NOTE: Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dairy Cattle may be viewed as one complete publication file below, or as individual chapter files dairy.htm.

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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dairy Cattle

1996 - 2002

AWIC Resource Series No. 16

August 2002


Updates Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Dairy Cattle, 1995



Compiled and edited by:

Cynthia P. Smith, M.S.
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Published by:

U. S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us
Web site: www.nal.usda.gov/awic

Published in cooperation with the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine

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Table of Contents


Acknowledgments
How to Use This Document

An Overview of Current Dairy Welfare Concerns from the North American Perspective
           Human-Animal Interaction
           Physical Environment
           Social Environment
           Health Issues
           Legislative Issues
           References

Effects of Dairy Cattle Breeding and Production Methods on Animal Welfare
            Abstract
            Public Perception of the Dairy Industry
            The Concept of Animal Welfare
            The Welfare of Veal Calves
            The Welfare of Cows
                      Leg and Foot Problems
                      Mastitis
                      Reproductive Problems
                      Housing Systems and Welfare
                      Milk Yield and Welfare in Dairy Cows
            References

Bibliography
            Behavior / Breeding / Feeding / General / Health / Housing
            Husbandry / Legislation / Reproduction / Slaughter / Transport

Websites

Acknowledgments

The editor gratefully acknowledges Dr. Julie Morrow of the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, for taking the time to write a thoughtful introduction to this publication. Thanks also to Dr. Broom from the University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, for permission to reprint his excellent review on breeding and production concerns relating to dairy welfare.

Special thanks to D'Anna Jensen for the cover design, final editing, formatting, and printing of this publication. Her role in guiding this publication to its final stages is greatly appreciated. Thanks also to Barbara Buchanan for her work in developing the web version of this publication.


How to Use This Document

This document contains two introductory articles written by experts in the farm animal welfare field from North America and Europe respectively. Each article ends with a list of references cited by the author. The second section of this publication consists of an extensive bibliography categorized into the following topics: behavior, breeding, feeding, health, housing, husbandry, legislation, reproduction, slaughter, and transport. Citations listed in this section may or may not overlap with articles cited by the introductory authors.

Citations were selected from searches conducted using a variety of agricultural, medical, and life science databases. Within a subject category citations are arranged alphabetically according to the last name of the primary author. Each citation is listed with a set of keywords that describe useful information about the entry. If a citation is listed from a publication available through the National Agricultural Library (NAL) a NAL call number has been included. Documents in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) are assigned an NAL Call Number. Information on how to request materials at NAL may be found at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials. This section provides information on how to request materials that are included in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). Please read carefully as there are certain restrictions on media and document types. All patrons are encouraged to explore local library resources first before contacting the National Agricultural Library.

The final section of this document contains an annotated listing of web links for internet sites that include information on the care and welfare of dairy cattle in their content. World Wide Web addresses are listed to access specialized databases, extension materials, and publications produced by a variety of non-profit organizations. Readers are cautioned as to the dynamic nature of the internet and the fact that addresses and content are subject to change.


An Overview of Current Dairy Welfare Concerns from the North American Perspective

Human-Animal Interaction / Physical Environment / Social Environment / Health Issues / Legislative Issues / References

Julie Morrow, Ph.D.
Research Leader, United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service, Livestock Issues Research Unit
123B Animal Science Building
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409-2141

It is heartening to say that progress has been made in the area of dairy cattle welfare. It is also fair to say that many dairy cattle welfare issues are still present and, in North America, several new issues have surfaced since publication of the last AHousing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Dairy Cattle@ (1995) by AWIC. The intent of this introduction to the bibliography is to share my perspective on current dairy welfare issues as they affect dairy cattle raised in North America. Clearly, this perspective will be less influenced by legislation than the European perspective. This introduction represents my personal viewpoint and not that of the National Agricultural Library or Animal Welfare Information Center. My recommendation to readers is to avail themselves of the well-organized bibliography to draw their own conclusion on the status of dairy cattle welfare.

Some welfare issues persist through time in the management of dairy cattle. These include animal abuse and neglect, lack of adequate nutrition and housing, lack of treatment for disease or injury, transportation and marketing practices, slaughter and pre-slaughter handling, breeding practices and appropriate disaster management. Along with these issues are factors that have arisen more recently due to the establishment of larger dairy herds in certain parts of the country. These include provision of shade or other cooling mechanisms, the time period cows stand on concrete or other hard surfaces prior to entering the milking parlor and lameness. Emergent issues for dairy cattle in North America are the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) and the practice of tail docking.

Identifying appropriate well-being in production systems is at best a complex issue as many interrelated variables impinge on animal welfare. Certainly, welfare within a production system can vary as much as between systems. Key components can, however, be identified and those include (but are certainly not limited to) the human-animal interaction, the physical environment, and the animal=s social environment. Part of the issue in identifying welfare in relation to management systems is that it is often a subjective measure of the entire production system. Scientific studies can reveal changes in physiology or behavior with varying management practices and environmental conditions but this science is not always applicable to assessment of animal welfare in the entire production system (Fregonesi and Leaver, 2001). We can conduct science to understand the preference of animals for their environment, however this is not always clearly related to proper animal welfare as animal preferences may change with changing environmental conditions. For example, (Fregonesi, 1999) found that dairy cows preferred to lie and stand in a straw bedded environment. Depending on management of the straw, udder health and well-being could be affected by blindly imposing this type of system not to mention environmental concerns in handling the excess straw as a waste product.

Human-Animal Interaction

Behavior is a key discipline for understanding cattle welfare. Strides have been made in studying dairy cattle behavior particularly as it relates to the human-animal bond and the animal's fear response. We now have a number of studies that illustrate that the symbiotic relationship between caretaker and cow is one of the principle factors in determining positive animal welfare. Fearfulness in cattle affects productivity and can become increasingly severe, A fearful cow tends to be more difficult to handle, resulting in an elevated negative human response which promotes additional fearfulness by the cow. The behavior section of this bibliography contains several references to the human-animal interaction and relevance to welfare (see in particular Jago et al., 1999; Morgensen et al., 1999; Munksgaard et al., 1997; Rushen et al., 1999).

Acute events and stressors that are more chronic can affect welfare. Chronic stress may ultimately lead to alterations in the animals ability to react to novel stimuli within their environment and they may become hypo or hyper reactive to such stimuli (Boissy et al., 2001). More recently we have seen the concept of positive human-animal interaction and welfare extended to fear responses, health and productivity of calves in veal units (Lensink et al., 2001). Obviously, this is a fruitful area of research and an important one for further studies.

Physical Environment

It is estimated that about 25% of all dairy cattle in North America are housed in a free-stall environment. Here cows can enter and leave the stall at will. The stall has some form of bedding material such as sand, sawdust or possibly straw. Research has shown that a properly designed stall is necessary for proper animal welfare with key points being adequate numbers of stalls, length sufficient to prevent the udder from contacting manure in the gutters and comfort of the bedding material within the stall. The most predominant environment for dairy cattle in North America remains the tie-stall, where the cow is confined to the stall by a neck tether, which allows her to lie down, but not to turn around within the stall or leave the stall at will. A minority of dairy cows are kept on pasture throughout the year. The use of straw bedded loose housing systems (developed in Europe) are not utilized to any great extent in North America. Lying times for cows tend to be greater for cows in loose housing and freestall systems but this is dependent on management of the environment within each system. Certainly, welfare can be affected by these environmental conditions but few side-by-side comparisons of all systems exist to provide definitive information on which system is best for cow welfare.

Use of dry lot environment for dairy cows has become increasingly popular. This is due to the increase in size and number of dairies in the western and southwestern states of the US. These dry lot environments consist of large dirt paddocks with a central milking parlor. Sometimes cattle will have access to shade or other cooling device within the dry lot. Concern has recently arisen regarding the time period animals in large groups stand on hard surfaces while waiting to be milked and its association with increased lameness and culling rates for lameness in these herds. This is a particular concern for dairies with large numbers of cows and insufficient milking parlors. Cooling high-producing dairy cows has always been an issue in hot climates and may have reached its pinnacle in drylot systems as genetic selection for high productivity in more temperate climates may have negatively influenced the dairy cow's ability to adapt to heat stress (Ravagnolo et al., 2000).

Calf rearing practices where animals are individually housed and cannot turn around can be a welfare issue. These young animals are social and in some environments, they are unable to express social behavior completely. Many European systems, particularly straw-bedded group housing systems have been developed but are not used to any extent in North America. Again, it is a question of having solid research data comparing, in the same study, all systems with consideration of animal welfare, productivity, economics, and environmental impact. Until such information is available, we will continue to question which environments and production systems are best for calves.

Social Environment

Welfare in group housed dairy animals is strongly affected by the social environment. Animal density and mixing of cattle are disruptive to the social order and can certainly impact welfare. Cattle have elaborate social structures, being group animals and we have found that their behavior is more complex than what was thought earlier. They can show complex learning, leading us to rethink the effects of some management practices used on dairy cattle well-being. How we incorporate new heifers into an established group of cows or train heifers to the routine of milking is an area that has recently received more research attention. As we attempt to reduce stress on these animals and improve their welfare, additional questions regarding their cognitive abilities will need to be addressed by research.

Health Issues

Lameness certainly stands out as a consequential and complex welfare problem in dairy cattle. The complexity arises because lameness is an overt sign of many clinical, environmental and management problems. Many factors influence hoof health including genetics, conformation, diet, contagious agents, hygiene, housing system, animal behavior and management (Bergsten, 2001). A key issue in the problem of lameness has been our inability to detect it at an early stage. Recent research by Rajkondawar et al. (2001) indicates that it may be possible to use engineering tools to identify lameness in the cow in its very early stages where it is still easily treatable with a high probability of success. Continued research along these lines will assist dairy producers in their constant fight against the huge welfare problem of lameness. The associations between social rank, behavior and lameness have also recently been studied showing that lower ranking cows spend more time standing. The lower the social rank of the individual cow, the higher the probability that she will become lame (Galindo and Broom, 2000).

Recombinant bovine somatotropin or BST has been a controversial issue in both Europe and North America. Estimates suggest that over the past eight or so years since BST has been available for use in this country (FDA approval occurred on November 5, 1993), approximately 25% of US producers use BST in their herd (Fetrow, 2001). The European Union (EU) however, continues to prohibit the marketing and use of BST based on a report from their Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare that concluded that BST should not be used from the standpoint of its effect on cow health and welfare. Is BST a welfare issue? Clearly, it is a political "hot potato". If one considers the average time period in which cows spend in the milking herd as an indicator of welfare, then the use of BST could be a welfare issue (Kronfeld, 2000). How much is too much production? High production is correlated with both lameness and mastitis. The EU cited both of these issues as indicators to ban the use of BST in the EU.

Dehorning, or the removal of the horn buds in young calves (mainly replacement heifers) has been practiced for a number of years. Non-mechanical means of ridding cattle of horns, such as genetic selection for polled (animals without horns) dairy cattle has received little attention from the dairy industry. Since we continue the practice of dehorning, current research has focused on developing analgesic agents for dehorning calves including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen (Faulkner and Weary, 2000). As long as these standard agricultural practices are used, improving the number and availability of analgesic (particularly long lasting) agents will be a productive topic for research.

The practice of tail docking has increased in North America of late. The practice first became popular in New Zealand as a prevention against the infection of milkers with Leptospirosis. In its early history the practice of tail docking was thought to reduce mastitis as well, although no scientific evidence substantiates this claim. As a scientist, I am astonished at the behavioral and physiological response of adult cows after having a tight rubber ring placed in between the vertebrae of their tails. Cows showed no behaviors that would be suggestive of a pain or stress response (Eicher et al., 2000). On the other hand, research reports from the scientific community have suggested that docking tails may be detrimental to cows at a later time which would in fact affect their long-term welfare. Several studies in both New Zealand and North America have shown that behavior of cattle in response to flies is changed following tail docking.

Legislative Issues

Without doubt, transport of "downer cows" or nonambulatory animals is an issue, which still has not been fully addressed. Grandin (1998) reported that a large proportion of the severely lame animals arriving at slaughter are dairy and that the handling of these animals at the packing plant remains a welfare issue. Clearly, research to identify on-farm management to prevent nonambulatory cattle is needed. The legislative bent to this issue is to amend the current Code of Federal Regulations (Title 9, Section 313.2) to allow USDA inspectors to conduct ante-mortem inspection of cattle before they are removed from the transport vehicle. If this were possible, the nonambulatory animal could be euthanised before removal from the truck. The US Animal Health Association Animal Welfare Committee has also been working towards drafting language that could be used on a state-by-state basis to prohibit the transportation of nonanmbulatory animals.

Dairy cattle have received less attention from the general public and animal activist groups as having welfare problems. Society may view dairy cows as well treated, usually kept in social groups with access to a barn, pasture, food and water. This does not mean that research on dairy cattle welfare is not necessary. What should be emphasized in the future is a holistic approach to identify production systems where animal welfare is a key component along with production, food safety and environmental issues. We have made progress, as evidenced by this revised bibliography. I hope that a review of the materials presented in this bibliography will ignite the academic community and those involved in the dairy industry to continue to improve the welfare of dairy cattle under our stewardship.

References

(9 CFR) Code of Federal Regulations Title 9, Sec. 313.2 (d) (2) (1997). Handling of livestock. National Archives and Records Administration: Washington, D.C.

Bergsten, C. (2001). Effects of conformation and management system on hoof and leg diseases and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 17: 1-23.

Boissy, A., I. Veissier, and S. Roussel. (2001). Behavioural reactivity affected by chronic stress: An experimental approach in calves submitted to environmental instability. Animal Welfare 10: 175-185.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrow-Tesch, J.L. Albright, J.W. Dailey, C.R. Young, and L.H. Stanker (2000). Tail-docking influences on behavioural, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83: 1456-1462.

Faulkner, P.M., and D.M. Weary. (2000). Reducing pain after dehorning in dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 83: 2037-2041.

Fetrow, J.P. (2001). Commentary: Food animal welfare and the use of bovine somatotropin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 218: 1886-1889.

Fregonesi, J.A. (1999). Production and behaviour of dairy cattle in different housing systems. University of London, Ph.D. Thesis.

Fregonesi, J.A., and L.D. Leaver (2001). Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livestock Production Science. 68: 205-216.

Galindo, F. and D.M. Broom. (2000). The relationships between social behaviour of dairy cows and the occurrence of lameness in three herds. Research in Veterinary Science 69: 75-79.

Grandin, T (1998). Handling of crippled and nonambulatory livestock. Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin 9(1-2): 1-2, 12-13.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young catle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62: 137-151.

Kronfeld, D.S. (2000). Recombinant bovine somatotropin and animal welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216: 1719-1722.

Lensink, B.J., I. Veissier, and L. Florand. (2001). The farmers' influence on calves' behaviour, health and production of a veal unit. Animal Science. 72: 105-116.

Morgensen, L., C.C. Krohn, and J. Foldager (1999). Long-term effect of housing method during the first three months of life on human-animal relationship in female dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49: 163-171.

Munksgaard, L., A.M. de Passille, J. Rushen, K. Thodberg, and M.B. Jensen (1977). Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal of Dairy Science 65: 1106-1112.

Rushen, J., A.M. de Passille, and L. Munksgaard (1999). Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 720-727.

Rajkondawar, P.G., N. Neerchal, M.A. Varner, B. Erez, A.M. Lefcourt, R.M. Dyer, and U. Tasch. (2001). Development of a bovine lameness index that correlates visual lameness scores to measurable limb movement variables--a pilot study. Journal Animal Science 79: 16 (Suppl. 1).

Ravagnolo, O, I. Misztal, and G. Hoogenboom. (2000). Genetic component of heat stress in dairy cattle, development of heat index function. Journal Dairy Science. 83: 2120-2125.


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Effects of Dairy Cattle Breeding and Production Methods on Animal Welfare

Abstract / Public Perception of the Dairy Industry / The Concept of Animal Welfare / The Welfare of Veal Calves
The Welfare of Cows / Leg and Foot Problems / Mastitis / Reproductive Problems / Housing Systems and Welfare
Milk Yield and Welfare in Dairy Cows / References

Donald M. Broom, Ph.D.
University of Cambridge
Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK

Reprinted from Broom, D.M. 2001 in Proceedings of the 21st World Buiatrics Congress, 1‑7. Montevideo, Uruguay: Sociedad de Medicina Veterinaria del Uruguay. (ISBN 9974‑7534‑2‑2).

Abstract

The continuing success of the dairy industry depends upon public perception of the products. If products and production methods were perceived to be bad in respect of human health, the welfare of the animals or the impact of the environment, sales could be severely affected. Animal welfare is of major concern now in many countries and concern is growing in most countries. The welfare of an animal is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. Hence welfare varies from good to poor and includes the health and feelings of an animal as well as aspects of its behaviour and physiology.

Welfare is poor in dairy cows when, for example, they are lame, have mastitis, are unable to reproduce, are unable to show normal behaviour, show emergency physiological responses, or are injured. Poor welfare can be caused by cruelty or poor management but it is also commoner as production efficiency increases. Mastitis, lameness and reproductive failure tend to increase as milk yield increases. Hence it may well be necessary to stop using genetic selection and some feeding methods to increase milk yield. Cows are well adapted to high fibre, low density foods and moderate milk yields so there are more problems when their normal biological functioning controls are overtaxed, i.e. when they are stressed. Bovine somatotrophin increases the risk of poor welfare, especially when given to cows which are already relatively high yielding.

The design of accommodation for cows, and management procedures, also have considerable effects on cow welfare. Cubicle houses, particularly when cubicles are too short or otherwise poorly designed, tend to result in too much lameness and other problems. Straw yards are generally better for welfare if well managed. Lameness is much rarer in cows at pasture although special paths are needed in areas with sharp stones. Housed cows can vary individually in their susceptibility to lameness according to their social position.

Farm operations and increasing automation on farms also require careful monitoring if poor welfare is to be minimised. Indeed efforts should be made to provide conditions in which welfare is good; individual production will then be better.

Public Perception of the Dairy Industry

Most members of the public who are asked about the dairy industry think of cows grazing in fields and living for some time whilst a series of calves are born and milk is produced. Milk products are considered by the public in relation to their effects on human nutrition and health, their effects on the environment and their effects on animal welfare. If production is perceived to be bad in relation to any of these aspects, sales of the products could be severely affected. Some people may limit their intakes of milk products because of a desire to reduce cholesterol intake and certain aspects of the dairy industry, such as methane production, may be criticised in relation to pollution but it is animal welfare rather than these topics which is the subject of this paper. Until recently, the welfare of the cow was not often perceived to be poor and it has been only in calf rearing that dairy production systems have been regularly criticised. However, the industry has been changing and evidence of poor welfare in cows is accumulating and has had influence on public opinion in several countries. It is important to the dairy industry that welfare problems should be addressed before there is any widespread public condemnation of breeding and management practices. A few critical newspaper articles or television programmes which appear well founded can be very damaging to producers, processors and retailers.

Public concern about animal welfare manifests itself in actual product purchasing and in pressure applied to retailers and to legislators. Major supermarket and cooked food chains can be influenced rapidly by customer pressure and can cause changes to be brought about in the methods used by suppliers. Retailers may impose codes of practice on suppliers and the execution of these codes is checked because the retailers cannot afford public criticism of what they sell (1). In several European countries, certain housing systems and farm practices have been changed by many farmers because of the standards required by the purchasing companies. For example the use of crates for calves, stalls and tethers for sows and castration of pigs slaughtered at 100 kg or less has ceased on many farms.

Effects of public pressure on legislation is usually slower but legislation makes for more equal constraints on producers. Legislation is becoming more and more international although it is clearly important that where there is legislation on wholly moral grounds, for example in order to prevent poor welfare in animals, there should be restrictions on imports from countries whose moral standards are lower and that such restrictions should be authorised by the World Trade Organisation.

