Dvorska, L.; Matlova, L.; Ayele, W.Y.; Fischer, O.A.; Amemori, T.; Weston, R.T.; Alvarez, J.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Pavlik, I. Avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the Ardeideae and Threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, IS901 RFLP typing, and virulence for poultry. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007; 119 (2/4): 366-374. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract: Avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families Ardeideae (n=20) and Threskiornithidae (n=18). Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA, serotype 1, genotype IS901+ and IS1245+) was more often (p=0.01) detected in tissue and/or fecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). Avian tuberculosis was not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia). Tuberculous lesions were found in nine birds. MAA isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 were present in all of the 20 infected birds and in all environmental isolates. A mixed infection with the MAA isolates of three RFLP types F-C3 (tissue isolate), G-C3, and T-C3 (fecal isolates) was found in one sacred ibis. All 20 tissue isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 from 20 birds and 8 environmental MAA isolates were fully virulent in pullets, whilst the isolates of RFLP types G-C3 and T-C3 were non-virulent in pullets. All of the tested MAA isolates had the same IS1245 RFLP "bird profile". In 12 of 20 infected birds with MAA M.a. hominissuis isolates of serotypes 4, 8, 9 and genotype IS901- and IS1245+ were detected and in 8 other birds mycobacteria not belonging to the M. avium complex were found. The presence of MAA in the environment may be a source for further spread of the causal agent of avian tuberculosis among other groups of animals in zoological gardens, farm animals, and also among their keepers.
Descriptors: bird diseases; wildlife disease reservoirs; Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris); comparison to two birds of the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus); avian tuberculosis not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea).
Amado, A.; Albuquerque, T.; Goncalves, A.; Duarte, E.; Botelho, A.; Fernandes, T.; Bernardino, R.; Lapao, N.
Tuberculosis in mandrills at the
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: 2 female mandrill baboons (Mandrillus sphinx), captive zoo animals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. africanum, postmortem examinaions, pathogen found in lungs and lymph nodes, clinical picture, Lisbon Zoo, Portugal.
Cho, H.S.; Kim, Y.H.; Park, N.Y. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium in captive
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Descriptors: 2 year old captive zoo animals, Panthera tigris, necropsy, granulomas, caseous necroptic areas, clinical picture, anorexia, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, macrophages, lymphocytes, granuloma, pathogen identification, feed contamination, disease diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, infected culled chickens as feed, Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo,
Davies, J.L.; Sibley, J.A.; Myers, S.; Clark, E.G.; Appleyard, G.D. Histological and genotypical characterization of feline cutaneous mycobacteriosis: a retrospective study of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Veterinary Dermatology. 2006; 17 (3): 155-162. ISSN: 0959-4493. Note: In English with German, Spanish and French summaries.
Descriptors: felines, cutaneous mycobacteriosis, histopathology study, microscopically, hematoxylin, eosin, modified Fite's staining, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, Actinomycetales, Mycobacterium sp., feline leprosy, tuberculosis, clinical picture, Canada, New Zealand, Britain, UK.
