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A Reference Source for the Recognition & Alleviation of Pain & Distress in Animals

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

AWIC Series, 2000-03
October 2000



Compiled by:
Dr. Richard L. Crawford
Animal Welfare Information Center
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Ave.,
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us
Website: http://awic.nal.usda.gov

Published in cooperation with the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine

Information on how to request materials that are included in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) may be found on the Collection Services website at http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials. Please read carefully as there are certain restrictions on media and document types.

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A Reference Source for the Recognition & Alleviation of Pain & Distress in Animals



Table of Contents


PREFACE


The Animal Welfare Information Center was established under the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (Sect. 13(e)) and is required to provide specific information to the research community. One of these requirements deals with providing information which would minimize pain and distress to animals used in research.

It is hoped that his publication will be useful to those involved with animal research and that it will provide guidance and information which is useful in further reducing pain and distress in research animals. Science, and humanity, owe a great deal to these animals and they should be provided with conditions as free of pain and distress as possible, both for the welfare and well- being of the animal, and for better scientific results.


INTRODUCTION



One of the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act is that procedures are to be taken to ensure that pain and distress in research animals are minimized. This includes adequate veterinary care and the appropriate use of anesthetics, analgesics and tranquilizing drugs or euthanasia (Sect. 13(a)(3)(A)). In order to minimize pain or distress to an animal one must first be able to recognize when an animal is in, or likely to be in, pain or distress. Steps can then be taken to alleviate that pain or distress so far as allowed by the approved research protocol.

This publication provides a list of published reference sources on the recognition and alleviation of pain and distress in animals. It has been developed to provide a source of information and guidance to those using animals in research so that they may better recognize when an animal is suffering pain or distress, or may be likely to suffer pain or distress, and how that pain or distress may be minimized. This publication is not meant to be a complete resource on this subject but to provide a starting point for those concerned about the welfare and humane care of animals used in research. For additional, and more complete, information and resources we suggest you consult the following web site on the compilation of scientific literature on the assessment of animal welfare:
Literature on the Assessment of Animal Welfare.
http://www.vetinfo.demon.nl/aw/flist.html




Richard L. Crawford, DVM
USDA, NAL, AWIC

Return to Title Page / Table of Contents


GENERAL


Adams, D.B., (1988), An approach to pain in research animals. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA). Nottingham: Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. Dec 1988, v. 16 (2), p. 145-154. ISSN: 0261-1929
NAL Call no: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, anesthesia, ethics, diagnosis, treatment, animal welfare.

Association of Veterinary Teachers & Research Workers, (1989), Guidelines for the recognition & assessment of pain in animals. Potters Bar, Herts: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1989, 24p. ISBN: 0900767561
NAL Call no: HV4708.G85
Descriptors: animal experimentation, animal welfare.

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists. Chapter of Anaesthetics & Intensive Care, (1994), Animal pain and its control, April 1994. Sydney South, NSW, Australia: Post Graduate Committee in Veterinary Science, University of Sydney [1994], iv. 449p, ill. ISBN: 1875582363
NAL Call no: SF604.R37 no.226
Descriptors: pain in animals.

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists, (1996), Guidelines for the management of pain in veterinary practice. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 1996, 26: 4, p. 206-209. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: pain, pain management, analgesia, guidelines.

Balfour, J.A.; Buckley, M.M., (1991), Etodolac. A reappraisal of its pharmacology & therapeutic use in rheumatic diseases & pain states. Drugs, 1991 Aug., v. 42 (2), p. 274-299. ISSN: 0012-6667.
Descriptors: Etodolac, pain, rheumatic diseases, therapeutic use.

Barnett, J.L., (1997), Measuring pain in animals. Australian Veterinary Journal, Brunswick, Victoria: Australian Veterinary Association, 1927-1997, v. 75 (12), p. 878-879. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call no: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain, assessment, measurement.

Bateson, P., (1992), Do animals feel pain? New-Science, London, England: New Science Publications, Apr. 25, 1992, v. 134 (1818), p. 30, 32-33. ISSN: 0028-6664.
NAL Call no: 472 N42
Descriptors: animal experiments, animal welfare.

Bateson, P., (1991), Assessment of pain in animals. Animal Behavior, London: Academic Press, Nov 1991, v. 42 (pt5), p. 827-839. ISSN: 0003-3472.
NAL Call no: 410 B77
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain assessment.

Baumans, V. ; Benson, G.J. ; Flecknell, P. ; Morton, D. ; Short, C., (1994), Detecting & alleviating pain in non-human animals. Humane Innovative Alternatives, Washington Grove, MD: Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, c1991, 1994, v. 8, p. 580-586. ISSN: 1062-4805.
NAL Call no: QL55.H8
Descriptors: animals, pain, animal welfare, detection, alleviation.

Baumberger, A., (1983), How to combat pain in animals: a report on the practical application of analgesics in experimental animals. Schweizer Arch Tierheilkd, Zurich: Gesellschaft Schweizerischer Tierarzte, Jan 1983, v. 125 (1), p. 17-29. ISSN: 0036-7281.
Language: German, Summary in English, French, Italian.
NAL Call no: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: pain, analgesics, animals.

Bechara, A.; Harrington, F.; Nader, K.; van-der Kooy, D., (1992), Neurobiology of motivation: Double dissociation of the motivational mechanisms mediating opiate reward in drug-naive versus drug-dependent animals. Behavioral Neuroscience, 1992 Oct., v. 106 (5), p. 798-807. ISSN: 0735-7044.
NAL Call no: QP351.B45
Descriptors: neurobiology, opiate, motivational mechanisms.

Bemier, J.F., (1994), Euthanasia. Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter. Ottawa: Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science, June 1994, v. 28 (3), p. 69-71, 73-74. ISSN: 0045-4354.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.C36
Descriptors: animals, euthanasia, methodology, pain, animal welfare.

Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C., (1987), Species differences as a consideration in alleviation of animal pain & distress. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1227-1230. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, stress, analgesics.

Bonica, J.J., (1992), Pain research & therapy: History, current status & future goals. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 1-29. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910 P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, pain, research, drug therapy, analgesics, livestock, laboratory animals, surgical operations, anesthesia.

Breazile, J.E., (1987), Physiologic basis & consequences of distress in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1212-1215, ill. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, stress, feeding behavior, hormones, nervous system, reproduction.

Britton, J.T.; Rice, L.J., (1992), Local anesthetic toxicity. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak. N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 306-310, 315. ISBN: 0443087725
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: small animal practice, laboratory animals, local anesthetics, toxicity.

Brown, M.J., (1990), Priciples of anesthesia & analgesia. Essentials for animal research: A primer for research personnel. by B.T. Bennett, M.J. Brown and J.C. Schofield, Beltsville, Md, USDA, National Agricultural Library (1990), p. 39-58.
NAL Call no: aQL55.B36
Descriptors: domestic animals, laboratory animals, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, pain.

Buchholtz, C.; Goetschel, A.F.; Hassenstein, E.G.; Sambraus, H.H.; Tschanz, B.; Wechsler, B.; Wolf, M.; Van-Loeper, E., (1993), Suffering & abnormal behavior in animals. Tierhaltung, 1993, 23: 119 p.; published by Birkhauser Verlag, Switzerland. ISBN: 3763426727.
Language: German.
NAL Call no: SF105.T5 Bd.23
Descriptors: intensive husbandry, abnormal behavior, animal welfare.

Carbone, Lawrence G., (1997), Death by decapitation: A case study of the scientific definition of animal welfare. College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Society and Animals, Oct. 1997, v. 5 (3), p. 239-256. ISSN: 1063-1119.
NAL Call no: QL85.S63
Descriptors: animal-human relations, scientific research, abuse.

Carstens, E.E., (1987), Endogenous pain suppression mechanisms. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL. The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p.1203-1206, ill. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, suppression, neurophysiology.

Carli, G., (1992), Immobility responses & their behavioral & physiologic aspects, including pain: A review. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 543-554. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, pain, immobilization, physiology, literature reviews, tonic immobility, hypnosis.

Cats, B.P., (1988), Pain in neonates. New developments in biosciences: Their implications for laboratory animal science: Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1-5 June 1987, edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld, Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1988, p. 47-51. ISBN: 0898383544.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1987
Descriptors: laboratory animals, neonates, pain, animal behavior, physiology.

Clark, J.D.; Rager, D.R.; Calpin, J.P., (1997), Animal well-being II. Stress & distress. Laboratory Animal Science, Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Dec. 1997, v. 47 (6), p. 571-579. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: animal welfare, stress, perception, motivation, adaptation.

Curtis, S.E.; Stricklin, W.R., (1991), The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: An overview. Journal of Animal Science, 1991 Dec., v. 69 (12), p. 5001-5007. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call no: 49 J82
Descriptors: animal cognition, animal production systems.

Delft, A.M.L.-van, (1988), Effects of exogenous pain relieving substances on experimental results. New developments in biosciences: Their implications for laboratory animal science: Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1-5 June, 1987, edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld, Dordrecht M. Nijhoff, 1988, p. 59-61. ISBN: 0898383544.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1987
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, treatment, analgesics.

Delo, J.A.; Coombs, D.W.; Colburn, R.W., (1992), The differentiation of nociceptive processing in mechanically & chemically induced visceral pain models. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.:Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 497- 505, 507-508. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, models, animal experiments, duodenal obstruction, analgesics, dosage, immunochemistry.

Doris, Pete A., (1989), Humane principles & procedures in animal research. Animal research training series, Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Health Science Center, c1989, 1 video cassette (30 min).
NAL Call no: videocassette no. 804 and 805
Descriptors: animal welfare, law and legislation (US), laboratory animals, animal experimentation.

Dubner, R., (1987), Research on pain mechanisms in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1273-1276. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, measurement, research, guidelines.

Dyson, D.H.; Mathews, K., (1992), Recommendations for the intensive care management in small animals following anaesthesia. Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ont. Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology, 1992, 5:2, p.66-70, 15 ref. ISSN: 0932-0814.
NAL Call no: SF910.5.V4
Descriptors: anaesthesia, postoperative complications, pain, therapy, postoperative care.

Erickson, H.H.; Kitchell, R.L., (1984), Pain perception & alleviation in animals. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Federation Proceedings, v. 43 (5), 1984, p. 1307-1312. ISSN: 0014-9446.
NAL Call no: 442.9 F31P
Descriptors: pain, sedation, alleviation of pain, sensory receptor.

Faggella, A.M., (1997), Management of pain in the critically ill patient. Seminars in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery-Small Animal, Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., May 1997, v. 12 (2), p. 115-121. ISSN: 0882-0511.
NAL Call no: SF911.545
Descriptors: pain, control, analgesics, drug therapy, opioids, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agents, application methods, animals.

Fikes, L.L.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Raffe, M.R., (1989), Symposium on pain management. I Understanding pain & analgesic therapy in pets. II Classifying commonly used analgesic agents. III Selecting the right analgesic: Indications & dosage requirements. College of Veterinary Medicine, University, Urbana, IL., Veterinary Medicine, 1989, 84: 7, p. 677-697, 44 ref. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call no: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: animal welfare, dog diseases, cat diseases, anti-inflammatory agents, opioids, anesthesia, burns, pain, young animals, analgesics.

Fraser, A.F.; Quine, J.P., (1989), Veterinary examination of suffering as a behavior-linked condition. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V. July 1989, v. 23 (4), p. 353-364. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: domestic animals, pain, animal welfare, veterinary medicine, animal behavior.

Flecknell, P.A., (1988), The control of pain in animals. Veterinary Annual, London: Scientechnica, 1989, v. 28, p. 43-48. ISSN: 0083-5870.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V6456
Descriptors: animals, pain, anesthetics, analgesics, treatment.

Flecknell, P.A., (1985), Recognition & alleviation of pain in animals. Advances in Animal Welfare Science, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985, c1986, p. 61-77.
NAL Call no: HV4701.A34
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, animal welfare, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents.

Flecknell, P.A.; Molony, V., (1997), Pain & injury. Animal welfare, Wallingford, Oxon, UK; N.Y.: CAB International, c1997, p.63-73. ISBN: 0851991807.
NAL Call no: HV4711.A587 1997
Descriptors: animals, pain, trauma, animal welfare.

Flecknell, P.A., (1994), Refinement of animal use - assessment & alleviation of pain & distress. Laboratory Animals (UK), 1994, v. 28 (3), p. 222-231. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, experimentation, pain, stress, mammals, neurophysiology.

Fleetwood-Walker, S.M.; Hope, P.J.; Mitchell, R.; Molony, V., (1991), Control of pain by chemical gating in the dorsal horn: Role of opioids, tachykins, & other peptides. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1991, p. 489-497, 506-507. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, opioids, peptides, analgesics, spinal cord receptors, drug effects.

Fujimoto, J.L., (1992), Dosage tables for opiate agonist & agonist-antagonists in laboratory animals. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 539-542. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: agonists, antagonists, dosage, morphine, laboratory animals.

Gibson, T.E., (1985), The proceedings of the Animal Welfare Foundation's Second Symposium: Entitled the detection & relief of pain in animals, held 16 Apr. 1985. British Veterinary Association, Animal Welfare foundation, 1985, 136 p. ISBN: 0901028290.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A54 1985
Descriptors: animal welfare congress, pain congress.

Grauvogl, A., (1982), The concept of pain in animals, behavior, welfare. Tierzuchter, Hildesheim, W.Ger., Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Tierzuchter, July 25, 1982, v. 34 (7), p. 297-301. ISSN: 0040-7364.
Language: German with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 49 T445
Descriptors: pain, animals, behavior, welfare.

Hansen, B., (1997), Pain. Seminars in Veterinary Medicine & Surgery Small Animal, 1997, v. 12 (2), p.55-142, many ref.
NAL Call no: SF911.S45
Descriptors: pain, animals, surgery.

Hansen, Hans C., (1999), Treatment of chronic pain with anti-epileptic drugs: A new era. Southern Medical Journal, July 1999, v. 92 (7), p. 642-649. ISSN: 0038-4348.
Descriptors: chronic pain, management, analgesic drugs, anti-epileptics.

Hapke, H.J., (1977), The influence of drugs on the manifestation & sensation of pain [animals]. Kleinter Prex, Mar. 1977, v. 22 (2), p. 55-58.
Language: German with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: pain, animals, drugs, behavior.

Hardie, E.M.; Kyles, A.E., (1995), Pharmacological management of pain & infection in the surgical oncology patient. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice, 1995, v. 25 (1), p. 77-96. 60 ref. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call no: SF601.V523
Descriptors: dog diseases, surgery, anti-inflammatory agents, neoplasms, pain, drug therapy.

Harrison, P., (1991), Do animals feel pain? Philosophy (Cambridge) v. 65 no. 255, 1991, p. 25-40. ISSN: 0031-8191.
Descriptors: philosophy and ethics, pain perception in animals, philosophical evaluation.

Headly, P.M., (1993), Norbook Lecture: Mechanisms of pain & its control. Veterinary Record., 1993, Aug. 14, v. 133 (7), p. 153-155. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: pain mechanisms, pain control.

Heavner, J.E., (1992), Pain recognition during experimentation & tailoring anesthetic & analgesic administration to the experiment. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Paznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1993, p. 509-513. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A35 1992
Descriptors: animal experiment, pain, anesthetics, analgesics, laboratory animals.

Hellyer, P.W.; Frederick, C.; Lacy, M.; Salman, M.D.; Wagner, A.E., (1999), Attitudes of veterinary medical students, house officers, clinical faculty, & staff toward pain management in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: American Veterinary Medical Association, Jan. 15, 1999, v. 214 (2), p. 238-244. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: pain, treatment, attitudes, veterinary medicine, medical students, teachers, personnel, analgesics.

Hellyer, P., (1998), American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists' position paper on treatment of pain in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL: American Veterinary Medical Association, Sept. 1, 1998, v. 213 (5), p. 628-630. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain, symptoms, treatment, anesthesia.

Hooff, Jaram, van, (1988), On the ethology of pain, its experience & expression. New developments in biosciences: Their implications for laboratory animal science. Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1-5 June 1987, edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld, Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1988, p. 41-46. ISBN: 0898383544.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1987
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, ethics, animal behavior.

Hooff, Jaram, van; Baumans, V.; Brain, P.F.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van (ed); Beyneen, A.C., (1993),
Recognition of pain & distress.
Principles of laboratory sciences: A contribution to the humane use and care of animals and the quality of experimental results. 1993, p. 255-265, 15 ref. Elsevier Science Publishers; Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISBN: 0444812709.
NAL Call no: QL55.P762 1993
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, animal welfare, animal experiments.

Hoskins, J.D., (1991), Pain management. Veterinary Technician, 1991, 12:10, p. 715-717, 12 ref. ISSN: 8750-8990.
NAL Call no: SF406.A5
Descriptors: pain, analgesics.

Hsu, W.H., (1992), Antagonism of pharmacologic effects of xylazine. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 225-236, 243.
ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A35 1992
Descriptors: dogs, domestic animals, ruminants, agonists, adverse effects, andrenergic receptors, yohimbine, phenoybenzamine, propanolol, central nervous system, pain, drug therapy, xylazine.

Iggo, Ainsley, (1985), Pain in animals: The Hume Memorial Lecture, 15th Nov.1984 at King's College, Universities of London & 22nd Nov. 1984 at the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Potters Bar, Hertfordshire: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1985, 16 p; ill.
ISBN: 0900767375.
NAL Call no: QP451.4.I28 1985
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain, animals.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) (US). Committee on Pain & Distress in Laboratory Animals, (1992), Recognition & alleviation of pain & distress in laboratory animals. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1992, xiii, 137 p., ill. ISBN: 0309042755.
NAL Call no: SF996.5.R43 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animal diseases, pain in animals, laboratory animals, effect of stress on, animal welfare.

Jennings, R.C., (1998), A philosophical consideration of awareness. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1998, v. 57, n. 3-4, p. 201-211. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: self recognition, cognitive ability, reviews, philosophy.

Jennings, V.M., (1995), Review of selected adjuvants used in antibody production. Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources Journal, Washington, DC, Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, 1995, v. 37 (3), p. 119- 124. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: adjuvants, immunostimulants, antibodies, biological production, toxicity, adverse effects, pain, granuloma, arthritis, animal welfare, laboratory animals.

Jones, R.B., (1997), Fear & distress. Animal Welfare, Wallingford, Oxon, UK; N.Y.: CAB International, c1997, p. 75-87. ISBN: 0851991807.
NAL Call no: HV4711.A587 1997
Descriptors: animal suffering.

Kamerling, S.G., (1993), Narcotics & local anesthetics. Veterinary Clinics of North America Equine Practice, v.. 9 (3), 1993, p. 605-620, 46 ref. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call no: SF951.V47
Descriptors: anesthetics, local therapeutic use, horse diseases, drug therapy, pain, narcotics.

Keefe, F.J.; Fillingham, R.B.; Williams, D.A., (1991), Behavioral assessment of pain: Nonverbal measures in animals & humans. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources News, Washington, DC: Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, Winter/Spring 1991, v. 33 (1/2), p.3-13. ISSN: 0018- 9960.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: laboratory animals, man, pain evaluation, behavior.

Kelly, D.D., (1986), Stress-induced analgesia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences, 1986, v. 467, 447 p. ISSN: 0077-8923.
NAL Call no: 500 N484 v.467
Descriptors: analgesia, stress physiology, central nervous system, pain, opium alkaloids, peptides, animals, nerves, tolerance.

Kitchell, R.L., (1987), Problems in defining pain & peripheral mechanisms of pain. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1195-1199. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, neurophysiology, perception, receptors.

Kitchell, R.L.; Johnson, R.D., (1985), Assessment of pain in animals. Animal stress, editor Gary P. Moberg, Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, c1985, p. 113-140, ill.
ISBN: 0683061011.
NAL Call no: QP82.2.58A55
Descriptors: domestic animals, pain, senses, perception, animal behavior, cerebral cortex, receptors, thalamus.

Kitchell, R.L.; Ericksen, H.H.,(Eds), (1983), Animal pain: Perception & alleviation. American Physiological Society, 1983: i-x, p. 1-221, ill. Based on a symposium held at 66th Annual Meeting, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), New Orleans, 1982.
NAL Call no: QP451.4.A54
Descriptors: pain, perception, alleviation.