The Concept of Animal Welfare

Animal welfare has to be defined in such a way that it can be scientifically assessed and the term can be used in legislation and in discussion amongst animal users and the public. Welfare is clearly a characteristic of an individual animal and is concerned with the effects of all aspects of its environment on the individual. The welfare of an animal is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment (2). This state includes the feelings of the individual, various physiological and behavioural responses and its health. The extent of the difficulty which the individual has in trying to cope with its environment, the extent of any failure to cope and the degree of happiness are all components of welfare. Hence welfare varies from very poor to very good and can be scientifically assessed (3,4,5,6).

Indicators of animal welfare are listed in Table 1. These include disease prevalence and reduced ability to grow and breed. As explained by Broom and Johnson (3), the welfare of a diseased individual is poorer than that of an individual which is not diseased and reduced ability to produce offspring given appropriate opportunities also indicates poor welfare. Individuals which are finding it difficult to cope with their environment, or which are failing to cope may be more likely to become diseased, less likely to produce embryos, less likely to carry young to term and more likely to die early.

Table 1. Indicators of animal welfare (from Pryce et al, 36).

$       Physiological indicators of pleasure

$       Behavioural indicators of pleasure

$       Extent to which strongly preferred behaviours can be shown

$       Variety of normal behaviours shown or suppressed

$       Extent to which normal physiological processes and anatomical development are possible

$       Extent of behavioural aversion shown

$       Physiological attempts to cope

$       Immunosuppression

$       Disease prevalence

$       Behavioural attempts to cope

$       Behaviour pathology

$       Self narcotization

$       Body damage prevalence

$       Reduced ability to grow or breed

$       Reduced life expectancy

Welfare can be poor in any animal if it is ill-treated or neglected. This can be a problem occasionally but most dairy farmers value their animals too much to allow either of these causes of poor welfare to occur. However, there can be ill treatment of cattle going to slaughter. The general areas of cattle welfare problems have been reviewed (7) and many of these will not be reported here.

The Welfare of Veal Calves

Scientific studies of the welfare of veal calves have been reported in detail by Broom (8) and in the Report on the Welfare of Calves by the E.U. Scientific Veterinary Committee (Directorate-general for Agriculture VI/5891/95). Amongst the needs of calves which are not met during veal production in crates are: resting in normal postures, turning around and exercising adequately, exploration, normal grooming, social contact, normal gut development and avoidance of anaemia with associated immunosuppression and disease.

Well managed group-housing systems in appropriately ventilated buildings had no more disease than individual-housing systems (9). Anaemic calves with a blood haemaglobin level of 5.5 m mol l-1 are adversely affected by exercise (10) and immune system function was adversely affected at 4.5 m mol l-1 (11). Confined calves show prolonged inactivity, excessive licking and sucking behaviour with consequent hair-ball formation in the gut, oral stereotypies and locomotor difficulties (12,13,14,15). All of these abnormalities of behaviour indicate poor welfare caused by confinement and lack of normal stimulation. Confined calves also show greater cortisol response to ACTH challenge than group-housed calves (16, 17 and lack of fibre and iron in the diet causes abnormalities of gut anatomy and physiology (11,18,19).

As a consequence of the evidence of poor welfare in veal calves, the European Union passed a Directive in 1997 which required group-housing of calves after 8 weeks of age, individual pens at least as wide as the height of the calf at the withers, no tethering of calves except for <1 h at feeding time, sufficient iron to ensure an average blood haemoglobin of 4.5 m mol l-1 and fibre in the diet increasing from 50 g per day at 8 weeks to 250 g pr day at 20 weeks. Many E.U. calf producers have found group-housing of calves to be more successful economically than the old crate system and white veal can still be produced from systems which comply with the new law.

The Welfare of Cows

The major welfare problems of dairy cows are lameness, mastitis, and any conditions which lead to impaired reproduction, inability to show normal behaviour, emergency physiological responses or injury.

Leg and foot problems

For a recent review of lameness, including the extent to which it is a welfare problem, see Greenough and Weaver (20). Almost all animals which walk with a limp, or reduce walking to a low level, or avoid walking whenever possible suffer from some leg or foot pain. Their ability to carry out various preferred behaviours is generally impaired and there may be adverse consequences for various other aspects of their normal biological functioning. Lameness always means some degree of poor welfare and sometimes means that welfare is very poor indeed.

Measurements of the extent to which some degree of lameness occurs in dairy cows include 35 - 56 cases per 100 cows per annum in the USA, 59.5 cases per 100 cows per annum in the UK, and more than 83% of examined cows in the Netherlands. The actual figures depend upon the method of assessment and most of these cases were not treated by veterinary surgeons but there is no doubt that lameness is often a severe welfare problem.

Mastitis

Mastitis in mammals is a very painful condition. The sensitivity to touch of affected tissues is clearly evident and there is obvious damaging of normal function. Mastitis prevalence should have declined greatly with improved methods of prevention and treatment but it has not declined as much as it should have done. Webster (21) reports 40 cases of mastitis per 100 cows per year as an average for the UK.

Reproductive problems

Reproductive problems in dairy cows have become very common in recent years with large numbers of cows being culled because of failure to get in calf. In a study of 50 dairy herds in England, Esslemont and Kossaibati (22) found that farmers reported failure to conceive as the predominant reason for culling with 44% of first lactation, 42% of second lactation and 36.5% of cows in total being culled for this reason. However, mastitis, feet and leg problems, ketosis and other disease conditions can lead to reproductive problems and it is difficult to discover their initial cause from farmers' records. A report by Plaizier et al (23) concerning Canadian herds indicated that reproductive culling risk varied between 0 and 30% with a mean of 7.5%.

Housing systems and welfare

The incidence of lameness is much worse in housed cows than in cows at pasture. Cows at pasture may have stone damage to hooves if they do not have a suitable place to walk but wet cubicle houses or poorly maintained straw yards can result in very high levels of lameness. Even the best cubicle housing systems seem to have some lameness problems which are exacerbated by social factors (24). Since the best straw yards, with an abrasive area on which normal hoof wear occurs, have little lameness, these may be the best solution for housed cows. Mastitis incidence is affected by hygiene at milking and various other conditions of management. Poorly designed housing systems can result in a variety of welfare problems and these can be exacerbated by high stocking density. Most of these problems, such as those resulting from cubicles being too short for the length of the cows now occupying them or of poor design of cubicles which do not allow adequate movements in the cow, are well known so are mentioned briefly here. In general it seems that many dairy cow housing systems, and cubicles in particular, do not provide an environment to which cows can adapt easily, The best straw yards seem to be the most successful as they give the cows more opportunity to control their interactions with their environment.

Milk yield and welfare in dairy cows

The dairy cow of 1998 may produce 18000l. or more of milk per annum with a peak milk yield of 75l. per day. This compares with UK figures of 6000l. and 30l. per day 10 years ago (21) and a beef cattle average of 1 - 2000l. and 10l. per day. The dairy animal is producing considerably more than its ancestor would have. This raises questions of whether it is at or beyond its maximum production level and the extent of any welfare problems.

The peak daily energy output of the dairy cow per unit body weight is not very high in comparison with some other species such as seals or dogs but the product of daily energy output and duration of lactation is very high indeed. Hence long term problems are the most likely to occur (25). This is what we see because, although some cows seem to be able to produce at high levels without welfare problems, the risk of poor welfare indicated by lameness, mastitis or fertility problems is greater as milk yield increases.

The steady increase in reproductive problems as milk yields have increased is well known. As Studer (26) states, "despite programmes developed by veterinarians to improve reproductive herd health, conception rates have in general declined from 55-66% 20 years ago to 45-50% recently (27,28,29,30). During the same periods, milk production has greatly increased."

Studies showing that milk yield is positively correlated with the extent of fertility problems have come from a range of different countries (31,32,33,34,35,36,37). Studer (26) explains that high producing cows which are thin and whose body condition score declines by 0.5 1.0 during lactation often experience anoestrus. A loss of condition score of about 1.0 during lactation was normal in the review presented by Broster and Broster (38). Data on the relationships between milk yield and reproduction measures from two large scale studies are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

In some studies, effects of health problems on reproduction are evident, for example Peeler et al (39) showed how cows which were lame in the period before service were less likely to be observed as being in oestrus. The lameness could be more likely in high producing cows. Direct links between level of milk production and extent of disease conditions are also evident from a range of studies, positive correlations being reported by Lyons et al (40), Uribe et al (41) and Pryce et al (36,37 see Tables 2, 3). In addition to mastitis and leg and foot problems, which are often measured in such studies, the occurrence of other clinical conditions can also be affected by production level. Modern, high producing cows with good body condition have a high incidence of milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, fatty liver and ketosis (26).

Table 2. Positive correlations between milk production level and indicators of poor welfare (from Pryce et al, 36).

Milk yield from 33,732 lactation records:

    calving interval 0.50 + 0.06
    days to first service 0.43 + 0.08
    mastitis 0.21 + 0.06
    foot problems 0.29 + 0.11
    milk fever 0.19 + 0.06

 

Table 3. Positive correlations between milk production level and indicators of poor welfare (from Pryce et al, 37).

Milk yield from 10,569 lactation records:

    calving interval 0.28 + 0.06
    days to first service 0.41 + 0.06
    mastitis 0.29 + 0.05
    somatic cell count 0.16 + 0.04
    foot problems 0.13 + 0.06

The high yields of modern dairy cows are a consequence of genetic selection and feeding. Cows are adapted to high fibre, low density diets. The ways in which they have been modified genetically do not change these basic characteristics much. Cows do not adapt easily to high grain diets or to manufactured diets with high protein and low fibre. Genetic selection has not taken adequate account of the adaptability and welfare of cows. Current trends towards ever greater milk production and feed conversion efficiency should not be continued unless it can be insured that welfare is good (42,43). Bovine somatotrophin (BST) results in high milk yields and higher levels of mastitis, lameness, reproductive disorders and other problems such as those at the injection site (44,45,46,47,48). Whether or not much of the effect of the genetically engineered hormone is a consequence of the milk yield, the poorer welfare caused by the BST is unacceptable.

The Report of the E.U. Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare on Animal Welfare Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin concluded that the use of BST as follows.

BST is used to increase milk yield, often in already high-producing cows. BST administration causes substantially and very significantly poorer welfare because of increased foot disorders, mastitis, reproductive disorders and other production related diseases. These are problems which would not occur if BST were not used and often results in unnecessary pain, suffering and distress. If milk yields were achieved by other means which resulted in the health disorders and other welfare problems described above, these mans would not be acceptable. The injection of BST and its repetition every 14 days also causes localised swellings which are likely to result in discomfort and hence some poor welfare.

The Committee also made the following Recommendation. BST use causes a substantial increase in levels of foot problems and mastitis and leads to injection site reactions in dairy cows. These conditions, especially the first two, are painful and debilitating, leading to significantly poorer welfare in the treated animals. Therefore from the point of view of animal welfare, including health, the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare is of the opinion that BST should not be used in dairy cows.

References

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27. Spalding, R.W., R.W. Everett, and R.H. Foote (1975). Fertility in New York artificially inseminated Holstein herds in dairy improvement. Journal of Dairy Science 58: 718-723.

28. Foote, R.H. (1978). Reproductive performance and problems in New York dairy herds. Search Agriculture (Geneva N.Y.), 8, 1.

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31. van Arendonk, J.A.M., R. Hovenier and W. de Boer (1989). Phenotypic and genetic association between fertility and production in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 21: 1-12.

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33. Nebel, R.L. and M.L. McGilliard (1993). Interactions of high milk yield and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76: 3257-3268.

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35. Pösö, J. and E.A. Mäntysaari (1996). Genetic relationships between reproductive disorders, operational days open and milk yield. Livestock Production Science 46: 41-48.

36. Pryce, J.E., R.F. Veerkamp, R. Thompson, R.G. Hill, and G. Simm (1997). Genetic aspects of common health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Animal Science 65: 353-360.

37. Pryce, J.E., R.J. Esslemont, R. Thompson, R.F. Veerkamp, M.A. Kossaibati and G. Simm (1998). Estimation of genetic parameters using health, fertility and production data from a management recording system for dairy cattle. Animal Science 66: 577-584.

38. Broster, W.H. and V.J. Broster (1998). Body score of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 65: 155-173.

39. Peeler, E.J., M.J. Otte and R.J. Esslemont (1994). Interrelationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cows. Veterinary Record 134: 129-132.

40. Lyons, D.T., A.E. Freeman and A.L. Kuck (1991). Genetics of health traits. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 1092-1100.

41. Uribe, H.A., B.W. Kennedy, S.W. Martin, and D.F. Kelton (1995). Genetic parameters for common health disorders of Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 421-430.

42. Broom, D.M. (1994). The effects of production efficiency on animal welfare. In Biological Basis of Sustainable Animal Production: Proceedings Fourth Zodiac Symposium, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 13-15, 1993. EAAP Publ. 67, E A Huisman, J.W. M. Osse, D. van der Heide, S. Tamminga, B.L. Tolkamp, W.G.P. Schouten, C.E. Hollingsworth and G.L. van Winkel (eds.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, p. 201-210.

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44. Broom, D.M. (1993). Assessing the welfare of modified or treated animals. Livestock Production Science 36: 39-54.

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46. Kronfeld, D.S. (1997). Recombinant bovine somatotropin: ethics of communication and animal welfare. Swedish Veterinary Journal 49: 157-165.

47. Willeberg, P. (1997). Epidemiology and animal welfare. Epidemiologie Et Santé Animale 31: 3-7.

48. Broom, D.M. (1998). The effects of biotechnology on animal welfare. In: Animal Biotechnology and Ethics, A. Holland and A. Johnson (eds.), Chapman and Hall: London, p. 69-82.


Return to Table of Contents


Bibliography

Behavior / Breeding / Feeding / General / Health / Housing / Husbandry / Legislation / Reproduction / Slaughter / Transport

Behavior

Amon, T., B. Amon, E. Ofner, and J. Boxberger (2001). Precision of assessment of animal welfare by the "TGI 35 L" Austrian needs index. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 114‑117, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farms, housing, welfare, livestock farming, methodology.

Berry, S.L. (2001). Milking the golden cow: Her comfort. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1382‑1386, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, calf, husbandry, behavior, philosophy, ethics, farmer, lameness, bone disease, muscle disease, animal housing, welfare, breeding, calving, comfort, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy.

Boe, K.E., H.J. Myren, and D.F. Fridheim (1999). Approval for cow trainers. [Godkjenning av kutrenere.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(10): 645-646, ISSN: 0332-5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, animal behavior, training of animals, apparatus, animal welfare, Norway, Norwegian language.

Bremner, K.J. (1997). Behaviour of dairy heifers during adaptation to milking. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 57: 105-108, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: animal behavior, heifers, adaptation, milking, training.

Capdeville, J., and I. Veissier (2001). A method of assessing welfare in loose housed dairy cows at farm level, focusing on animal observations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 62‑68, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, environmental conditions, animal welfare, needs assessment, five freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress, scoring system.

Chaplin, S., and L. Munksgaard (2001). Evaluation of simple method for assessment of rising behaviour in tethered dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 191‑197, ISSN: 1357‑7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Abstract: Problems with getting up can affect welfare, therefore a simple method for use in assessing rising behaviour was evaluated. Sixty‑one Danish Friesian cows housed in two identical tie‑stall barns were used. The cows were in their first (no. = 30), second (no. = 16) or third lactation (no.= 15). There were 19 cows in early lactation (<100 days in milk), 18 late lactation cows (>200 days in milk) and 24 dry cows, divided between the age groups. Rising was scored at three times of day for five consecutive days. Two observers scored the cows at 11:30 h and one of these observers scored them at 15:00 and 17:30 h. Cows were encouraged to rise using increasing levels of encouragement but the minimum possible force and were scored for rising (between 1, normal rising sequence, smooth movement and 5, rising front first) and the level of encouragement required. The behaviour of each cow was recorded on video for 21.5 h. Total lying time; lying frequency; maximum lying bout length; time to lie down; time for preparatory phase of lying; time to rise, and time for final phase of rising were recorded from the videos and video records of rising were scored. The rising score was repeatable and was unaffected by the different scoring conditions tested (presence of observer, day of scoring, time of day, level of encouragement). Stage of lactation affected total lying time, number of lying bouts, maximum bout length and rising behaviour, while lactation number only had a minor effect on lying behaviour. The proposed score for rising reliably reflected whether the cows in tie‑stalls had difficulty rising when at least three observations were included. The proportion of cows in different stages of lactation and of different parities should be included in any assessment of rising behaviour, since stage of lactation and parity significantly affected rising behaviour.
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, tethered housing, posture, rest, duration, lactation stage, lactation number, physical activity, animal behavior, animal welfare.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Damasceno, J.C., F. Baccari, and L.A. Targa (1999). Behavior responses of Holstein dairy cows with constant or limited access to shade. [Respostas comportamentais de vacas Holandesas, com acesso a sombra constante ou limitada.] Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34(4): 709-715, ISSN: 0100-204X.
Keywords: animal behavior, limited, shade, feeding behavior, heat stress, housing, thermal comfort, rumination, rest, water intake, language, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

De Passille, A.M., J. Rushen, J. Ladewig, and C. Petherick (May 1996). Dairy calves discrimination of people based on previous handling. Journal of Animal Science 74(5): 969-974, ISSN: 0021-8812. NAL Call No.: 49 J82 Abstract: To determine whether calves can distinguish between different people, we examined their contact with familiar and unfamiliar people and with people who handled them positively or aversively. When a familiar or unfamiliar person enter ed the calves' pens, latency to contact and duration of contact were the same, but bouts of contact were shorter and more frequent if the person was unfamiliar. In Exp. 2, calves were treated repeatedly in their home pens, by three handlers: one treated them positively, one aversively, and a third (neutral) did not interact with them. After seven treatments, calves tended to avoid all three handlers. After 12 treatments, calves contacted the positive handler significantly more than the a versive handler in their home pens. However, when retested outside their home pens, the calves did not discriminate. In Exp. 3, calves were treated positively and aversively in a novel treatment pen rather than in their home pens. The calves made more contact with the positive handler than the aversive handler after seven treatments. When retested in their home pens, most of the calves continued to avoid the aversive handler, but some made contact with the aversive handler. Calves can re adily discriminate between different people based on their previous experience. They can develop a general fear of people as a result of aversive handling, and positive handling is required to overcome this. However, some calves do not generalize their fear of an aversive handler to places other than those in which they were handled. Keywords: calves, fearfulness, memory, learning ability, learning experiences, animal welfare.

Eicher, S.D., J.L Morrow Tesch, J.L. Albright, and R.E. Williams (2001). Tail docking alters fly numbers, fly avoidance behaviors, and cleanliness, but not physiological measures. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1822-1828, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: tail docking, animal well being issue, fly season, comparison, docked versus nondocked cows, stage of lactation, physiological, immunological, behavioral measures, cows housed in a tie stall barn, blood samples, plasma and leukocyte separation, cleanliness scoring, fly avoidance behaviors, foot stomping.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrow-Tesch, J.L. Albright, J.W. Dailey, C.R. Young, and L.H. Stanker (2000). Tail docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1456-1462, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Behavioral and physiological changes were measured following tail-docking in primiparous heifers. One month before projected first parturition, 21 heifers were assigned to control (nondocked), docked, or docked with lidocaine groups. Heifers were banded to initiate taildocking and the necrotic tail was removed after 144 h. Physiological, immunological, and behavioral measures were taken for 240 h following banding. Cortisol was not different for control and treated heifers. Haptoglobin increased for docked heifers by 168 h postbanding (24 h postdocking). alpha1-Acid glycoprotein decreased as haptoglobin increased, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein increased until 240 h postbanding. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased only with lidocaine and did not show an effect of docking by 240 h postbanding. Lymphocyte phenotyping demonstrated increased CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells for docked plus lidocaine heifers and gammadelta+ cells of those heifers tended to be reduced compared with docked heifers. Eating was the only maintenance behavior affected by banding in both docked groups (increased with banding and decreased with docking). The initial banding procedure did not alter heifer physiology and altered only eating behavior, but the cutting of the tail (docking) increased haptoglobin in response to the tissue damage and returned eating behavior to baseline. The use of lidocaine to anesthetize the tail before banding affected lymphocyte phenotypes and TNF-alpha (banding alone did not alter these parameters).
Keywords: heifers, animal behavior, docking, feeding behavior, haptoglobins, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, lymphocytes, stress, tail, tumor necrosis factor.