Lyashchenko, K.P.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Olsen, J.H.; Ball, R.; Dumonceaux, G.; Dunker, F.; Buckley, C.; Richard, M.; Murray, S.; Payeur, J.B.; Andersen, P.; Pollock, J.M.; Mikota, S.; Miller, M.; Sofranko, D.; Waters, W.R. Tuberculosis in elephants: antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13 (7): 722-732. ISSN: 1556-6811
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current diagnosis relies on trunk wash culture, the only officially recognized test, which has serious limitations. Innovative and efficient diagnostic methods are urgently needed. Rapid identification of infected animals is a crucial prerequisite for more effective control of TB, as early diagnosis allows timely initiation of chemotherapy. Serology has diagnostic potential, although key antigens have not been identified and optimal immunoassay formats are not established. To characterize the humoral responses in elephant TB, we tested 143 serum samples collected from 15 elephants over time. These included 48 samples from five culture-confirmed TB cases, of which four were in Asian elephants infected with M. tuberculosis and one was in an African elephant with Mycobacterium bovis. Multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) employing a panel of 12 defined antigens was used to identify serologic correlates of active disease. ESAT-6 was the immunodominant antigen recognized in elephant TB. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to ESAT-6 and other proteins were detected up to 3.5 years prior to culture of M. tuberculosis from trunk washes. Antibody levels to certain antigens gradually decreased in response to antitubercular therapy, suggesting the possibility of treatment monitoring. In addition to MAPIA, serum samples were evaluated with a recently developed rapid test (RT) based on lateral flow technology (ElephantTB STAT-PAK). Similarly to MAPIA, infected elephants were identified using the RT up to 4 years prior to positive culture. These findings demonstrate the potential for TB surveillance and treatment monitoring using the RT and MAPIA, respectively.
Descriptors: elephants, Elephas maximus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drugs, antibiotic therapy, drug efficacy, immune reactions, serological diagnosis, lack of diagnostic tests,
Manohar, B.M.; Korandi, A.V.; Vairamuthu, S.; Jayathangaraj, M.G.; Kumar, K.S. Tuberculosis in a bear. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2006; 83 (6): 684-685. ISSN: 0019-6479
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: sloth bears, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, case report, clinical picture.
Descriptors: cattle, wild game animals, captive zoo animals, game park, circus, livestock, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, review of published results, Czech Republic, 6 Central European countries.
Pate,.M.; èvara, T.; Gombac, M; Paller, T.; Zolnir-Dovc, M.; Emer-Üic, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Barto Ü., M.; Zdovc, I.; Krt, B.; Pavlik, I.; Cvetnic, Z.; Pogacnik, M.; Ocepek, M. Outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium caprae in a zoological garden. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B. 2006 Oct; 53 (8): 387-392. ISSN: 0931-1793
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z52
Abstract: In the autumn of 2004, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium caprae occurred in a zoo in
Descriptors: dromedaries, bison, captive zoo animals, Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae, disease outbreaks, animal pathogenic bacteria, tuberculosis, animal diseases, disease diagnosis, pathogen identification, disease transmission, zoological garden in Slovenia-
Peloquin, C.A.; Maslow, J.N.; Mikota, S.K.; Forrest, A.; Dunker, F.; Isaza, R.; Peddie, L.R.; Peddie, J.; Zhu, M. Dose selection and pharmacokinetics of rifampin in elephants for the treatment of tuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2006; 29 (6): 581-585. ISSN: 0140-7783
Descriptors: elephants, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta Africana, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antibiotic treatment, rifampin, rifamycin amp, dosage, efficacy of treatment.
Descriptors: spotted deer (Cervus axis) disease survey, pathogens found, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium, Salmonella, animal behavior, colibacillosis, Dhaka Zoo,
Singh, T.; Thomas, S.; Baruah, D.K. Impact of free living macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the health of captive animals at the
Descriptors: 144 free living rhesus macaques, tuberculosis testing sputum and blood, throat swabs, 2 positive for Mycobacterium ssp. Assam Zoo,
Lewerin, S.S.; Olsson, S.L.; Eld, K.; Roken, B.; Ghebremichael, S.; Koivula, T.; Kallenius, G.; Bolske, G. Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo. Veterinary Record (
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: Elephas maximus; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, zoo animals, disease outbreaks.
Lutze-Wallace, C.; Turcotte, C. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: wild animals, zoo animals, livestock, bison, cattle, Cervus elaphus, deer, elephants, equines, cats, bacterial disease, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium terrae, red deer, pigs, Suiformes, disease diagnosis, disease surveys, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Maslow, J.N.; Mikota, S.K.; Zhu, M.; Isaza, R.; Peddie, L.R.; Dunker, F.; Peddie, J.; Riddle, H.; Peloquin, C.A. Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2005 Feb; 28 (1): 21-27. ISSN: 0140-7783
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, T(max) was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, Loxodonta Africana, isoniazid, pharmacokinetics, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis, oral administration, rectum administration, drug therapy, dosage, drug formulations, powders, bacterial infections, rectal administration.
