F. Bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. [Gainesville, Fla.].  Eastern States Veterinary Association. 2000. v. 14  p. 1034-1036. Note:  Meeting held on January 15-19, 2000. Orlando, Florida.
NAL call number:  SF605.N672
Descriptors:  Bovidae, Papio ursinus, Felidae, Mycobacterium bovis, clinical aspects, epidemiology, South Africa.

Bhowmik, M.K. Disease spectrum and fawn mortality of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in Eastern Himalayan region. Tigerpaper. 2000. 27 (4) 17-20.
NAL call number:  QL84.5 A1T53
Descriptors:  diseases, hog deer, Axis porcinus, action plan for species, postmortem screening data, tuberculosis, pneumonia, colibacillosis, parasitic diseases, stillbirths, injuries.

Blancou, J; Blancou, J.  Histoire de la surveillance et du controle des maladies animals transmissibles. [History of the monitoring and the control of transmissible animal diseases.] Office International des Epizooties; Paris; France. 2000. xiv + 366 pp. Note:  In French.
Descriptors:  history, symptoms, lesions, etiology, pathology, epidemiology, preventive measures, treatment, legislative aspects of transmissible animal diseases, sheep pox, foot and mouth disease, anthrax, distemper, glanders, contagious pleuropneumonia, rinderpest, African horse sickness, rabies, tuberculosis, tetanus, cysticercosis, dourine, fascioliasis, mange and scabies, endoparasites, cattle, dogs, goat, horse, sheep, swine, wild animals.

Bollo, E.; Ferroglio, E.; Dini, V.; Mignone, W.; Biolatti, B.; Rossi, L. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa) by a target-amplified test system.  Journal of  Veterinary Medicine, Series B. June 2000. 47 (5) 337-342. ISSN: 0931-1793
NAL call number:  41.8 Z52
Descriptors:  wild pigs, Sus scrofa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, detection, lymph nodes, histology, lesions, clinical aspects, histopathology, necrosis, ribosomal RNA.

Briones, V.; de Juan, L.; Sanchez, C.; Vela, A.I.; Galka, M.; Montero, N.; Goyache, J.; Aranaz, A.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L. Bovine tuberculosis and the endangered Iberian lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000. 6 (2) 189-191.
NAL call number:  RA648.5 E46
Descriptors:
  Lynx lynx, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiology, tuberculosis, endangered species, case reports, wild animals, Spain.

Buddle, B.M.; Skinner, M.A.; Chambers, M.A. Immunological approaches to the control of tuberculosis in wildlife reservoirs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Apr 19, 2000. 74 (1/2) 1-16. ISSN: 0165-2427
NAL call number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, wildlife, disease reservoir hosts, wildlife management, infections, vaccines, biological control, diagnosis, disease transmission, serology, vaccination, literature reviews, New Zealand.

Buddle, B.M.; Young, L.J.; Deane, E.M. (ed.); Miller, R.D. Immunobiology of mycobacterial infections in marsupials. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. Special issue: Marsupial Immunology.  2000. 24 (5) 517-529.
NAL call number:  QR180 D4
Descriptors:  marsupials, mycobacterial infection, brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, disease reservoirs, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, danger to captive marsupials, cellular immunity, disease process, immunity deficiencies, vaccine, New Zealand.

Chambers, M.A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Stanley, P.A.; Hewinson, R.G. Biochemical and haematological parameters associated with tuberculosis in European badgers. Veterinary Record.  June 17, 2000. 146 (25) 734-735. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, blood chemistry, hematology.

Clark, T.W. Wildlife resources: the elk of Jackson Hole, Wyoming.  Bulletin Series. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. 2000. No. 104, 171-187.
NAL call number:  99.9 Y1B
Descriptors:  animal diseases, biodiversity, centralization, community involvement, costs, decision making, ecological disturbance, environmental degradation, habitats, plant communities, supplementary feeding, wildlife management, tuberculosis valuation, wildlife conservation, brucellosis, Cervus elephus, American elk, waipiti, Wyoming.

Cooke, M.M. Tuberculous sialoadenitis in a badger. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2000. 48 (4) 122.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, case reports, reservoir hosts, wild animals, salivary glands, salivary gland diseases, badgers, New Zealand.

Corner, L.A.; Lugton, I.; Collins, D.M.; Morris, R.S.  Use of molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis to study reemergence of tuberculosis in a wild brushtail possum population.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: Id 253
Descriptors:  cattle pathogen, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, pathogen levels, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

Corner, L.A.; Buddle, B.M.; Lisle, G.W. de; Norton, S.; Morris, R.S.  BCG aerosol vaccination of brushtail possums against Mycobacterium bovis infection in the wild.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11 2000.  2000; Id 252
Descriptors:  wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), disease control, Mycobacterium bovis, BCG, efficacy, vaccination by aerosol, immune sensitization

Corner, L.A.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Morris, R.S.  Use of social network analysis to study Mycobacterium bovis infection of captive brushtail possums.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: Id 244.
Descriptors:  captive brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), Mycobacterium bovis, animal behavior, bacterial infections, wildlife disease vectors and reservoirs, bacterioses, behaviors.

Cross, M.L.; Labes, R.E.; Mackintosh, C.G. Oral infection of ferrets with virulent Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium avium: susceptibility, pathogenesis and immune response.  Journal of Comparative Pathology. 2000. 123 (1) 15-21.
NAL call number:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:  ferrets, immune response, pathogenesis, histopathology, mycobacterial diseases, tuberculosis, reservoir hosts, susceptibility, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis.

Cross, M.L.; Labes, R.E.; Griffin, J.F.T.; Mackintosh, C.G. Systemic but not intra-intestinal vaccination with BCG reduces the severity of tuberculosis infection in ferrets (Mustela furo). International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2000. 4 (5) 473-480. Note in English with French and Spanish abstracts.
Descriptors:  ferrets, disease reservoirs and vectors, tuberculosis, BCG vaccine, vaccination, experimental infections, bacterial diseases, transmission control, experimental infection, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium bovis, New Zealand.

Day, T.D.; O'Connor, C.E. Behavioural adaptation of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) to captivity. Animal Welfare. 2000. 9 (4) 413-420.
NAL call number:  HV4701 A557
Descriptors:  wild animal disease reservoir, tuberculosis, brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula research animal, behavior in captive situation, individual caged, adaption time.

Delahay, R.J.; Langton, S.; Smith, G.C.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L. The spatio-temporal distribution of Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) infection in a high-density badger population. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2000. 69 (3) 428-441.
NAL call number:  410 J826
Descriptors:  European badger, Meles meles, disease reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, Britain, Ireland, spatio-temporal distribution and variation, epidemiology, ecology, wild population density, disease prevalence, gender differences, persistence.

Eves, J. Le blaireau et la tuberculose bovine. [Badgers and bovine tuberculosis.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. No. 37, 45-50. Note: Association pour l'Etude de l'Epidemiologie des Maladies Animales meeting, 18 May 2000:  Epidemiology and Wildlife in Europe. In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, disease transmission, reservoir hosts, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, wild animals, badgers, Meles meles, Irish Republic.

Fann, C.S.; Mitchell, R.R.; Berry, D.E.; Payeur, J.B. Comparison of postmortem techniques for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2000. 12 (4) 322-327. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL call number:  SF774 J68
Descriptors:  surveillance program, Mycobacterium bovis, deer, histopathology, acid-fast bacilli, group specific probe, specificity, predictive value, comparison for sensitivity, wild animal testing, Michigan.

Frank, J.; Griffin, T. Veterinary tuberculosis vaccine development.  Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2000. 30 (Supp 3) S223-S228.
NAL call number:  RC111 R4
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, vaccines, wild animals, disease control, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium bovis. 

Gallagher, J.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Tuberculosis in badgers; a review of the disease and its significance for other animals. Research in Veterinary Science. Dec 2000. 69 (3) 203-217. ISSN: 0034-5288
NAL call number:  41.8 R312
Descriptors:
  Meles meles, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, pathology, pathogenesis, immunity diagnosis, excretion, epidemiology, wild animals, domestic animals, disease transmission, control methods, literature reviews.

Good, M.; O' Boyle, I.  Results of post mortem examination of badgers in Ireland for evidence of Mycobacterium bovis.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: Id 167.
Descriptors:  badgers (Meles meles), Mycobacterium bovis, intradermal tests, post mortem exams, Ireland.

Gormley, E.; Collins, J.D. The development of wildlife control strategies for eradication of tuberculosis in cattle in Ireland. Tubercle and Lung Disease. 2000. 80 (4-5) 229-236.
Descriptors:  disease reservoirs, badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, disease transmission, epidemiology, protected wildlife species, disease control and eradication, vaccination programs, Irish Republic.

Griffin, J.M.; Quigley, F.; Towey, K.P.; Costello, E.; Hammond, R.F.; McGrath, G.; Sleeman, D.P.; Collins, J.D.  A field trial to assess the impact of badger removal on tuberculosis levels in cattle in four geographical areas in IrelandProceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. 2000: Id 184
Descriptors:  badgers, cattle, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, autopsy, control programs, disease surveillance, postmortem inspections, Ireland

Griffin, J.F.T.; Mackintosh, C.G.  Tuberculosis in deer: perceptions, problems and progress. Veterinary Journal.  Nov 2000. 160 (3) 202-219. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL:
http://intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tvjl/
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  deer tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control, incidence, disease transmission, diagnosis, skin tests, blood, laboratory tests, strains, deer farming, vaccination, disease models, heritability, disease resistance, literature reviews.

Hammond, R.F.  Visualisation of the temporal and spatial patterns of tuberculin reactor disclosure in an area affected by the removal of badgers.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: Id 183
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers (Meles meles), wild animal disease reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis, disease control programs, post mortem inspections, Ireland.

Keet, D.F.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Bengis, R.G.; Grobler, D.G.; Michel, A. The rise and fall of tuberculosis in a free-ranging chacma baboon troop in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2000. 67 (2) 115-122.
NAL call number:  41.8 On1
Descriptors:  free ranging chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, Mycobacterium bovis,  feeding on infected animal remains, RFLP analysis, African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, apparent disease sources, behavior, infected sleeping places, transmission.

Machackova, M.; Lamka, J.; Docekal, J.; Smolik, J.; Ziegrosser, P.; Pavlik, I.  Bovinni tuberkuloza u sparkate zvere. [Bovine tuberculosis in hoofed game animals.] Veterinarstvi. 2000. 50 (9) 349-355. Note:  In Czech with an English summary.
NAL call number:  41.8 V6439
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, deer, game animals, diagnosis, reviews, Czech Republic.

McKenzie, J.S.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Morris, R.S.  Spatial and temporal patterns of vector-borne tuberculosis infection in beef breeding cattle in New Zealand.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: ld 574. 
Descriptors:  beef cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, brushtailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

McKenzie, J.S.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Morris, R.S.  Application of habitat analysis and spatial analytical techniques to statistical modelling of possum-associated tb risk on farms.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11 2000.  2000: ld 575.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis; brushtailed possoms (Trichosurus vulpecula) habitat analysis, spatial analytical methods, GIS, New Zealand.

Michel, A.L.; Mare, L.  The molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11 2000.  2000: ld 643.
Descriptors:  Acinonyx jubatus, cattle, leopards, lions, disease surveillance, RFLP, Mycobacterium bovis, Papio ursinus, Syncerus caffer, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, South Africa.

Munroe, F.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; McNab, W.B. Estimates of within-herd incidence rates of Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian cattle and cervids between 1985 and 1994. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2000. 45 (3-4) 247-256.
NAL call number:  SF601 P7
Descriptors:  beef and dairy cattle, deer, cervids, Mycobacterium bovis, within-herd incidence of disease, disease transmission, risk factors, tuberculosis, outbreaks, herds, bacterial diseases.

Norden, D.K.; Meyer, R.M.; Salman, M.D.  Evaluation of tuberculin tests in U.S. captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)-1991-1999.  Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000.  2000: Id 394.
Descriptors:  captive reindeer, tuberculin testing for Mycobacterium, USA.

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Payeur, J.B.; Alt, D.P.; Esch, K.J.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Kaneene, J.B. Naturally occurring tuberculosis in white-tailed deer. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. June 15, 2000. 216 (12) 1921-1924. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call number:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, lesions, postmortem examinations, animal tissues, disease prevalence, age and sex differences, Michigan.

Qureshi,T.; Labes, R.E.; Lambeth, M.; Montgomery, H.; Griffin, J.F.T.; Mackintosh, C.G. Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from experimentally infected ferrets to non-infected ferrets (Mustela furo). New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2000. 48 (4) 99-104.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  ferrets, experimental infections, Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission study, behavior, den sharing, sniffing of orifices and feces, cannibalism, aggressive breeding behavior.

Ragg, J.R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Moller, H. The scavenging behaviour of ferrets (Mustela furo), feral cats (Felis domesticus), possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) and harrier hawks (Circus approximans) on pastoral farmland in New Zealand: implications for bovine tuberculosis transmission. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2000. 48 (6) 166-175.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  ferrets, feral cats, possums, hedgehogs, harrier hawks, time lapse video, carrion feeding behavior on carcasses, communal feeding behavior, impact on tuberculosis transmission, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium, New Zealand.

Salt, S.; Ozbilgin, S.; Ozmen, O.; Misirlioglu, D. Bazi yabani ve kafes kuslarinda gozlenen klinik ve patolojik bulgular. [Clinical and pathological findings of some wild and captive birds.] Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 2000. 19 (1-2) 127-132. Note:  In Turkish with an English summary.
NAL call number:  SF1 I78
Descriptors:  bird diseases, turkeys, budgerigars, pigeons, parrots, canaries, seagull, heron, peacock, various pathologies including tuberculosis, cysts pathological, encephalitis, enteritis, hemorrhage, hepatitis, hyperkeratosis, mycoses, neoplasms, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium.

Tuyttens, F.A.M.; MacDonald, D.W.; Rogers, L.M.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Roddam, A.W. Comparative study on the consequences of culling badgers (Meles meles) on biometrics, population dynamics and movement. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2000. 69 (4) 567-580.
NAL call number:  410 J826
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, culling diseased animals, badger removal, population dynamics, gender differences, mortality, tuberculosis, wild animals as disease reservoirs, disease control measures, cattle diseases, UK.

Tuyttens, F.A.M.; Delahay, R.J.; MacDonald, D.W.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Long, B.; Donnelly, C.A. Spatial perturbation caused by a badger (Meles meles) culling operation: implications for the function of territoriality and the control of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis). Journal of Animal Ecology. 2000. 69 (5) 815-828.
NAL call number:  410 J826
Descriptors:  wild badger culling, tuberculosis control measure, disease transmission and control, animal disease reservoirs, spatial distribution, disease vectors, cattle, Meles meles, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

White, P.C.L.; Whiting, S.J. Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Record. Aug 12, 2000. 147 (7) 179-184. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, culling, attitudes, public opinion, cattle, tuberculosis, disease control, England.

Wilkinson, D.; Smith, G.C.; Delahay, R.J.; Rogers, L.M.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. The effects of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) on mortality in a badger (Meles meles) population in England. Journal of Zoology. 2000. 250 (3) 389-395. ISSN: 0022-0477
NAL call number:  450 J829
Descriptors:  mortality rates, badgers, long-term (1981-94) capture-mark-recapture study, undisturbed badger population, Mycobacterium bovis, infection, gender differences, transmission factors, England.

1999

Anonmyous.  Northeast Michigan surveillance activities for bovine tuberculosis in the livestock and free-ranging deer populations. Update:  September 15, 1998.  Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation.  1999. 19 (1) 35-38.
NAL call number:  SF221 D342
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, Mycobacterium bovis, Procyon lotor; Odocoileus virginianus, tuberculosis, livestock, wild animals, disease control, disease prevalence, Michigan.

Anonomyous. TB and the short term. Veterinary Record.  Mar 20, 1999. 144 (12) 301. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers, Meles meles, tuberculosis, disease control, Mycobacterium bovis, Great Britain.

Bengis, R.G.; Fowler, M.E. (ed.); Miller, R.E. Tuberculosis in free-ranging mammals.  Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine:  Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. 1999. Ed. 4, p. 101-114.
NAL call number:  SF996 Z66 1999
Descriptors:  wild animals, cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, disease transmission, clinical aspects, pathology, diagnosis, disease control, treatment, vaccination.

Bhat, M.N.; Manickam, R.; Ramkrishna, J. Screening of captive wild animals for tuberculosis. Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999. 76 (11) 959-961.
NAL call number:  41.8 IN2
Descriptors:  elephants, spotted deer, blackbuck, langurs, reliability of test diagnostic tests, tuberculin test, passive hemagglutination test (PHA), wild animals, zoo animals, delayed type hypersensitivity, Elephas maximus, antelopes, Cervus axis, Antilope cervicapra, India.

Black, H.; Simper, J.M.; Bloom, D.; Bloom, K. A behaviour study on the potential for direct transmission of tuberculosis from possums (Trichosura vulpecula) to alpacas (Lama pacos), and the converse from alpacas to possums. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 1999. 47 (6) 204-206.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  alpaca farm, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, behavior study, impacts on disease transmission, interactions with brushtailed possums, possible aerosol transmission, stamping behavior, nose to nose contact, New Zealand.

Caley, P.; Hickling, G.J.; Cowan, P.E.; Pfeiffer, D.U.   Effects of sustained control of brushtail possums on levels of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and brushtail possum populations from Hohotaka, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 1999. 47 (4) 133-142.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  cattle, brushtail possum, wildlife disease reservoir, population density, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, pest control, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, Trichosurus vulpecula, pest population levels and control, New Zealand.

Coleman, J.D.; Thomas, M.D.; Pracy, L.T.; Hansen, Q. Fluctuations in possum numbers in the Pararaki Valley, Haurangi State Forest Park. Science for Conservation. Department of Conservation; Wellington; New Zealand. 1999. No. 128, 16 pp.
Descriptors:  brushtail possums, forests, colonization, trapping, pests, introduced species, wild animals, vertebrate pests, forest pests, nature conservation, livestock animal diseases, tuberculosis, population dynamics, national parks, reservoir hosts, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

Coleman, J.D.; Cooke, M.M.; Jackson, R.; Webster, R. Temporal patterns in bovine tuberculosis in a brushtail possum population contiguous with infected cattle in the Ahaura Valley, Westland. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 1999. 47 (4) 119-124.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, temporal and spatial patterns, contiguously with livestock, disease transmission trapping study, New Zealand, tubucular lesions, wildlife disease reservoirs, population size related to incidence of disease.

Cook, R.A.; Fowler, M.E. (ed.); Miller, R.E. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cervids: diagnosis, treatment, and control. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine:  Current Therapy 4. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders. 1999. Ed. 4, p. 650-657.
NAL call number:  SF996 Z66 1999
Descriptors:  wild animals, zoo animals, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, diagnosis, treatment, disease control, zoonoses.

Cross, M.L.; Swale, E.; Young, G.; Mackintosh, C.  Effect of field capture on the measurement of cellular immune responses in wild ferrets (Mustela furo), vectors of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand. Veterinary Research. 1999. 30 (4) 401-410. Note:  In English with a French summary.
NAL call number:  SF602 A5
Descriptors:  ferrets, tuberculosis, cell mediated immunity, immune response wild animals as disease vectors, in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, levels of stress, comparison between wild-caught and lab animals, serum cortisol and glucose levels, postmortem examinations, hydrocortisone, lymphocyte transformation, mitogens, T lymphocytes, wire frame traps, soft-jawed leg hold traps, uridine, vaccines, capture of animals.

Dalley, D.; Chambers, M.A.; Cockle, P.; Pressling, W.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Hewinson, R.G. A lymphocyte transformation assay for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 1999. 70 (1-2) 85-94. ISSN: 0165-2427
NAL call number:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  badgers, Meles meles, comparative lymphocyte transformation assay, cell mediated immunity, laboratory diagnostic tests, ELISA assay, tuberculin, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, vaccines, wildlife, bacterial diseases, UK.