Emeash, H.H., M.A. ElBably, and A.S. Moustafa (1999). Studies on some behavioural patterns, performance and immune status in dairy calves under field conditions. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 47(4): 549-560, ISSN: 1110-1423.
NAL Call No.: SF604.C13
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, birth weight, body measurements, colostrum, liveweight gain, dairy farms, dams, feeding, immunoglobulins, IgG, IgM, rumination, weaning, social behaviour, feeding behaviour, husbandry, Egypt.

Fayed, R.H. (1997). Effect of housing systems on behaviour and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 45(1): 101-110, ISSN: 1110-1423.
NAL Call No.: SF604.C13
Keywords: housing systems, floors, animal behavior, health, Egypt.

Ferrante, V., E Canali, S. Mattiello, M. Verga, P. Sacerdote, B. Manfredi, and A.E. Panerai (1998). Preliminary study on the effect of size of individual stall on the behavioural and immune reactions of dairy calves. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 7(1): 29-36, ISSN: 1230-1388.
NAL Call No.: SF1.J68
Keywords: immune reaction, lymphocytes, individual, behavioral, reactions, stalls, housing, grooming, dairy cows, newborn calves.

Ferrante, V., E. Canali, M. Verga, S. Mattiello, F. Monti, and F. Gottardo (1999). Veal calves rearing: behavioural, physiological and pathological indicators. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari, (eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, 575-577p., ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5 R432 1999
Keywords: animal welfare, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, veal calves, cattle housing, husbandry.

Flower, F.C., and D.M. Weary (2001). Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf. 2. Separation at 1 day and 2 weeks after birth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 275‑284, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, separation, calf removal, timing, age differences, behavior, attachment behavior, vocalization, movement, social behavior, animal welfare, milk yield, live weight gain, maternal‑filial bond.

Fregonesi, J.A., and L.D. Leaver (2001). Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 205‑216ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, performance, health, animal welfare, housing, straw, milk yield, indicators, loose housing, hygiene, somatic cell count, locomotion, feed intake, rumination, hooves, lameness, lying.

Galindo, F., and D.M. Broom (2000). The relationships between social behaviour of dairy cows and the occurrence of lameness in three herds. Research in Veterinary Science 69(1): 75-79, ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: lameness, social behavior, housing, lesions, hooves, social dominance.

Galindo, F., D.M. Broom, and P.G.G. Jackson (2000). A note on possible link between behaviour and the occurance of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 335-341, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, susceptibility, social dominance.

Georg, H., and K. Totschek (2001). Examining an automatic cow brush for dairy cows. [Untersuchung einer automatischen Kuhputzmaschine fur Milchkuhe.] Landtechnik 56 (4): 260‑261, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, welfare, cow housing, automatic control, brushes, grooming, intensity, frequency, video recording, German language, Germany.

Gonyou, H.W. and L.J. Keeling (2001). Social Behaviour in Farm Animals: CABI Publishing: NY, USA, 406 p., ISBN: 0851993974
NAL Call No.: SF756.7 S58 2001
Keywords: social behavior, groupings, evolution, parent behavior, domestication, cattle, pigs, birds, sheep, horses, fish, contemporary topics, isolation, separation, personality, human-animal interaction, social cognition.

Goonewardene, L.A., M.A Price, J.M. Stookey, P.A Day, and G. Minchau (2000). Handling, electric goad, and head restraint: effects on calves' behavior. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS 3 (1): 5-22.
NAL Call NO.: HV4701.J68
Keywords: Keywords: calves, restraint of animals, handling, electrical stimulation, animal behavior, chutes, pens, cattle weighers, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, cattle husbandry, liveweight gain, body weight, duration, sex differences, memory, stress response, production costs, animal welfare.

Goonewardene, L.A., M.A Price, E. Okine, and R.T. Berg Minchau (1999). Behavioral responses to handling and restraint in dehorning and polled cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64 (3): 159-167.ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: weaned bull and heifer calves, handling, restraint, movement of animals through chute, electric prod, voice and slap, tail twist, head gate dehorning.

Grant, R.J., and J.L. Albright (2001). Effect of animal grouping on feeding behavior and intake of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E156‑E163, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, social dominance, group dynamics, animal welfare, wellbeing, housing, feed intake, feeding behavior, stocking density, overcrowd ing.

Haley, D.B., J. Rushen, J., and A.M. De Passille (2000). Behavioural indicators of cow comfort: activity and resting behaviour of dairy cows in two types of housing. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80 (2): 257-263, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: housing, pens stalls, animal behavior, rest, behavior patterns, diurnal activity, animal welfare.

Hartmut, F. (1999). Method to assess the learning ability of group-housed calves and results of visual discrimination tasks. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 42(3): 241-254, ISSN: 0003-9438.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: more-arm-maze test assessment method, group housing, learning ability assessment, visual discrimination task.

Hasegawa, N., and H. Hidari (2001). Relationships among behavior, physiological states and body weight gain in grazing Holstein heifers. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (6): 803-810.
NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: dairy heifers, Holstein, breed, behavior, performance, pasture, rotationally grazed, body weights, blood samples, rumen fluid samples, chemical composition of forage, crude protein, dry matter, acid deterent fiber, grazing time, phospholipid concentration of blood, acetic acid proportion, butyric acid proportion.

Hassall, S.A., W.R. Ward, and R.D. Murray (1993). Effects of lameness on the behaviour of cows during the summer. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 132(23): 578-580, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, pain, productivity, animal behavior, milking parlor, feeding behavior, ruminating, lying, standing.

Helin, J., A. Katainen, E. Manninen, M. Norring, K. Kaustell, and H. Saloniemi (2001). The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 1: Disturbance at the feeding station. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 1: Hairinta vakirehuautomaatilla.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (10): 562‑567, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 F49
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, feeding behavior, restricted fed, butting, pushing rate of disturbance, Finnish language.

Hindhede, J., L. Mogensen, and J.T Sorensen (1999). Effect of group composition and feeding system on behaviour, production and health of dairy heifers in deep bedding systems. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(4): 211-220, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: housing, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, feed intake, liveweight gain, feeding, cattle, nutrition programs, heifers, concentrates, dairy herds, group size, litter, productivity, aggression, stress, groups.

Hoerning, B., and J. Tost (2001). Influences on the resting behaviour of dairy cows in loose housing systems. Advances in Ethology (36): 178, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, resting behavior, stable.

Hopster, H. (1998). Coping Strategies in Dairy Cows Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University): Wageningen, Netherlands, 152p., ISBN: 9-05-485842-7152.
Keywords: thesis, cows, dairy cattle, milking parlors, management, animal welfare, animal behavior, stress, adaptation, cortisol, adrenocortical activity, heart rate, blood sampling, adaptation, animal welfare, leukocytes, endotoxins, behavioral routines, calf separation, social isolation, emotional responses.

Hopster, H., J.T.Nvd Werf, and H.J. Blokhuis (1998). Side preference of dairy cows in the milking parlour and its effects on behavior and heart rate during milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(3/4): 213-229, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, side preference in milking parlor, heart rate, animal behavior, milk yield, animal welfare.

Horning, B., C. Zeitlmann, and J. Tost (2001). Differences in the behaviour of dairy cows in the lying area of 40 loose houses.[Unterschiede im Verhalten von Milchkuhen im Liegebereich verschiedener Laufstallsysteme.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 153‑162.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, cubicles, lying time, straw yards, bedded slope floors, German language.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(3): 167‑177, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, resting behavior, slipping behavior, cow housing, tethered housing, tie stalls, solid floors, slatted floors, mats, litter, wood shavings, straw, animal welfare.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25 p., ISSN: 1401‑6257.
NAL Call No.: SF615.A28
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Illmann, G. and M. Spinka (1993). Maternal behaviour of dairy heifers and sucking of their newborn calves in group housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(2/3): 91-98, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: heifers, newborn calves, group housing, parental behavior, sucking behavior, maternal behavior.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 137-151, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, feeding, handling, approach behavior, group size, liveweight gain.

Jensen, M.B. (2001). A note on the effect of isolation during testing and length of previous confinement on locomotor behaviour during open-field test in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 309-315, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cattle, housing, isolation, physical activity, social behavior.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67 (1-2): 35-46, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, farm management, group housing, environment, play behavior, locomotor play, novel environment, age differences, open-field test, positive feelings, social play, space allowance.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Russian Journal of Ecology 67(1/2): 35-46, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: dairy cattle, Danish Holstein Friesian calves, locomotor play, open-field test, animal behavior, calf housing, pens, animal welfare,Denmark.

Jensen, M.B., L. Munksgaard, L. Mogensen, and C.C. Krohn (1999). Effects of housing in different social environments on open-field and social responses of female dairy calves. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(2): 113-120, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: effects, housing, social environment, open field responses, group housing, individual housing, loose housing, tethered housing, social behavior, social tests.

Jensen, M.B., K.S. Vestergaard, and C.C. Krohn, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Effect of single versus group housing and space allowance on responses of calves during open-field tests. [Erratum: Dec 28, 1998, v. 61 (2), p. 185.] Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2/3): 109-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, fearfulness, heart rate, behavior patterns, animal welfare.

Johannesson, T. and J.T. Sorensen (2000). Evaluation of welfare indicators for the social environment in cattle herds. Animal Welfare 9 (3): 297‑316, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, stocking density, loose housing, body weight, group size, change, milk yield, agonistic behavior, posture, blood serum, hydrocortisone, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, literature reviews.

Juhas, P., O. Debreceni, V. Zimmermann, and V. Klisky (2001). Abnormal behaviour in dairy cattle in Slovakia. Advances in Ethology (36): 187, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: abnormal behavior, housing condition, milk sucking, tongue playing, Slovakia, Europe.

Jung, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effects of amount of milk, milk flow and access to a rubber teat on cross sucking and non nutritive sucking in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 201-213, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Bos taurus, dairy calves, effects of different amounts of milk, flow rate of milk, and access to a teat, non nutritive sucking, empty teat, cross sucking on other calves.

Katila, T., A. Katainen, K. Kaustell, E. Manninen, M. Norring, and H. Saloniemi (2001).The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 2: The relationship between disturbance at the feeding station and the supply of concentrates and the milk production of dairy cow. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 2: Vakirehuautomaatilla tapahtuvan hairinnan suhde lehman vakirehun saantiin ja maidontuotantoon.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (12): 701‑705, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 F49
Keywords: automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, cow housing, cows, dairy cows, feed intake, feeding behavior, loose housing, milk yield, stress, stress response, Finnish language.

Kashiwamura, F., J. Suda, K. Furumura, S. Hidaka, T. Seo, and T. Iketaki (2001). Habituation training for dairy cattle to milking boxes of new installed automatic milking system. Animal Science Journal 72 (8): J266-J273, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, training of cows to enter milking boxes, automatic milking system, conventional stanchion stall barn, free stall barn, entrance gate, alley, three tandem milking boxes, parameters observed, duration of passing through the entrance gate, duration from passing the gate to entering into a milking box, score of training difficulty, number of trainings required for the cows to enter the milking box without difficulty.

Keil, N.M., L. Audige, and W. Langhans (2001). Is intersucking in dairy cows the continuation of a habit developed in early life? Journal of Dairy Science 84 (1): 140‑146, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Intersucking, i.e., cattle sucking the udder of heifers or cows, is a frequent problem in dairy herds and may lead to udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, and culling of breeding animals. Using epidemiological methods, we conducted an observational cross‑sectional study to investigate risk factors for intersucking in Swiss dairy cows. We asked 114 randomly selected dairy farmers about a broad spectrum of environmental factors possibly associated with intersucking, such as housing conditions, management, and feeding of calves, heifers, and cows. Thirty of the 114 farms were confronted with intersucking in cows. The mean proportion of intersucking cows per farm was 1.6%. From a total of 3077 cows (Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental, and Holstein Friesian) we recorded 49 cows that had performed or were currently intersucking. In 69% of these cows, intersucking had been observed as heifers. Using path analysis and multivariable stepwise backward logistic and linear regression analyses, we revealed that the most important risk factor for intersucking cows was the presence of intersucking heifers on a farm (odds ratio = 7.8). The results suggest that intersucking in cows is the continuation of a habit that was already established in a cow's subadult life. This emphasizes the importance of looking not only at the animal's current environmental situation but also considering its entire life history for the prevention of behavioral problems.
Keywords: dairy cows, Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental, Holstein Friesian,breeds, abnormal behavior, intersucking, udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, cow housing, calf feeding, calves, livestock numbers, dairy herds, Switzerland.

Keil, N.M., and W. Langhans (2001). The development of intersucking in dairy calves around weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (24): 295-308, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy calves, intersucking, udder health problems, occurance prior to weaning and thereafter, feeding management during weaning, food ration analysis, feeding management.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., A.H. Ipema, E.N.J. van Ouwerkerk, M.M. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, J.P. Noordhuizen, and W.G. Schouten (1999). Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows: Milking frequency and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64(2): 91-109, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, breed, Holstein-Friesian, cow, automatic milking system, farm equipment, voluntary automatic milking method, robots, grazing, feeding behavior, resting behavior, pastures, milking, frequency.

Kisac, P., J. Broucek, S. Mihina, M. Uhrincat, C.W. Arave, T.H. Friend, A. Hanus, and S. Marencak (2001). Effects of rearing methods of heifers prior to weaning on subsequent behavior. Advances in Ethology (36): 192‑193, ISSN: 0931‑4202.
NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B
Keywords: dairy calves, heifers, Holstein, breed, maze test, analytical method, housing, play behavior, rearing, weaning.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Cubicle refusal in Norwegian dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 181‑187, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy herds, heifers, behavior, housing, cubicles, litter, slatted floor pens, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Failure to use cubicles and concentrate dispenser by heifers after transfer from rearing accommodation to milking herd. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42(1): 171‑180, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87.
Keywords: dairy heifers, age, animal behavior, housing, cubicles, feed dispensers, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Krohn C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72(3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Krohn, C.C. (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. III. Grooming, exploration and abnormal behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42(2): 73-86.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: environment, grooming, loose housing, tethered housing, exercise, exploration, abnormal behavior, extensive livestock farming.

Krohn, C.C. and L. Munksgaard (1993). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments II. Lying and lying-down behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(1): 1-16, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: intensive environments, lying behavior, stalls, behavior, activity, auditory system, parental behavior.

LangRee, R. (1998). The cow will let you know. [Kua gir beskjed.] Buskap 50(1): 30-31.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal behavior, animal welfare, health, cows.

Lanier, J.L., T. Grandin, R. Green, D. Avery, and K. McGee (2001). A note on hair whorl position and cattle temperament in the auction ring. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (2): 93-101, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Bos taurus beef breeds, Holstein dairy cattle, Bos indicus beef breeds, non Holstein dairy breeds, relationships between facial hair whorls and temperament in cattle, cattle auctions, temperament score, calm, agitated, Holsteins were calmer than beef cattle, management tool assessing temperment in novel environments.

Lefcourt, A.M., B. Erez, M.A. Varner, R. Barfield, and U. Tasch (1999). A noninvasive radiotelemetry system to monitor heart rate for assessing stress responses of bovines. Journal of Dairy Science 82(6): 1179-1187, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: A noninvasive radiotelemetry system was developed to monitor heart rates of cows and to view and analyze data. The system was validated by comparing heart rate data of two restrained heifers collected simultaneously using telemetric and direct electrocardiogram measurements and by acquiring data over 72h from two dry cows housed in an experimental handling facility consisting of a free-stall pen, a holding pen, a pass-through stall, and a second holding pen. Telemetric and direct measurements in response to pharmacological elevation of heart rates were essentially identical. For cows in the experimental facility, peristimulus-time histograms indexed to standing or lying showed that average heart rates for cows increased 4.0 +/- 1.4 beats/min after cows stood and decreased 4.8 +/- 1.0 beats/min after cows lay. Similarly, the average heart rate for the cow naive to the facility increased from 60 to 86 beats/min and remained elevated for 6.3 min when heart rate was indexed to maximal heart rate within +/- 3 min of entry into the pass-through stall. Heart rate for the naive cow increased consistently from around 60 to over 160 beats/min during repeated agonistic encounters between animals. Heart rate for the other cow was not affected by the encounters. These results show clearly that heart rate can be used to monitor animal anxiety.
Keywords: dairy cows, heart rate, monitoring, telemetry, stress response, agonistic behavior, detection, animal welfare.

Lidfors, L.M. (1996). Behavioural effects of separating the dairy calf immediately or 4 days post-partum. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 49(3): 269-283, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: maternal-filial bond, separation, suckling behavior.

Lin, J.C., B.R. Moss, J.L. Koon, C.A. Flood, R.C. Smith, K.A. Cummins, and D.A. Coleman (1998). Comparison of various fan, sprinkler, and mister systems in reducing heat stress in dairy cows. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 14(2): 177-182, ISSN: 0883‑8542.
NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Keywords: fans, heat stress, lactation performance, dairy cooling systems.

Loberg, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effect of milkflow rate and presence of a floating nipple on abnormal sucking between dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 189-199, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, breed, Swedish Red and White, access to an artificial teat, open bucket, abnormal sucking, time drinking, treatments, bucket with fast flow, bucket with slow flow, floating nipple with fast flow and floating nipple with slow flow, behavioral observations.

Loberg, J. And L. Lidfors (2001). Effect of stage of lactation and breed on dairy cows' acceptance of foster calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74 (2): 97-108, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: cows, calves, breed, Swedish Red and White, Swedish Holstein Friesian, fostering calves, cow acceptance, cows sniffing, behavior, cow aggressiveness towards calf, tied, loose housed.

Lupoli, B., B. Johansson, M.K. Uvnas, and S.K. Svennersten (2001). Effect of suckling on the release of oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin and insulin in dairy cows and their calves. Journal of Dairy Research 68 (2): 175-187, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: cows, calves, Swedish Red and White, breed, types of early interaction between dairy cows and calves, influence milking/suckling related hormone release, machine milked, blood samples, plasma levels, oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin insulin.

Margerison, J. K., Phillips, C. J. C., Preston, T. R. (1999). The effect of cow-calf separation in dairy cattle on animal behaviour. In: Farm Animal Welfare - Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: animal behavior, dairy cattle, animal welfare, livestock, legislation, calves.

Millar, K.M. (2000). Respect for animal autonomy in bioethical analysis: the case of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (1): 41-50, ISSN: 0893-4282.
NAL Call No.: BJ52.5 J68
Keywords: milking, cows, ethics, robots, animal welfare, behavioral freedom, motivation, automation, milking machines.

Mogensen, L., C.C. Krohn, and J. Foldager (1999). Long-term effect of housing method during the first three months of life on human-animal relationship in female dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(3): 163-171, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, calves, cows, handling, lactation, milk, milk production, milking, pens, cattle housing, animal welfare, human-animal relationship.

Mogensen, L., Krohn, C.C., Sorensen, J.T., Hindhede, J., and L.H. Nielsen (1997). Association between resting behaviour and live weight gain in dairy heifers housed in pens with different space allowance and floor type. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(1/2): 11-19, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, heifers, rest, behavior patterns, liveweight gain, cattle housing, floor pens, space requirements, floor space, floor type, slatted floors, litter, welfare.

Morita, S., M. Komiya, K. Izumi, K. Oikawa, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Changes of the utilization of trough, stall and automatic milking machine after the transfer cows to automatic milking system. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 26 (1): 57‑61, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
NAL Call No.: QH7.J68
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, diurnal variation, automatic milking machines, housing, tie-stalls, free-stall, automatic milking trough use, Japanese language.

Morrow-Tesch, J. (Winter 1996/1997). Environmental enrichment for dairy calves and pigs. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(3/4): 3-8, ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call No.: aHV4701.A952
Keywords: calves, pigs, pens, toys, sucking, animal welfare, lymphocytes, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, animal behavior, fields, neurons, postnatal development.

Munksgaard, L., A.M.B. de Passille, J. Rushen, and J. Ladewig (1999). Dairy cows' use of colour cues to discriminate between people. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(1): 1-11, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: handling, color cues, human-animal interaction, people discrimination.

Munksgaard, L., A.Md. Passille, J. Rushen, K. Thodberg, and M.B. Jensen (1997). Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal of Dairy Science 80(6): 1106-1112, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined whether dairy cows could distinguish among people based on the treatment received, whether cows used color as a cue to make this discrimination, and whether cows generalized their discrimination to other locations. Twelve cows were each repeatedly treated in a special treatment stall by two people wearing red or yellow overalls. One person always treated the cows aversively, and the other always treated them gently. The distance between each person and each cow in the home stall and in the treatment stall was scored during tests. Before treatment, the distances that cows maintained from the two people were uncorrelated, and the distances that they maintained in the treatment stall were uncorrelated with those in the home stall. Before and after treatments, the cows stood further from the handlers in the treatment stall than in the home stall, regardless of color of the overalls. Defecation and urination were more frequent during aversive treatments. After treatment, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler in both stalls, and distance from the aversive handler was positively correlated with distance from the gentle handler. The cows did not discriminate when the aversive and gentle handlers wore blue overalls (as worn by the usual barn handlers), when two unfamiliar people wore the same color overalls as the handlers, or when the cows were shown photographic slides of the two handlers. In conclusion, the cows learned to discriminate among the handlers, partially based on the color of the clothes worn. This discrimination was generalized to another location.
Keywords: cows, breed, Friesian, husbandry, animal welfare, stress, animal behavior, stockmen, color of clothes worn, descrimination, rough versus gentle handling, Denmark.

Munksgaard, L. and H.B. Simonsen (1996). Behavioral and pituitary adrenal-axis responses of dairy cows to social isolation and deprivation of lying down. Journal of Animal Science 74(4): 769-778, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The behavior and plasma concentrations of ACTH and cortisol were studied in 30 Friesian cows kept in tie stalls and assigned to three treatments: control (C), deprivation of lying down from 0900 to 1600 and 2200 to 0500 (D), and social isolation (I). Behavior of the cows was observed before and after 4 and 8 wk of treatment. The D- and I-cows showed increased frequency of transitions between different behavioral activities (P < .05). In D- and I-cows the frequency of grooming (P < .01) and idling (P < .001), and the amount of leaning (P < .001) increased. In D-cows the frequency of eating was also increased. The behavior and cortisol response to two novel arena tests performed on two consecutive days after 22 d of treatment suggests that social isolation and deprivation of lying change cows' reactions to a novel environment. After 23 d of treatment, concentrations of ACTH and cortisol were measured during 7.5 h. On d 24, cortisol concentrations were determined at time -.5, 0, .5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after i.v. administration of ACTH. Cortisol concentrations did not differ among treatment groups in the baseline series and after ACTH administration. In D-cows, ACTH concentration was increased in part of the baseline series (P< .05). The results suggest that the socially isolated cows were frustrated or tried to compensate for a lack of stimulation and that repeated deprivation of lying down is aversive to cows.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, corticotropin, hydrocortisone, animal welfare, blood plasma, stress factors, deprivation.

Nielsen, L.H., L. Mogensen, C. Krohn, J. Hindhede, and J.T. Sorensen (1997). Resting and social behaviour of dairy heifers housed in slatted floor pens with different sized bedded lying areas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(4): 307-316, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.
Keywords: social behavior, slatted floor, pens, area, resting.

Ohnstad, I. (1998). Machine milking and the well-being of the dairy cow. In: British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p.62-67.
Keywords: cows, dairy cows, machine milking, animal welfare, animal behavior, milking machines, milking, milking parlors, dairy farming, United Kingdom.

Olofsson, J., and H. Wiktorsson (2001). Competition for total mixed diets fed restrictively using one or four cows per feeding station. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(1): 59‑70, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: cows, housing, feeding stations, computerized feeding, feed intake, feeding behaviour, social dominance, aggression, video recordings, Sweden.

Osterman, S., and I. Redbo (2001). Effects of milking frequency on lying down and getting up behaviour in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 167‑176, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, lying down behavior, getting up behavior, standing behavior duration, milking interval, rumination, animal welfare.

Paranhos da Costa, M.J.R. and D.M. Broom. (2001). Consistency of side choice in the milking parlour by Holstein‑Friesian cows and its relationship with their reactivity and milk yield. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 177‑186, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, behavior, temperament, milking, milking parlors, milk yield, animal welfare, milking side preferences.

Perrey, A., G. Rehkamper, C.W. Werner, and A. Gorlach (2001). Influence of housing‑systems in arousal behaviour by cattle bulls towards a human.[Der Einfluss der Haltungsform auf das Erregungsverhalten von erwachsenen Milchrinderbullen gegenuber dem Menschen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 71‑80.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: bulls, Holstein Friesian, Red Holstein, breed, behavior, human animal interaction, aggressive behaviors, presenting body; pulling mouth to a bow, pawing with forelegs, rubbing head on the ground, snorting, bellowing, poking tongue, housing, German language.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2002). The ability of cattle to distinguish between, and their preference for, floors with different levels of friction, and their avoidance of floors contaminated with excreta. Animal Welfare 11(1): 21‑29, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, training, food reward, flooring type, discrimination, preferences, smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregates, floors covered in excreta, static friction, walking.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2001). A novel operant conditioning test to determime whether dairy cows dislike passageways that are dark or covered with excreta. Animal Welfare 10(1): 65‑72, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, conditioning, stimuli, molasses, learning ability, cattle slurry, floors, lighting, animal welfare, preferences.

Phillips, C.J.C., and M.I. Rind (2001). The effects on production and behavior of mixing uniparous and multiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(11): 2424‑2429, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, mixed versus unmixed groups, aggressive behavior, feeding behavior, grazing behavior, dairy performance, milk yield.

Plusquellec, P. and M.F. Bouissou Marie France (2001). Behavioural characteristics of two dairy breeds of cows selected (Herens) or not (Brune des alpes) for fighting and dominance ability. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (1): 1- 21, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Herens, Brune des alpes, breeds, fighting and dominance ability, behavioral trait, social behavior, dominance, agonistic behavior, social tolerance, social motivation, social distance, fear reactions, ease of handling, physiological correlates, social distances at pasture, ease of handling.

Prescott, N.B., T.T. Mottram, and A.J.F. Webster (1998). Effect of food type and location on the attendance to an automatic milking system by dairy cows and the effect of feeding during milking on their behaviour and milking characteristics. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 67(2): 183-193, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Keywords: automatic milking systems, behavior, feeding, concentrates, milking parlors, milking rate, milk flow, milk yield, milking interval.

Prescott, N.B., T.T. Mottram, and A.J.F. Webster (1998). Relative motivations of dairy cows to be milked or fed in a Y-maze and an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57(1): 23-33, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: motivation, Y-maze, choice tests, automatic milking.

Purushottam, S. and S. Kiran (2002). Shelter seeking behaviour of dairy cattle in various types of housing systems. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72(1): 91‑95, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: crossbred, lactating cows, shelter system, shelter seeking behavior, loose housing, loose housing with central shed, closed housing, tree‑shade, summer, rainy season, winter season.

Redbo, I., M. Emanuelson, K. Lunberg, N. Oredsson (April 1996). Feeding level and oral stereotypies in dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 62(2): 199-206, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation stage, unrestricted feeding, Swedish Red-and-White, restricted feeding, abnormal behavior, rumination, eating, feed intake, physical activity, posture, animal welfare, complete feeds, plane of nutrition.

Rehkamper, G. and A. Gorlach (1997). Visual discrinimation in adult dairy bulls. Journal of Dairy Science 80(8): 1613-1621, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy bulls, Holstein-Friesian, learning ability, temperament, training of animals.

Roberts, J. (1997). Understanding cow behavior. Bovine Practitioner 31(2): 104-107, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: cows, behavior, stress, animal welfare, milk production, stray voltage, diagosis, milking.

Rook, A.J. and C.A. Huckle (1997). Activity bout criteria for grazing dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2): 89-96, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, grazing, bout criteria, feeding, nutrition.

Rushen, J., A. Boissy, E.M.C. Terkiuw, and A.M.B. de Passille (1999). Opioid peptides and behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cows to social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings. Journal of Animal Science 77(11): 2918-2924, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: To test whether endogenous opioid peptides are involved in the behavioral and physiological responses of cattle to stress, 12 Holstein cows were either placed in social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings for 15 min or remained in their home stalls, either with or without naloxone treatment, following a Latin square design. Vocalizations (judged as high or low frequency), defecation/urination, and heart rate were recorded, latency to respond to local thermal stimulation of the leg by means of a laser was measured to detect pain sensitivity, and blood was sampled and assayed for cortisol concentrations. Naloxone in the home stall increased cortisol concentrations and tended to reduce response latencies to the laser but did not induce vocalization. Social isolation increased the incidence of high-frequency vocalization and of defecation/urination, heart rate, cortisol concentrations, and response latencies to the laser. Prior administration of naloxone increased the incidence of low-frequency vocalization in isolation, but it had no effect on heart rate or on responses to the laser and only limited effect on cortisol concentrations when the cows were isolated. Brief periods of social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings seem to be stressful to cows, as indicated by increased heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, and vocalization. Isolation also reduces pain sensitivity, suggesting a stress-induced analgesia. However, we found no evidence that naloxone-sensitive opioid receptors were involved in these responses.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, physiology, housing, stress, hydrocortisone, blood chemistry, naloxone, opioid peptides, heart rate, animal welfare, social interaction, vocalization.

Rushen, J., A.M.B. de Passille, and L. Munksgaard (1999). Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking. Journal of Dairy Science 82(4): 720-727, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield.
Keywords: handling, fear, heart rate, kicking behavior, milk yield, milking.

Rushen, J., L. Munksgaard, A.M.B de Passille, M.B. Jensen, and K. Thodberg (1998). Location of handling and dairy cows: responses to people. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(3/4): 259-267, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, handling, stockmen, learned aversion, fear, animal behavior, cow temperment, animal welfare, husbandry.

Rushen, J. and A.M.B de Passille (1996). Behaviour, welfare and productivity of dairy cattle. In: Proceedings of the Lennoxville Conference on Milk Production, Bishop's University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada, October 9, 1996, Vol.78, p. 3-21, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur le bovin laitier et le porc, Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada: Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada.
Keywords: animal welfare, stress, abnormal behavior, dairy cattle, animal behavior, productivity, cows, dairy cows, reviews, husbandry, calves, cattle housing.

Schrader, L. (2001). The behaviour of farm animals and its significance for housing design. In: Human-animal relationship: stockmanship and housing in organic livestock systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 21-24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0-7049-1094-2, p. 54-63
Keywords: cattle, livestock, abnormal behavior, animal behavior, animal housing, organic farming.

Schrader, L. (2001). Identification of individual behavioural characteristics in dairy cows. [Identifizierung individueller Verhaltenscharakteristika bei Milchkuhen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 18‑27.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, stress, salivary cortisol levels, individual variation, husbandry, German language.

Schrader, L., S. Meier, C. Blank, and D. Fuger (2000). Personality traits and stress responsiveness in dairy cows. ["Personlichkeit" und Stress bei Milchkuhen.] Agrarforschung 7(1): 20-23, ISSN: 1022-663X.
NAL Call No.: S469.S9A37
Keywords: dairy cows, stress, farmers, questionnaires, cow's personality traits, individual differences, animal behavior, behavioral tests, German language.

Senica, M., I. Stuhec, and V. Rezar (2001). Ethological principles in dairy cattle farming. [Reja krav molznic po etoloskih nacelih.] Zootehnika 78 (1): 43‑56, ISSN: 1408‑3434.
Keywords: dairy cows, Brown, Simmental, breeds, housing, tie stalls, stables, pasture, behavior, lying, defecating, urinating, grooming, chewing, drinking, resting, Slovenian language.

Sisto, A.M. and T.H. Friend (2001). The effect of confinement on motivation to exercise in young dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(2): 83‑91, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, exercise, motivation, animal behavior, locomotion, calf housing, individual versus group pens, pens, group effect, duration, hydrocortisone, blood plasma, lymphocytes, leukocyte count.

Stefanowska, J., M. Plavsic, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2000). The effect of omitted milking on the behaviour of cows in the context of cluster attachment failure during automatic milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 277-291, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the effects of individual housing design (stalls vs pens) with widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 X 3 factorial treatment arrangement) on growth, hematology, cleanliness, ambulation, abomasal hairball, and carcass measurements. Three groups of 36 Holstein bull calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted within group to treatments. There were no effects (P > .05) of housing design, width, or two-way interactions for BW, ADG, carcass weight, or dressing percentage. Blood samples were collected at approximately 33-d intervals. Mean values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count (WBC), and red blood cell count (RBC) were not different among treatments (P > .05), with the exception of d 28 hemoglobin, which was greater in the calves housed in 66-cm vs 76-cm stall. There were differences (P < .05) due to design and design X width effects for hindquarter cleanliness; manure accumulation tended to be greater in pens vs stalls as width increased. There were increases (P < .05) in left front knee swelling scores as stall or pen size decreased; no important differences were observed in ambulatory ability among treatment groups. There were design effects (P < .05) for excitability scores, with calves in stalls being more excitable. There were no important treatment effects (P > .05) for liver, spleen, and lung condition, number of abomasal hairballs, or 0- and 24-h after slaughter flank or brisket color. These results indicate that housing designs and widths did not affect veal calf growth performance, WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, ambulation, or muscle color.
Keywords: dairy cows, milking interval, milking parlors, automatic control, failure, clusters, animal behavior, posture, eating, resting, drinking, urination, defecation, milk yield, lactation number, social dominance, animal welfare.

Stefanowska, J., A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (1999). The behaviour of dairy cows in an automatic milking system where selection for milking takes place in the milking stalls. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 99-114, ISSN: 0168-159.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, automation, milking interval, robots, automatic control, movement, duration, defecation, urination, social dominance, efficiency.

Stefanowska, J., N.S. Tiliopoulos, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (1999). Dairy cow interactions with an automatic milking system starting with "walk-through" selection. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(3): 177-193, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking parlors, milking interval, automation, behavior, gates, gait, duration, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, urination, defecation, animal welfare, efficiency.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Response of animals to familiar and unfamiliar situations. Transport and temporary separation of suckled calves from the herd at different ages during rearing. Effect of playing recordings of maternal vocalization on hormones, heart rate and vocal responses. [Reaktionsmuster von Tieren auf gewohnte und ungewohnte Ereignisse. Transport und temporare Separation von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung in verschiedenen Altersperioden wahrend der fruhen Aufzuchtperiode sowie Effekte der Prasentation von Muttertierrufen auf hormonelle Variablen, Herzfrequenz und Lautausserungen der Tiere.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(3): 153-166, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: cows, dams, heart, heart rate, young animals, vocalization, animal welfare, calves, body temperature, hydrocortisone, stress, German language.

Steinhardt, M. and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Species specific husbandry and physiological functions of animals. Development quality and adaptation of group reared dairy calves at specific age periods and seasonal effects by birth periods and rearing conditions. [Tiergerechte Haltung und physiologische Funktionen von Tieren. Entwicklungsqualitat und Anpassungsreaktionen von am Trankeautomaten aufgezogenen Milchrindkalbern in spezifischen Altersperioden sowie jahreszeitliche Effekte durch Geburtsperioden und Aufzuchtbedingungen.] Animal Feed Science and Technology 49(3): 136-152, ISSN: 0377-8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: calves, calf rearing, husbandry, animal welfare, behavior, adaptation, hydrocortisone, diagnosis, heart rate, hemoglobin, postnatal development, German language.

Steinwidder, A., B.M. Ehm, E. Zeiler, L. Gruber, and F. Lettner (2001). Effect of day or night grazing on forage intake and grazing behaviour of dairy cows. [Einfluss von tag oder nachtweidehaltung auf futteraufnahme und fressverhalten von milchkuhen.] Zuechtungskunde 73 (3): 215-232, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cows, grazing conditions, feed intake, grazing behavior, during day and night, fresh forage, fed in the stable, energy concentration, total feed, protein intake, nutrient supply, climatic conditions.

Szyndler, J. and A. Kaczor (1997). Behaviour of dairy cows in litter and litter-free tie-in stalls of different size. [Zachowanie sie krow mlecznych na wiazanych stanowiskach sciolowych i bezsciolowych o roznych wymiarach.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 249-262, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1.R6
Keywords: cattle housing, litter, litter-free tie-in stalls, stall dimensions, on the, cleanliness, skin injuries and abrasions, legs, udder, health, behavior, lying, standing, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Thomas, T., D.M. Weary, and M.C. Appleby (2001). Newborn and 5‑week‑old calves vocalize in response to milk deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74(3): 165‑173, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, newborn animals, calf feeding, milk, deprivation, supplementary feeding, vocalization, individual characteristics, weaning, age differences, animal welfare.

Uetake, K. (1999). Study on cognitive and learning abilities of dairy cattle and their application for herd management. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station 170: 9-43.
Keywords: cow housing, cattle housing, dairy cattle, cows, reviews, animal behavior, animal welfare, cognitive development, learning, productivity, farm management, milking, automation, robots, color, hearing, feeding behavior, electric current, music, design, East Asia, Japanese language.

Uetake, K., K. Yayou, and T. Okamoto (1998). Influence of feeding operation and social factors on cattle locomotion in free stall barns. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78(3): 421-424, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: The influence of feeding operation and social factors on voluntary movement of cattle was studied with a group of nine Holstein calves in free stall barns. The results of this study suggest that cattle can move more voluntarily when rations are put beyond the place that farmers want them to walk through. The results also suggest that conflicts between motivations for approaching rations and avoiding competitive feeding behaviour should be considered when efficient systems of locomotion control of cattle groups are designed, such as in AMSs.
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, feeding behavior, social behavior, motivation, social factors, locomotion, free stall, barns, housing.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Effect of music on voluntary approach of dairy cows to an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53(3): 175-182, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: music, automatic milking, approach behavior.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Behavioral pattern of dairy cows milked in a two-stall automatic milking system with a holding area. Journal of Animal Science 75(4): 954-958, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Behavioral pattern was investigated in dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system (AMS) in contrast to cows milked in a conventional milking parlor. Forty-eight Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of 24 animals. The two groups were housed in adjacent free stall pens. Both groups were milked twice a day at 0500 and at 1500 for 30 d before commencement of the experiment, one in a two-stall AMS (AMS Group), the other in a 16-stall herringbone parlor (Parlor Group). The respective holding areas were used to encourage cows to enter the milking compartments. All cows consumed total mixed rations ad libitum, provided once a day between 0500 and 0600 in indoor feed bunks. Cows in both groups were allowed daily access to two adjacent outdoor paddocks from 1030 to 1230. Behavioral observations were carried out in the free stall barn from 0400 to 0900 and from 1250 to 1900 for 30d. The number of cows lying down, standing in the stalls, standing in the passageway, and eating was recorded every 10 min. Analyses of variance were used to compare time serial changes in behavioral states between groups. Although the time serial changes in the behavioral states were not different between groups after returning from paddocks, they became significantly different between groups for all four recorded behavioral states after the onset of milking. Ethograms during the 11-h observation period showed that cows in the AMS group spent less time eating at the feed bunk and standing in the stalls to compensate for the longer time standing in the holding area. The results indicate that AMS milking with a holding area affects social synchronization of cows eating and resting and reduces time spent eating.
Keywords: automation, milking machines, milking parlors, behavior, milk yield, lactation stage, age, posture, eating, duration, activity sampling.