Klide, A.M., (1993), Use of acupuncture for the control of chronic pain & for surgical anesthesia. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 249-257. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, horses, laminitis, surgical operations, analgesics, treatment, acupuncture.

Kyles, A.E., (1998), Transdermal fentanyl. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1998, v. 20 (6), p. 721-722, 724-726, 23 ref. ISBN: 0444824243.
ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call no: SF601.C66
Descriptors: pain, analgesia.

Lane, D.R., (1987), The assessment of welfare in diseased companion animals. The proceedings of the British Veterinary Association, Animal Welfare Foundation's fifth symposium: Entitled "Animal disease--a welfare problem?" held on 18 Nov. 1987, edited by T.E. Gibson; asst. ed., D.A. Paterson, London: The Foundation, 1987, p. 31-41. ISBN: 0901028347.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A54 1987
Descriptors: animal welfare, pet animals, animal diseases, pain, euthanasia, veterinary services.

Loeffler, K., (1993), Pain & fear in animals. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1993, Feb., v. 100 (2), p. 69-70, 11 ref. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Language: German with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: nervous system, fright, animal behavior, pain, animal welfare.

Loew, F.M., (1981), Alleviation of pain:The researchers obligation. Laboratory Animals,
N.Y., United Business Publications, Sept. 1981, v. 10 (5), p. 36, 38. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: pain, drugs, alleviation.

Lopez, R.A., (1991), Animal vs. human pain. Humane Innovations and Alternatives, Washington Grove, MD: Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1991, v. 5, p. 287-288.
ISSN: 1062-4805.
NAL Call no: QL55.H8
Descriptors: animals, man, pain, perception.

Ludders, J.W., (1992), Pharmacokinetics & the use of animals in research. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 318-322, 357-358. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, dogs, cats, sheep, research, pharmacokinetics, central nervous system, diazepam, thiopental, pentobarbital, anesthetics, analgesics, methohexital, thiamytal.

MacDonald, E.; Virtanen, Raimo, (1992), Review of pharmacology of medetomidine & detomidine: Two chemically similar alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonists used as veterinary sedatives. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 181-191, 198-199. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, rat, agonists, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, veterinary medicine, analgesics, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, alpha adrenergic receptors.

Mama, K., (1999), New options for managing chronic pain in small animals. Veterinary Medicine, Lenexa, KS: Veterinary Medicine Publishing Group, Apr. 1999, v. 94 (4), p. 352-357. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call no: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: dogs, cats, pain, treatment, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drug therapy, fentanyl, transdermal application.

Marks, D.; Haussler, K.K., (1999), Medical management of back pain. Back problems, Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice, 1999, v. 15 (1), p179-194, 27ref. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call no: SF957.V47
Descriptors: back pain, analgesics, management.

Mather, L.E., (1995), 1994 John J. Bonica Lecture. The clinical effects of morphine pharmacology. Regional Anesthesia, 1995, Jul.-Aug., v. 20 (4), p. 263-282. ISSN: 0146-521X.
Descriptors: morphine, analgesia, pain, effects.

Mayer, David J.; Mao, Jianren; Holt, Jason; Price, Donald D., (1999), Cellular mechanisms of neuropathic pain, morphine tolerance & their interactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, July 6, 1999, v. 96 (14), p. 7731-7736. ISSN: 0027-2424.
Descriptors: hyperalgesia, nervous system diseases, neuropathic pain, cellular mechanism, pain.

McQuay, Henry, (1999), Opioids in pain management. Lancet, North American Edition, June 26, 1999, v. 353 (9171), p. 2229-2232. ISSN: 0099-5355.
NAL Call no: 448.8 L22
Descriptors: pain management, analgesic drug, tolerance.

Mickwitz, G.V., (1984), Pain & pain reactions in animals. [s.1: s.n., 1984?] 10 leaves.
Language: German
Translated from: Prakt Tier, v. 64, n.1: p. 26, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, Jan 1983. Monograph.
NAL Call no: TRANSL 31760
Descriptors: pain, reactions, behavior.

Moberg, G.P., (1987), Problems in defining stress & distress in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1207-1211. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, stress, measurements.

Morton, D.B.; Griffiths, P.H.M., (1985), Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress & discomfort in experimental animals & an hypothesis for assessment. Veterinary Record, London: British Veterinary Association, Apr. 20, 1985, v. 116 (16), p. 431-436.
ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain.

Morton, D.B., (1990), Adverse effects in animals & their relevance to refining scientific procedures. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA)., Nottingham: Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments, Nov. 1990, v. 18, p. 29-39. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call no: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare.

Morton, D., (1997), The recognition of adverse effects on animals during experiments & its use in the implementation of refinement. Ethical approaches to animal-based science. Proceedings of the Joint ANZCCART-NAEAC Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 19-20 Sept., 1997.1998, p. 61-67, 25 ref. ISBN: 0908654839.
Descriptors: distress effects, refinement, experiments.

Morton, D.B.; Zutphen, L.F.M.-van (ed); Balls, M., (1997), A scheme for the recognition & assessment of adverse effects in animals. Animal alternatives, welfare & ethics. Proceedings of the 2nd world Congress, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 20-24 Oct., 1996.1997, p. 235-240, 10 ref. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
ISBN: 0444824243
NAL Call no: QL1.D48 v.27
Descriptors: animals, adverse effects, recognition.

Mroczek, N.S., (1991), Recognizing animal suffering & pain. Humane Innovations and Alternatives, Washington Grove, MD: Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1991, v. 5, p. 289-293. ISSN: 1062-4805.
NAL Call no: QL55.H8
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, animal welfare, stress, stress factors, animal behavior.

Murphy, D.H., (1982), The problem of pain: What do animals really feel? International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, v. 3 (3), 1982, p. 275-282. ISSN: 0195-7554.
NAL Call no: HV4701.I49
Descriptors: philosophy and ethics, sensory receptors, pain sensitivity, ethical questions.

Nurmikko, T.J.; Nash, T.P.; Wiles, J.P., (1998), Recent advances: Control of chronic pain. Walton Centre for Neurology & Neurosurgery NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK, British Medical Journal, Nov. 21, 1998, v. 317 (7170), p. 1438-1441. ISSN: 0959-8138.
NAL Call no: R31.B55
Descriptors: chronic pain, control, pain management programs.

O'Brian, M.G., (1998), Cancer pain management: A review of recent considerations & advancements. Veterinary Cancer Society Newsletter, 1998, v. 22 (2), p. 1-6, 21 ref.
NAL Call no: SF910.T8N4
Descriptors: cancer, pain management.

Olfert, E.D., (1993), Defining an acceptable endpoint in invasive experiments. Canadian Association of Laboratory Animal Science, Oct. 1993, v. 27 (5), p. 131-135. ISSN: 0045-4354.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.C36
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, death, pain, experimental design, humane endpoints.

Oliver, J.E. Jr., (1974), Neurologic examinations: Sensation, pain [animals].
Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Clinic, May 1974, v. 69 (5), p. 607-610, ref.
NAL Call no: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: neurology, pain, sensation.

Orlans, F.B., (1996), Invasiveness scales for animal pain & distress. Lab Animal, N.Y., N.Y.: Nature Publishing Co., June 1996, v. 25 (6), p. 23-25. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L23
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, animal welfare, measurement, invasive procedures.

Orlans, F.B., (1990), Animal pain scales in public policy. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA)., Nottingham: Fund for the Replacement of animals in Medical Experiments, Nov. 1990, v. 18, p.41-50. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call no: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain.

Osuna, D.J., (1994), Medical management of degenerative joint disease. Publication Veterinary Continuing Education, Massey University, 1994, no. 158, p. 107-110. Proceedings from an Annual Seminar for Equine Branch & Companion Animal Society, New Zealand Veterinary Association, June, 1994.
NAL Call no: SF604.P82 no.158
Descriptors: degenerative joint disease, pain, management.

Otto, K.A.; Short, C.E., (1998), Pharmaceutical control of pain in large animals. Applied Animal Behavior Society, Amsterdam; N.Y.: Elsevier 1984-Aug. 1998, v. 59 (1-3), p. 157-169. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, llamas, analgesics, pain, responses, anesthesia, agonists, dosage, animal behavior, animal welfare, species differences, conduction, literature reviews.

Pakes. S.P., (1990), Contributions of the laboratory animal veterinarian to refining experiments in toxicology. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology, 1991 Jul., v. 15 (1), p. 17-24. ISSN: 0272-0590.
NAL Call no: RA1190.F8
Descriptors: laboratory animal veterinarians, contributions, experiments.

Phillips, M.T., (1993), Savages, drunks, & lab animals: The researcher's perception of pain. Society & Animals Washington Grove, MD, Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1993, v. 1 (1), p. 61-81. ISSN: 1063-1119.
NAL Call no: QL85.S63
Descriptors: laboratory animals, surgery, analgesics.

Pratt, Dallas, (1980), Alternatives to pain in experiments on animals. 2nd ed., New York: Argus Archives, c1980, viii, 283p., ill. ISBN: 0916858065.
NAL Call no: HV4930.P73 1980
Descriptors: vivisection, laboratory animals, animals, treatment of (U.S.), animal welfare, animal experimentation.

Prudden, B., (1992), Myotherapy--my experiences with stopping cycles of pain (it only hurts when I bark, meow, neigh, moo, baa, oink, squawk...or say ouch! Humane Innovations and Alternatives, Washington Grove, MD: Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1992, v. 6, p. 351-353. ISSN: 1062-4805.
NAL Call no: Q55.H8
Descriptors: animals, pain, spasms, muscles, physical therapy.

Raffe, M.R., (1992), Animal models for the evaluation of analgesic agents. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak, N.Y.; Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 453-458, 478. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55
Descriptors: animals, pain, models, analgesics, research.

Ree, J.M. van, (1988), Endorphins & pain. New developments in biosciences: Their implications for laboratory animal science: Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1-5 June 1987, edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1998, p. 53-57. ISBN: 0898383544.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1987
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, endorphins.