Eves, J.A. Impact of badger removal on bovine tuberculosis in east County Offaly. Irish Veterinary Journal. 1999. 52 (4) 199-203.
NAL call number:  41.8 IR4
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, badgers, tuberculosis, disease transmission, wildlife disease reservois, disease control measures, disease prevalence, Irish Republic.

Feore, S.; Montgomery, W.I. Habitat effects on the spatial ecology of the European badger (Meles meles).  Journal of Zoology. 1999. 247 (4) 537-549.
NAL call number:  450 J829
Descriptors:  badgers, wildlife disease reservoirs, spatial ecology, moorlands, badger sett density, size of social groups, habitats, pastures, woodland, grasslands, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, epidemiology, Meles meles, Northern Ireland.

Gallagher, J.  Infected badgers; to control or not? Cattle Practice. 1999. 7 (4) 373-374.
NAL call number:  SF961 C37
Descriptors:  badgers, infected wildlife, tuberculosis, cattle, disease control and transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Hutchings, M.R.; Harris, S. Quantifying the risks of TB infection to cattle posed by badger excreta. Epidemiology and Infection. 1999. 122 (1) 167-174.
NAL call number:  RA651 A1E74
Descriptors:  cattle, wild badgers, Meles meles, deterministic approach, grazing contact with excreta, investigatory contact with excreta, muzzle to sward contact, infection probability, Mycobacterium bovis, England, transmission levels, risk assessment.

Kao, R.R.; Roberts, M.G. A comparison of wildlife control and cattle vaccination as methods for the control of bovine tuberculosis. Epidemiology and Infection. 1999. 122 (3) 505-519.
NAL call number:  RA651 A1E74
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, cost of putative Tb, eradication, possum culling, vaccination of cattle or possums, compared, 1080 poison bait, wild animal disease reservoirs, epidemiology, mathematical models, New Zealand.

Kean, J.M.; Barlow, N.D.; Hickling, G.J. Evaluating potential sources of bovine tuberculosis infection in a New Zealand cattle herd. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 1999. 42 (1) 101-106.
NAL call number:  23 N4892
Descriptors:  cattle, disease control, epidemiology, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, disease transmission, wild animals as disease reservoirs, brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, New Zealand.

Mangold, B.J.; Cook, R.A.; Cranfield, M.R.; Huygen, K.; Godfrey, H.P.  Detection of elevated levels of circulating antigen 85 by dot immunobinding assay in captive wild animals with tuberculosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 1999. 30 (4) 477-483.
NAL call number:  SF601.J6
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, wild animals, diagnosis, immunoassay, assays, bacterial diseases, nyala, sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, eland, Taurotragus oryx, cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Tragelaphus angasi, dot immunobinding, greater kudu, Taurotragus strepsiceros, sitatunga, Taurotragus spekii.

Montgomery, R.H. Mycobacteria in New Zealand. Surveillance. 1999. 26 (1) 6-8; 18.
NAL call number:  SF604.63 N45S87
Descriptors:   birds, possums, dogs, cats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, cattle, humans, Mycobacterium taxonomy, diagnosis, disease transmission, disease prevalence, disease control, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Erinaceidae, Mustela erminea, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, New Zealand.

Munroe, F.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; McNab, W.B.; Spangler, L. Risk factors for the between-herd spread of Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian cattle and cervids between 1985 and 1994.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1999. 41 (2-3) 119-133.
NAL call number:  SF601 P7
Descriptors:  cattle, cervids, tuberculosis outbreaks, Mycobacterium bovis, positive or negative herd analysis, outbreak records, logistic regression, spread of tuberculosis between herds, herd size, disease transmission, statistical analysis, Canada.

Nation, P.N. Problems associated with the depopulation of tuberculosis-infected wapiti herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal. Feb 1999. 40 (2) 88. ISSN: 0008-5286
NAL call number:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:
  Cervus elaphus canadensis, elk, Mycobacterium bovis, Alberta, Canada.

Nicoletti, P. Brucellosis and tuberculosis in free-ranging bison, deer and elk.  Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference.  1999.  13: 862-863. Note:  Meeting held on Jan. 9-13, 1999, Orlando, Florida.
NAL call number:  SF605.N672
Descriptors:  bison, deer, elk, Cervus elaphus canadensis, Brucella, Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevalence.

Palmer, M.V.; Whipple, D.L.; Olsen, S.C. Development of a model of natural infection with Mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1999. 35 (3) 450-457. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  experimental infection white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, intra-tonsillar injection, Mybacterium bovis, low and high doses, lesions in various organs, a disease model for naturally occurring infections, infected saliva and nasal secretions, pathology.

Powlesland, R.G.; Knegtmans, J.W.; Marshall, I.S.J. Costs and benefits of aerial 1080 possum control operations using carrot baits to North Island robins (Petroica australis longipes), Pureora Forest Park. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 1999. 23 (2) 149-159. Note:  Proceedings of a meeting of the New Zealand Ecological Society on Ecological Consequences of Poisons Used for Mammalian Pest Control, Christchurch, New Zealand, 9-10 July 1998.
NAL call number:  QH540 N43
Descriptors:  control measures, 1080 carrot baits, brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula populations, non-target bird mortality, survey of impact on robin populations, pest control, sodium-fluoroacetate, rats.

Qureshi, T.; Labes, R.E.; Cross, M.L.; Griffin, J.F.T.; Mackintosh, C.G. Partial protection against oral challenge with Mycobacterium bovis in ferrets (Mustela furo) following oral vaccination with BCG.  International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 1999. 3 (11) 1025-1033. Note:  In English with Spanish and French summaries.
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis BCG, ferrets, wildlife disease reservoirs, vaccinated oral delivery, oral challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, effectiveness of vaccination, immune response, lymph system, partial protection, experimental infection.

Rogers, L.M.; Delahay, R.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Smith, G.C.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. The increase in badger (Meles meles) density at Woodchester Park, south-west England: a review of the implications for disease (Mycobacterium bovis) prevalence.  Mammalia. 1999. 63 (2) 183-192. Note:  In English with a French summary.
NAL call number:  410 M31
Descriptors:  ecology, wild animals, intermediate hosts, disease reservoirs, disease prevalence, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, badgers, cattle, England, UK.

Serraino, A.; Marchetti, G.; Sanguinetti, V.; Rossi, M.C.; Zanoni, R.G.; Catozzi, L.; Bandera, A.; Dini, W.; Mignone, W.; Franzetti, F.  Monitoring of transmission of tuberculosis between wild boars and cattle: genotypical analysis of strains by molecular epidemiology techniques.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Sept 1999.  37 (9) 2766-2771. ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL call number:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle, wild boars, Mycobacterium bovis, DNA fingerprinting, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP, disease transmission, Liguria.

Steffen, D.J.; Oates, D.W.; Sterner, M.C.; Cooper, V.L. Absence of tuberculosis in free-ranging deer in Nebraska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  Jan 1999. 35 (1) 105-107. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:
  Odocoileus virginianus, Odocoileus hemionus, Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevalence. Nebraska.

Tuyttens, F.A.M.; Macdonald, D.W.; Delahay, R.; Rogers, L.M.; Mallinson, P.J.; Donnelly, C.A.; Newman, C. Differences in trappability of European badgers Meles meles in three populations in England. Journal of Applied Ecology. 1999. 36 (6) 1051-1062.
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:
  Meles meles, badgers, epidemiology, trapping, Mycobacterium bovis, wildlife reservoirs, disease transmission, disease control, mark-release-recapture sampling, population ecology, factors affecting trappability, techniques, England, UK.

Woodroffe, R.; Frost, S.D.W.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Attempts to control tuberculosis in cattle by removing infected badgers: constraints imposed by live test sensitivity. Journal of Applied Ecology. 1999. 36 (4) 494-501. 
NAL call number:  410 J828
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, culling badgers, Meles meles, disease transmission, wildlife disease reservoirs, disease control, serology, immunodiagnosis, wild animals, control, identifying infected animals for removal, UK.

1998

Anonomyous. A challenging task on TB. Veterinary Record.  Mar 14, 1998.  142 (11) 257. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, badgers, Meles meles, cattle, disease control.

Anonomyous. No quick fix on TB. Veterinary Record.  Jan 3, 1998.  142 (1) 1. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  cattle, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, badgers, Meles meles, disease control, UK.

Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Schmitt, S.M.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Payeur, J.B.; Whipple, D.L.; Cooley, T.M.; Carlson, T.; Friedrich, P. Mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. July 1998. 34 (3) 632-636. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  coyotes, white-tailed deer, tuberculosis, disease surveys, wild animals, bacterial diseases, Canis latrans, Odocoileus virginianus, opossum, Didelphis virginiana, raccoon, Procyon lotor, red fox, Vulpes vulpes, bobcat, Felis rufus, badger, Taxidea taxus, Michigan.

Caley, P.; Spencer, N.J.; Cole, R.A.; Efford, M.G.  The effect of manipulating population density on the probability of den-sharing among common brushtail possums, and the implications for transmission of bovine tuberculosis. Wildlife Research. 1998. 25 (4) 383-392.
NAL call number:  S960 W5
Descriptors:  cattle, brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, population density, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, wild animals, populations, New Zealand.

Caley, P. Broad-scale possum and ferret correlates of macroscopic Mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferret populations. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 1998. 46 (4) 157-162.
NAL call number:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  wild animals, Mustela furo, ferrets, populations, disease prevalence and transmission, tuberculosis, surveys, bacterial diseases, Trichosurus vulpecula, Mycobacterium bovis, New Zealand.

Chaddock, H.M.  Northeast Michigan surveillance activities for bovine tuberculosis in the livestock and free-ranging deer populations. Proceedings One Hundred and Second Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3-9 October, 1998. United States Animal Health Association; Richmond; USA1998. p. 660-686.
NAL call number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  free-ranging deer, livestock, disease transmission, surveillance, tuberculosis, overcrowding effects, public health, food safety, wildlife as disease reservoirs, disease control, reviews, Michigan.

Cooke, M. Infectious diseases of possums in New Zealand. Surveillance. 1998. 25 (2) 10-12.
NAL call number:  SF604.63 N45S87
Descriptors:  infectious diseases, tuberculosis, protozoal infections, ectoparasites, bacterial diseases, parasitoses, fungal diseases, brushtail possum, wild animals, New Zealand.

Delahay, R.J.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Mallinson, P.J.; Rogers, L.M.; Smith, G.C. Badgers and bovine tuberculosis: a review of studies in the ecology of a wildlife disease reservoir. Cattle Practice. 1998. 6 (2) 83-87.
NAL call number:  SF961 C37
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, cattle, badgers, Meles meles, tuberculosis, wild animals as disease reservoirs, disease transmission, epidemiology.

Gallagher, J.; Monies, R.; Gavier-Widen, M.; Rule, B. Role of infected, non-diseased badgers in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the badger. Veterinary Record.  June 27, 1998.  142 (26) 710-714. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call number:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  badgers, Mycobacterium bovis, Meles meles, tuberculosis, pathogenesis, lesions, lungs, kidneys, lymph nodes, histopathology.

Gripper, J.  An open letter to Nick Brown, Minister of Agriculture... [Tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in the UK]. Veterinary Times. 1998. 28 (10) 4-6.
Descriptors:  cattle, badgers, Meles meles, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, disease prevalence and control, disease transmission, wild animals, UK.

Helman, R.G.; Russell, W.C.; Jenny, A.; Miller, J.; Payeur, J. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in two snow leopards using polymerase chain reaction. Journal of veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.   Jan 1998. 10 (1) 89-92. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL call number:  SF774 J68
Descriptors:
  Panthera uncial, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, diagnostic techniques, detection, identification, case reports, clinical aspects, symptoms, pathology, histopathology, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti.

Krebs, J.R.; Anderson, R.M.; Clutton-Brock, T.; Donnely, C.A.; Frost, S.; Morrison, W.I.; Woodroffe, R.; Young, D. Badgers and bovine TB: conflicts between conservation and health. Science.  Feb 6, 1998. 279 (5352) 817-818. ISSN: 0036-8075
NAL call number:  470 Sci2
Descriptors:  cattle, Badgers, Meles meles, Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, disease transmission, male animals, disease control, Great Britain.

Krebs, J.R. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers. State Veterinary Journal. 1998. 8 (1) 1-3.
NAL call number:  SF601 S8
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium bovis, badgers, Meles meles, tuberculosis, UK.

Mairtin, D.O.; Williams, D.H.; Dolan, L.; Eves, J.A.; Collins, J.D. The influence of selected herd factors and a badger-intervention tuberculosis-control programme on the risk of a herd-level trade restriction to a bovine population in Ireland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1998. 35 (2) 79-90.
NAL call number:  SF601 P7
Descriptors:  cattle, tuberculin skin test, post slaughter testing, disease risks, Cox proportional hazard model, herd-level trade restriction, badger control program, wild animal disease reservoir, Mycobacterium bovis, Ireland.

McCarty, C.W.; Miller, M.W.  A versatile model of disease transmission applied to forecasting bovine tuberculosis dynamics in white-tailed deer populations.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  Oct 1998.  34 (4) 722-730. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call number:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium bovis, disease prevalence, transmission factors, forecasting disease, epidemiology.

Mortimer, J.; Quackenbush, D.; Piller, A.; Thoen, C. Veterinary students study tuberculosis at Kruger National Park, South Africa. Iowa State University Veterinarian.  Spring 1998. 60 (1) 18-22. ISSN: 0099-5851
NAL call number:  41.8 V6425
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, disease transmission, Papio, epidemiology, wild animals, Kruger National Park, South Africa

Ragg, J.R. Intraspecific and seasonal differences in the diet of feral ferrets (Mustela furo) in a pastoral habitat, East Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 1998. 22 (2) 113-119.
NAL call number:  QH540 N43
Descriptors:  wild animals, rabbits, ferrets, prey species, age and sex differences in prey selections, disease transmission, Mycobacterium bovis, possums and hedgehogs probable disease reservoir, epidemiology, New Zealand.

Rogers, L.M.; Delahay, R.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Langton, S.; Smith, G.C.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 1998. 265 (1403) 1269-1276
NAL call number:  501 L84B
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, epidemiology, ecology, badger populations, Meles meles, UK.

Tuyttens, F.A.M.; Macdonald, D.W. Sterilization as an alternative strategy to control wildlife diseases: bovine tuberculosis in European badgers as a case study. Biodiversity and Conservation. 1998. 7 (6) 705-723.
NAL call number:  QH75 A1B562
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium, free living badgers, Meles meles, cattle, case studies, tuberculosis, wildlife culling and sterilization, disease control, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, feasibility studies, fertility models, population density, vertical disease transmission, vaccination, disease contol, UK.

United States Animal Health Association. Proceedings:  One Hundred and Second Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3-9 October, 1998. Richmond:  The Association. 1998. 756 pp.
NAL call number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  livestock, pigs, cattle, bison, horses, llamas, poultry, aquaculture species, wildlife, animal welfare, biotechnology, disease outbreaks, feeds, food safety, international trade, parasitoses, drugs, environment, rabies, bluetongue virus; Retroviridae, Leptospira, Aujeszky virus, Salmonella, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, USA.

Zieger, U.; Pandey, G.S.; Kriek, N.P.J.; Cauldwell, A.E. Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in Central Province, Zambia.  Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 1998. 69 (3) 98-101.
NAL call number:  41.8 SO8
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium, free-ranging animals, game ranch, case studies, role of Kafue lechwe as disease reservoir, Zambia.