Vaarst, M., M.B. Jensen, and A.M. Sandager (2001). Behaviour of calves at introduction to nurse cows after the colostrum period. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(1): 27‑33, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, housing, single boxes, teat bucket, cow colostrum, behavior, abnormal behavior, social behavior, feeding, nurse cows, suckling.

Vaarst, M., J. Hindhede, and C. Enevoldsen (1998). Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems. Journal of Dairy Research 65(2): 175-186, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: Records of claw trimmings were analysed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole disorders was analysed separately for cows in first lactation and for cows in later lactations. Three different responses (acute haemorrhage, sole ulcer in one leg and sole ulcer in two or more legs) were analysed using three binomial logistic regression analyses for each group. Herd analysed as a fixed effect was a strong risk factor for all kinds of sole ulcer. Lactation stage was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in both groups of cows, and for sole ulcer in first parity cows. In general, there was a strong positive association between the period 61-120 d post partum and the presence of sole disorders. Breed was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and later parities, and sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows in an interaction with lactation stage in both conditions. Danish Friesian cows were strongly associated with sole disorder, although the combination of lactation stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual-purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December to January most strongly associated with acute haemorrhage. Previous disease treatment was a risk factor for sole ulcer in two or more legs in second and later parities. Udder related disorders and disorders other than reproductive problems were positively associated with the occurrence of sole ulcer. Body weight at calving was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and subsequent parities. Body weight lower than the mean herd level by > 50 kg was negatively associated with acute haemorrhage.
Keywords: dairy herds, housing, lameness, handling, feet, lesions, hemorrhage, lactation stage, breed differences, Friesian, body weight, lameness, deep litter housing, stalls, hooves, organic farming, slatted floors, straw, litter, calving season, Denmark.

Vdovina, N.V., and D.I. Lyapolov (2001). About research of domestication behavior of calves. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: 107-110, ISSN: 0131‑6397.
NAL Call No.: S13.S44
Keywords: domestication, behavior of calves, human animal relationships, lack of fear, food reactions, distance of unknown man, adaptability, Russian language.

Veissier, I., A. Boissy, J. Capdeville, and C. Sarignac (2000). Welfare of livestock: how to define and evaluate? [Le bien-etre des animaux d'elevage: comment peut-on le definir et l'evaluer?] Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 31(205): 117-124, ISSN: 0012-1622.
Keywords: livestock, animal welfare, evaluation, stress, behavior, environment, health, French language.

Veissier, I., P. Chazal, P. Pradel, and P. Le Neindre (1997). Providing social contacts and objects for nibbling moderates reactivity and oral behaviors in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 75(2): 356-365, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the role of social and physical enrichment in the adaptation of veal calves to their environment. We compared calves housed in individual stalls that varied in the extent of contacts they allowed between neighbors (16 calves: open partitions; 16 calves: solid partitions; 32 calves: solid and extended partitions preventing all contact). All but 16 out of the 32 isolated calves were provided with a piece of tire and a chain, objects they could easily nibble. We assessed time budget, behavioral reactions to a water throw, neuroendocrine responses to stress (ACTH challenge and catecholamine synthesis), health, and growth. Calves kept in isolation displayed more startled reactions (16 isolated calves vs 5 non-isolated calves were startled by the throw, P < .05). Calves without objects spent more time nibbling at the feeding grille (5 vs 3% time, P < .01), licking their lips and tongue-rolling (7 vs 4% time, P <.05). Social contacts and the provision of objects had no incidence on neuroendocrine measurements and growth. Contacts with neighbors resulted in a slight but nonsignificant rise in disease. Depriving calves of social contacts increases behavioral reactivity, probably because there are no peer animals through which reactions can be moderated, and the lack of adequate objects to nibble promotes self-directed activities.
Keywords: calves, behavior, neurohormones, stress, veal, calf housing, stalls, group size, animal welfare, partitions, enrichment, toys, grooming, fright, behavior, rest, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress response, breed differences, Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliard, health, lesions, stomach ulcers, scars, nibbling, sniffing, lip-licking, tongue-rolling.

Veissier, I., V. Gesmier, P. Le Neindre, J.Y. Gautier, and G. Bertrand (1994). The effects of rearing in individual crates on subsequent social behaviour of veal calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(3/4): 199-210, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: veal calves, social behavior, housing, isolation rearing, crates.

Waiblinger, S., T. Baars, and C. Menke (2001). Understanding the cow: the central role of human animal relationship in keeping horned dairy cows in loose housing. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), p. 64-78, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, cattle housing, cows, dairy cows, loose housing, organic farming, stockmen.

Weary, D.M., and B. Chua (2000). Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf. 1. Separation at 6 h, 1 day and 4 days after birth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69(3): 177‑188, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cows, animal behavior, physical activity, vocalization, calf removal, responses, age differences, animal welfare.

Wenzel, C. (2001). Initial ethological improvements for the management of cows milked by an automatic milking system. [Erste ethologische Empfehlungen zum Management von Milchrindern beim Melken in einem automatischen Melksystem.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (1): 21‑24, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, automation, milking, robots, management, milking parlors, stress, adaptation, animal welfare, milkers, milking robots, human animal relationships, German language.

Wilson, L.L., T.L. Terosky, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1999). Effects of individual housing design and size on behavior and stress indicators of special-fed Holstein veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 77(6): 1341-1347, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82.
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine effects of housing design (calves tethered in open stalls vs untethered in individual pens) and widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments) on indicators of stress and behavior in special-fed veal calves. Three production cycles (groups) were used, each with 36 Holstein bull calves. Calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted to treatments upon arrival at the facility. Blood samples were collected four times (wk 4, 9, 13, and 18) during the 18-wk production cycle. Blood serum values for cortisol and (alpha1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) exhibited few treatment differences. Blood leukocyte differential counts at 4 and 18 wk (segmented neutrophils [N], banded neutrophils, lymphocytes [L], basophils, and the N:L ratio) were not different (P > .05) among housing designs or widths. However, there were differences (P < .05) in monocytes and eosinophils during the 28-d period after arrival; calves in stalls 76 cm wide had the greatest percentage of both leukocytes, and calves in the 66-cm stalls had the lowest monocyte percentage. Calves were recorded on videotape during wk 4, 13.5, and 18 to determine frequencies and durations of postures and behaviors (e.g., lying, standing, chewing, tongue playing, grooming, and investigative activities). There were no consistent differences (P > .05) in postures or behaviors among calves in different housing designs or widths. Calves spent approximately 71 and 31% in lying and standing positions, with no preference for the right or left side while recumbent. There was a tendency for calves in wider stalls or pens at wk 9 and 18 to exhibit more self-grooming activities. Tongue playing and investigative and chewing activities were exhibited in all treatments, but no differences (P > .05) were observed. However, calves housed in the 56-cm pens displayed difficulty in changing from lying to a standing position and were unable to extend one or more legs while recumbent. Even though there were few differences in behavioral, physiological, growth, or anatomical traits in this study, further increases in age and(or) weight of finished calves will require a reassessment of the appropriateness of individual veal calf housing design and dimensions.
Keywords: calves, young animals, Holstein, stress, veal calves, basophils, blood serum, hydrocortisone, eosinophils, glycoproteins, grooming, leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, tethered housing, cattle housing, animal welfare, animal experiments, hematology, blood chemistry, calf housing, stalls, pens, cubicles.

Winter, A. and J.E. Hillerton (1995). Behaviour associated with feeding and milking of early lactation cows housed in an experimental automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46(1/2): 1-15, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Abstract: The successful integration of automated milking into the farm will depend partly on the behaviour of the cow. Diurnal patterns of behaviour and behaviour associated with the use of an automatic milking stall were recorded at 10-min intervals for 5 consecutive days for nine early lactation cows housed in a straw yard. The automatic milking stall was operational between 06:00 h and 0:00 h and was accessible through a selection/recognition stall on route to the forage feed area. Cows attending the feed area within 4 h of a previous milking were diverted directly to feed, by-passing the automatic stall. All cows attended the milking stall voluntarily, on average three times a day. Milking frequency was not consistent throughout the day and was related to diurnal patterns of feeding. Movement to and from milking was hesitant, with cows delaying at both entry and exit gates of the milking stall. A consistent milking order developed becoming more variable as the number of millings per cow per day increased, associated with a similar reduction in synchrony for the maintenance behaviours. Daily activity budgets suggested accommodation to the system through conservation of feeding time and a decrease in lying time. Cows became accustomed to waiting to enter the stall as the experiment proceeded. In conclusion the cows adapted to using the automated milking stall at their own demand and pace which reduced efficiency and availability.
Keywords: feeding, milking, lactation, automatic milking, automation, adaptation, behavior, diurnal activity, feeding frequency.

Yeruham, I., and O. Markusfeld (1996). Self destructive behaviour in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 138(13): 308, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: heifers, udders, teats, mammary edema, skin diseases, symptoms, abnormal behavior, predisposition, excessive licking.

Zahner, M. (1998). Modified cow trainer reduces stress on the cows. [Modifizierter Kuhtrainer reduziert Belastung bei Kuhen.] Agrarforschung 5(1): 17-20, ISSN: 1022-663X.
NAL Call No.: S469 S9A37.
Keywords: cows, modified cow trainer, electric shocks, electric current stress, restraint of animals, freedom of movement, animal welfare, German language.


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Breeding

Banos, G. and A. Sigurdsson (June 1996) Application of contemporary methods for the use of international data in national genetic evaluations. Journal of Dairy Science 79(6): 1117-1125, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.
Keywords: dairy cattle, bulls, genetic material, genetic evaluations across countries, national breeding programs, economically important traits, well-defined breeding goals.

Ballard, C.S., P. Mandebvu, C.J. Sniffen, S.M. Emanuele, and M.P. Carter (2001). Effect of feeding an energy supplement to dairy cows pre and postpartum on intake, milk yield, and incidence of ketosis. Animal Feed Science and Technology 93(1‑2): 55‑69, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, ketosis, metabolic disease, calcium propionate,propylene glycol, beet pulp, ground corn, sugarcane molasses, dietary supplements, lactation, milk yield, tie stall housing.

Boelling, D., P. Madsen, and J. Jensen (2001). Genetic parameters of foot and leg traits in future AI bulls: II. Correlation to body conformation traits in daughters. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 122-128, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy AI bulls, breed, Danish Red, Danish Friesian, Jersey, genetic correlations, foot and leg traits, hoof measurements, horn characteristics, claw disease, hoof trimming, scores for rear leg side view, rear leg rear view, bone structure, quality of hocks, foot angle, future selection of AI bulls.

Boer, I.J.M., F.W.A. de Brom, and J.M.G. Vorstenbosch (1995). An ethical evaluation of animal biotechnology: the case of using clones in dairy cattle breeding. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 61(3): 453-463, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cattle, bioethics, moral values, biotechnology, cloning, animal welfare, genetic variation, artificial insemination, personal development.

Cartmill, J.A., S.Z. El-Zarkouny, B.A. Hensley, T.G. Rozell, J.F. Smith, and J.S. Stevenson (2001). An alternative AI breeding protocol for dairy cows exposed to elevated ambient temperature before or after calving or both. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 799‑806, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation, artificial insemination, environmental temperature, synchronized females, gnrh, prostaglandins, timing, estrus, detection, conception rate, pregnancy rate, heat stress, relative humidity, postpartum interval, anestrus, blood serum, progesterone, embryo mortality, summer, Kansas.

Christensen, L.G. (1998). Possibilities for genetic improvement of disease resistance, functional traits and animal welfare. In: Impact of Reproductive Technology on Animal Breeding and Genetic Conservation. Proceedings of the Bertebos Prize Symposium, Falkenberg, Sweden, September 18-19, 1997, No. 29, S. Einarsson and J. Rendel (ed.), Scandinavian University Press: Oslo; Boston, p. 77-89.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27 Suppl.29
Keywords: breeding programes, embryo transfer, computer simulation, mathematical models, sires, dams, fertility, selection methods, animal welfare, health, selection, disease resistance, Scandinavia.

Cranford, J.L., and R.E. Pearson (2001). Relationships of sire predicted transmitting ability for somatic cell score with measures of daughter performance. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1501-1507, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein, breed, sire predicted transmitting ability, somatic cell score, mastitis occurrence, Virginia Tech dairy herd, linear regression coefficients.

Davis, S.R., I. Vetharaniam, M. Upsdell, E.S. Kolver, and A.B. Pleasants (2001). Modelling the impact of nutrition and genotype on lactation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 237‑238, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, mammary gland development, reproductive system, milk, reproductive system, secretion, udder, reproductive system, grazing, feeding method, modeling method, genotype, impact, lactation, nutritional status, nutrition impact, pasture, animal feed, New Zealand.

Dekkers, J.C. and J.P. Gibson (1998). Applying breeding objectives to dairy cattle improvement. Journal of Dairy Science 81(Supplement 2): 19-35.
NAL Call No.: SF221.A4
Keywords: selection criteria, interaction between the scientists and industry, selection indexes, index expression, index formulation, focus on response to selection, construction of component indexes, individual mating decisions, review.

Dekkers, J.C., B.A. Mallard, and K. Leslie (1994). Workshop: genetic improvement of resistance to mastitis of dairy cattle with special emphasis on somatic cell count. Journal of Dairy Science 77(2): 616-618, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.
Keywords: genetic improvement, resistance to mastitis, physiology, immunology.

Distl, O. (2001). Implications of health traits in breeding of dairy cattle. [Die Bedeutung Von Gesundheitsmerkmalen in Der Zucht Von Milchrindern.] Archiv Fuer Tierzucht 44 (4): 365-380.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: German cattle breeds. genetic improvement, health and fertility traits, datasets from Bavaria, Israel and Sweden, heritabilities for disease resistance, genetic variance.

Dobos, R.C., K.S. Nandra, K. Riley, W.J. Fulkerson, I.J. Lean, and R C. Kellaway (2001). Effects of age and liveweight at first calving on first lactation milk, protein and fat yield of Friesian heifers. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41 (1): 13-19, ISSN: 0816‑1089.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au792
Keywords: heifers, Australian Holstein Friesian, breed, individual and combined effects of age, and liveweight at first calving, grazed pasture, growth requirements, milk, protein, fat yields, first lactation.

Duraes, M.C., A.F. de Freitas, J. Valente, N.M. Teixeira, and R.B. Tendencia (2001). Genetic trend for milk and fat productions for Holstein Cattle in Minas Gerais State. [Tendencia genetica Para a Producao De Leite e De Gordura Em Rebanhos Da Raca Holandesa No Estado De Minas Gerais.] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30 (1): 66-70.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: breed, Holstein, genetic trends, milk and fat yields, statistical analyses, mixed models, herd year season at calving, effect of age at calving, birth records, milk production, Brazil.

Esslemont, R.J. and M.A. Kossaibati (2000). The use of databases to manage fertility. Animal Reproduction Science 60/61: 725-741, ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, fertility, dairy farming, computer databases, computer techniques, husbandry, management, health, performance, information systems, research, animal welfare, zoonoses, environmental protection, costs, literature reviews.

Fikse, W.F., and G. Banos (2001). Weighting factors of sire daughter information in international genetic evaluations. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (7): 1759-1767, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy bulls, international genetic evaluations, national genetic evaluation results, alternative weighting factors on international evaluation results, progeny test scheme, semen exchange, breeding values, weighting factors, total number of daughters, total number of lactations, group size.

Goni, M.O., A.G. Miah, M.A.S. Khan, and M.N. Islam (2001). The performance of crossbred cows available in milk pocket area of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (1 ): 1166‑1168, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: crossbred dairy cows, Sahiwal, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, Sahiwal, productive, reproductive performance, milk yield, lactation length, reproductive performance, average birth weight of calves, age at puberty, age at first calving, service per conception, postpartum heat period, gestation period, calving interval, breed differences, Bangladesh.

Grochowska, R., A. Lunden, L. Zwierzchowski, M. Snochowski, and J. Oprzadek (2001). Association between gene polymorphism of growth hormone and carcass traits in dairy bulls. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (3): 441-447.
Keywords: bulls, Polish Friesian, breed, leucine/valine substitution polymorphism, amino acid, growth hormone (GH) protein, carcass traits, carcass gain, weights of meat, bones, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat.

Haile Mariam, M., M.E. Goddard, and P.J. Bowman (2001). Estimates of genetic parameters for daily somatic cell count of Australian dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1255-1264, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: genetic parameters, somatic cell counts, sire random regression model, conventional ten trait analyses, first lactation, variation in heritabilities, test day records.

Hansen, L.B. (2000). Consequences of selection for milk yield from a geneticist's viewpoint. Journal of Dairy Science 83(5): 1145-1150.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The annual genetic trend for milk yield of Holsteins in the United States has accelerated with time and had means of 37 kg during the 1960s, 79 kg during the 1970s, 102 kg during the 1980s, and 116 kg from 1990 to 1996. Selection programs of the dairy cattle breeding firms in the United States have become more selective and effective with time, and selection goals continue to place major emphasis on yield traits, which clearly impact profitability of dairying. Traits other than yield are also included in selection goals of the industry. Type traits, especially those related to udderconformation, body size, and angularity have been included in selection programs and have altered the appearance and physiological functions of Holstein cows. Selection programs have continued to increase the body size of Holsteins despite mounting evidence that smaller cows have advantages for survival and efficiency. Favorable emphasis on cows that appear sharper might result in cows that are more prone to metabolic problems. The high intensity of current selection in the United States has brought about a rapid increase in genetic relationships among animals. Increased relationships will inevitably result in undesirable levels of inbreeding in the commercial cow population unless dairy producers turn to crossbreeding.
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein-Friesian, genetic trend, milk yield, body weight, selection intensity, inbreeding depression, selection responses, female fertility.

Hansen, L.B., J.B. Cole, G.D. Marx, and A.J. Seykora (1999). Productive life and reasons for disposal of Holstein cows selected for large versus small body size. Journal of Dairy Science 82 (4): 795-801.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Holstein cows were compared for direct and correlated responses to selection for large versus small body size. The divergent selection lines differed for body weight, body dimensions, and birth weight of calves but did not differ for production or calving ease. Also, cows in the small line required fewer services to conception during first lactation than did cows in the large line. Cows in the body size lines differed for three reasons for disposal: udder conformation, which favored cows in the large line; problems with legs and feet, which favored cows in the small line; and a miscellaneous category, which included internal infections and favored cows in the small line. Productive life to a maximum of 6 yr was 87.7 d (15.4%) longer for cows in the small line than for cows in the large line. Continued selection for larger Holstein cows in North America might not be economically justifiable.
Keywords: dairy cows, size, selection criteria, artificial selection, longevity, productive life, liveweight, birth weight, calving, lactation, conception rate, culling, height, length, diameter.