Pavlik, I.; Trcka, I.; Parmova, I.; Svobodova, J.; Melicharek, I.; Nagy, G.; Cvetnic, Z.; Ocepek, M.; Pate, M.; Lipiec, M. Detection of bovine and human tuberculosis in cattle and other animals in six Central European countries during the years 2000-2004. Veterinarni Medicina. 2005; 50 (7): 291-299. ISSN: 0375-8427
Descriptors: cattle, zoo animals, Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) in Czech Repuglic, a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris f. altaica) in Hungary, a bison (Bison bison), an eland (Taurotragus oryx) in Poland, a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and two bison in Slovenia, in wild animals, wild boar, wild red deer, European bison, roe deer, skin testing, disease status, Mycobacterium bovis, 6 Central European countries, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
Zhu, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Mikota, S.K.; Isaza, R.; Dunker, F.; Riddle, H.; Peloquin, C.A. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2005 Oct; 28(5): 403-409. ISSN: 0140-7783
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Descriptors: Elephas maximus; Loxodonta Africana, antimicrobial agents, pharmacokinetics, drug therapy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis, drug delivery systems, dosage, oral administration, rectum, rectal administration of drugs, pyrazinamide, nonlinear models, absorption, food deprivation.
Lantos, Akos; Niemann, Stefan; Mezosi, Laszlo; Sos, Endre; Erdelyi, Karoly; David, Sandor; Parsons, Linda M.; Kubica, Tanja; Ruesch Gerdes,-Sabine; Somoskovi, Akos. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in captive Siberian tiger. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003; 9 (11): 1462-1464. ISSN: 1080-6040
NAL Call Number: RA648.5.E46
Descriptors: Mycobacterium bovis ssp caprae, first reported case in captive Siberian tiger, tracheal aspirate by bronshoscopy, case study, reliable procedure.
Somoskovi, A.; Lantos, A.; Mezosi, L.; Sos, E.; Erdelyi, K.; Niemann, S. Usefulness of bronchoscopy in specimen sampling for bacteriologic testing in captive animals. Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und
Descriptors: tigers, captive zoo animal, Mycobacterium bovis subsp caprae, tracheo-bronchial washing, specimen sampling methods, diagnosis of tuberculosis,
Auclair, B.; Mikota,
S.K.; Peloquin, C.A.; Aguilar, R.; Maslow, J.N. Population pharmacokinetics of antituberculous
drugs and treatment of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bongo antelope (Tragelaphus
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2002.
33 (3) 193-203.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculin test, isoniazid, rifampin, drug treatment, efficacy, postmortem examination, pharmacokinetic (PK) data, amikacin (AMK), ethambutol (EMB), INH, pyrazinamide (PZA), RIF, levofloxacin, disease eradication, female bongos, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci.
in elephants in captivity. Proceeding of the North American Veterinary Conference.
2002. v. 16, 996 pp. Note: In the volume: Small Animals and Exotics.
Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: elephants, Loxodonta africana, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
FV; Lee, ChiaHao; Chueh,
LingLing; Liu, ChenHsuan; Cheng,
ChiungHsian; Chiou, HueyIng; Chang, ChihCheng; Fu, YngBin; Chang, ChihHua; Lee, ShuHwae; Chen, MeiIng; Shiau, ChungJung; Chang, ChaoFu; Chi, ChauHaw; Jeng, ChianRen. Diagnosis and
differentiation of mycobacterial infection in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded
tissues of zoo animals by polymerase chain reaction.