Ree, J.M. van, (1985), Pain & endorphins. Tijdschrift Diergeneeskunde, Utrecht; Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Diergeneeskunde, Jan. 1, 1985, v. 110 (1), p.3-11, ill. ISSN: 0040-7453.
Language: Dutch with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: animals, pain, endorphins.

Rollin, Bernard E., (1989), The unheeded cry: Animal consciousness, animal pain & science. Studies in Bioethics, Oxford, Eng., N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1989, xviii, 308 p., ill.
ISBN: 0192177656.
NAL Call no: QL55.R65
Descriptors: laboratory animals, moral & ethical aspects, animal welfare.

Rollin, B., (1989), Animal pain, animal rights & human obligations. Edited by Tom Regan, Peter Singer, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, c1989, p. 60- 65. ISBN: 0130368644.
NAL Call no: HV4711.A56
Descriptors: horses, animal behavior, animal welfare, animal research, laboratory animals, pain, castration, suxamethonium.

Rollin, B., (1987), Animal pain, scientific ideology, & the reappropriation of common sense. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1222-1226. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8.AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, bioethics, animal welfare, animal experiments.

Roswell, H.C., (1992), The future control of pain in animals used for teaching & research. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, P. 525-537. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animal experiments, laboratory animals, pain, research, teaching, education.

Rozemond, H., (1985), Pain: A matter of conscience. Tijdschrift Diergeneeskunde, Utrecht, Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Diergeneeskunde, Jan. 1, 1985, v. 110 (1), p. 21-30, ill.
ISSN: 0040-7453.
Language: Dutch with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: veterinarians, domestic animals, animal welfare, pain.

Sackman, J.E., (1991), Pain II, Control of pain in animals. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, Trenton, N.J.: Veterinary Learning System Co., Feb. 1991, v. 13 (2), p. 181-187, 190-192. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call no: SF601.C66
Descriptors: dogs, cats, analgesics, pain, opium alkaloids, receptors, narcotic antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, arachidonic acid, modes of action, treatment, dosage.

Sackman, J.E.; McCurnin, D.M., (1998), Pain management. Clinical textbook for veterinary technicians, 1998, Ed. 4, p. 507-523, 13 ref., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721621961.
Descriptors: pain, management.

Sackman, J.E., (1997), Pain & its management. Veterinary clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice, 1997, V. 27 (6), p. 1487-1504, 27 ref. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call no: SF601.V523
Descriptors: pain, management.

Sanford, J., (1992), Initiatives & experience in the United Kingdom. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 515-524. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55
Descriptors: animal experiments, laboratory animals, pain, detection, UK.

Sanford, J.; Ewbank, R.; Molony, V.; Tavernor, W.D.; Uvarov, O., (1986), Guidelines for the recognition & assessment of pain in animals. Veterinary Record., London: British Veterinary Association., Mar. 22, 1986, v. 118 (12), p. 334-338. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 41.8.V641
Descriptors: laboratory animals, mammals, pain, animal welfare, guidelines, veterinary practice.

Saulya, A.I., (1987), Influence of emotional-pain stress on contractile function of myocardium during long-term hypokinesia (Abstract only). Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA., NASA, Washington, DC. Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences, p. 67-68. Trans. into English from Byulleten Eksperimentalnoy Biologii I Meditsiny (Moscow, USSR), v. 98 (12), Dec. 1984, p. 651-653. NTIS 1985 (#14-26) - 1990 (#1-21).
Descriptors: Contraction, emotional factors, hypokinesia, myocardium, psychological effects, neuroses, rats, orthostatic tolerance.

Short, Charles E.; van-Poznak, Alan, (1992), Animal pain. N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, xxii, 587 p., ill. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: pain in animals.

Short, C.E., (1998), Fundamentals of pain perception in animals. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Amsterdam; N.Y.: Elsevier, 1984-Aug. 1998, v. 59 (1/3), p. 125-133. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animals, pain, neurons, animal behavior, post operative care, veterinary practice, animal welfare, analgesics, anesthetics.

Short, Charles E.; Weide, Kenneth, D.; Kim, C., (1997), Pain in animals: Mechanisms, medications, clinical management. Monograph series, Las Vegas, NV: Western Veterinary Conference, c1997, 100 p., ill.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34S45 1997
Descriptors: pain in animals congress.

Short, Charles, E.; van-Poznak, Allan, (1992), Animal pain: ethical & scientific perspectives: The proceedings of a conference held at the Barossa Valley, Adelaide. April, 1990. Glen Osmond, SA, Australia. Australian Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching (ACCART), 1992, vii, 94 p., ill. ISBN: 0643053832.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A56 1992
Descriptors: pain in animals, laboratory animals.

Spinelli, J.S.; Markowitz, H., (1987), Clinical recognition & anticipation of situations likely to induce suffering in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1216-1218. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, animal welfare.

Spinelli, J.S.; Markowitz, H., (1985), Prevention of cage associated distress. Lab Animal., N.Y.: Media Horizons, Nov./Dec. 1985, v. 14 (8), p. 19-22, 24, 28. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory animals, cage rearing, stress, prevention.

Stanley, T.H., (1987), New developments in opioid drug research for alleviation of animal pain. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1269-1272. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, analgesics, research, immobilization.

Tasker, R.A.R., (1992), Studies on the role of andrenergic receptors in a model of tonic pain. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 63-79. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, rats, pain, alpha andrenergic receptors, drugs, testing drug effects, analgesics, yohimbine, dosage, methoxamine.

Toth, L.A., (1997), The moribund state as an experimental endpoint. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science., Cordova, TN: The Association, 1992-May 1997, v. 36 (3), p. 44-48. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, animal welfare, death & dying, assessment, pain, euthanasia.

Vierck, C.J. Jr, (1976), Extrapolations from the pain research literature to problems of adequate veterinary care [laboratory animals]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Mar. 15, 1976, v. 168 (6), p. 510-513, ref.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: pain research, literature, adequate veterinary care.

Wallace, J.; Sanford, J.; Smith, M.W.; Spencer, K.V., (1990), The assessment & control of the severity of scientific procedures on laboratory animals. Institute of Cancer Research, Belmont, Surrey, UK, Laboratory Animals, 1990, v. 24 (2), p. 97-130, 25 ref. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain.

Wall, P.D., (1992), Defining pain in animals. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 63-79. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, pain, measurement, central nervous system, reflexes, analgesics.

Wiepkema, P.R., (1985), Significance of behavioral disturbances in farm animals. Tijdschrift Diergeneeskundee, Utrecht, Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Diergeneeskunde, Jan. 1, 1985, v. 110 (1), p. 12-20, ill. ISSN: 0040-7453.
Language: Dutch with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: sows, calves, intensive livestock farming, pain, endorphins, stress, abnormal behavior.

Willis, W.D.; Chung, J.M., (1987), Central mechanisms of pain. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association., Schaumburg, IL: The Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1200-1202. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, receptors, neurophysiology, thalamus, cerebral cortex.

Willis, W.D. Jr, (1983), Ascending pathways transmitting nociceptive information in animals. Kitchell, R.L. & Erickson, H.H. (Eds). Animal pain: Perception & alleviation. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD, 1983,: ix, p. 1-221, chapter pagination: 41-62, ill.
NAL Call no: QP451.4.A54
Descriptors: spinal cord, sensory reception, nervous system & behavior, pain reception & responses.

Wolfensohn, Sara; Lloyd, Maggie, (1994), Handbook of laboratory animal management & welfare. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford Press, 1994, xi, 304 p., ill. ISBN: 0198548338(hbk); 019854832x(pbk).
NAL Call no: SF406.W64 1994
Descriptors: laboratory animals handbook, mammals, animal welfare handbooks.

Yoxall, A.T., (1978), Pain in small animals, its recognition & control. Journal of Small Animal Practice, Aug. 1978, v. 19 (8), p. 423-438, ref.
NAL Call no: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: pain, small animals, recognition, control.

General / Laboratory Animals

Return to: Title Page / Table of Contents



LABORATORY ANIMALS


General / Dogs & Cats / Domestic Farm Animals / Domestic Fowl / Fish, Frogs & Snails / Guinea pigs / Mice
Monkeys & Apes / Non Domestic Animals / Post Operative Pain / Rabbits / Rats / Rodents


GENERAL


Amyx, H.L., (1987), Control of pain & distress in antibody production & infectious disease studies. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1287-1289. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, stress, adjuvants, monoclonal antibodies, infectious diseases, animal experiments.

Brock, N., (1995), Treating moderate & severe pain in small animals. Canadian Veterinary Journal, Ottawa: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association., c1978, Oct. 1995, v. 36 (10), p. 658-660. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dogs, cats, pain, treatment, analgesics, opioids.

Dyson, D.H., (1990), Update on butorphanol tartrate: use in small animals. Canadian Veterinary Journal, Ottawa: Canadian Veterinary Medical Assoc., Feb. 1990, v. 31 (2), p. 120-121. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dogs, cats, analgesics, dosage, drug effects, anesthesia, pain.

Flecknell, P.A., (1984), The relief of pain in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals, London. Essex: Laboratory Animal Science Assoc., Apr. 1984, v. 12 (2), p. 147-160. ISSN: 0023- 6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, analgesics.

Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.; Williamson, H.A., (1990), The use of lignocaine-prilocaine local anaesthetic cream for pain-free venipuncture in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Apr. 1990, v. 24 (2), p. 142-146.
ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, local anesthetics, lidocaine, intravenous injection, ointments, local anesthesia.

Flecknell, P.A., (1987), Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. Academic Press, Ltd., London. 156 p. ISBN: 0122603605.
NAL Call no: SF77.F5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, anaesthesia.

Flecknell, P.A., (1996), Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Ltd., London. 274 p. ISBN: 0122603613.
NAL Call no: SF77.F54 1996
Descriptors: laboratory animals, anaesthesia.

Green, C.J., (1987), Anaesthesia & analgesia. Laboratory Animals: An Introduction for New Experimentors, Edited by A.A. Tuffery, Chichester, Eng.: Wiley, c1987, p. 201-301, ill.
ISBN: 0471912972.
NAL Call no: QL55.L274
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, anesthesia, analgesics, pain, stress, pharmacokinetics.