Healy, P.J. (1996). Testing for undesirable traits in cattle: an Australian perspective. Journal of Animal Science 74(4): 917-922, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: A variety of autosomal recessive defects, many lethal to the newborn calf, have been recognized in Australia. Definition of a defect at the biochemical or molecular level facilitates development of heterozygote detection tests essential for efficient disease control programs. The prevalence of alpha-mannosidosis in Angus and Murray Greys, generalized glycogenosis in Brahmans and Shorthorns, and citrullinemia in Holstein/Friesians has been reduced as a result of industry-sponsored disease-control programs. These defects were disseminated as a consequence of selection focused on desirable traits carried by individuals. In the long term, an increase in crossbreeding in commercial beef production will reduce the significance of recessive defects. Caution will be required to reduce the risk of dissemination of recessive defects resulting from increased selection pressure within the dairy industry presently dominated by Holstein/Friesians.
Keywords: cattle, recessive lethals, bulls, genetic defects, breeding value, genetic disorders, cattle breeds, heterozygotes, animal welfare.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2001). Responses to selection against clinical mastitis in the Norwegian cattle population. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 155-160, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: genetic trend, clinical mastitis, Norwegian Cattle, mastitis resistance, average selection differential.

Juga, J. (1998). The Nordic model for animal welfare and sustainability: is it competitive? In: Impact of Reproductive Technology on Animal Breeding and Genetic Conservation. Proceedings of the Bertebos Prize Symposium, Falkenberg, Sweden, September 18-19, 1997, No. 29, S. Einarsson and J. Rendel (ed.), Scandinavian University Press: Oslo; Boston, p. 108-114.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27 Suppl. 29
Keywords: Finnish dairy cattle, breeding programs, selection, genetic response, animal welfare, health, milk yield, Finland.

Kadarmideen, H.N., and J.E. Pryce (2001). Genetic and economic relationships between somatic cell count and clinical mastitis and their use in selection for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Animal Science Pencaitland 73 (1): 19-28.
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, clinical mastitis, somatic cell count, genetic and economic relationship of lactation average, genetic parameters, permanent environmental, residual and phenotypic correlations, selection for mastitis resistance, breeding goals, genetic resistance.

Kudrin, A.G. (2001). The effects of the selection of highly productive Holstein cows according to fermental blood tests. Doklady Rossiiskoi Akademii Sel'Skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk (1): 38-39.
NAL Call No.: S1 S68
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, blood, selection based on the level of ferments in the serum, milk productivity.

Larroque, H., and V. Ducrocq (2001). Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed. Genetics Selection Evolution Paris 33 (1): 39-59.
NAL Call No.: QH431 A1A52
Keywords: French Holstein, breed, type traits, longevity, survival analysis model, udder traits, udder depth, length of productive life, voluntary culling, estimated breeding value.

Lee, D.H., and K.J. Han (2001). Genetic parameters for lactation using the coupling chains with Gibbs sampler in multivariate animal models with missing traits in Korean Holstein cattle. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 43 (1): 53-64.
NAL Call No.: SF1.H36
Keywords: genetic parameters, milk production, lifetime lactation productions, Gibbs sampling vs Bayesian inference, repeatability model, Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, Korea.

Liinamo, A.E. and J.A. Van Arendonk (1999). Combining selection for carcass quality, body weight, and milk traits in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 82(4): 802-809, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: selection strategies, carcass quality, body weight, milk aggregate genotype.

Lukaszewicz, M. and G. Sender (1999). Conformation traits in selection indices in dairy cattle, A review. Prace i Materialy Zootechniczne 55: 41-49, ISSN: 0137-1649.
NAL Call No.: SF1 P67
Keywords: adaptative complex, animal welfare, breeding goals, conformation traits, ecology, milk yield.

Meyer, C.L., P.J. Berger, K.J. Koehler, J.R. Thompson, and C.G. Sattler (2001). Phenotypic trends in incidence of stillbirth for Holsteins in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 515-523, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein, breed, stillbirths, dystocia, MidStates Dairy Records Processing Center and the National Association of Animal Breeders, influence of sire, herd, year, season, sex of calf, parity of dam, calving ease, gestation length, survival of the calf, United States.

Meyer, C.L., P.J. Berger, J.R. Thompson, and C.G. Sattler (2001). Genetic evaluation of Holstein sires and maternal grandsires in the United States for perinatal survival. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1246-1254, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: primiparous cows, Holstein, breed, stillbirth, genetic parameters, perinatal survival rates, National Association of Animal Breeders calving ease database, data analysis, effects for sex of calf, dystocia, season of birth, gestation length, milk yield.

Muller, U., P. Reinecke, W. Leucht, and T. Dalle (1999). Breeding and biological evaluation of selection for yield in dairy cattle. [Zuchtungsbiologische bewertung der leistungsselektion beim Milchrind.] Archiv fur Tierzucht 42(1): 33-44, ISSN: 0003-9438.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: dairy cattle, selection, dairy performance, fitness, reviews, natural selection, animal welfare, German language.

Murray, R.D. and W.R. Ward (1993). Welfare implications of modern artificial breeding techniques for dairy cattle and sheep. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(12): 283-286, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.
Keywords: legislation described, cruelty, animal welfare, United Kingdom, farm animal breeding, acceptable practice, public concern, biotechnical innovations.

Nash, D.L., G.W. Rogers, J.B. Cooper, G.L. Hargrove, J.F.Keown, and L.B. Hansen (2000). Heritability of clinical mastitis incidence and relationships with sire transmitting abilities for somatic cell score, udder type traits, productive life, and protein yield. Journal of Dairy Science 83(10): 2350-2360. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, grazing, feeding behavior, movement, hygiene, resting/lying down, social behavior, pastures, cattle housing, animal welfare, health, German language, conference paper.

Norman, H.D., R.L. Powell, J.R. Wright, and C.G. Sattler (2001). Overview of progeny test programs of artificial insemination organizations in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1899-1912, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Ayrshires, Brown Swiss, Guernseys, Holsteins, Jerseys, Milking Shorthorns, progeny test programs, artificial insemination, embryo transfer, United States.

Notter, D.R. (1999). The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future. Journal of Animal Science 77(1): 61-69, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Farm animal genetic diversity is required to meet current production needs in various environments, to allow sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Production efficiency in pastoral species is closely tied to the use of diverse genetic types, but greater genetic uniformity has evolved in intensively raised species. In poultry, breeding decisions are directed by a few multinational companies and involve intense selection, the use of distinct production lines, and very large populations. In dairy cattle, the Holstein breed dominates production. Intensive sire selection is leading to relatively rapid inbreeding rates and raises questions about long-term effects of genetic drift. Key questions in management of farm animal genetic diversity involve the distribution of potentially useful quantitative trait locus alleles among global livestock breeds. Experiments with tomato, maize, and mice suggest that favorable alleles can exist in otherwise lowly productive stocks; this cryptic variation may potentially contribute to future selection response. Genetic improvement under relatively intense unidirectional selection may involve both increases in the frequency of favorable additive alleles as well as the progressive breakdown of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms established under the stabilizing selection that is characteristic of natural populations. Recombination among closely linked regulatory loci and new, potentially avorable mutations are possible sources of long-term genetic variation. A greater understanding of the potential that these alternative mechanisms have for supporting long-term genetic improvement and of genetic relationships among global livestock populations are priorities for managing farm animal genetic diversity.
Keywords: global livestock populations, poultry, dairy, production efficiency, genetic uniformity, intensive livestock production, inbreeding rates, genetic drift, quantitative trait locus alleles, unidirectional selection, review.

Ojango, J.M.K., and G.E. Pollott (2001). Genetics of milk yield and fertility traits in Holstein Friesian cattle on large scale Kenyan farms. Journal of Animal Science 79 (7): 1742-1750, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: cows, bulls, Holstein Friesian, breed, milk production, genetic trends, fertility traits, average breeding values large, lactation length, calving interval, age at first calving. Large, medium, and small farms in Kenya.

Pelicioni, L.C., and S.A. de Queiroz (2001). Effect of cytoplasmic lineage on milk yield of Caracu cattle breed. [Efeito da linhagem citoplasmatica sobre a producao de leite em bovinos da raca Caracu.] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30 (1): 109-114.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: Caracu, breed cytoplasmic lineage, milk yield, genetic parameters, milk yield, maternal and cytoplasmic lineage effects.

Philipsson, J., G. Banos, and T. Arnason (1994). Present and future uses of selection index methodology in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 77(10): 3252-3261, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: breeding value, single traits, multiple-trait evaluation, covariance component estimation, nonlinear models, discounted gene flow, dynamic programming, international sire evaluations, computing power, integrated AI, recording schemes, functional nonproduction traits, mastitis resistance, fertility, review.

Plante, Y., J.P. Gibson, J. Nadesalingam, Y.H. Mehrabani, S. Lefebvre, G. Vandervoort, and G.B. Jansen (2001). Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting milk production traits on 10 chromosomes in Holstein cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1516-1524, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein, breed, sires, quantitative trait loci, milk, fat, protein yield.

Riquet, J., W. Coppieters, N. Cambisano, J.J. Arranz, et al. (1999). Fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci by identity by descent in outbred populations: application to milk production in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(16): 9252-9257, ISSN: 0027-8424.
NAL Call No.: 500 N21P
Keywords: Holstein-Friesian cows, sires, breeding, selection, genetics, quantitative trait locus (QTL), milk production, nucleotide polymorphisms, fine-mapping, marker-assisted segregation, milk fat haplotype.

Rocha, J.L., J.O. Sanders, D.M. Cherbonnier, T.J. Lawlor, and J.F. Taylor (1998). Blood groups and milk and type traits in dairy cattle: after forty years of research. Journal of Dairy Science 81(6): 1663-1680, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein breeding schemes, quantitative variation, trait loci, linear models, C blood group effect, rump angle, L effect on milk yield, composition traits, S effect on milk fat yield, biochemistry, physiology, quantitative genetics.

Roxstrom, A., E. Strandberg, B. Berglund, U. Emanuelson, and J. Philipsson (2001). Genetic and environmental correlations among female fertility traits and milk production in different parities of Swedish Red and White dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (1): 7-14, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: genetic correlations, fertility, production traits, number of inseminations per service, number of treatments for reproductive distrubances, interval between first and last inseminations, interval between calving and first insemination, interval between calving and last insemination, early milk production.

St Pierre, N.R. (2001). Invited review: integrating quantitative findings from multiple studies using mixed model methodology. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 741-755, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: relationships between environment and management, profit margins, improved mathematical and statistical tools, computer technology, accurate information, published studies, future research, quantitative models, studies as blocks, random effects, predictor variables, regression models, biased, variance estimates, statistical software, meta analyse.

Veerkamp, R.F., E.P.C. Koenen and G. De Jong(2001). Genetic correlations among body condition score, yield, and fertility in first‑parity cows estimated by random regression models. Journal of Dairy Science 84(10): 2327‑2335, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, body condition score, analytical method, fertility, genetic correlation, heritability, lactation, milk yield, parity, random regression model.

Weigel, K.A., T. Kriegl, and A.L. Pohlman (1999). Genetic analysis of dairy cattle production traits in a management intensive rotational grazing environment. Journal of Dairy Science 82(1): 191-195, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: low input dairy herd management, predictability of progeny performance, lactation data, heritability estimates, milk, fat, and protein content, progeny testing, US dairy producers.

Zwald, N.R., K.A. Weigel, W.F. Fikse, and R. Rekaya (2001). Characterization of dairy production systems in countries that participate in the International Bull Evaluation Service. Journal of Dairy Science 84(11): 2530‑2534, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein dairy cows, dairy production systems, genotype‑environment interactions, herd size, lactation, milk, dairy product, yield, management practices, climate differences Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, United States.


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Feeding

Alderman, G., J.S. Blake, J. France, and E. Kebreab (2001). A critique of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System with emphasis on dairy cattle. 2. The Post Rumen Digestion Model. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 10(2): 203-222.
NAL Call No.: SF1 J68
Keywords: Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS), post rumen digestion model nutrient absorption, small intestine, total digested nutrients, digested energy, metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation, crude protein.

Allen, M.S. (2000). Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1598-1624, ISSN: 0022-0302.
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, high producing cows, high forage diets, fermentation acids, dry matter intake, fiber content, diet formulation.

Alvarez, H.J, F.J. Santini, D.H. Rearte, and J.C. Elizalde (2001). Milk production and ruminal digestion in lactating dairy cows grazing temperate pastures and supplemented with dry cracked corn or high moisture corn. Animal Feed Science and Technology 91(3 4): 183-195, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: Holstein, breed, lactating cows, pasture grazed, dry cracked corn, high moisture corn, energy supplement, ruminal digestion, dry matter (DM) components, food intake, milk production and composition, and live weight change. (LWC), ruminal cannula, surgically fitted, ammonia N concentration, ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids.

Appleby, M.C., D.M. Weary, and B. Chua (2001). Performance and feeding behaviour of calves on ad libitum milk from artificial teats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science.74(3): 191‑201, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy calves, calf, feeding, unrestricted feeding, feeding behavior, bucket calf feeders, teats, sucking, drinking, milk, feeds, feed, intake, liveweight, gain, fattening performance, diarrhea, animal welfare, teat feeding, bucket feeding, calf starters.

Ballard, C.S., P. Mandebvu, C.J. Sniffen, S.M. Emanuele, and M.P. Carter (2001). Effect of feeding an energy supplement to dairy cows pre and postpartum on intake, milk yield, and incidence of ketosis. Animal Feed Science and Technology 93(1‑2): 55‑69, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, ketosis, metabolic disease, calcium propionate,propylene glycol, beet pulp, ground corn, sugarcane molasses, dietary supplements, lactation, milk yield, tie stall housing.

Barrett, P.D., A.S. Laidlaw, C.S. Mayne, and H. Christie (2001). Pattern of herbage intake rate and bite dimensions of rotationally grazed dairy cows as sward height declines. Grass and Forage Science 56 (4): 362‑373, ISSN: 0142‑5242.
NAL Call No.: 60.19 B773
Keywords: lactating, dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, condition, daily herbage intake, rotational grazing systems, intake behavior, bite mass, bite dimensions, herbage intake rate pattern, rotational grazing, sward height decline.

Bartussek, H. (1999). Grazing of dairy cows from the viewpoint of animal welfare. [Die Weidehaltung von Milchkuhen aus der Sicht des Tierschutzes.] In: Report of the 5th Alpine Expert Forum on the topic Contemporary Pasture Management, 18-19 March 1999, BAL Gumpenstein, Irdning, Austria. Weidewirtschaft,18 und 19. Marz 1999, an der BAL Gumpenstein.] Bundesanstalt fur Alpenlandische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein (BAL): Irdning, Austria, p. 7-14.
Keywords: cows, grazing, feeding behavior, movement, hygiene, resting/lying down, social behavior, pastures, cattle housing, animal welfare, health, German language, conference paper.

Basaric-Dinic, L. M. Erski-Biljie, D. Vukovic, and B. Radojicic (1996). Diet of dairy cows and stress. Veterinarski Glasnik 50(6): 363-369, ISSN: 0350-2457.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J93.
Keywords: nutrition, nutrient deficiencies, stress, cattle diseases.

Block, E. (1994). Manipulation of dietary cation-anion difference on nutritionally related production diseases, productivity, and metabolic responses of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77(5): 1437-1450, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: diet, production, metabolic diseases, blood plasma, acid base equilibrium.

Bluemmel, M., and P. Lebzien (2001). Predicting ruminal microbial efficiencies of dairy rations by in vitro techniques. Livestock Production Science 68(2 3): 107-117.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: microbial production (EMP), mixed diets roughage, concentrates, in vivo, ruminal infusions, in vitro, partitioning factor, purine base, NH4 concentrations, microbial N balances, estimation of in vitro degradability of mixed diets.

Boiko, I.A., I.A. Molchanov, E.N. Nzhoka, and L.P. Soshenko (2001). About efficiency of application of ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate during growing of milk calf. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya (2): 101-103, ISSN: 0131‑6397.
NAL Call No.: S13.S44
Keywords: milk calves, breed, Black and White, Holstein, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, adaptation, industrial technology, age, blood biochemical indices, food eating, exterior, Russian language.

Broderick, G.A., R.P. Walgenbach, and S. Maignan (2001). Production of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage at equal dry matter or crude protein contents in the diet. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (7): 1728-1737, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Replacing alfalfa with red clover improved feed and N efficiency and apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose in both trials. Net energy of lactation computed from animal performance data was 18% greater in red clover than alfalfa. Data on milk and blood urea and N efficiency suggested better N utilization on red clover.
Keywords: multiparous lactating Holstein cows, feeding value, red clover, alfalfa silages, dry matter intake, red clover, alfalfa plus red clover, milk yield, milk components, total protein, true protein were higher on red clover corn silage with added soybean meal.

Caicedo‑Caldas, A., V. Lemus‑Ramirez, C.W. Holmes, and N. Lopez‑Villalobos (2001). Feed intake capacity in Holstein‑Friesian cows which differed genetically for body weight. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 207‑209, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, lactating, pregnant, mathematical method, breeding worth, genetic index, breeding value, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake capacity, hay, animal feed, live weight, maintenance energy cost, pasture, productive capacity, New Zealand Dairy industry.

Camero, A., M. Ibrahim, and M. Kass (2001). Improving rumen fermentation and milk production with legume tree fodder in the tropics. Agroforestry Systems 51 (2): 157-166.
NAL Call No.: SD387 M8A3
Keywords: breed, Zebu X Creole, Jersey X Creole, leguminous fodder, high in protein, rumen fermentation, digestibility, low quality fibrous feeds, tree legume foliage, Erythrina poeppigiana, Gliricidia sepium, protein supplements, Hyparrhenia rufa hay, rice bran, molasses, fistulated steers.

Capuco, A.V., D.L. Wood, T.H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, R.A. Erdman, C.P. Van Tassell, A. Lefcourt, and L.S. Piperova (2001). Effect of somatotropin on thyroid hormones and cytokines in lactating dairy cows during ad libitum and restricted feed intake. Journal of Dairy Science 84(11): 2430‑2439, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords; IGF‑I, bovine somatotropin, fat, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, tumor necrosis factor‑alpha energy balance, feed intake, lactation, production, yield

Chapa, A.M., M.E. McCormick, J.M. Fernandez, D.D. French, J.D. Ward, and J.F. Beatty (2001). Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 908-916, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, breed, Holstein, grain crude protein, rumen undegradable protein, concentration, reproduction, energy status, grazing, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), oats (Avena sativa), blood meal, corn gluten meal, plasma urea nitrogen, plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta hydoxybutyrate, glucose, insulin concentration, energy deprivation, low fertility.

Chiy, P.C., and C.J.C. Phillips (1999). The rate of intake of sweet, salty and bitter concentrates by dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(4): 731-740, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: bitterness, concentrates, dairy cows, flavor compounds, salt, sweet tasting compounds, cattle feeding, feeding preferences.

Davis, S.R., I. Vetharaniam, M. Upsdell, E.S. Kolver, and A.B. Pleasants (2001). Modelling the impact of nutrition and genotype on lactation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 237‑238, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, mammary gland development, reproductive system, milk, reproductive system, secretion, udder, reproductive system, grazing, feeding method, modeling method, genotype, impact, lactation, nutritional status, nutrition impact, pasture, animal feed, New Zealand.

Delaby, L., J.L. Peyraud, and R. Delagarde (2001). Effect of the level of concentrate supplementation, herbage allowance and milk yield at turn out on the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation at grazing. Animal Science Pencaitland 73 (1): 171-181.
Keywords: mid lactation cows, Holstein, breed, performance, concentrate supplementation, contrasting grazing conditions, milk yield.

Dirksen, V.G., C. Haagert-Theen, M. Alexander-Katz, and A. Berger (1997). Monitoring of dairy cows for metabolic imbalances during high lactation by means of milk parameters I. Daily milk yield, fat and protein concentrations, fat-protein-qoutient and urea. [Stoffwechseluberwachung bei Kuhen in der Hochlaktation anhand von Milchparametern. I. Tagesmilchmenge, Fett- und Eiweisskonzentration, Fett-Eiweiss-Quotient, Harnstoffkonzentration.] Tierarztl Umschau 52(6): 319-324, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: herd monitoring, metabolic imbalances, high lactation, daily milk yield, milk composition, milk fat, milk protein, urea concentration, feeding, energy imbalance, nonprotein nitrogen, protein, fat, energy metabolism, reviews German language.

dos Santos, D.C., M.V.F. dos Santos, I. Farias, F.M. Dias, and M.D.A. Lira (2001). Productive performance of 5/8 Holstein/Zebu dairy cows fed different cactus forage cultivars (Opuntia and Nopalea). [Desempenho Produtivo De Vacas 5/8 Holando/Zebu Alimentadas Com Diferentes Cultivares De Palma Forrageira (Opuntia e Nopalea).] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30 (1): 12-17.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein X Zebu, cactus forage cultivars, productive performance, milk yield, fat yield, dry matter intake per milk yield, Portuguese language.

Drackley, J.K., A.D. Beaulieu, and J.P. Elliott (2001). Responses of milk fat composition to dietary fat or nonstructural carbohydrates in Holstein and Jersey cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1231-1237, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, breed, Jersey, Holstein, milk fat content, oleic acid, short and medium chain fatty acids, breed differences.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrill, F. Blecha, C.G. Chitko-McKown, N.V. Anderson, and J.J. Higgins (1994). Leukocyte functions of young dairy calves fed milk replacers supplemented with Vitamins A and E. Journal of Dairy Science 77(5): 1399-1407, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy calves, leukocyte function, milk replacers, vitamins.

Ferris, C.P., F.J. Gordon, and D.C. Patterson (2001). The effect of early‑spring grazing on the intake and performance of dairy cows managed on two contrasting systems of milk production during the winter. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 40 (2):177‑187, ISSN: 0791‑6833.
NAL Call No: S539.5 I74
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, feeding, grazing, spring, forage based systems, silage, winter milk production systems

Ford, J.A.Jr., and C.S. Park (2001). Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential. Journal of Dairy Science 84(7): 1669-1678, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy heifer, breed, Holstein, compensatory nutrition regimen, lasalocid supplementation, growth performance, lactation cycles, energy restriction, crude protein, puberty, breeding, gestation period, metabolic status, circulating insulin, triglyceride levels, milk yield, mammary development.

Friggens, N.C., B.L. Nielsen, I. Kyriazakis, B. Tolkamp, and G.C. Emmans (1998). Effects of feed composition and stage of lactation on the short-term feeding behavior of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 81(12): 3268-3277, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: complete feeds, concentrates, green feed, ryegrass, silage, lactation stage, feeding frequency, duration, feed intake, dry matter, lactation number, eating rates.

Fulkerson, W.J., and D.J. Donaghy (2001). Plant soluble carbohydrate reserves and senescence: key criteria for developing an effective grazing management system for ryegrass based pastures: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41 (2): 261-275, ISSN: 0816‑1089.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au792
Keywords: dairy cattle, grazing system, ryegrass (Lolium spp.), literature review, soluble carbohydrate reserves, ambient temperature, grazing interval, pasture nutrients, protein, water soluble carbohydrates, calcium, potassium, magnesium.

Godden, S.M., K.D. Lissemore, D.F. Kelton, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and J.H. Lumsden (2001). Relationships between milk urea concentrations and nutritional management, production, and economic variables in Ontario dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1128‑1139, ISSN: 0022‑0302.<
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy herds, urea, milk composition, milk, feed rations, feeds, economic analysis, herd improvement, nutrient intake, nutrient content, crude protein, rumen digestion, dietary carbohydrate, fodder, costs, income, milk fat yield, Ontario.

Grant, R.J., and J.L. Albright (2001). Effect of animal grouping on feeding behavior and intake of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E156‑E163, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, feeding behavior, restricted fed, butting, pushing rate of disturbance, Finnish language.

Grant, R.J. and J.L. Albright (1995). Feeding behavior and management factors during the transition period in dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science 73(9): 2791-2803, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: feeding behavior, management, intake, parturition, management factors, transition period.

Havrevoll, O. (1999). Feeding and housing of calves. [Foring og oppstalling af kalv.] Buskap 51(3): 12-14.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, feeding, animal welfare, stalls, meat animals, dairy cattle.

Hayirli, A., D.R. Bremmer, S.J. Bertics, M.T. Socha, and R.R. Grummer (2001). Effect of chromium supplementation on production and metabolic parameters in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1218-1230, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, supplemental chromium, chromium methionine (Cr Met), production, metabolic parameters, calving, lactation, average body weight, dry matter intake, body condition score loss, milk, fat, lactose yields, blood metabolites, liver triglyceride, serum insulin concentration.

Hedges, J., R.W. Blowey, A. J. Packington, C.J. O'Callaghan, and L.E. Green (2001). A longitudinal field trial of the effect of biotin on lameness in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9): 1969-1975, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: milking cows, heifers, commercial farms, biotin supplementation, incidence of visible lameness, locomotion assessment, sole ulcer, white line separation, digital dermatitis, interdigital necrobacillosis, United Kingdom.

Helin, J., A. Katainen, E. Manninen, M. Norring, K. Kaustell, and H. Saloniemi (2001). The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 1: Disturbance at the feeding station. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 1: Hairinta vakirehuautomaatilla.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (10): 562‑567, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing system, automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, feeding behavior, restricted fed, butting, pushing rate of disturbance, Finnish language.

Ibrahim, M., M. Franco, D.A. Pezo, A. Camero, and J.L. Araya (2001). Promoting intake of cratylia argentea as a dry season supplement for cattle grazing hyparrhenia rufa in the subhumid tropics. Agroforestry Systems 51 (2): 167-175.
NAL Call No.: SD387 M8A3
Keywords: crossbred dual purpose cattle, Cratylia argentea, drought tolerant shrub, nutritive value, protein supplement, Hyparrenhia rufa, dry season, Costa Rica.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 137-151, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, feeding, handling, approach behavior, group size, liveweight gain.

Jagtenberg, K. and J.V. Lent (1999). The use of a concentrate box does not compete with the milking robot. [Krachtvoerbox geen concurrent van de melkrobot.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 12(1): 2-4.
Keywords: dairy farms, dairy cattle feeding, milking machines, robots, machine milking, intake, animal welfare, concentrates, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Johansson, B., I. Redbo, K. Svennersten-Sjaunja (1999). Effect of feeding before, during and after milking on dairy cow behaviour and the hormone cortisol. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(4):597-604, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, Swedish Red-and-White, milking, feeding, timing, physical activity, rumination, eating, drinking, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, hormone secretion, animal welfare.

Karatzias, H., N. Roubies, Z. Polizopoulou, and A. Papasteriades (1995). [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle.] DTW: Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift 102(9): 352-353, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482.
Keywords: tongue rolling, total body manganese status, manganese deficiency, hair, diet content, inorganic Phosphorus, Greece, German language.

Johansson, B. (2000). Effect of Milking and Feeding Routines on Milk Production, Hormone Release and Behaviour in Dairy Cattle Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria: 1401-6249, 211.
NAL Call No: S419 A28 no. 211
Keywords: doctoral thesis, behaviour, calves, CCK, cortisol, dairy cows, feeding, gastrin, insulin, milking, oxytocin, prolactin, somatostatin, suckling, milk yield, prestimulation.

Jung, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effects of amount of milk, milk flow and access to a rubber teat on cross sucking and non nutritive sucking in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 201-213, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: Bos Taurus, dairy calves, effects of different amounts of milk, flow rate of milk, and access to a teat, non nutritive sucking, empty teat, cross sucking on other calves.

Kanjanapruthipong, J., N. Buatong, and S. Buaphan (2001). Effects of roughage neutral detergent fiber on dairy performance under tropical conditions. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (10): 1400-1404. NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: multiparous dairy cows, Holstein X indigenous, diet, increasing roughage neutral detergent fiber contents, effects on intake, milk yield, dry matter intake, crude protein, net energy, milk protein, average daily gain, tropical conditions.

Katila, T., A. Katainen, K. Kaustell, E. Manninen, M. Norring, and H. Saloniemi (2001).The use of an automatic concentrate feeding station in a loose housing system for dairy cattle. Part 2: The relationship between disturbance at the feeding station and the supply of concentrates and the milk production of dairy cow. [Vakirehuautomaatin kaytto lypsylehmilla pihattonavetassa. Osa 2: Vakirehuautomaatilla tapahtuvan hairinnan suhde lehman vakirehun saantiin ja maidontuotantoon.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 107 (12): 701‑705, ISSN: 0039‑5501.
Keywords: automatic feed dispensers, concentrates, cow housing, cows, dairy cows, feed intake, feeding behavior, loose housing, milk yield, stress, stress response, Finnish language.

Keady, T.W.J., and C.S. Mayne (2001). The effects of concentrate energy source on feed intake and rumen fermentation parameters of dairy cows offered a range of grass silages. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (3/4): 117‑129, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: dairy cows, grass silage, concentrates, energy sources, rumen fermentation, lactation, feed intake, animal husbandry, ammonium nitrogen, crop management, regrowth, silage additives, ph, dry matter, fiber content, crude protein, protein digestibility, acetic acid, propionic acid, milk fat percentage.

Keady, T.W., C.S. Mayne, D.A. Fitzpatrick, and M.A. McCoy (2001). Effect of concentrate feed level in late gestation on subsequent milk yield, milk composition, and fertility of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(6):1468‑79, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, concentrate feeding, grass silage late gestation, feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, fertility.

Khalili, H., A. Sairanen, K. Hissa, and P. Huhtanen (2001). Effects of type and treatment of grain and protein source on dairy cow performance. Animal Science Pencaitland. 72 (3): 573-584.
Keywords: cows, Finnish Holstein Friesian, breed, different types of energy or protein supplementation, grass silage, grain sources, barley, maize, physical processing, rapeseed meal, protein supplement, blood beta hydroxybutyrate, plasma urea concentrations, milk yield, milk protein, food intake.

Khorasani, G.R., and J.J. Kennelly (2001). Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation characteristics, milk yield, and milk composition in late lactation Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (7): 1707-1716, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, concentrate to forage ratio, rumen fermentation, rumen cannulas, total mixed ration, ad libitum, dry matter, rumen pH, milk fat concentration, negative effects, high grain diets.

Kim, T.H., K.W. An, and W. J. Jung (2001). Effects of daily herbage allowance on sward structure, herbage intake and milk production by dairy cows grazing a pure perennial ryegrass sward. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (10): 1383-1388.
NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: milk production, sward structure, strip grazing system, measurements of sward factors, herbage intake, herbage allowance, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

Knowlton, K.F., J.H. Herbein, M.A. Meister Weisbarth, and W.A. Wark (2001). Nitrogen and phosphorus partitioning in lactating Holstein cows fed different sources of dietary protein and phosphorus. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1210-1217, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, breed, Holstein, dietary nitrogen and phosphorus partitioning, soybean meal, blood meal, mono and di calcium phosphate, wheat bran, feces, urine, milk.

Kumagai, H., Y. Chaipan, and K. Mitani (2001). Effects of periparturient vitamin A supplementation on vitamin A concentrations in colostrum and milk from dairy cows, and plasma retinol concentrations, feed intake and growth of their calves. Animal Science Journal 72 (2): 126-133, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, breed, Holstein Friesian, periparturient vitamin A supplementation, vitamin A concentrations in colostrum and milk, plasma retinol concentrations, feed intake, calf growth, liveweight gain.

Kyne, S., M.J. Drennan, and P.J. Caffrey (2001). Influence of concentrate level during winter and date of turnout to pasture on the performance of cattle and the effect of grazing of silage ground on grass yield and quality. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 40 (1): 23- 32.
NAL Call No.: S539.5 I74
Keywords: steers, heifers, concentrates, ad libitum grass silage, grazing season, live weight gain, carcass weight.

Lean, I.J. (2001). Association between feeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cultivar grasslands impact) containing high concentrations of ergovaline, and health and productivity in a herd of lactating dairy cows. Australian Veterinary Journal 79 (4): 262-264.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: cows, breed, Holstein Friesian, perennial ryegrasses, fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii), production of alkaloids, including Lolitrem B and ergovaline, toxic effects in animals, decrease in milk production.

Lindström, T. (2000). Feeding Behaviour in Dairy Cows: Motivational Aspects Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria: 1401-6249, 250.
NAL Call No: S419 A28 no. 250.
Keywords: doctoral thesis, feeding, behaviour, feeding duration, rumen fill, stereotypies, feed-searching, operant conditioning, oral manipulation, oxytocin, cortisol concentrations.

Loberg, J., and L. Lidfors (2001). Effect of milkflow rate and presence of a floating nipple on abnormal sucking between dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 189-199, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, breed, Swedish Red and White, access to an artificial teat, open bucket, abnormal sucking, time drinking, treatments, bucket with fast flow, bucket with slow flow, floating nipple with fast flow and floating nipple with slow flow, behavioral observations,.

Logue, D.N. and J.E. Offer (2001). The effect of forage type on foot health in dairy heifers. Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 7-8, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Keywords: heifer, claw horn lesions, injury, diet; foot health, forage type, lameness.

Luepping, W. (2001). Monitoring of feeding situation and health with physiologically based parameters. [Fuetterungs‑ und Gesundheitsmonitoring mit physiologischen Parametern.] Zuechtungskunde 73(6): 460‑470, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
Keywords: dairy cow, Holstein, breed, bilirubin, calcium, glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, protein, selenium, urea, feed, fiber content, roughage content, starch content, health monitoring, lactation curve, milk, dairy product, milk production, net acid‑base excretion, German language.

Manninen, M., and H. Huhta (2001). Influence of pre partum and post partum plane of nutrition on the performance of crossbred suckler cows and their progeny. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland 10 (1): 3-18.
NAL Call No.: S3 A335
Keywords: cows, calves, Hereford Ayrshire, Limousine Ayrshire, breed, pre partum feeding, post partum, feeding, hay, straw, concentrate feeding, dry matter, barley, live weight gain, milk production, conception rate, plane of nutrition, Finland.

McCormick, M.E., J.D. Ward, D.D. Redfearn, D.D. French, D.C. Blouin, A.M. Chapa, and J. M. Fernandez (2001). Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 896-907.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, multiparous, primiparous, grain supplement evaluation, crude protein, rumen undegradable protein, rotational grazing, annual ryegrass oat pastures, soybean meal, corn gluten meal blood meal mixture, milk yield.

Mertens, D.R. (1997). Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80(7): 1463-1481, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: roughage value, neutral detergent fiber, chewing activity, fiber content, requirements, mastication, carbohydrates, rumen fermentation, milk fat percentage, hay, chop length, forage, silage, concentrates, feeds, in vitro digestibility, particle size, lactation stage, rumen contents, pH, literature reviews.

Morel, I. (2000). Use of cereals instead of milk substitute in the diet of veal calves. [Einsatz von Getreide anstelle von Milchersatzfutter beim Mastkalb.] Agrarforschung 7(1): 24-29, ISSN: 1022-663X.
NAL Call No.: S469 S9A37
Keywords: veal calves, diet, milk substitutes, animal welfare, barley, cereals, costs, diets, finishing, feed dispensers, feeding, hemoglobin, health, iron, maize, minerals, vitamins, production costs, Switzerland, German language.

Morel, I. (2000). Cereals instead of milk substitute in the diet of the veal calves. [Remplacement de l'aliment d'allaitement par des cereales chez le veau a l'engrais.] Revue Suisse d'Agriculture 32(1): 43-48, ISSN: 0375-1325.
Keywords: veal calves, feed intake, costs, milk substitutes, animal welfare, appetite, barley, cereals, diets, finishing, automatic feed dispensers, feeding, hemoglobin, health, intake, iron, maize, minerals, production costs, vitamins, French language.

Morisse, J.P., D. Huonnic, J.P. Cotte, and A. Martrenchar (2000). The effect of four fibrous feed supplementations on different welfare traits in veal calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 84 (1/2): 129-136.
NAL Call No.: SF95 A55
Keywords: veal calves, animal welfare, feed supplements, fiber, starch, feeds, rumen, health, performance, rumination, rumen mucosa, rumen fermentation, carcass weight, abomasum, rumen digestion, growth rate, lignin, crude protein, ash, peptic ulcers, bezoar.

Morisse, J.P., J.P. Cotte, and D. Huonnic, and A. Martrenchar (1999). Influence of dry feed supplements on different parameters of welfare in veal calves. Animal Welfare 8(1): 43-52, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: carcass weight, veal calves, rumen motility, behavior, animal welfare, dry feeds, wet feeding, liquid diets, rumen, rumination, hematology.

Morrow, C.J., E.S. Kolver, K.A. Macdonald, G.A. Verkerk, and L.R. Matthews (2001). Monitoring adrenal activity in dairy cows under various feeding regimens using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 52‑55, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein Friesian, breed, adrenal activity, plasma glucocorticoid concentrations, fecal glucocorticoid concentrations, feeding, pastoral conditions, concentrate based, genotype effects, stocking rates, stress.

Mulling, C.K., H.H. Bragulla, S. Reese, K.D. Budras, and W. Steinberg (1999). How structures in bovine hoof epidermis are influenced by nutritional factors. Zentralblatt Für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe C, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal Der Weltvereinigung Der Veterinäranatomen 28(2): 103-108, ISSN: 0340-2096.
NAL Call No.: SF761.Z4
Keywords: hoof epidermis, nutrition, horn quality, keratinization, cornification, bovine hoof epidermis, lipids, minerals, calcium, vitamins, biotin, dyskeratotic, light and transmission electron microscopy, histochemical and enzyme-histochemical techniques.

Nagel, S. (1996). Feeding management of high yielding cows: experiences from Canada and the USA. [Futterungsmanagement von Hochleistungskuhen: Erfahrungen aus Kanada und den USA.] Milchpraxis 34(2): 104-107, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: feeding management, high-yielding dairy cows, lactation, body condition, feed intake, ration formulation, grass and maize silages, maize gluten, brewers grains, soybean meal, molasses, crushed barley, shredded maize cobs, nutrients, intensive production, intensive husbandry, USA, Canada, German language.

National General (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy CattleSubcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition,Board on Agriculture, National Research Council, 7th rev. ed., NationalAcademy Press: Washington, D.C., 381 p. + 1 computer disc (4 3/4 in.)
NAL Call No: SF203 N883 2001
Keywords: nutritional requirements, feeding, feeds, forages, concentrates, feeding strategies, minerals, vitamins, metabolites, by-products, ration formulation, nutrient allowances.

Ndiweni, N. (2001). In vivo vitamin E/selenium supplementation improved leukocyte function in dairy cows. Inflammation Research 50 (Supplement 3): S192, ISSN: 1023‑3830.
NAL Call No.: RS122 A3
Keywords: immune System, selenium, in vivo supplementation, vitamin E, in vivo supplementation, inflammation, leukocyte.

Nour, A.A. (1996). Milk replacer as a sole feed for veal production from Holstein Friesian calves: 1. Effect of frequency of feeding milk replacer and age of animals on growth, feed utilization and quality of meat. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research 41(3): 11-21, ISSN: 0044-7250.
NAL Call No.: 24 AL2
Keywords: male Holstein Friesian calves, milk substitutes, digestibility coefficients, feeding frequency, body weight, dressing percentage, live weight gain, costs, feeding frequency, nitrogen balance, nitrogen, excretion, meat quality, age, feed conversion efficiency, carcass weight, Egypt.