Zorawski, C.; Lipiec, M. Dzikie zwierzeta jako rezerwuar Mycobacterium bovis w przyrodzie. [Wild animals as a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis.] Nowa Weterynaria. 1998. 3 (2) 21-25. Note:  In Polish.
Descriptors:  bison, epidemiology, bacterial diseases, public health, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Poland.

1997

Higgins, A.J. Tuberculosis and badgers--facing up to facts. Veterinary Journal.  Mar 1997. v. 153 (2) 117-118. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:
  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cattle, badgers, Meles meles, tuberculosis, reservoir hosts, disease control.

Hutchings, M.R.; Harris, S. Effects of farm management practices on cattle grazing behaviour and the potential for transmission of bovine tuberculosis from badgers to cattle. Veterinary Journal.  Mar 1997. 153 (2) 149-162. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call number:  SF601.V484
Abstract:  Despite the large body of circumstantial evidence to suggest a link, the means by which bovine tuberculosis is passed from badgers to cattle remains unclear; pasture contamination with the urine, faeces and/or sputum of infectious badgers is believed to be the main route of transmission. Therefore the behaviour of grazing cattle was studied to determine whether they avoided investigating and/or grazing pasture contaminated with badger excreta, and whether different farm management practices enhanced the potential for disease transmission. Active latrines were avoided by most cattle until the sward length in the rest of the field was reduced, after which there was an increasing likelihood that active badger latrines would be grazed. Most of the cattle grazed active badger latrines, but cattle of low rank within the herd grazed latrines more heavily. Farm management practices that reduced the availability of long swards shortened the period of investigative behaviour and greatly enhanced the risk that cattle would graze active badger latrines. Cattle were more likely to graze pasture away from latrines that was contaminated either with badger urine or single faeces. Because bacilli remain viable in the soil for up to 2 years, there is the potential for bacilli to accumulate at active badger latrines, and these could pose a significant risk to cattle, even when the latrine is no longer being used by badgers. Cattle readily grazed the lush sward at disused latrines, during which they could ingest contaminated soil; the amount of soil ingested increases as sward length decreases.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium, cattle tuberculosis, Meles meles, disease transmission, grazing, pasture contamination, excreta, plant height, rotational grazing, cutting of swards.

Krebs, John R. Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Scottish Office. Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Dept. Welsh Office. Agriculture Dept. The Government's Rsponse to the Krebs Report on Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle and Badgers. London, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, c1997. [8] p.
NAL call number:  SF967.T8G74 1997
Descriptors:  tuberculosis in cattle, badgers, Mycobacterium, Meles meles, disease reservoirs, prevention and control, Mycobacterium, Great Britain.

Krebs, J. R. (John R.) Independent Scientific Review Group (Great Britain ) Great Britian Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle and Badgers:  Report to the Rt. Hon. Dr. Jack Cummingham, MP. London, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1997. 191 p.
NAL call number:  SF967.T8K74 1997
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, cattle, badgers, Meles meles, control, prevention, badgers, disease reservoirs, Mycobacterium,Great Britain.

Schmitt, S.M.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Cooley, T.M.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.; Sullivan, L.; Berry, D.; Carlson, T.; Minnis, R.B.; Payeur, J.B.; Sikarskie, J. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer from Michigan. Journal Wildlife Disease.  Oct 1997.  33 (4) 749-758. ISSN: 0090-3558
NAL call:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium bovis,  wild animals, bovine tuberculosis.

Whipple, D.L.; Meyer, R.M.; Berry, D.F.; Jarnagin, J.L.; Payeur, J.B.  Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer in Michigan and elephants. Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997. Richmond, United States Animal Health Association. 1997. p. 543-546.
NAL call number:  49.9 UN3R
Descriptors:  epidemiology, Cervus elaphus, Odocoileum virginianus, coyotes, red deer, elephants, tuberculosis, DNA fingerprinting, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP, Michigan, California.

Miscellaneous Publications

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Livestock. Emergency Cervidae Tuberculosis Protection Act:  hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, on H.R. 3417, February 3, 1994.  Washington: U.S. G.P.O.:  For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 1994. iii, 98 p.  ill., map. ISBN:  0160445221. Note:  Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche. Shipping list no.:  94-0246-P. "Serial no. 103-54." Includes bibliographical references. SUDOCS:  Y 4.AG 8/1:103-54.
NAL call number:  KF27.A349 1994
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, laws and legislation, deer diseases, Mycobacterium, prevention, control, U.S.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry. Increase in deer and elk tuberculosis:  hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, One hundred second Congress, second session, August 5, 1992Washington, [D.C.]:  U.S. G.P.O.:  For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 1992. iii, 174 p.,  ill. ISBN:  0160395046. Note:  Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche. Shipping list no.:  93-0100-P. "Serial no. 102-91." SUDOCS:  Y 4.AG 8/1:102-91.
NAL call number:  KF27.A366 1992c
Descriptors:  tuberculosis, deer diseases, elk diseases, disease prevention and control, Mycobacterium, wildlife, US.

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