Gluckstein, Fritz P., (1987), Pain, anesthesia & analgesia in common laboratory animals. Jan. 1980 through Dec. 1986, 514 citations. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. Of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service, NIH, (1987), p.45. Literature search no. 86-17.
NAL Call no: Z7994.L3G5
Descriptors: laboratory animals bibliography, animal experimentation bibliography, pain bibliography, analgesia bibliography, veterinary anesthesia bibliography.

Humane endpoints in animal experiments for biomedical research. (1999), Proceedings of the International Conference, 22 - 25 Nov. 1998, Zeist, The Netherlands. Edited by Coenraad F. M. Hendricksen and David B. Morton, Laboratory Animals Ltd. The Royal Society of Medicine Press, Ltd. 150 p. ISBN: 1853154296.
NAL Call no: HV4704.H85 1999
Descriptors: humane endpoints, animals, experiments, biomedical research.

Laties, V.G., (1987), Control of animal pain & distress in behavioral studies that use food depravation or aversive stimulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1290-1291. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, stress, animal behavior, animal experiments, restricted feeding.

Manser, Caroline E., (1992), The assessment of stress in laboratory animals. London, Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, (RSPCA), 1992, 208 p., ill.
NAL Call no: SF406.M36 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare.

McKee, M., (1996), Cervical pain in small animals. In Practice., London: British Veterinary. Association, 1979-Apr. 1996, v. 18 (4), p. 169-171, 173-177, 179-180, 183-184. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call no: SF601.I4
Descriptors: dogs, spine, pain, spinal cord, radiography, spondylitis, trauma, degeneration, neoplasms, meningitis, drug therapy.

Merkenschlager, M.; Hiller, H.H., (1975), Pain elimination in laboratory animals. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, Aug. 1, 1975, v. 88 (15), p. 289-295.
Language: German with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 41.8-B45
Descriptors: pain, laboratory animals, elimination, control.

Montgomery, C.A. Jr, (1987), Control of animal pain & distress in cancer & toxicological research. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Nov. 15, 1987, V. 191 (10), p. 1277-1281. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, stress, animal experiments, experimental design, animal husbandry, carcinoma, toxicology.

Morton, D.B., (1985), The recognition of pain, distress & discomfort in small laboratory mammals & its assessment. Leicester, England: Unit of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, 1985, 23 leaves, Cover title "19.3.85" includes bibliographical references.
NAL Call no: HV4735.M67
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, animal experimentation.

Morton, D.B.; Griffiths, P.H.M., (1985), Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress & discomfort in experimental animals & an hypothesis for assessment. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain.

Pain relief for laboratory animals. (1976), (Animal Welfare Act, USDA, APHIS), Lab Animal, Sept./Oct. 1976, v. 5 (5), p. 10-11.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: pain, relief, animal welfare act.

Phillips, M.I., (1988), Review of responsibilities of scientists to protect animals from pain. News letter, Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, the Center, Spring 1988, v. 10 (1), p. 8, 15. ISSN: 0742-5260.
NAL Call no: QL55.N48
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, protection, animal experiments.

Recognition & alleviation of pain & distress in laboratory animals. (1991), Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources news (ILAR) (USA), Aug. 1991, v. 33 (4), p. 71-74. ISSN: 0018-9960.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, animal welfare.

Recognition & alleviation of pain & distress in laboratory animals. (1992), Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) (USA), Committee on Pain & Distress in Laboratory Animals, Wash. DC, National Academy Press, 1992, 137 p. ISBN: 0309042755.
NAL Call no: SF996.5.R43 1992
Descriptors: pain, distress, recognition, alleviation, laboratory animals.

Silverman, Paul, (1978), Animal behavior in the laboratory. PICA Press, New York. 409 p. ISBN: 0876637276.
NAL Call no: QL751.S55
Descriptors: animal behavior, laboratory animals.

Smith, A.J., (1994), The treatment of pain & suffering in laboratory animals. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, c1994, p. 339-351. ISBN: 084934378X.
NAL Call no: QL55.H36 1994
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain prevention, medical treatment, euthanasia.

Soma, L.R., (1987), Assessment of animal pain in experimental animals. Laboratory Animal Science: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Jan. 1987, v. 37 (special issue), p. 71-74. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, pain, assessment.

Spinelli, J.S., (1987). Reducing pain in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animal Science: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Jan. 1987, v. 37 (special issue), p. 65-70. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain , control.

Svendsen, P., (1993), Expression & relief of pain in laboratory animals. Welfare & Science proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Symposium, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 1994, p. 7-14. ISBN: 1853152404.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1993
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain receptors, animal experiments, species differences, experimental surgery, anesthesia, analgesics, animal welfare.

Tennor, D., (1980), Pain-infliction in animal research. Animals in Education: Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes & Science Fairs, edited by Heather McGiffen, Nancy Brownley, Wash., DC: The Institute for the Study of Animal Problems, c1980, p. 35-40.
ISBN: 0937712000.
NAL Call no: HV4712.A5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal research, pain, stress, students, psychology, attitudes.

Toth, L.A.; Olson, G.A., (1991), Strategies for minimizing pain & distress in laboratory animals. Lab Animal, N.Y., N.Y.: Nature Publishing Company, Apr. 1991, v. 20 (4), p. 33-39. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain.

Townsend, P., (1993), Control of pain & distress in small laboratory animals. Animal Technology, (Sussex): The Institute, Dec. 1993, v. 4 (3), p. 215-225. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call no: QL55.I5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain prevention, anesthesia, analgesics, animal husbandry.

Wallace, J.; Sanford, J.; Smith, M.W.; Spencer, K.V., (1990), The assessment & control of the severity of scientific procedures on laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Apr. 1990, v. 24 (2), p.97-130. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal experiments, animal welfare, pain.

Workshop on minimizing pain & distress in laboratory animals, (1992 Nashville, TN), National Institute of Health, OPRR, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Mehary Medical College, present a workshop on Minimizing Pain & Distress in Laboratory Animals, Dec. 3-4, 1992, Nashville, TN.
NAL Call no: QL58.W67 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals congress, animal experimentation congress, pain in animals, analgesics.

Yoxall, A.T., (1978), Pain in small animals, its recognition & control. Journal of Small Animal Practice, Aug. 1978, v. 19 (8), p. 423-438, Ref
NAL Call no: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: pain, small animals, recognition, control.

Yu, C.; Chang, K.C.; Lu K.; Wang, C.L.; Ho, C.J.; Kuo, Y.T., (1980), The effects of laser acupuncture stimulus on the threshold of pain in animals, rabbits, pigs, sheep, rats.
Language: Chinese with a summary in English.
NAL Call no: 385 AC86
Descriptors: laser acupuncture, animals, pain.

General / Laboratory Animals

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DOGS & CATS


Abeynayake, P., (1997), Management of pain in dogs & cats using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics. Australian Veterinary Journal, 1997, v. 75 (5), p. 353; Interpretive summary of Mathews, K.A., Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics in pain management in dogs & cats. Canadian Veterinary Journal (1996), v. 37. p. 539-545, ref. ISSN: 0005-0423 and 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AU72 and 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: pain, management, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics.

Christmas, R., (1991), Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1991, v. 32 (10), p. 608-612, 13 ref. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dog diseases, case reports, cornea, eye diseases, keratitis, emergencies.

Frank, Liz; Adams, G.J.; Ahern, Tom J.; Vale, Warrick, (1997), Pain management of dogs & horses: Some alternative therapies. 22 Feb.1997, Murdoch University Foundation for Continuing Veterinary Education; no. 1/97. ISBN: 0869055445.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34F73 1997
Descriptors: pain in animals, dogs, diseases, alternative treatment, horses, diseases, alternative treatment.

Haas, T., (1998), Pain management in dogs & cats in Denmark. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift, 1998, v. 81 (22), p. 838-841, 8 ref.
Language: Danish
NAL Call no: 41.9 D23
Descriptors: pain management, dogs, cats, Denmark.

Mathews, K.A., (1996), Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics in pain management in dogs & cats. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1996, v. 37 (9), p.539-545, 17 ref. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: pain management, dogs, cats, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics.

Sackman, J.E., (1991), Pain: its perception & alleviation in dogs & cats. 1. The physiology of pain. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian (USA), Jan. 1991, v. 13 (1), p. 71-75, 79. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call no: SF601.C66
Descriptors: dogs, cats, pain, nerves, animal morphology, endorphins, analgesics, neurotransmitters.

Schultheiss, P.J.; Morse, B.C., (1995), Evaluation of a transdermal fentanyl system in the dog. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC. Contemporary Topics, v. 34 (5), p. 75-81, Sep. 95. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) 1995 (#13-24) - 2000 (#1-6). NAL Call no: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: blood serum, dogs, cancer, rectum, analgesia.

Vainio, O., (1992), Pain control with medetomidine in dogs, cats & laboratory animals. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.:Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 213-219, 222-223. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: dogs, cats, laboratory animals, rats, mice, pain, tests, drugs, drug effects, physiological functions.

General / Laboratory Animals

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DOMESTIC FARM ANIMALS


Allen, T., (1994), Anesthesia & analgesia for farm animals. Jan. 1987 - Jan. 1994. Quick bibliography service, Beltsville, MD, National Agricultural Library, Apr. 1994, (94-21), 84 p. ISSN: 1052-5378.
NAL Call no: aZ5071.N3
Descriptors: livestock, anesthesia, analgesics, pain.

Bath, G.F., (1998), Management of pain in production animals. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Amsterdam; N.Y.; Elsevier, 1984-Aug. 1998, v. 59 (1/3), p. 147-156. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750 A6 Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, animal husbandry, animal welfare, pain.

Bath, G.F.; Quimby, F.W., (1995), Management of pain in production animals. Ethics, ethology and animal welfare. Manuscripts prepared for the 25th Congress of World Veterinary Association, Yokohama, Japan, 1995, Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1998, v. 59 (1-3), p. 147-156, 21 ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pain, management, production animals.

Breazile, J.E., (1994), Recognition of pain in farm animals. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Beltsville, MD, USDA, NAL, AWIC, Spr. 1994, v. 5 (1), p.5-7. ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call no: aHV4701.A952
Descriptors: livestock, pain, animal welfare, domestic animals.

Dantzer, R., (1986), Assessing pain studying neuroendocrine responses. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.D.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 39-48. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, assessment, neurophysiology, neurohormonal control, tissue analysis, animal welfare.

Duncan, Ian. J.H.; Molony, V., (1986), Assessing pain in farm animals. Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: animals, pain congress, animal welfare, animal testing, alternatives.

Duncan, I.J.H., (1986), Assessment of pain using conditioning procedures. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 71-78. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain assessment, conditioned reflexes, analgesics, animal behavior, avoidance conditioning.

Dyson, S., (1995), Distal hock joint pain: Diagnosis & management. Ippoologia, 1995, v. 6 (3), p. 7-12, 17-23; 30 ref.
Language: Italian
Descriptors: hock joint pain, management, diagnosis.

Grandin, T., (1986), Minimizing stress in pig handling. Lab Animal. N.Y.: Media Horizons, Apr. 1986, v. 15 (3), p. 15-20, ill. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L37
Descriptors: pain, restraint of animals, stress, handling.

Grant, C.; Upton, R.N.; Kuchel, T.R., (1996), Efficacy of intra-muscular analgesics for acute pain in sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal, 1996, v. 73 (4), p. 129-132, 15ref. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: sheep, pain, intramuscular analgesics.

Hay, W.P.; Moore, J.N., (1997), Management of pain in horses with colic. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1997, v. 19 (8), p. 987-990, ll ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call no: SF601.C66
Descriptors: horses, colic, pain management.

Jackson, P.G.G., (1987), The assessment of welfare in diseased farm animals. The proceedings of the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare foundations' [sic] fifth symposium: Entitled animal disease--a welfare problem?, held on 18 Nov. 1987, edited by T.E. Gibson, asst. ed., D.A. Paterson, London: The Foundation, 1987, p. 42-47. ISBN: 0901028347.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A54 1987
Descriptors: animal welfare, livestock, animal diseases, veterinarians, animal housing, pain, disease control.

Livingston, A., (1986), Assessing pain by studying physiological response. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 30-38. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain perception, drug effects, survival, consciousness, animal welfare, neurophysiology.

Loeffler, K., (1986), Assessing pain by studying posture, activity & function. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General of Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 49-57. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: livestock, pain assessment, locomotion, posture, animal behavior, scales, animal welfare.

Mickwitz, G. van, (1986), Assessing pain by studying changes in behavior. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 58-61. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: animal behavior, pain, assessment, experience, consciousness, learning.

Molony, V.; Kent, J.E., (1997), Assessment of acute pain in farm animals using behavioral & physiological measurements. American Society of Animal Science, Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, IL, Jan. 1997, v. 75 (1), p. 266-272. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call no: 49 J82
Descriptors: lambs, calves, pain, surgical operations, tail, castration, autonomic nervous system, behavior, steroids, blood plasma.

Molony V., (1986), Assessment of pain by direct measurement of cerebro-cortical activity. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 79-88. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain assessment, cerebral cortex, anesthesia, stunning, consciousness.

Muir, W.W., (1998), Anesthesia & pain management in horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 1998, v. 10 (6), p. 335-340, 13 ref.
NAL Call no: SF951.E67
Descriptors: anesthesia, pain, horses, management.

Rowan, A.N., (1985), T-61 use in the euthanasia of domestic animals: A survey. Advances in Animal Welfare Science., Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985, p. 79-86.
NAL Call no: HV4701.A34
Descriptors: domestic animals, euthanasia, animal welfare, pain.

Rushen, J., (1996), Using aversion learning techniques to assess the mental state, suffering & welfare of farm animals. Journal of Animal Science., Champaign, IL: American Society of Animal Science, Aug. 1996, v. 74 (8), p. 1990-1995. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call no: 49 J82
Descriptors: livestock, animal husbandry, stress response, pain, learning, animal welfare, animal behavior, restraint of animals, animal experiments, transporting of animals.

Rushen, J., (1990), Use of aversion learning techniques to measure distress in sheep. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, British Veterinary Association, Nov. 1990, v. 28 (1-2), p. 3-14. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: sheep, animal welfare, stress, transport of animals, learning, avoidance conditioning.

Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S.; Stookey, J.M.; DePassille, A.M.; Rushen, J., (1997), Comparison of hot-iron & freeze branding on cortisol levels & pain sensitivity in cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada, 1957, Sept. 1997, v. 77 (3), p. 369-374. ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call no: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: beef cattle, heifers, branding, hydrocortisone, pain, legs, pressure, movement, susceptibility, chemical composition, heat tolerance.

Sysel, A.M.; Pleasant, R.S.; Jacobson, J.D.; Moll, H.D.; Warnick, L.D.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Eyre, P., (1997), Systematic & local effects associated with long-term epidural catherization & morphine-detomidine administration in horses. Veterinary Surgery, 1997 Mar.-Apr., v. 26 (2), p. 141-149. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call no: SF911.V43
Descriptors: systemic and local effects, morphine-detomidine, epidural catherization

Varshney, J.P.; Uppal, P.K., (1993), Clinical management of dietary colic with buprenorphine hydrochloride in equines. National Research Center on Equines, Sirsa Rosd, Hisar-125 001, India. Centaurus-Mylapore, 1993, v. 9 (4), p. 88-89, 5 ref.
Descriptors: horse diseases, drug therapy, digestive system diseases, pain, colic, analgesics.

Weary, D.M.; Braithwaite, L.A.; Fraser, D., (1998), Vocal response to pain in piglets. Applied Animal Behavior Science., Amsterdam; N.Y.:Elsevier, 1984 Mar. 1998, v. 56 (2/4), p. 161-172. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call no: QL750.A6
Descriptors: piglets, pain, vocalization, castration, restraint of animals, animal welfare.

White, R.G.; J.A. DeSchazer; C.J. Tressler; G.M. Borcher; S. Davey; A. Waninge; A.M. Parkhurst; M.J. Milanuk & E.T. Clemens, (Feb. 1995), Vocalizations & physiological response of pigs during castration with or without a local anesthetic. Journal of Animal Science, v. 73 (2), p. 381-386. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call no: 49 J82
Descriptors: anesthesia, local, orchiectomy, swine physiology, vocalization, animal physiology, blood pressure, drug effects, heart rate, respiration, stress, physiopathology, surgery.

Wiepkema, P.R., (1986), Pain & stereotypes. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 62-70. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: calves, animal behavior, veal, pain, stomach ulcer, endorphins, stress, response.

Wood, G.N.; Molony, V.; Fleetwood-Walker, S.M.; Hodgson, J.C.; Mellor, D.J., (1991), Effects of local anesthesia & intravenous naloxone on the change in behavior & plasma concentrations of cortisol produced by castration & tail docking with tight rubber rings in young lambs. Research in Veterinary Science, 1991 Sep., v. 51 (2), p. 193-199. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: local anesthesia, naloxone, castration, tail docking.

Zayan, R., (1986), Assessment of pain in animals: epistemological comments. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop held in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 1-15. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: livestock, pain, assessment, animal welfare, consciousness.

Zimmermann, M., (1986), Behavorial investigation of pain in animals. Assessing pain in farm animals: Proceedings of a workshop in Roslin, Scotland, 25-26 Oct. 1984, edited by I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony, Brussels: Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination of Agricultural Research, c1986, p. 16-29. ISBN: 9282565181.
NAL Call no: HV4704.A77
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, assessment, ethics, animal welfare, social behavior, research methodology, neurophysiology, animal behavior.

General / Laboratory Animals

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DOMESTIC FOWL


Hocking, P.M.; Gentle, M.J.; Bernard, R.; Dunn, L.N., (1997), Evaluation of a protocol for determining the effectiveness of pretreatment with local analgesics for reducing experimentally induced articular pain in domestic fowl. Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, Research in Veterinary Science, v. 63,(3), p.263-267. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: anesthetics, local therapeutic use, arthritis physiopathology, bupivacaine therapeutic use, pain, poultry diseases.


General / Laboratory Animals

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FISH, FROGS & SNAILS


Arena, P.C.; Richardson, K.C., (1990), The relief of pain in cold-blooded vertebrates. Australian Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching-News, Canberra, A.C.T.: Australian Council for the Care of Animals in Research & Teaching (ACCART), Autumn 1990, v. 3 (1), p. 1-4.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.A3
Descriptors: vertebrates, fishes, amphibia, reptiles, pain, anesthesia, anesthetics.

Brown, L.A.; Scott, P.W.; Greenwood, A.G.(Eds), Pain in fish: A review. Exotic animals in the eighties. Proceedings from the 25th Anniversary Symposium of the British Veterinary Zoological Society, 18-20 April 1986. British Veterinary Zoological Society, place of publication not given. 1987: 1-64, chapter pagination: 107-110.
Descriptors: PISCES, physiological condition, pain, perception potential, sensory receptor, potential perception of pain, review.

Chervova, L.S., (1997), Pain sensitivity & behavior of fish. MGU, Moscow, Russia. Journal of Ichthyology, 1997, v. 37 (1), p. 98-102. ISSN: 0042-8725.
Translated from Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 1997, v. 37 (1), p. 106-111.
NAL Call no: SH1.J6
Descriptors: mechanical stimuli, electric stimuli, behavioral responses, inhibitors, neurophysiology, controlled conditions, Gadus-morhua-marisalbi, Salmo-mykiss, peptides.

Clark, T.R.; Nossov, P.C.; Apland, J.P.; Filbert, M.G., Anesthetic agents for use in the invertebrate sea snail, Aplysia californica. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science. Cordova, TN: The Association, 1992-Sept. 1996, v. 35 (5), p. 75-79. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: marine animals, anesthetics, anesthesia, pain, efficacy.

Kestin, S.C., (1994), Pain & stress in fish. Amended. Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Horsham, West Sussex: RSPCA (1994) 36 p.
NAL Call no: SH177.S75K47 1994
Descriptors: fishes, effects of stress on; fishes physiology, pain, physiological aspects, fish culture, animal welfare.

Klausewitz, W., (1989), Problems of sensitivity to pain & ability to suffer in fish. Forschungs inst. Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, D-6000 Frankfort 1, FRG. Fischoekologie, 1989, v. 1, no. 1, p. 65-90.
Language: German
Descriptors: angling, neurophysiology, fish handling, fish physiology, freshwater fish, mechanical stimuli.

Klausewitz, W., (1995), Pain, fear & ability to suffer in fish. A problematic complex activated by the new German Animal Protection Law. Fortschritfe.-Fishereiwiss. Adv. Fish Science. 1995 no. 12, p. 5-21. ISSN: 0233-1179.
Language: German
Descriptors: angling, legal aspects, biologicalstress, fish physiology, Cyprinuscarpia, Germany.

Peters, G., (1988), Pain & stress of fish. Univ. Hamburg, Inst. Hydrobiol. und Fischereiwiss, Elbelab, Ausruestungskai 6, D-2000 Hamburg 50, FRG, Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1988, v. 95, no. 2, p. 60-63.
Language: German
NAL Call no: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: sense functions, behavioral responses, sense organs, fish.

Sauer, N.; Manz, D., (1994), The welfare of fish. Tierarztliche Umschau. 1994, v. 49, no. 10, p. 653-658. ISSN: 0049-3864.
Language: German
NAL Call no: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: fish handling, biological stress, sport fishing, aquaculture techniques, ornamental fish, hygiene, Teleostei.

Snow, P.J.; Plenderleith, M.B.; Wright, L.L., (1993), Quantitative study of primary sensory neurone populations of three species of elasmobranch fish. Cerebral & Sensory Functions Unit, Department of Anatomy Science, University of. Queensland, St. Lucia 4072 Australia. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1993, v. 334, no.1, p. 97-103. ISSN: 0021-9967.
NAL Call no: QP351.J68
Descriptors: dorsal root ganglia, sensory neurons, morphometry, Himantura, Rhinobatus battilum, Carcharhinus melanopterus, neurophysiology, sense organs, ultrastructure, elasmobranch fish.

Terril-Robb, L.A.; Suckow, M.A.; Grigdesby, C.F., (1996), Evaluation of the analgesic effects of butorphanol tartrate, xylazine hydrochloride, & flunixin meglumine in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science., Cordova, TN: the Association, 1992-May 1996, v. 35 (3), p. 54-56. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call no: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: rana pipiens, laboratory animals, xylazine, flunixin, analgesics, pain, duration, dosage, injection, animal welfare.

Von-Berneth, E.M.; Wormuth, H.J., (1990), Animal protection aspects of killing fish. Institute. Veterinaermed. (Robert-von-Ostertag-Inst.), Bundesgesundheitsamtes Berlin, FRG. Deutsche-Tierarztliche-Wochenschrift, 1990, v. 97 no. 4, p. 154-157.
Language: German
NAL Call no: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: government policy, mortality causes, commercial species, fishery technology, fish handling, processing fishery products, Germany.
General / Laboratory Animals

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GUINEA PIGS


Louie, A.; Liu, W.; Liu, Q.F.; Sucke, A.C.; Miller, D.A.; Battles, A.; Miller M.H., (1997), Predictive value of several signs of infection as surogate markers for mortality in a neutropenic guinea pig model of Psuedomonas aeruginosa sepsis. Laboratory Animal Science., Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Dec. 1997, v. 47 (6), p. 617-623. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: animal models, psuedomonas aeruginosa, sepsis, surrogate markers, mortality, prediction, weight loss, food intake, water intake, imipenem, tobramycin, ceftazidime, antibiotics.

General / Laboratory Animals

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MICE


Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Bertens, A.P.M.G.; Havenaar, R.; Hesp, A.P.M.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van, (1987), Assessment of discomfort in gallstone-bearing mice: A practical example of the problems encountered in an attempt to recognize discomfort in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals., Essex: Laboratory Animal Science Association, Jan. 1987, v. 21 (1), p. 35-42. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: mice, biliary calculi, pain, symptoms, animal husbandry, animal housing, diets.

Bryant, H.U.; Bernton, E.W.; Holoday, J.W., (1987), Immunosuppressive effects of chronic morphine treatment in mice. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, Neuropharmacology Branch. Life Sciences, v. 41 (14), p. 1731-1738, 1987.
Descriptors: animals, antibodies, behavior, cells-biology, immunosuppression, morphine, pain, mice, interferon, pharmacokinetics.

Land, C.J. van't; Hendricksen, C.F.M., (1995), Change in locomotor activity pattern in mice: A model for recognition of distress. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., July 1995, v. 29 (3), p. 286-293. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: mice, stress assessment, locomotion, behavior patterns, nocturnal activity, adjuvants, adverse effects, weight reduction, dosage effects, models.

Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Wester, P.W.; Baumans, V.; Claassen, E.; Hendricksen, C.F.M., (1998), Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvants/antigen combinations in rabbits & mice. Laboratory Animals., London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd. Oct. 1998, v. 32 (4), p.387-406. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rabbits, mice, adverse effects, adjuvants, antigens, pain, lesions, antibody formation, SQ injection, intraperitoneal injection.

Loo, P.L.P. van; Everse, L.A.; Bernsen, M.R.; Baumans, V.; Hellebrekers, L.J.; Kuitwagen, C.L.J.J; Otter, W. den, (1997), Analgesics in mice used in cancer research: Reduction of discomfort. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., Oct. 1997, v. 31 (4), p. 318-325. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: mice, analgesics, animal experiments, water intake, pain, animal welfare, neoplasms, animal behavior, feed intake.

Miyachi, Y., (1997), Analgesia induced by repeated exposure to low dose x-rays in mice, & involvement of the accessory olfactory system in modulation of the radiation effects. Brain Research Bulletin, 1997, v. 44 (2), p. 177-182. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Descriptors: analgesia, low dose x-ray, mice.

General / Laboratory Animals

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MONKEYS & APES


de Wall, F.B.; Aureli, F., (1997), Conflict resolution & distress alleviation in monkeys & apes. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science., 1997 Jan. 15, v. 807, p. 317-328.
ISSN: 0077-8923
NAL Call no: 500 N484
Descriptors: conflict resolution, distress, alleviation, monkeys, apes.

General / Laboratory Animals

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NON DOMESTIC ANIMALS


Jalanka, H.H., (1992), Physiologic responses to medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, & atipamezole in nondomestic animals. Short, C.E. and van Poznak, A., (Eds). Animal pain, Churchill Livingstone, N.Y., 1992, p. 220-224. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: zoo animals, game animals, drugs, drug effects, dosage, dosage effects, analgesics, physiological functions, immobilization, drug combinations, ketamine, adverse effects.

Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Benson, G.J., (1992), Alpha 2 -Antagonist use in domestic & wild animal species. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 237-247. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: domestic animals, wild animals, agonists, xylazine, anesthetics, drug combinations, analgesics, ketamine, yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, antagonists.

General / Laboratory Animals

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POST OPERATIVE PAIN


Brown, M.J.; Schofield, J.C., (1990), Perioperative care. Essentials for animal research: A primer for research personnel, by B.T. Bennett, M.J. Brown & J.C. Schofield, Beltsville, MD, National Agricultural Library, 1990, p. 79-88.
NAL Call no: QL55.B36
Descriptors: laboratory animals, surgical operations, animal husbandry, animal welfare, pain, perioperative care, intraoperative care, post operative care.

Crane, S.W., (1987), Perioperative analgesia: A surgeon's perspective. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL: the Association, Nov. 15, 1987, v. 191 (10), p. 1254-1257. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call no: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animals, pain, analgesics, surgical operations.

Doohoo, S.E.; Doohoo, I.R., (1998), Attitudes & concerns of Canadian animal health technologists toward post operative pain management in dogs & cats. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1998 Aug., v. 39 (8), p.491-496. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: attitudes, concerns, pain management, post operative.

Doohoo, S.E.; Doohoo, I.R., (1996), Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs & cats by Canadian veterinarians. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1996, v. 37 (9), p. 546-551, 11 ref. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call no: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: analgesics, post operative, dogs, cats.

Fezza, John P.; Klippenstein, Kimberly A.; Wesely, Ralph E., (1999), Use of an orbital epidural catheter to control pain after orbital implant surgery. Archives of Ophthalmology, June, 1999, v. 117 (6), p. 784-788. ISSN: 0003-9950.
NAL Call no: 448.8 AR291
Descriptors: retrobulbar hemorrhage, eye disease.

Flecknell, P.A., (1985), The management of post- operative pain & distress in experimental animals. Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology, (Sussex): the Institute of Animal Technology, Nov. 1985, v. 36 (2), p. 97-103. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call no: QL55.I5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, standards, improvement, analgesics, surgical operations, animal welfare, anesthetics.

Flecknell, P.A., (1991), Postoperative analgesia in rabbits & rodents. Lab Animal., N.Y.: Nature Publishing Company, Oct. 1991, v. 20 (9), p. 34-37. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory animals, postoperative care, pain, analgesics.

Flecknell, P.A.; Kirk, A.J.B.: Liles, J.H.; Hayes, P.H.; Dark, J.H., (1991), Post-operative analgesia following thoracotomy in the dog: An evaluation of the effects of bupivacaine intercostal nerve block & nalbuphine on respiratory function. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Oct. 1991, v. 25 (4), p. 319-324. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: dogs, postoperative care, pain, analgesics, duration, blood gases.

Flecknell, P., (1997), Assessment & alleviation of post-operative pain. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter (USA) Winter 1997-1998, v. 8 (3/4), p. 8-14. ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call no: aHV4701.A952
Descriptors: laboratory animals, mammals, surgical operations, pain, analgesics, dosage.

Gaynor, J.S., (1999), Is postoperative pain management important in dogs & cats? Veterinary Medicine, 1999, v. 94 (3), p. 254-258, 24 ref.
NAL Call no: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: post operative pain, management, dogs, cats.

Hall, L.W., (1992), Postoperative pain control in hospitalized & out patient animals. Animal pain, edited by charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.:Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 353-357, 362. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, postoperative care, surgical operations, drug delivery systems, pain, analgesics, anesthetics.

Jerram, R.M.; Hart, R.C.; Schulz, K.S., (1997), Postoperative management of the canine spinal surgery patient. Part I. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1997, v. 19 (2), p. 147-161, 40 ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call no: SF601.C66
Descriptors: canine, spinal surgery, postoperative management.