NAL Call Number: SF604 C54
Descriptors: animal tissues, diagnosis and identification, differential diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, tuberculosis, zoo animals, PCR-TB, Probe TB, PCR-MT, Probe MT, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Sternberg, S.; Bernodt,
K.; Holmstrom, A.; Roken,
B. Survey of tuberculin testing in Swedish zoos. Journal
of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2002, 33: 4, 378-380.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: tuberculin testing, zoo animals, bovine and avian tuberculin compared, diseased tapir, Tapirus terrestris, regular testing of zoo animals recommended,
Descriptors: boa constrictor (Boa constrictor ortoni), fibrosarcoma, Mycobacterium chelonae.
Mikota, S.K.; Peddie, L.; Peddie, J.; Isaza, R.; Dunker, F.;
West, G.; Lindsay, W.; Larsen, R.S.; Salman, M.D.;
Chatterjee, D.; Payeur,
J.; Whipple, D.; Thoen, C.; Davis, D.S.; Sedgwick,
C.; Montali, R.J.; Ziccardi,
M.; Maslow, J. Epidemiology and diagnosis of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas
of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2001. 32 (1) 1-16.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: diagnosis, diagnostic techniques/methods, disease prevalence, ELISA, epidemiology, immunological techniques, tuberculin skin tests, tuberculin, tuberculosis, wild animals, zoo animals, Elephas maximus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Asian elephants,USDA, case histories, six herds,USA.
Mikota, S.K.; Cheng, L.I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in zoo and wildlife species. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office
International des Epizooties. 2001. 20 (1) 291-303. Note: In English
with French and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call Number: SF781 R4
Descriptors: diagnosis, disease survey, prevalence, wild and zoo animals, disease control, zoonotic diseases.
Tanwar, R.K.; Singh, A.P.; Kachawa, S.;
Descriptors: captive zoo animals, spotted deer (Axis axis), Mycobacterium bovis, clinical aspects, post mortem examination, histopathology, case reports,
R.S.; Salman, M.D.; Mikota,
S.K.; Isaza, R.; Montali,
R.J.; Triantis, J. Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in captive
elephants. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife
Medicine. 2000. 31 (3) 291-302.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, captive Asian and African elephants, effective disease management, multi-antigen ELISA screening test, serologic response, zoos, circuses, United States.
Larsen, R.S.; Montali, R.J. Tuberculosis in elephants
in North America. Zoo Biology. 2000. 19 (5) 393-403.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: elephants, tuberculosis infection, disease survey, Mycobacterium, North America.
Manickam, R.; Ramkrishna,
J. Screening of captive wild animals for tuberculosis.
Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999. 76 (11) 959-961.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: elephants, spotted deer, blackbuck, langurs, reliability of test diagnostic tests, tuberculin test, passive hemagglutination test (PHA), wild animals, zoo animals, delayed type hypersensitivity, Elephas maximus, antelopes, Cervus axis, Antilope cervicapra, India.
R.A.; Fowler, M.E. (ed.); Miller, R.E. Mycobacterium bovis
infection of cervids: diagnosis, treatment, and
control. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders. 1999.
Ed. 4, p. 650-657.
NAL Call Number: SF996 Z66 1999
Descriptors: wild animals, zoo animals, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, diagnosis, treatment, disease control, zoonoses.
Mehrotra, P.K.; Sudhir,
Bhargava; Sheela, Chaudhary; Mathur, B.B.L.; Bhargava, S.; Chaudhary, S. Tuberculosis
in a captive Lion-tailed monkey. Indian Journal of
Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. 1999.
20 (2) 159.
Descriptors: tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, zoo animals, histopathology, pathology, case reports, monkeys, Mycobacterium, primates,
Helman, R.G.; Russell, W.C.; Jenny, A.; Miller, J.; Payeur, J. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in two snow leopards
using polymerase chain reaction. Journal of
veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Jan 1998. 10 (1) 89-92.
NAL Call Number: SF774 J68
Descriptors: Panthera uncial, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, diagnostic techniques, detection, identification, case reports, clinical aspects, symptoms, pathology, histopathology, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti.