Behavior

Amon, T., B. Amon, E. Ofner, and J. Boxberger (2001). Precision of assessment of animal welfare by the "TGI 35 L" Austrian needs index. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 114‑117, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farms, housing, welfare, livestock farming, methodology.

Berry, S.L. (2001). Milking the golden cow: Her comfort. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1382‑1386, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, calf, husbandry, behavior, philosophy, ethics, farmer, lameness, bone disease, muscle disease, animal housing, welfare, breeding, calving, comfort, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy.

Boe, K.E., H.J. Myren, and D.F. Fridheim (1999). Approval for cow trainers. [Godkjenning av kutrenere.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(10): 645-646, ISSN: 0332-5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, animal behavior, training of animals, apparatus, animal welfare, Norway, Norwegian language.

Bremner, K.J. (1997). Behaviour of dairy heifers during adaptation to milking. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 57: 105-108, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: animal behavior, heifers, adaptation, milking, training.

Capdeville, J., and I. Veissier (2001). A method of assessing welfare in loose housed dairy cows at farm level, focusing on animal observations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 62‑68, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, environmental conditions, animal welfare, needs assessment, five freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress, scoring system.

Chaplin, S., and L. Munksgaard (2001). Evaluation of simple method for assessment of rising behaviour in tethered dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 191‑197, ISSN: 1357‑7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Abstract: Problems with getting up can affect welfare, therefore a simple method for use in assessing rising behaviour was evaluated. Sixty‑one Danish Friesian cows housed in two identical tie‑stall barns were used. The cows were in their first (no. = 30), second (no. = 16) or third lactation (no.= 15). There were 19 cows in early lactation (<100 days in milk), 18 late lactation cows (>200 days in milk) and 24 dry cows, divided between the age groups. Rising was scored at three times of day for five consecutive days. Two observers scored the cows at 11:30 h and one of these observers scored them at 15:00 and 17:30 h. Cows were encouraged to rise using increasing levels of encouragement but the minimum possible force and were scored for rising (between 1, normal rising sequence, smooth movement and 5, rising front first) and the level of encouragement required. The behaviour of each cow was recorded on video for 21.5 h. Total lying time; lying frequency; maximum lying bout length; time to lie down; time for preparatory phase of lying; time to rise, and time for final phase of rising were recorded from the videos and video records of rising were scored. The rising score was repeatable and was unaffected by the different scoring conditions tested (presence of observer, day of scoring, time of day, level of encouragement). Stage of lactation affected total lying time, number of lying bouts, maximum bout length and rising behaviour, while lactation number only had a minor effect on lying behaviour. The proposed score for rising reliably reflected whether the cows in tie‑stalls had difficulty rising when at least three observations were included. The proportion of cows in different stages of lactation and of different parities should be included in any assessment of rising behaviour, since stage of lactation and parity significantly affected rising behaviour.
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, tethered housing, posture, rest, duration, lactation stage, lactation number, physical activity, animal behavior, animal welfare.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Damasceno, J.C., F. Baccari, and L.A. Targa (1999). Behavior responses of Holstein dairy cows with constant or limited access to shade. [Respostas comportamentais de vacas Holandesas, com acesso a sombra constante ou limitada.] Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34(4): 709-715, ISSN: 0100-204X.
Keywords: animal behavior, limited, shade, feeding behavior, heat stress, housing, thermal comfort, rumination, rest, water intake, language, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

De Passille, A.M., J. Rushen, J. Ladewig, and C. Petherick (May 1996). Dairy calves discrimination of people based on previous handling. Journal of Animal Science 74(5): 969-974, ISSN: 0021-8812. NAL Call No.: 49 J82 Abstract: To determine whether calves can distinguish between different people, we examined their contact with familiar and unfamiliar people and with people who handled them positively or aversively. When a familiar or unfamiliar person enter ed the calves' pens, latency to contact and duration of contact were the same, but bouts of contact were shorter and more frequent if the person was unfamiliar. In Exp. 2, calves were treated repeatedly in their home pens, by three handlers: one treated them positively, one aversively, and a third (neutral) did not interact with them. After seven treatments, calves tended to avoid all three handlers. After 12 treatments, calves contacted the positive handler significantly more than the a versive handler in their home pens. However, when retested outside their home pens, the calves did not discriminate. In Exp. 3, calves were treated positively and aversively in a novel treatment pen rather than in their home pens. The calves made more contact with the positive handler than the aversive handler after seven treatments. When retested in their home pens, most of the calves continued to avoid the aversive handler, but some made contact with the aversive handler. Calves can re adily discriminate between different people based on their previous experience. They can develop a general fear of people as a result of aversive handling, and positive handling is required to overcome this. However, some calves do not generalize their fear of an aversive handler to places other than those in which they were handled. Keywords: calves, fearfulness, memory, learning ability, learning experiences, animal welfare.

Eicher, S.D., J.L Morrow Tesch, J.L. Albright, and R.E. Williams (2001). Tail docking alters fly numbers, fly avoidance behaviors, and cleanliness, but not physiological measures. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1822-1828, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: tail docking, animal well being issue, fly season, comparison, docked versus nondocked cows, stage of lactation, physiological, immunological, behavioral measures, cows housed in a tie stall barn, blood samples, plasma and leukocyte separation, cleanliness scoring, fly avoidance behaviors, foot stomping.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrow-Tesch, J.L. Albright, J.W. Dailey, C.R. Young, and L.H. Stanker (2000). Tail docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1456-1462, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Behavioral and physiological changes were measured following tail-docking in primiparous heifers. One month before projected first parturition, 21 heifers were assigned to control (nondocked), docked, or docked with lidocaine groups. Heifers were banded to initiate taildocking and the necrotic tail was removed after 144 h. Physiological, immunological, and behavioral measures were taken for 240 h following banding. Cortisol was not different for control and treated heifers. Haptoglobin increased for docked heifers by 168 h postbanding (24 h postdocking). alpha1-Acid glycoprotein decreased as haptoglobin increased, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein increased until 240 h postbanding. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased only with lidocaine and did not show an effect of docking by 240 h postbanding. Lymphocyte phenotyping demonstrated increased CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells for docked plus lidocaine heifers and gammadelta+ cells of those heifers tended to be reduced compared with docked heifers. Eating was the only maintenance behavior affected by banding in both docked groups (increased with banding and decreased with docking). The initial banding procedure did not alter heifer physiology and altered only eating behavior, but the cutting of the tail (docking) increased haptoglobin in response to the tissue damage and returned eating behavior to baseline. The use of lidocaine to anesthetize the tail before banding affected lymphocyte phenotypes and TNF-alpha (banding alone did not alter these parameters).
Keywords: heifers, animal behavior, docking, feeding behavior, haptoglobins, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, lymphocytes, stress, tail, tumor necrosis factor.

Emeash, H.H., M.A. ElBably, and A.S. Moustafa (1999). Studies on some behavioural patterns, performance and immune status in dairy calves under field conditions. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 47(4): 549-560, ISSN: 1110-1423.
NAL Call No.: SF604.C13
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, birth weight, body measurements, colostrum, liveweight gain, dairy farms, dams, feeding, immunoglobulins, IgG, IgM, rumination, weaning, social behaviour, feeding behaviour, husbandry, Egypt.

Fayed, R.H. (1997). Effect of housing systems on behaviour and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 45(1): 101-110, ISSN: 1110-1423.
NAL Call No.: SF604.C13
Keywords: housing systems, floors, animal behavior, health, Egypt.

Ferrante, V., E Canali, S. Mattiello, M. Verga, P. Sacerdote, B. Manfredi, and A.E. Panerai (1998). Preliminary study on the effect of size of individual stall on the behavioural and immune reactions of dairy calves. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 7(1): 29-36, ISSN: 1230-1388.
NAL Call No.: SF1.J68
Keywords: immune reaction, lymphocytes, individual, behavioral, reactions, stalls, housing, grooming, dairy cows, newborn calves.

Ferrante, V., E. Canali, M. Verga, S. Mattiello, F. Monti, and F. Gottardo (1999). Veal calves rearing: behavioural, physiological and pathological indicators. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari, (eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, 575-577p., ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5 R432 1999
Keywords: animal welfare, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, veal calves, cattle housing, husbandry.

Flower, F.C., and D.M. Weary (2001). Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf. 2. Separation at 1 day and 2 weeks after birth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 275‑284, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, separation, calf removal, timing, age differences, behavior, attachment behavior, vocalization, movement, social behavior, animal welfare, milk yield, live weight gain, maternal‑filial bond.

Fregonesi, J.A., and L.D. Leaver (2001). Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 205‑216ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, performance, health, animal welfare, housing, straw, milk yield, indicators, loose housing, hygiene, somatic cell count, locomotion, feed intake, rumination, hooves, lameness, lying.

Galindo, F., and D.M. Broom (2000). The relationships between social behaviour of dairy cows and the occurrence of lameness in three herds. Research in Veterinary Science 69(1): 75-79, ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: lameness, social behavior, housing, lesions, hooves, social dominance.

Galindo, F., D.M. Broom, and P.G.G. Jackson (2000). A note on possible link between behaviour and the occurance of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 335-341, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, susceptibility, social dominance.

Georg, H., and K. Totschek (2001). Examining an automatic cow brush for dairy cows. [Untersuchung einer automatischen Kuhputzmaschine fur Milchkuhe.] Landtechnik 56 (4): 260‑261, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, welfare, cow housing, automatic control, brushes, grooming, intensity, frequency, video recording, German language, Germany.

Gonyou, H.W. and L.J. Keeling (2001). Social Behaviour in Farm Animals: CABI Publishing: NY, USA, 406 p., ISBN: 0851993974
NAL Call No.: SF756.7 S58 2001
Keywords: social behavior, groupings, evolution, parent behavior, domestication, cattle, pigs, birds, sheep, horses, fish, contemporary topics, isolation, separation, personality, human-animal interaction, social cognition.

Goonewardene, L.A., M.A Price, J.M. Stookey, P.A Day, and G. Minchau (2000). Handling, electric goad, and head restraint: effects on calves' behavior. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS 3 (1): 5-22.
NAL Call NO.: HV4701.J68
Keywords: Keywords: calves, restraint of animals, handling, electrical stimulation, animal behavior, chutes, pens, cattle weighers, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, cattle husbandry, liveweight gain, body weight, duration, sex differences, memory, stress response, production costs, animal welfare.

Goonewardene, L.A., M.A Price, E. Okine, and R.T. Berg Minchau (1999). Behavioral responses to handling and restraint in dehorning and polled cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64 (3): 159-167.ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: weaned bull and heifer calves, handling, restraint, movement of animals through chute, electric prod, voice and slap, tail twist, head gate dehorning.

Grant, R.J., and J.L. Albright (2001). Effect of animal grouping on feeding behavior and intake of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E156‑E163, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, social dominance, group dynamics, animal welfare, wellbeing, housing, feed intake, feeding behavior, stocking density, overcrowd ing.

Haley, D.B., J. Rushen, J., and A.M. De Passille (2000). Behavioural indicators of cow comfort: activity and resting behaviour of dairy cows in two types of housing. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80 (2): 257-263, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: housing, pens stalls, animal behavior, rest, behavior patterns, diurnal activity, animal welfare.

Hartmut, F. (1999). Method to assess the learning ability of group-housed calves and results of visual discrimination tasks. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 42(3): 241-254, ISSN: 0003-9438.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: more-arm-maze test assessment method, group housing, learning ability assessment, visual discrimination task.

Hasegawa, N., and H. Hidari (2001). Relationships among behavior, physiological states and body weight gain in grazing Holstein heifers. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (6): 803-810.
NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: dairy heifers, Holstein, breed, behavior, performance, pasture, rotationally grazed, body weights, blood samples, rumen fluid samples, chemical composition of forage, crude protein, dry matter, acid deterent fiber, grazing time, phospholipid concentration of blood, acetic acid proportion, butyric acid proportion.

Hassall, S.A., W.R. Ward, and R.D. Murray (1993). Effects of lameness on the behaviour of cows during the summer. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 132(23): 578-580, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, pain, productivity, animal behavior, milking parlor, feeding behavior, ruminating, lying, standing.

Helin, J., A. Katainen, E. Manninen, M. Norring, K. Kaustell, and H. Saloniemi (2001). The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 1: Disturbance at the feeding station. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 1: Hairinta vakirehuautomaatilla.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (10): 562‑567, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 F49
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, feeding behavior, restricted fed, butting, pushing rate of disturbance, Finnish language.

Hindhede, J., L. Mogensen, and J.T Sorensen (1999). Effect of group composition and feeding system on behaviour, production and health of dairy heifers in deep bedding systems. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(4): 211-220, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: housing, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, feed intake, liveweight gain, feeding, cattle, nutrition programs, heifers, concentrates, dairy herds, group size, litter, productivity, aggression, stress, groups.

Hoerning, B., and J. Tost (2001). Influences on the resting behaviour of dairy cows in loose housing systems. Advances in Ethology (36): 178, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, resting behavior, stable.

Hopster, H. (1998). Coping Strategies in Dairy Cows Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University): Wageningen, Netherlands, 152p., ISBN: 9-05-485842-7152.
Keywords: thesis, cows, dairy cattle, milking parlors, management, animal welfare, animal behavior, stress, adaptation, cortisol, adrenocortical activity, heart rate, blood sampling, adaptation, animal welfare, leukocytes, endotoxins, behavioral routines, calf separation, social isolation, emotional responses.

Hopster, H., J.T.Nvd Werf, and H.J. Blokhuis (1998). Side preference of dairy cows in the milking parlour and its effects on behavior and heart rate during milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(3/4): 213-229, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, side preference in milking parlor, heart rate, animal behavior, milk yield, animal welfare.

Horning, B., C. Zeitlmann, and J. Tost (2001). Differences in the behaviour of dairy cows in the lying area of 40 loose houses.[Unterschiede im Verhalten von Milchkuhen im Liegebereich verschiedener Laufstallsysteme.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 153‑162.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, cubicles, lying time, straw yards, bedded slope floors, German language.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(3): 167‑177, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, resting behavior, slipping behavior, cow housing, tethered housing, tie stalls, solid floors, slatted floors, mats, litter, wood shavings, straw, animal welfare.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25 p., ISSN: 1401‑6257.
NAL Call No.: SF615.A28
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Illmann, G. and M. Spinka (1993). Maternal behaviour of dairy heifers and sucking of their newborn calves in group housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(2/3): 91-98, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: heifers, newborn calves, group housing, parental behavior, sucking behavior, maternal behavior.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 137-151, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, feeding, handling, approach behavior, group size, liveweight gain.

Jensen, M.B. (2001). A note on the effect of isolation during testing and length of previous confinement on locomotor behaviour during open-field test in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 309-315, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cattle, housing, isolation, physical activity, social behavior.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67 (1-2): 35-46, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, farm management, group housing, environment, play behavior, locomotor play, novel environment, age differences, open-field test, positive feelings, social play, space allowance.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Russian Journal of Ecology 67(1/2): 35-46, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: dairy cattle, Danish Holstein Friesian calves, locomotor play, open-field test, animal behavior, calf housing, pens, animal welfare,Denmark.

Jensen, M.B., L. Munksgaard, L. Mogensen, and C.C. Krohn (1999). Effects of housing in different social environments on open-field and social responses of female dairy calves. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(2): 113-120, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: effects, housing, social environment, open field responses, group housing, individual housing, loose housing, tethered housing, social behavior, social tests.

Jensen, M.B., K.S. Vestergaard, and C.C. Krohn, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Effect of single versus group housing and space allowance on responses of calves during open-field tests. [Erratum: Dec 28, 1998, v. 61 (2), p. 185.] Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2/3): 109-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, fearfulness, heart rate, behavior patterns, animal welfare.

Johannesson, T. and J.T. Sorensen (2000). Evaluation of welfare indicators for the social environment in cattle herds. Animal Welfare 9 (3): 297‑316, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, stocking density, loose housing, body weight, group size, change, milk yield, agonistic behavior, posture, blood serum, hydrocortisone, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, literature reviews.

Juhas, P., O. Debreceni, V. Zimmermann, and V. Klisky (2001). Abnormal behaviour in dairy cattle in Slovakia. Advances in Ethology (36): 187, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: abnormal behavior, housing condition, milk sucking, tongue playing, Slovakia, Europe.

Jung, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effects of amount of milk, milk flow and access to a rubber teat on cross sucking and non nutritive sucking in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 201-213, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Bos taurus, dairy calves, effects of different amounts of milk, flow rate of milk, and access to a teat, non nutritive sucking, empty teat, cross sucking on other calves.

Katila, T., A. Katainen, K. Kaustell, E. Manninen, M. Norring, and H. Saloniemi (2001).The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 2: The relationship between disturbance at the feeding station and the supply of concentrates and the milk production of dairy cow. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 2: Vakirehuautomaatilla tapahtuvan hairinnan suhde lehman vakirehun saantiin ja maidontuotantoon.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (12): 701‑705, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 F49
Keywords: automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, cow housing, cows, dairy cows, feed intake, feeding behavior, loose housing, milk yield, stress, stress response, Finnish language.

Kashiwamura, F., J. Suda, K. Furumura, S. Hidaka, T. Seo, and T. Iketaki (2001). Habituation training for dairy cattle to milking boxes of new installed automatic milking system. Animal Science Journal 72 (8): J266-J273, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, training of cows to enter milking boxes, automatic milking system, conventional stanchion stall barn, free stall barn, entrance gate, alley, three tandem milking boxes, parameters observed, duration of passing through the entrance gate, duration from passing the gate to entering into a milking box, score of training difficulty, number of trainings required for the cows to enter the milking box without difficulty.

Keil, N.M., L. Audige, and W. Langhans (2001). Is intersucking in dairy cows the continuation of a habit developed in early life? Journal of Dairy Science 84 (1): 140‑146, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Intersucking, i.e., cattle sucking the udder of heifers or cows, is a frequent problem in dairy herds and may lead to udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, and culling of breeding animals. Using epidemiological methods, we conducted an observational cross‑sectional study to investigate risk factors for intersucking in Swiss dairy cows. We asked 114 randomly selected dairy farmers about a broad spectrum of environmental factors possibly associated with intersucking, such as housing conditions, management, and feeding of calves, heifers, and cows. Thirty of the 114 farms were confronted with intersucking in cows. The mean proportion of intersucking cows per farm was 1.6%. From a total of 3077 cows (Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental, and Holstein Friesian) we recorded 49 cows that had performed or were currently intersucking. In 69% of these cows, intersucking had been observed as heifers. Using path analysis and multivariable stepwise backward logistic and linear regression analyses, we revealed that the most important risk factor for intersucking cows was the presence of intersucking heifers on a farm (odds ratio = 7.8). The results suggest that intersucking in cows is the continuation of a habit that was already established in a cow's subadult life. This emphasizes the importance of looking not only at the animal's current environmental situation but also considering its entire life history for the prevention of behavioral problems.
Keywords: dairy cows, Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental, Holstein Friesian,breeds, abnormal behavior, intersucking, udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, cow housing, calf feeding, calves, livestock numbers, dairy herds, Switzerland.

Keil, N.M., and W. Langhans (2001). The development of intersucking in dairy calves around weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (24): 295-308, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy calves, intersucking, udder health problems, occurance prior to weaning and thereafter, feeding management during weaning, food ration analysis, feeding management.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., A.H. Ipema, E.N.J. van Ouwerkerk, M.M. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, J.P. Noordhuizen, and W.G. Schouten (1999). Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows: Milking frequency and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64(2): 91-109, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, breed, Holstein-Friesian, cow, automatic milking system, farm equipment, voluntary automatic milking method, robots, grazing, feeding behavior, resting behavior, pastures, milking, frequency.

Kisac, P., J. Broucek, S. Mihina, M. Uhrincat, C.W. Arave, T.H. Friend, A. Hanus, and S. Marencak (2001). Effects of rearing methods of heifers prior to weaning on subsequent behavior. Advances in Ethology (36): 192‑193, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: dairy calves, heifers, Holstein, breed, maze test, analytical method, housing, play behavior, rearing, weaning.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Cubicle refusal in Norwegian dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 181‑187, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy herds, heifers, behavior, housing, cubicles, litter, slatted floor pens, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Failure to use cubicles and concentrate dispenser by heifers after transfer from rearing accommodation to milking herd. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42(1): 171‑180, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87.
Keywords: dairy heifers, age, animal behavior, housing, cubicles, feed dispensers, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Krohn C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72(3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Krohn, C.C. (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. III. Grooming, exploration and abnormal behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42(2): 73-86.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: environment, grooming, loose housing, tethered housing, exercise, exploration, abnormal behavior, extensive livestock farming.

Krohn, C.C. and L. Munksgaard (1993). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments II. Lying and lying-down behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(1): 1-16, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: intensive environments, lying behavior, stalls, behavior, activity, auditory system, parental behavior.

LangRee, R. (1998). The cow will let you know. [Kua gir beskjed.] Buskap 50(1): 30-31.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal behavior, animal welfare, health, cows.

Lanier, J.L., T. Grandin, R. Green, D. Avery, and K. McGee (2001). A note on hair whorl position and cattle temperament in the auction ring. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (2): 93-101, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Bos taurus beef breeds, Holstein dairy cattle, Bos indicus beef breeds, non Holstein dairy breeds, relationships between facial hair whorls and temperament in cattle, cattle auctions, temperament score, calm, agitated, Holsteins were calmer than beef cattle, management tool assessing temperment in novel environments.

Lefcourt, A.M., B. Erez, M.A. Varner, R. Barfield, and U. Tasch (1999). A noninvasive radiotelemetry system to monitor heart rate for assessing stress responses of bovines. Journal of Dairy Science 82(6): 1179-1187, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: A noninvasive radiotelemetry system was developed to monitor heart rates of cows and to view and analyze data. The system was validated by comparing heart rate data of two restrained heifers collected simultaneously using telemetric and direct electrocardiogram measurements and by acquiring data over 72h from two dry cows housed in an experimental handling facility consisting of a free-stall pen, a holding pen, a pass-through stall, and a second holding pen. Telemetric and direct measurements in response to pharmacological elevation of heart rates were essentially identical. For cows in the experimental facility, peristimulus-time histograms indexed to standing or lying showed that average heart rates for cows increased 4.0 +/- 1.4 beats/min after cows stood and decreased 4.8 +/- 1.0 beats/min after cows lay. Similarly, the average heart rate for the cow naive to the facility increased from 60 to 86 beats/min and remained elevated for 6.3 min when heart rate was indexed to maximal heart rate within +/- 3 min of entry into the pass-through stall. Heart rate for the naive cow increased consistently from around 60 to over 160 beats/min during repeated agonistic encounters between animals. Heart rate for the other cow was not affected by the encounters. These results show clearly that heart rate can be used to monitor animal anxiety.
Keywords: dairy cows, heart rate, monitoring, telemetry, stress response, agonistic behavior, detection, animal welfare.

Lidfors, L.M. (1996). Behavioural effects of separating the dairy calf immediately or 4 days post-partum. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 49(3): 269-283, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: maternal-filial bond, separation, suckling behavior.

Lin, J.C., B.R. Moss, J.L. Koon, C.A. Flood, R.C. Smith, K.A. Cummins, and D.A. Coleman (1998). Comparison of various fan, sprinkler, and mister systems in reducing heat stress in dairy cows. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 14(2): 177-182, ISSN: 0883‑8542.
NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Keywords: fans, heat stress, lactation performance, dairy cooling systems.

Loberg, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effect of milkflow rate and presence of a floating nipple on abnormal sucking between dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 189-199, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, breed, Swedish Red and White, access to an artificial teat, open bucket, abnormal sucking, time drinking, treatments, bucket with fast flow, bucket with slow flow, floating nipple with fast flow and floating nipple with slow flow, behavioral observations.

Loberg, J. And L. Lidfors (2001). Effect of stage of lactation and breed on dairy cows' acceptance of foster calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74 (2): 97-108, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: cows, calves, breed, Swedish Red and White, Swedish Holstein Friesian, fostering calves, cow acceptance, cows sniffing, behavior, cow aggressiveness towards calf, tied, loose housed.

Lupoli, B., B. Johansson, M.K. Uvnas, and S.K. Svennersten (2001). Effect of suckling on the release of oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin and insulin in dairy cows and their calves. Journal of Dairy Research 68 (2): 175-187, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: cows, calves, Swedish Red and White, breed, types of early interaction between dairy cows and calves, influence milking/suckling related hormone release, machine milked, blood samples, plasma levels, oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin insulin.

Margerison, J. K., Phillips, C. J. C., Preston, T. R. (1999). The effect of cow-calf separation in dairy cattle on animal behaviour. In: Farm Animal Welfare - Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: animal behavior, dairy cattle, animal welfare, livestock, legislation, calves.

Millar, K.M. (2000). Respect for animal autonomy in bioethical analysis: the case of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (1): 41-50, ISSN: 0893-4282.
NAL Call No.: BJ52.5 J68
Keywords: milking, cows, ethics, robots, animal welfare, behavioral freedom, motivation, automation, milking machines.

Mogensen, L., C.C. Krohn, and J. Foldager (1999). Long-term effect of housing method during the first three months of life on human-animal relationship in female dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(3): 163-171, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, calves, cows, handling, lactation, milk, milk production, milking, pens, cattle housing, animal welfare, human-animal relationship.

Mogensen, L., Krohn, C.C., Sorensen, J.T., Hindhede, J., and L.H. Nielsen (1997). Association between resting behaviour and live weight gain in dairy heifers housed in pens with different space allowance and floor type. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(1/2): 11-19, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, heifers, rest, behavior patterns, liveweight gain, cattle housing, floor pens, space requirements, floor space, floor type, slatted floors, litter, welfare.

Morita, S., M. Komiya, K. Izumi, K. Oikawa, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Changes of the utilization of trough, stall and automatic milking machine after the transfer cows to automatic milking system. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 26 (1): 57‑61, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
NAL Call No.: QH7.J68
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, diurnal variation, automatic milking machines, housing, tie-stalls, free-stall, automatic milking trough use, Japanese language.

Morrow-Tesch, J. (Winter 1996/1997). Environmental enrichment for dairy calves and pigs. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(3/4): 3-8, ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call No.: aHV4701.A952
Keywords: calves, pigs, pens, toys, sucking, animal welfare, lymphocytes, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, animal behavior, fields, neurons, postnatal development.

Munksgaard, L., A.M.B. de Passille, J. Rushen, and J. Ladewig (1999). Dairy cows' use of colour cues to discriminate between people. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(1): 1-11, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: handling, color cues, human-animal interaction, people discrimination.

Munksgaard, L., A.Md. Passille, J. Rushen, K. Thodberg, and M.B. Jensen (1997). Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal of Dairy Science 80(6): 1106-1112, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined whether dairy cows could distinguish among people based on the treatment received, whether cows used color as a cue to make this discrimination, and whether cows generalized their discrimination to other locations. Twelve cows were each repeatedly treated in a special treatment stall by two people wearing red or yellow overalls. One person always treated the cows aversively, and the other always treated them gently. The distance between each person and each cow in the home stall and in the treatment stall was scored during tests. Before treatment, the distances that cows maintained from the two people were uncorrelated, and the distances that they maintained in the treatment stall were uncorrelated with those in the home stall. Before and after treatments, the cows stood further from the handlers in the treatment stall than in the home stall, regardless of color of the overalls. Defecation and urination were more frequent during aversive treatments. After treatment, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler in both stalls, and distance from the aversive handler was positively correlated with distance from the gentle handler. The cows did not discriminate when the aversive and gentle handlers wore blue overalls (as worn by the usual barn handlers), when two unfamiliar people wore the same color overalls as the handlers, or when the cows were shown photographic slides of the two handlers. In conclusion, the cows learned to discriminate among the handlers, partially based on the color of the clothes worn. This discrimination was generalized to another location.
Keywords: cows, breed, Friesian, husbandry, animal welfare, stress, animal behavior, stockmen, color of clothes worn, descrimination, rough versus gentle handling, Denmark.

Munksgaard, L. and H.B. Simonsen (1996). Behavioral and pituitary adrenal-axis responses of dairy cows to social isolation and deprivation of lying down. Journal of Animal Science 74(4): 769-778, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The behavior and plasma concentrations of ACTH and cortisol were studied in 30 Friesian cows kept in tie stalls and assigned to three treatments: control (C), deprivation of lying down from 0900 to 1600 and 2200 to 0500 (D), and social isolation (I). Behavior of the cows was observed before and after 4 and 8 wk of treatment. The D- and I-cows showed increased frequency of transitions between different behavioral activities (P < .05). In D- and I-cows the frequency of grooming (P < .01) and idling (P < .001), and the amount of leaning (P < .001) increased. In D-cows the frequency of eating was also increased. The behavior and cortisol response to two novel arena tests performed on two consecutive days after 22 d of treatment suggests that social isolation and deprivation of lying change cows' reactions to a novel environment. After 23 d of treatment, concentrations of ACTH and cortisol were measured during 7.5 h. On d 24, cortisol concentrations were determined at time -.5, 0, .5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after i.v. administration of ACTH. Cortisol concentrations did not differ among treatment groups in the baseline series and after ACTH administration. In D-cows, ACTH concentration was increased in part of the baseline series (P< .05). The results suggest that the socially isolated cows were frustrated or tried to compensate for a lack of stimulation and that repeated deprivation of lying down is aversive to cows.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, corticotropin, hydrocortisone, animal welfare, blood plasma, stress factors, deprivation.

Nielsen, L.H., L. Mogensen, C. Krohn, J. Hindhede, and J.T. Sorensen (1997). Resting and social behaviour of dairy heifers housed in slatted floor pens with different sized bedded lying areas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(4): 307-316, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.
Keywords: social behavior, slatted floor, pens, area, resting.

Ohnstad, I. (1998). Machine milking and the well-being of the dairy cow. In: British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p.62-67.
Keywords: cows, dairy cows, machine milking, animal welfare, animal behavior, milking machines, milking, milking parlors, dairy farming, United Kingdom.

Olofsson, J., and H. Wiktorsson (2001). Competition for total mixed diets fed restrictively using one or four cows per feeding station. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(1): 59‑70, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: cows, housing, feeding stations, computerized feeding, feed intake, feeding behaviour, social dominance, aggression, video recordings, Sweden.

Osterman, S., and I. Redbo (2001). Effects of milking frequency on lying down and getting up behaviour in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 167‑176, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, lying down behavior, getting up behavior, standing behavior duration, milking interval, rumination, animal welfare.

Paranhos da Costa, M.J.R. and D.M. Broom. (2001). Consistency of side choice in the milking parlour by Holstein‑Friesian cows and its relationship with their reactivity and milk yield. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 177‑186, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, behavior, temperament, milking, milking parlors, milk yield, animal welfare, milking side preferences.

Perrey, A., G. Rehkamper, C.W. Werner, and A. Gorlach (2001). Influence of housing‑systems in arousal behaviour by cattle bulls towards a human.[Der Einfluss der Haltungsform auf das Erregungsverhalten von erwachsenen Milchrinderbullen gegenuber dem Menschen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 71‑80.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: bulls, Holstein Friesian, Red Holstein, breed, behavior, human animal interaction, aggressive behaviors, presenting body; pulling mouth to a bow, pawing with forelegs, rubbing head on the ground, snorting, bellowing, poking tongue, housing, German language.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2002). The ability of cattle to distinguish between, and their preference for, floors with different levels of friction, and their avoidance of floors contaminated with excreta. Animal Welfare 11(1): 21‑29, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, training, food reward, flooring type, discrimination, preferences, smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregates, floors covered in excreta, static friction, walking.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2001). A novel operant conditioning test to determime whether dairy cows dislike passageways that are dark or covered with excreta. Animal Welfare 10(1): 65‑72, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, conditioning, stimuli, molasses, learning ability, cattle slurry, floors, lighting, animal welfare, preferences.

Phillips, C.J.C., and M.I. Rind (2001). The effects on production and behavior of mixing uniparous and multiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(11): 2424‑2429, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, mixed versus unmixed groups, aggressive behavior, feeding behavior, grazing behavior, dairy performance, milk yield.

Plusquellec, P. and M.F. Bouissou Marie France (2001). Behavioural characteristics of two dairy breeds of cows selected (Herens) or not (Brune des alpes) for fighting and dominance ability. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (1): 1- 21, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Herens, Brune des alpes, breeds, fighting and dominance ability, behavioral trait, social behavior, dominance, agonistic behavior, social tolerance, social motivation, social distance, fear reactions, ease of handling, physiological correlates, social distances at pasture, ease of handling.

Prescott, N.B., T.T. Mottram, and A.J.F. Webster (1998). Effect of food type and location on the attendance to an automatic milking system by dairy cows and the effect of feeding during milking on their behaviour and milking characteristics. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 67(2): 183-193, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Keywords: automatic milking systems, behavior, feeding, concentrates, milking parlors, milking rate, milk flow, milk yield, milking interval.

Prescott, N.B., T.T. Mottram, and A.J.F. Webster (1998). Relative motivations of dairy cows to be milked or fed in a Y-maze and an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57(1): 23-33, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: motivation, Y-maze, choice tests, automatic milking.

Purushottam, S. and S. Kiran (2002). Shelter seeking behaviour of dairy cattle in various types of housing systems. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72(1): 91‑95, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: crossbred, lactating cows, shelter system, shelter seeking behavior, loose housing, loose housing with central shed, closed housing, tree‑shade, summer, rainy season, winter season.

Redbo, I., M. Emanuelson, K. Lunberg, N. Oredsson (April 1996). Feeding level and oral stereotypies in dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 62(2): 199-206, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation stage, unrestricted feeding, Swedish Red-and-White, restricted feeding, abnormal behavior, rumination, eating, feed intake, physical activity, posture, animal welfare, complete feeds, plane of nutrition.

Rehkamper, G. and A. Gorlach (1997). Visual discrinimation in adult dairy bulls. Journal of Dairy Science 80(8): 1613-1621, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy bulls, Holstein-Friesian, learning ability, temperament, training of animals.

Roberts, J. (1997). Understanding cow behavior. Bovine Practitioner 31(2): 104-107, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: cows, behavior, stress, animal welfare, milk production, stray voltage, diagosis, milking.

Rook, A.J. and C.A. Huckle (1997). Activity bout criteria for grazing dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2): 89-96, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, grazing, bout criteria, feeding, nutrition.

Rushen, J., A. Boissy, E.M.C. Terkiuw, and A.M.B. de Passille (1999). Opioid peptides and behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cows to social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings. Journal of Animal Science 77(11): 2918-2924, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: To test whether endogenous opioid peptides are involved in the behavioral and physiological responses of cattle to stress, 12 Holstein cows were either placed in social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings for 15 min or remained in their home stalls, either with or without naloxone treatment, following a Latin square design. Vocalizations (judged as high or low frequency), defecation/urination, and heart rate were recorded, latency to respond to local thermal stimulation of the leg by means of a laser was measured to detect pain sensitivity, and blood was sampled and assayed for cortisol concentrations. Naloxone in the home stall increased cortisol concentrations and tended to reduce response latencies to the laser but did not induce vocalization. Social isolation increased the incidence of high-frequency vocalization and of defecation/urination, heart rate, cortisol concentrations, and response latencies to the laser. Prior administration of naloxone increased the incidence of low-frequency vocalization in isolation, but it had no effect on heart rate or on responses to the laser and only limited effect on cortisol concentrations when the cows were isolated. Brief periods of social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings seem to be stressful to cows, as indicated by increased heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, and vocalization. Isolation also reduces pain sensitivity, suggesting a stress-induced analgesia. However, we found no evidence that naloxone-sensitive opioid receptors were involved in these responses.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, physiology, housing, stress, hydrocortisone, blood chemistry, naloxone, opioid peptides, heart rate, animal welfare, social interaction, vocalization.

Rushen, J., A.M.B. de Passille, and L. Munksgaard (1999). Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking. Journal of Dairy Science 82(4): 720-727, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield.
Keywords: handling, fear, heart rate, kicking behavior, milk yield, milking.

Rushen, J., L. Munksgaard, A.M.B de Passille, M.B. Jensen, and K. Thodberg (1998). Location of handling and dairy cows: responses to people. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(3/4): 259-267, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, handling, stockmen, learned aversion, fear, animal behavior, cow temperment, animal welfare, husbandry.

Rushen, J. and A.M.B de Passille (1996). Behaviour, welfare and productivity of dairy cattle. In: Proceedings of the Lennoxville Conference on Milk Production, Bishop's University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada, October 9, 1996, Vol.78, p. 3-21, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur le bovin laitier et le porc, Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada: Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada.
Keywords: animal welfare, stress, abnormal behavior, dairy cattle, animal behavior, productivity, cows, dairy cows, reviews, husbandry, calves, cattle housing.

Schrader, L. (2001). The behaviour of farm animals and its significance for housing design. In: Human-animal relationship: stockmanship and housing in organic livestock systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 21-24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0-7049-1094-2, p. 54-63
Keywords: cattle, livestock, abnormal behavior, animal behavior, animal housing, organic farming.

Schrader, L. (2001). Identification of individual behavioural characteristics in dairy cows. [Identifizierung individueller Verhaltenscharakteristika bei Milchkuhen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 18‑27.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, stress, salivary cortisol levels, individual variation, husbandry, German language.

Schrader, L., S. Meier, C. Blank, and D. Fuger (2000). Personality traits and stress responsiveness in dairy cows. ["Personlichkeit" und Stress bei Milchkuhen.] Agrarforschung 7(1): 20-23, ISSN: 1022-663X.
NAL Call No.: S469.S9A37
Keywords: dairy cows, stress, farmers, questionnaires, cow's personality traits, individual differences, animal behavior, behavioral tests, German language.

Senica, M., I. Stuhec, and V. Rezar (2001). Ethological principles in dairy cattle farming. [Reja krav molznic po etoloskih nacelih.] Zootehnika 78 (1): 43‑56, ISSN: 1408‑3434.
Keywords: dairy cows, Brown, Simmental, breeds, housing, tie stalls, stables, pasture, behavior, lying, defecating, urinating, grooming, chewing, drinking, resting, Slovenian language.

Sisto, A.M. and T.H. Friend (2001). The effect of confinement on motivation to exercise in young dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(2): 83‑91, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, exercise, motivation, animal behavior, locomotion, calf housing, individual versus group pens, pens, group effect, duration, hydrocortisone, blood plasma, lymphocytes, leukocyte count.

Stefanowska, J., M. Plavsic, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2000). The effect of omitted milking on the behaviour of cows in the context of cluster attachment failure during automatic milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 277-291, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the effects of individual housing design (stalls vs pens) with widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 X 3 factorial treatment arrangement) on growth, hematology, cleanliness, ambulation, abomasal hairball, and carcass measurements. Three groups of 36 Holstein bull calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted within group to treatments. There were no effects (P > .05) of housing design, width, or two-way interactions for BW, ADG, carcass weight, or dressing percentage. Blood samples were collected at approximately 33-d intervals. Mean values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count (WBC), and red blood cell count (RBC) were not different among treatments (P > .05), with the exception of d 28 hemoglobin, which was greater in the calves housed in 66-cm vs 76-cm stall. There were differences (P < .05) due to design and design X width effects for hindquarter cleanliness; manure accumulation tended to be greater in pens vs stalls as width increased. There were increases (P < .05) in left front knee swelling scores as stall or pen size decreased; no important differences were observed in ambulatory ability among treatment groups. There were design effects (P < .05) for excitability scores, with calves in stalls being more excitable. There were no important treatment effects (P > .05) for liver, spleen, and lung condition, number of abomasal hairballs, or 0- and 24-h after slaughter flank or brisket color. These results indicate that housing designs and widths did not affect veal calf growth performance, WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, ambulation, or muscle color.
Keywords: dairy cows, milking interval, milking parlors, automatic control, failure, clusters, animal behavior, posture, eating, resting, drinking, urination, defecation, milk yield, lactation number, social dominance, animal welfare.

Stefanowska, J., A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (1999). The behaviour of dairy cows in an automatic milking system where selection for milking takes place in the milking stalls. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 99-114, ISSN: 0168-159.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, automation, milking interval, robots, automatic control, movement, duration, defecation, urination, social dominance, efficiency.

Stefanowska, J., N.S. Tiliopoulos, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (1999). Dairy cow interactions with an automatic milking system starting with "walk-through" selection. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(3): 177-193, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking parlors, milking interval, automation, behavior, gates, gait, duration, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, urination, defecation, animal welfare, efficiency.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Response of animals to familiar and unfamiliar situations. Transport and temporary separation of suckled calves from the herd at different ages during rearing. Effect of playing recordings of maternal vocalization on hormones, heart rate and vocal responses. [Reaktionsmuster von Tieren auf gewohnte und ungewohnte Ereignisse. Transport und temporare Separation von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung in verschiedenen Altersperioden wahrend der fruhen Aufzuchtperiode sowie Effekte der Prasentation von Muttertierrufen auf hormonelle Variablen, Herzfrequenz und Lautausserungen der Tiere.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(3): 153-166, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: cows, dams, heart, heart rate, young animals, vocalization, animal welfare, calves, body temperature, hydrocortisone, stress, German language.

Steinhardt, M. and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Species specific husbandry and physiological functions of animals. Development quality and adaptation of group reared dairy calves at specific age periods and seasonal effects by birth periods and rearing conditions. [Tiergerechte Haltung und physiologische Funktionen von Tieren. Entwicklungsqualitat und Anpassungsreaktionen von am Trankeautomaten aufgezogenen Milchrindkalbern in spezifischen Altersperioden sowie jahreszeitliche Effekte durch Geburtsperioden und Aufzuchtbedingungen.] Animal Feed Science and Technology 49(3): 136-152, ISSN: 0377-8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: calves, calf rearing, husbandry, animal welfare, behavior, adaptation, hydrocortisone, diagnosis, heart rate, hemoglobin, postnatal development, German language.

Steinwidder, A., B.M. Ehm, E. Zeiler, L. Gruber, and F. Lettner (2001). Effect of day or night grazing on forage intake and grazing behaviour of dairy cows. [Einfluss von tag oder nachtweidehaltung auf futteraufnahme und fressverhalten von milchkuhen.] Zuechtungskunde 73 (3): 215-232, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cows, grazing conditions, feed intake, grazing behavior, during day and night, fresh forage, fed in the stable, energy concentration, total feed, protein intake, nutrient supply, climatic conditions.

Szyndler, J. and A. Kaczor (1997). Behaviour of dairy cows in litter and litter-free tie-in stalls of different size. [Zachowanie sie krow mlecznych na wiazanych stanowiskach sciolowych i bezsciolowych o roznych wymiarach.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 249-262, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1.R6
Keywords: cattle housing, litter, litter-free tie-in stalls, stall dimensions, on the, cleanliness, skin injuries and abrasions, legs, udder, health, behavior, lying, standing, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Thomas, T., D.M. Weary, and M.C. Appleby (2001). Newborn and 5‑week‑old calves vocalize in response to milk deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74(3): 165‑173, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, newborn animals, calf feeding, milk, deprivation, supplementary feeding, vocalization, individual characteristics, weaning, age differences, animal welfare.

Uetake, K. (1999). Study on cognitive and learning abilities of dairy cattle and their application for herd management. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station 170: 9-43.
Keywords: cow housing, cattle housing, dairy cattle, cows, reviews, animal behavior, animal welfare, cognitive development, learning, productivity, farm management, milking, automation, robots, color, hearing, feeding behavior, electric current, music, design, East Asia, Japanese language.

Uetake, K., K. Yayou, and T. Okamoto (1998). Influence of feeding operation and social factors on cattle locomotion in free stall barns. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78(3): 421-424, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: The influence of feeding operation and social factors on voluntary movement of cattle was studied with a group of nine Holstein calves in free stall barns. The results of this study suggest that cattle can move more voluntarily when rations are put beyond the place that farmers want them to walk through. The results also suggest that conflicts between motivations for approaching rations and avoiding competitive feeding behaviour should be considered when efficient systems of locomotion control of cattle groups are designed, such as in AMSs.
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, feeding behavior, social behavior, motivation, social factors, locomotion, free stall, barns, housing.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Effect of music on voluntary approach of dairy cows to an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53(3): 175-182, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: music, automatic milking, approach behavior.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Behavioral pattern of dairy cows milked in a two-stall automatic milking system with a holding area. Journal of Animal Science 75(4): 954-958, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Behavioral pattern was investigated in dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system (AMS) in contrast to cows milked in a conventional milking parlor. Forty-eight Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of 24 animals. The two groups were housed in adjacent free stall pens. Both groups were milked twice a day at 0500 and at 1500 for 30 d before commencement of the experiment, one in a two-stall AMS (AMS Group), the other in a 16-stall herringbone parlor (Parlor Group). The respective holding areas were used to encourage cows to enter the milking compartments. All cows consumed total mixed rations ad libitum, provided once a day between 0500 and 0600 in indoor feed bunks. Cows in both groups were allowed daily access to two adjacent outdoor paddocks from 1030 to 1230. Behavioral observations were carried out in the free stall barn from 0400 to 0900 and from 1250 to 1900 for 30d. The number of cows lying down, standing in the stalls, standing in the passageway, and eating was recorded every 10 min. Analyses of variance were used to compare time serial changes in behavioral states between groups. Although the time serial changes in the behavioral states were not different between groups after returning from paddocks, they became significantly different between groups for all four recorded behavioral states after the onset of milking. Ethograms during the 11-h observation period showed that cows in the AMS group spent less time eating at the feed bunk and standing in the stalls to compensate for the longer time standing in the holding area. The results indicate that AMS milking with a holding area affects social synchronization of cows eating and resting and reduces time spent eating.
Keywords: automation, milking machines, milking parlors, behavior, milk yield, lactation stage, age, posture, eating, duration, activity sampling.

Vaarst, M., M.B. Jensen, and A.M. Sandager (2001). Behaviour of calves at introduction to nurse cows after the colostrum period. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(1): 27‑33, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, housing, single boxes, teat bucket, cow colostrum, behavior, abnormal behavior, social behavior, feeding, nurse cows, suckling.

Vaarst, M., J. Hindhede, and C. Enevoldsen (1998). Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems. Journal of Dairy Research 65(2): 175-186, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: Records of claw trimmings were analysed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole disorders was analysed separately for cows in first lactation and for cows in later lactations. Three different responses (acute haemorrhage, sole ulcer in one leg and sole ulcer in two or more legs) were analysed using three binomial logistic regression analyses for each group. Herd analysed as a fixed effect was a strong risk factor for all kinds of sole ulcer. Lactation stage was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in both groups of cows, and for sole ulcer in first parity cows. In general, there was a strong positive association between the period 61-120 d post partum and the presence of sole disorders. Breed was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and later parities, and sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows in an interaction with lactation stage in both conditions. Danish Friesian cows were strongly associated with sole disorder, although the combination of lactation stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual-purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December to January most strongly associated with acute haemorrhage. Previous disease treatment was a risk factor for sole ulcer in two or more legs in second and later parities. Udder related disorders and disorders other than reproductive problems were positively associated with the occurrence of sole ulcer. Body weight at calving was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and subsequent parities. Body weight lower than the mean herd level by > 50 kg was negatively associated with acute haemorrhage.
Keywords: dairy herds, housing, lameness, handling, feet, lesions, hemorrhage, lactation stage, breed differences, Friesian, body weight, lameness, deep litter housing, stalls, hooves, organic farming, slatted floors, straw, litter, calving season, Denmark.

Vdovina, N.V., and D.I. Lyapolov (2001). About research of domestication behavior of calves. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: 107-110, ISSN: 0131‑6397.
NAL Call No.: S13.S44
Keywords: domestication, behavior of calves, human animal relationships, lack of fear, food reactions, distance of unknown man, adaptability, Russian language.

Veissier, I., A. Boissy, J. Capdeville, and C. Sarignac (2000). Welfare of livestock: how to define and evaluate? [Le bien-etre des animaux d'elevage: comment peut-on le definir et l'evaluer?] Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 31(205): 117-124, ISSN: 0012-1622.
Keywords: livestock, animal welfare, evaluation, stress, behavior, environment, health, French language.

Veissier, I., P. Chazal, P. Pradel, and P. Le Neindre (1997). Providing social contacts and objects for nibbling moderates reactivity and oral behaviors in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 75(2): 356-365, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the role of social and physical enrichment in the adaptation of veal calves to their environment. We compared calves housed in individual stalls that varied in the extent of contacts they allowed between neighbors (16 calves: open partitions; 16 calves: solid partitions; 32 calves: solid and extended partitions preventing all contact). All but 16 out of the 32 isolated calves were provided with a piece of tire and a chain, objects they could easily nibble. We assessed time budget, behavioral reactions to a water throw, neuroendocrine responses to stress (ACTH challenge and catecholamine synthesis), health, and growth. Calves kept in isolation displayed more startled reactions (16 isolated calves vs 5 non-isolated calves were startled by the throw, P < .05). Calves without objects spent more time nibbling at the feeding grille (5 vs 3% time, P < .01), licking their lips and tongue-rolling (7 vs 4% time, P <.05). Social contacts and the provision of objects had no incidence on neuroendocrine measurements and growth. Contacts with neighbors resulted in a slight but nonsignificant rise in disease. Depriving calves of social contacts increases behavioral reactivity, probably because there are no peer animals through which reactions can be moderated, and the lack of adequate objects to nibble promotes self-directed activities.
Keywords: calves, behavior, neurohormones, stress, veal, calf housing, stalls, group size, animal welfare, partitions, enrichment, toys, grooming, fright, behavior, rest, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress response, breed differences, Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliard, health, lesions, stomach ulcers, scars, nibbling, sniffing, lip-licking, tongue-rolling.

Veissier, I., V. Gesmier, P. Le Neindre, J.Y. Gautier, and G. Bertrand (1994). The effects of rearing in individual crates on subsequent social behaviour of veal calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(3/4): 199-210, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: veal calves, social behavior, housing, isolation rearing, crates.

Waiblinger, S., T. Baars, and C. Menke (2001). Understanding the cow: the central role of human animal relationship in keeping horned dairy cows in loose housing. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), p. 64-78, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, cattle housing, cows, dairy cows, loose housing, organic farming, stockmen.

Weary, D.M., and B. Chua (2000). Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf. 1. Separation at 6 h, 1 day and 4 days after birth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69(3): 177‑188, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cows, animal behavior, physical activity, vocalization, calf removal, responses, age differences, animal welfare.

Wenzel, C. (2001). Initial ethological improvements for the management of cows milked by an automatic milking system. [Erste ethologische Empfehlungen zum Management von Milchrindern beim Melken in einem automatischen Melksystem.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (1): 21‑24, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, automation, milking, robots, management, milking parlors, stress, adaptation, animal welfare, milkers, milking robots, human animal relationships, German language.

Wilson, L.L., T.L. Terosky, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1999). Effects of individual housing design and size on behavior and stress indicators of special-fed Holstein veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 77(6): 1341-1347, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82.
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine effects of housing design (calves tethered in open stalls vs untethered in individual pens) and widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments) on indicators of stress and behavior in special-fed veal calves. Three production cycles (groups) were used, each with 36 Holstein bull calves. Calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted to treatments upon arrival at the facility. Blood samples were collected four times (wk 4, 9, 13, and 18) during the 18-wk production cycle. Blood serum values for cortisol and (alpha1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) exhibited few treatment differences. Blood leukocyte differential counts at 4 and 18 wk (segmented neutrophils [N], banded neutrophils, lymphocytes [L], basophils, and the N:L ratio) were not different (P > .05) among housing designs or widths. However, there were differences (P < .05) in monocytes and eosinophils during the 28-d period after arrival; calves in stalls 76 cm wide had the greatest percentage of both leukocytes, and calves in the 66-cm stalls had the lowest monocyte percentage. Calves were recorded on videotape during wk 4, 13.5, and 18 to determine frequencies and durations of postures and behaviors (e.g., lying, standing, chewing, tongue playing, grooming, and investigative activities). There were no consistent differences (P > .05) in postures or behaviors among calves in different housing designs or widths. Calves spent approximately 71 and 31% in lying and standing positions, with no preference for the right or left side while recumbent. There was a tendency for calves in wider stalls or pens at wk 9 and 18 to exhibit more self-grooming activities. Tongue playing and investigative and chewing activities were exhibited in all treatments, but no differences (P > .05) were observed. However, calves housed in the 56-cm pens displayed difficulty in changing from lying to a standing position and were unable to extend one or more legs while recumbent. Even though there were few differences in behavioral, physiological, growth, or anatomical traits in this study, further increases in age and(or) weight of finished calves will require a reassessment of the appropriateness of individual veal calf housing design and dimensions.
Keywords: calves, young animals, Holstein, stress, veal calves, basophils, blood serum, hydrocortisone, eosinophils, glycoproteins, grooming, leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, tethered housing, cattle housing, animal welfare, animal experiments, hematology, blood chemistry, calf housing, stalls, pens, cubicles.

Winter, A. and J.E. Hillerton (1995). Behaviour associated with feeding and milking of early lactation cows housed in an experimental automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46(1/2): 1-15, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Abstract: The successful integration of automated milking into the farm will depend partly on the behaviour of the cow. Diurnal patterns of behaviour and behaviour associated with the use of an automatic milking stall were recorded at 10-min intervals for 5 consecutive days for nine early lactation cows housed in a straw yard. The automatic milking stall was operational between 06:00 h and 0:00 h and was accessible through a selection/recognition stall on route to the forage feed area. Cows attending the feed area within 4 h of a previous milking were diverted directly to feed, by-passing the automatic stall. All cows attended the milking stall voluntarily, on average three times a day. Milking frequency was not consistent throughout the day and was related to diurnal patterns of feeding. Movement to and from milking was hesitant, with cows delaying at both entry and exit gates of the milking stall. A consistent milking order developed becoming more variable as the number of millings per cow per day increased, associated with a similar reduction in synchrony for the maintenance behaviours. Daily activity budgets suggested accommodation to the system through conservation of feeding time and a decrease in lying time. Cows became accustomed to waiting to enter the stall as the experiment proceeded. In conclusion the cows adapted to using the automated milking stall at their own demand and pace which reduced efficiency and availability.
Keywords: feeding, milking, lactation, automatic milking, automation, adaptation, behavior, diurnal activity, feeding frequency.

Yeruham, I., and O. Markusfeld (1996). Self destructive behaviour in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 138(13): 308, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: heifers, udders, teats, mammary edema, skin diseases, symptoms, abnormal behavior, predisposition, excessive licking.

Zahner, M. (1998). Modified cow trainer reduces stress on the cows. [Modifizierter Kuhtrainer reduziert Belastung bei Kuhen.] Agrarforschung 5(1): 17-20, ISSN: 1022-663X.
NAL Call No.: S469 S9A37.
Keywords: cows, modified cow trainer, electric shocks, electric current stress, restraint of animals, freedom of movement, animal welfare, German language.


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December 19, 2002