Kuchinka, G.D.; Riedesel, D.H., (1994), Management of acute postoperative pain in dogs & cats. Iowa State University Veterinarian, 1994, v. 56 (2), p. 71-76, 20 ref. ISSN: 0099-5851.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V6425
Descriptors: analgesics, drug therapy, animal welfare, pain.

Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A., (1993), The influence of buprenorphine or bupivacine on the post-operative effects of laparotomy & bile duct ligation in rats. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Oct. 1993, v. 27 (4), p. 374-380. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rats, analgesics, postoperative care.

Sawyer, D.C., (1990), Use of analgesics for post-surgical pain in dogs & cats. Anesthesia & analgesia in laboratory animals proceedings-1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia, MD, May 3-6, 1990. American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990?, p. 93-99.
NAL Call no: SF914.A53 1990
Descriptors: dogs, cats, analgesics.

Slingsby, L.S.; Lane, E.C.; Mears, E.R.; Shanson, M.R.; Waterman-Pearson, A.E., (1998), Postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy in the cat: A comparison of two anaesthetic regimens. Veterinary Record, London: The British Veterinary Association, Nov. 21, 1998, v. 143 (21), p. 589-590. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 51.8 V641
Descriptors: cats, pain, ovariectomy, hysterectomy, anesthesia, medetomidine, ketamine, acepromazine, thiopental.

Pascoe, P.J., (1992), Control of postoperative pain in animals receiving inhalant anesthetics. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan van Poznak, N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 348-352, 361-362. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: animals, postoperative care, pain, inhaled anesthetics, anesthetics, local anesthetics, opioids, analgesics, agonists.

Randolph, M.M., (1994), Post-operative care & analgesia of farm animals used in biomedical research. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Beltsville, MD, National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 1990-Spring 1994, v. 5 (1), p. 11-13. ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call no: aH4701.A952
Descriptors: livestock, postoperative care, medical research, analgesics, pain, animal Welfare.

Vainio, O.; Ojala, M., (1994), Medetomidine, an alpha 2-agonist, alleviates post-thoracotomy pain in dogs. Laboratory Animals, London, 1994 Oct., v. 28 (4), p. 369-375. Orion Corp., P.O. Box 425, SF 20101 Turku, Finland. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: medetomidine, pain, alleviation, dogs.

General / Laboratory Animals

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RABBITS


Danneman, P.J.; White, W.J.; Marshall, W.K.; Lang, C.M., (1988), An evaluation of analgesia associated with the immobility response in laboratory rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science, Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Feb. 1988, v. 38 (1). p. 51-57. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: rabbits, analgesics, restraint of animals, immobilization.

General / Laboratory Animals

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RATS


Abbott, F.W.; Bonder, M., (1997), Options for management of acute pain in the rat. Veterinary Record, 1997, v. 140 (21), p. 553-557. 58 ref. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: pain management, rat, options.

Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Bertens, A.P.M.G.; Haas, J.W.M.; Hellemond, K.K. van; Herck, H. van; Peters, M.A.W.; Stafleu, F.R.; Tintelen, G. van. (1988), Assessment of discomfort in rats with hepatomegaly. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Oct. 1988, v. 22 (4), p. 320-325. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rats, hepatomegaly, pain, assessment.

Brewer, K.L.; Yezierski, R.P., (1998), Effects of adrenal medullary transplants on pain related behaviors following excitotoxic spinal cord injury. Brain Research, July, v. 798 (1-2), p. 83-92. ISSN: 0006-8993.
NAL Call no: Film S-1779
Descriptors: pain, adrenal medullary transplants, spinal cord injury.

Danneman, P.J.; Mandrell, T.D., (1997), Evaluation of five agents/methods for anesthesia of neonatal rats. Laboratory Animal Science, Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Aug. 1997, v. 47 (4), p. 386-395. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: rats, newborn animals, droperidol, methoxyfluthane, ketamine, pentobarbital, fentanyl, combination, anesthesia, induction, hypothermia, efficacy, safety.

Danneman, P.J.; Stein, S.; Walshaw, S.O., (1997), Humane & practical implications of using carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen for anesthesia or euthanasia of rats. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: rats, laboratory animals, man, carbon dioxide, oxygen, mixtures, anesthesia, euthanasia, pain, histology, animal welfare.

Hama, A.T.; Sagen, J., (1994), Alleviation of neuropathic pain symptoms by xenogeneic chromaffin cell grafts in the spinal subarachnoid space. Brain Research, 1994, Jul. 18, v. 651 (1-2), p. 183-193. ISSN: 0006-8993.
NAL Call no: Film S-1779
Descriptors: alleviation, neuropathic pain, cell grafts.

Hayes, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A., (1999), A comparison of pre- & post-surgical administration of bupivacaine or buprenorphine following laparotomy in the rat. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., Jan.1999, v. 33 (1), p. 16-23. ISSN: 0023- 6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rats, local anesthetics, opioids, analgesics, postoperative care, timing, body weight, feed intake, water intake, physical activity, laparotomy, pain.

Ibuki, T.; Hama, A.T.; Wang, X.T.; Pappas, G.D.; Sagen, J., (1997), Loss of GABA immunoreactivity in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with peripheral nerve injury & promotion of recovery by adrenal medullary grafts. Neuroscience, 1997 Feb., v. 76 (3), p. 845-858. ISSN: 0306-4522.
NAL Call no: QP351.N48
Descriptors: nerve injury, immunoreactivity, adrenal medullary grafts.

Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A., (1993), The effects of surgical stimulus on the rat & the influence of analgesic treatment. British Veterinary Journal, London: Bailliere Tindall, Nov./Dec. 1993, v. 149 (6), p. 515-525. ISSN: 0007-1935.

NAL Call no: 41.8 V643
Descriptors: pain, surgery, abdomen, analgesics, opioids, food intake, water intake, body weight, locomotion, rats.

Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A., (1993), Pain assessment and relief in rats. Welfare and science prodeedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Symposium, London Royal Society of Medicine Press, 1994, p. 14-19. ISBN: 1853152404.
NAL Call no: QL55.F43 1993
Descriptors: pain assessment, pain relief, rats.

Parris, W.C.; Janicki, P.K.; Johnson, B. Jr; Horn, J.L., (1996), Intrathecal ketorolac tromethamine produces analgesia after chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rat. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Aug. 1996, v, 43 (8), p. 867-870. ISSN: 0832-610X.
Descriptors: analgesia, sciatic nerve, ketorolac tromethamine.

Siegan, J.B.; Sagen, J., (1997), Attenuation of the formalin pain responses in the rat by adrenal medullary transplants in the subarachnoid space. Pain, 1997 Apr., v. 70 (2-3), p. 0304-3959. ISSN: 0304-3959.
NAL Call no: RB127.P34
Descriptors: pain responses, attenuation, adrenal medullary transplants.

Smith, W.; Harrap, S.B., (1997), Behavioral & cardiovascular responses of rats to euthanasia using carbon dioxide gas. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., Oct. 1997, v. 31 (4), p. 337-346. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rats euthanasia, carbon dioxide, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen, animal behavior, death.

Wixson, S.K.; White, W.J.; Hughes, H.C. Jr; Marshall, W.K.; Lang, C.M., (1987), The effects of pentobarbitol, fentanyl-droperidol, ketamine-xylazine & ketamine-diazepam on noxious stimulus perception in adult male rats. Laboratory Animal Science, Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Dec. 1987, v. 37 (6), p. 731- 735. ISSN: 0023-6764.
NAL Call no: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: rats, male animals, pentobarbitol, fentanyl, droperidol, ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, pain, drug effects.

Yu, W.; Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Saydoff, J; Haegerstrand, A.; Hokfelt, T.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., (1998), Long-term alleviation of allodynia-like behaviors by intrathecal implantation of bovine chromaffin cells in rats with spinal cord injury. Pain, 1998 Feb., v. 74 (2-3), p. 15-22. ISSN: 0304-3959.
NAL Call no: RB127.P34
Descriptors: alleviation. allodynia-like behaviors, spinal cord injury.

Zeller, W.; Weber, H.; Panoussis, B.; Burge, T.; Bergmann, R., (1998), Refinement of blood sampling from the sublingual vein of rats. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., Oct. 1998, v. 32 (4), p. 369-376. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: rats, blood sampling, pain, veins, animal welfare, body weight, blood volume, hematocrit, feed intake, water intake, erythrocyte count.
General / Laboratory Animals

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RODENTS


Baumans, V.; Brain, P.F.; Brugere, H.; Jeneskog, T.; Perretta, G., (1994), Pain & distress in laboratory rodents & lagomorphs: Report of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA) Working Group on pain & distress accepted by the FELASA Board of Management, Novmber 1992. Laboratory Animals., London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd., Apr. 1994, v. 28 (2), p. 97-112. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, rodents, lagomorphs, animal welfare, pain measurements, symptoms, law, rabbits.

Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Herdk, H. van; Stafleu, F.R., (1989), Assessment of discomfort in laboratory rodents. Proceeds of a symposium organized by Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, held at the Royal Holloway & Bedford New College, Univ. of London, Egham, Surrey, 22nd April 1988. Potters Bar: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1989. p. 64-70. ISBN: 0900767588.
NAL Call no: QL55.L342
Descriptors: rodents, laboratory animals, animal welfare, pain.

Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H., (1992), Evaluation of locomotor activity & food & water consumption as a method of assessing postoperative pain in rodents. Animal pain, edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1992, p. 482-488, 505-506. ISBN: 0443087725.
NAL Call no: SF910.P34A55 1992
Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, rodents, post operative complications, postoperative care, locomotion, anesthetics, water intake, drug effects, surgical operations, food intake, adverse effects.

Golombek, D.A.; Pevet, P.; Cardinali, D.P., (1996), Melatonin effects on behavior: Possible mediation by the central GABAergic system. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 1996, v. 20 (3), p. 403-412. ISSN: 0149-7634.
NAL Call no: QL750.B5
Descriptors: melatonin effects, behavior, mediation.

Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A., (1992), The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the relief of pain in laboratory rodents & rabbits. Laboratory Animals, London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Oct. 1992, v. 26 (4), p. 241-255. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call no: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: mice, rabbits, pain, anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, dosage, adverse effects.

General / Laboratory Animals

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