Offer, J.E., D.N. Logue, and D.J. Roberts (1997). The effect of protein source on lameness and solear lesion formation in dairy cattle. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research. 65(2): 143-149, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: breed, Holstein-Friesian, protein sources, dietary protein, soybean oilmeal, complete feeds, lameness, laminitis, fish meal, blood meal, hooves, meat and bone meal, milk yield, body weight, liveweight gain, body condition, hardness, foot diseases, blood composition, metabolites.

Olofsson, J. (1999). Competition for total mixed diets fed for ad libitum intake using one or four cows per feeding station. Journal of Dairy Science 82(1): 69-79, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: When dairy cow faci1ities are being designed, a limited feeding area might be profitable and recommendable if the increased competition for feed does not harm the welfare of the animals or affect production negatively. An experiment was conducted at the University Cattle Research Centre (Uppsala, Sweden) to investigate the performance of individual cows as well as groups of cows. Treatments used 1 or 4 cows per feeding station with a total mixed diet fed for ad libitum intake. The feeding stations were troughs placed on electronic balances and were 1.08 m wide. Sixteen dairy cows were divided into two groups and were studied in an experiment with a change over design so that each group went through each treatment twice. A computerized feeding system automatically recorded consumption data for feed and water. Video recordings were used to study the social dominance order, the level of aggression at the feeding area, and the time budget of the cows. The mean feed intake increased slightly, but the number of visits to the feeding stations did not change at the higher level of competition. The cows, however, spent significantly less time eating and increased their consumption rate when the competition level increased. The number of displacements at the feeding stations increased dramatically. Cows of low social rank were much more frequently displaced while eating. The effects of dominance value, age, eating rate, and energy requirement of the cows are presented.
Keywords: dairy cows, feed troughs, complete feeds, feed intake, water intake, social dominance, eating rates, intraspecific competition, Swedish Red-and-White, feeding frequency, physical activity, age differences, energy requirements.

Olofsson, J., and H. Wiktorsson (2001). Competition for total mixed diets fed restrictively using one or four cows per feeding station. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(1): 59‑70, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: cows, housing, feeding stations, computerized feeding, feed intake, feeding behaviour, social dominance, aggression, video recordings, Sweden.

Oresnik, A. (2001). Current aspects and solutions in dairy cattle nutrition. Krmiva 43 (6): 323‑328, ISSN: 0023‑4850
NAL Call No.: 389.78 K89
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farms, milk production, milk yield, fertility, herd health, nutrition, high roughage diets, profits, rural development, environmental preservation, animal welfare, human health, Slovenia.

Orr, R.J., S.M. Rutter, P.D. Penning, and A.J. Rook(2001). Matching grass supply to grazing patterns for dairy cows. Grass and Forage Science 56 (4): 352‑361, ISSN: 0142‑5242.
NAL Call No.: 60.19 B773
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breeds, spring‑calving, daily grass allowance, strip‑grazing system, carbohydrate concentrations, ruminating time, perennial ryegrass.

Penno J.W., K.A. Macdonald, and C.W. Holmes (2001). Toward a predictive model of supplementary feeding response from grazing dairy cows. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 229‑233, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, grazing, feeding method, multiple regression analysis, mathematical method, pasture based supplementary feeding, predictive model, lactation, stage, maize, grain, milk production, value, milk solids.

Petit, H.V., R.J. Dewhurst, J.G. Proulx, M. Khalid, W. Haresign and H. Twagiramungu (2001). Milk production, milk composition, and reproductive function of dairy cows fed different fats. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (2): 263-271.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: cows, Holstein, gestating multiparous, Megalac(R), flaxseed meal (MEGA), whole flaxseed treated with formaldehyde (FLAX), milk production, milk composition, follicular development, gestation rate, and fatty acid (FA) composition of blood, increased fat mobilization, increased milk yield.

Phillips, C.J.C., and M.I. Rind (2001). The effects of frequency of feeding a total mixed ration on the production and behavior of dairy. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9): 1979‑1987, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, feeding, feeding behavior, standing, ruminating, feeding frequency, milk yield, nutrition

Porfir'ev, I.A. (2001). Metabolism disturbances in high productive milk cows during unsatisfactory conditions of feeding and keeping. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2:20-40.
NAL Call No.: S13.S44
Keywords: cows, high producing, Black and White, Kholmogorskaya, breeds, metabolic diseases, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, phosphorus calcium, vitamin A metabolisms, liver function, reproductive disorders.

Prescott, N.B., T.T. Mottram, and A.J.F. Webster. (1998). Effect of food type and location on the attendance to an automatic milking system by dairy cows and the effect of feeding during milking on their behaviour and milking characteristics. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 67(2): 183-193, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Keywords: automatic milking systems, behavior, feeding, concentrates, milking parlors, milking rate, milk flow, milk yield, milking interval.

Pulido, R.G., and J.D. Leaver (2001). Quantifying the influence of sward height, concentrate level and initial milk yield on the milk production and grazing behaviour of continuously stocked dairy cows. Grass and Forage Science 56 (1): 57-67, ISSN: 0142‑5242.
NAL Call No.: 60.19 B773
Keywords: cows, Holstein Friesian,breed, cows sward height, concentrate level, initial milk yield, milk production, grazing behaviour,dry matter intake, grazing time.

Redbo, I., M. Emanuelson, K. Lunberg, N. Oredsson (1996). Feeding level and oral stereotypies in dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 62(2): 199-206, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation stage, unrestricted feeding, Swedish Red-and-White, restricted feeding, abnormal behavior, rumination, eating, feed intake, physical activity, posture, animal welfare, complete feeds, plane of nutrition.

Rind, M.I. and C.J.C. Phillips (1999). The effects of group size on the ingestive and social behavior of grazing dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(4): 589-596, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Keywords: group size, effects, social behavior, ingestive behavior, rumination, biting rates, mastication, body condition.

Riond, J. L. (2001). Animal nutrition and acid‑base balance. European Journal of Nutrition 40(5): 245‑254, ISSN: 1436‑6207.
NAL Call No: QP141 A1E97
Keywords: acid base disorders, alkalosis, animal nutrition, bones, cows, dairy cattle, dairy cows, disease prevention, domestic animals, fractures, hypocalcaemia, mineral content, parturient paresis.

Roche, J.R., E.S. Kolver, M J. de Veth, and A. Napper (2001). Diet and genotype affect plasma calcium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations in the periparturient cow. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 168‑171, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, nutrient requirements, periparturient diseases, parturient hypocalcemia, parturient hypomagnesemia, calcium concentration, magnesium concentration, phosphorus concentration, pasture, pasture silage, diet, feeding method, total mixed ration diet, genotype, total mixed ration.

Rook, A.J. and C.A. Huckle (1997). Activity bout criteria for grazing dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2): 89-96, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, grazing, bout criteria, feeding, nutrition.

Rossi, F., P. Vecchia, and F. Masoero (2001). Estimate of methane production from rumen fermentation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60(1‑3): 89‑92, ISSN: 1385‑1314.
NAL Call No.: S631 F422
Keywords: dairy cows, CH4 emission, air pollution, concentrates, animal feeds, corn silage, diet, hay, milk production, rumen fermentation, in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production.

Ruiz, R., P.J. Van Soest, M.E. Van Amburgh, D.G. Fox, and J.B. Robertson (2001). Use of chromium mordanted neutral detergent residue as a predictor of fecal output to estimate intake in grazing high producing holstein cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 89 (3-4): 155-164, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, lactating, high producing, grazing, chromium mordanted neutral detergent residue, cobalt EDTA, predictors of dry matter intake, total mixed ration, housed in confinement.

Salewski, A. (1998). Calculation of feed rations and feeding management in the USA. [Berechnung von Futterrationen und Futterungsmanagement in den USA.] Milchpraxis 36(4): 168-171, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221.M5
Keywords: cattle feeding, dairy cows, feed rations, uptake, rumen, proteins, carbohydrates, nutritive value, planning, milk yield, lactation, dry period, health, animal welfare, somatotropin, body condition scores, German language.

Samuelsson, B., K. Uvnas-Moberg, R. Gorewit, and K. Svennersten-Sjaunja (1996). Profiles of the hormones somatostatin gastrin, CCK, prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol. I. In dairy cows that are milked and fed separately or milked and fed simultaneously. Livestock Production Science 46(1): 49-56, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: hormonal profiles, milking, feeding, feed deprivation.

Schwager, S.R., C. Stricker, D. Erdin, and N. Kunzi (2001). Quantification of changes in body weight and body condition scores during lactation by modeling individual energy balance and total net energy intake. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (2): 325-334.
Keywords: cows, Holstein Friesians, Jerseys, Holstein Jersey, breed, individual energy balances, total net energy intake, body condition score change, quality of roughage, body tissue change, milk production, maintenance.

Seimiya, Y.M., F. Kikuchi, N. Yamaguchi, K. Sugawara, and Y. Nakashima (2001). Effective control of periparturient diseases in dairy cows owing to preparturient feed management practices. Animal Science Journal 72(10): J587‑J593, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, heifer, Holstein, breed, periparturient disease, prevention and control, reproductive system disease, preparturient feed management practices, high energy feeds, gestation, Japanese language.

Silanikove, N., E. Maltz, A. Halevi, and D. Shinder (1997). Metabolism of water, sodium, potassium, and chlorine by high yielding dairy cows at the onset of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 80(5): 949-956, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, water, hot climates, heat stress, ions, metabolism, lactation, water intake, feed intake, environmental temperature, electrolytes, sodium, potassium, chloride, energy intake, respiration, animal welfare, health, kidneys, milk yield, Israel.

Skidmore, A.L., A. Brand, and C.J. Sniffen (1996). Monitoring milk production: defining preset targets and execution. In: Herd Health and Production Management in Dairy Practice A. Brand, J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and Y.H. Schukken (eds.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 223-262, ISBN: 9-07-413434-3.
NAL Call No.: SF239 B73 1996
Keywords: cows, milk quality, milk recording results, dairy farms, inspection, herd health program, cow housing, feed troughs, feed mixing, feed intake, feed formulation, nutrient requirements, feces composition, milk yield, feeding techniques.

Soriano F.D., C.E. Polan, C.N. Miller (2001). Supplementing pasture to lactating Holsteins fed a total mixed ration diet. Journal of Dairy Science 84(11): 2460‑2468, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein dairy cows, pasture, orchardgrass, white clover, Kentucky bluegrass, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, body condition score, body weight, income‑over‑feed cost, lactation, milk, dairy product, yield, pasture grazing, total mixed ration diet

Steinwidder, A., B.M. Ehm, E. Zeiler, L. Gruber, and F. Lettner (2001). Effect of day or night grazing on forage intake and grazing behaviour of dairy cows. [Einfluss von tag oder nachtweidehaltung auf futteraufnahme und fressverhalten von milchkuhen.] Zuechtungskunde 73 (3): 215-232, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
Keywords: cows, grazing conditions, feed intake, grazing behavior, during day and night, fresh forage, fed in the stable, energy concentration, total feed, protein intake, nutrient supply, climatic conditions.

Stockdale, C.R. (1999). Effect of length of the period of supplementation with concentrates on pasture intake and performance of grazing dairy cows. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39(7): 803-809, ISSN: 0816-1089.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au792
Keywords: pasture, intake, performance, supplementation, feed concentration, grazing, feed intake, feed duration, performance, milk yield, herbage seasonal variation, dry matter, body condition.

Tesfa, A.T., T. Kokkonen, M. Tuori, T. Saukko, L.A. Lindberg, R. Poso, H. Saloniemi, and O.L. Syrjala (2001). The effect of prepartum protein feeding on post partum lactation performance of Ayrshire heifers and cows. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences10 (1): 73-89.
NAL Call No.: SF1 J68
Keywords: cows, heifers, Ayrshire, breed, cows, multiparous cows, prepartum rapeseed meal supplement, oats, barley, grass silage, feed intake, body condition, body weight change, milk yield, milk composition.

Thammacharoen, S., S. Chanpongsang, and N. Chaiyabutr (2001). Effects of monensin administration on mammary function in late lactating crossbred Holstein cattle. Asian‑Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14(12): 1712‑1718, ISSN: 1011‑2367.
NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: Holstein crossbreds, cows, acetate, allantoin, propionate, sodium monensin, dietary supplement, slow release capsule, lactation, mammary function, milk yield

Thomas, T., D.M. Weary, and M.C. Appleby (2001). Newborn and 5‑week‑old calves vocalize in response to milk deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74(3): 165‑173, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, newborn animals, calf feeding, milk, deprivation, supplementary feeding, vocalization, individual characteristics, weaning, age differences, animal welfare.

Thomas, C., K.A. Leach, D.N. Logue, C. Ferris, and R.H. Phipps (1999). Management options to reduce load. Cattle Practice 7(1): 121-122, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: animal health, dairy cattle, cows, metabolism, animal welfare, reproductive performance, management, energy balance.

Tikofsky, J.N., M.E. Van Amburgh, and D.A. Ross (2001). Effect of varying carbohydrate and fat content of milk replacer on body composition of Holstein bull calves. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2260‑2267, ISSN: 0021‑8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: dairy bulls, calves, dietary carbohydrate, dietary fat, milk substitutes, body composition, nutrient intake, liveweight, lactose, crude protein, dietary protein, energy intake, protein intake, dry matter, liveweight gain, growth rate.

Tolkamp, B.J., D.P.N. Schweitzer, and I. Kyrizakis (2000). The biologically relevant unit for the analysis of short-term feeding behavior of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83(9): 2057-2068, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, feeding frequency, duration, feeds, protein content, feed intake, feeding habits, satiety, data analysis, meal patterns.

Tolkamp, B.J., I. Kyriazakis, J.D. Oldham, M. Lewis, R.J. Dewhurst, and J.R. Newbold (1998). Diet choice by dairy cows. 2. Selection for metabolizable protein or for ruminally degradable proteins? Journal of Dairy Science 81(10): 2670-2680, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dietary protein, feeding preferences, unrestricted feeding, lactation stage, feed intake, urea, milk yield, nutritive ratio.

Tolkamp, B.J. and I. Kyriazakis (1997). Measuring diet selection in dairy cows: effect of training on choice of dietary protein level. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 64(2): 197-207, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: food intake, food preferences, protein intake, dietary protein, nutritive ratio, complete feeds, grass silage, concentrates, milk yield, protein intake.

Toullec, R. and J.P. Lalles (1996). Digestion of substitution proteins by veal calves. [Digestion des proteines de substitution par le veau de boucherie.] Revue Suisse d'Agriculture 28(5): 272-275, ISSN: 0375-1325.
NAL Call No.: S5 R4
Keywords: milk substitutes, dried skim milk, protein sources, veal calves, calf feeding.

Uchida, K., C.S. Ballard, P. Mandebvu, C.J. Sniffen, and M.P. Carter (2001). Effect of variation in proportion of cornmeal and steam rolled corn in diets for dairy cows on behavior, digestion, and yield and composition of milk. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 453-461, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, lactating multiparous, Holstein, breed, free stall facility, animal performance, cornmeal, dry matter basis, total mixed ration, dry matter, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy(R) nutrition model, percentage and yield of fat, crude protein, true protein, lactose in milk, milk urea nitrogen.

Uegaki, R., S. Ando, M. Ishida, O. Takada, K. Shinokura, and Y. Kohchi (2001). Antioxidative activity of milk from cows fed herbs. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaish 75 (6): 669-671.
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, herb feeding, antioxidative activity in milk, hay, beef pulp, lemongrass, peppermint, basil, 6 Hydroxy 2,5,7,8 tetramethylchroman 2 carboxylic acid (HTCA).

Uetake, K., K. Yayou, and T. Okamoto (1998). Influence of feeding operation and social factors on cattle locomotion in free stall barns. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78(3): 421-424, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, feeding behavior, social behavior, motivation, social factors, locomotion, free stall, barns, housing, AG AB.

Vaarst, M., M.B. Jensen, and A.M. Sandager (2001). Behaviour of calves at introduction to nurse cows after the colostrum period. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(1): 27‑33, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, housing, single boxes, teat bucket, cow colostrum, behavior, abnormal behavior, social behavior, feeding, nurse cows, suckling.

van der Merwe, B.J., T.J. Dugmore, and K.P. Walsh (2001). The effect of monensin on milk production, milk urea nitrogen and body condition score of grazing dairy cows. South African Journal of Animal Science 31 (1): 49‑55, ISSN: 0375‑1589.
NAL Call No.: SF1 S6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, postpartum, monensin, pasture grazing, kikuyu pasture, maize‑based concentrates, body condition scores, reproductive efficiency, dietary supplement, urea nitrogen, milk concentration, milk composition, milk production.

van der Merwe, B.J., T.J. Dugmore, and K.P. Walsh (2001). The effect of monensin on milk production, milk urea nitrogen and body condition score of grazing dairy cows. South African Journal of Animal Science 31 (1): 49‑55, ISSN: 0375‑1589.
NAL Call No.: SF1 S6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, postpartum, monensin, pasture grazing, kikuyu pasture, maize‑based concentrates, body condition scores, reproductive efficiency, dietary supplement, urea nitrogen, milk concentration, milk composition, milk production.

Veissier, I., A.R. Ramirez, and P. Pradel (1998). Nonnutritive oral activities and stress responses of veal calves in relation to feeding and housing conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57(1-2): 35-49, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Abstract: This study assessed the extent to which eating solid foods and social contacts influence nibbling objects and improve the welfare of veal calves. Animals were fed milk replacer only vs. supplemented with solid foods and were housed in individual stalls vs. together in pens. Time budget, reactions to handling in a weighing machine, growth, health (length of medical treatments) and abomasal lesions were assessed. In addition, chronic activation of the hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenocortical axis was evaluated after ACTH and CRF challenges, and that of the sympathetic nervous system, through activities of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes. The provision of solid foods reduced time spent nibbling objects and being inactive in proportion to and at the time of the increase in time spent eating and chewing. The calves housed together in pens had higher basal cortisol levels and they reacted to weighing. Health and physiological indices of chronic stress did not vary with feeding or housing conditions. It is concluded that nibbling in veal calves derives at least in part from a lack of development of feeding behaviour appropriate to ruminants. There was no clear evidence of poorer welfare due to feeding on milk replacer only or individual housing, but calves reared in groups seemed more stressed by handling than calves reared in individual stalls.
Keywords: oral activities, food, chewing, feeding behavior, milk replacer, social contacts, individual housing, group housing, stalls, pens, time budget, handling, growth, health, medical, treatments, lesions, sympathetic nervous system, stress response, enzymes, basal, cortisol, chronic stress conditions, development.

Wadhwa, D., N.F.G. Beck, L.P. Borgida, M.S. Dhanoa, and R.J. Dewhurst (2001). Development of a simple in vitro assay for estimating net rumen acid load from diet ingredients. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1109-1117, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: in vitro technique, evaluate, production, neutralization, acids, fermenting feed, rumen, substrate preferences, microbial populations, calcium, legumes, sugar beet pulp, citrus pulp.

Weiss, W.P. (March 1998) Estimating the available energy content of feeds for dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 81(3): 830-839, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: available energy content of feeds, diet formulation, energy availability, net energy for lactation (NEL), total digestible nutrients (TDN) acid detergent fiber, mechanistic models, improved accuracy, review.

Wensing, T. (1998). Production diseases in farm animals: 10th international conference, Utrecht, Netherlands, 24-28 August, 1998, Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, 390p., ISBN: 9-07-413460-2.
NAL Call No.: SF854 I57 1998
Keywords: livestock, calves, piglets, weaning, veterinary education, trace elements, minerals, immune system, nutrition, animal health, reproduction, energy metabolism, animal husbandry, animal welfare, epidemiology, reproductive disorders, milk production, mammary glands, poultry, mastitis, mammary gland diseases, nutritional disorders, milk, dairy cows, farming, metabolic disorders, European Union countries.

Wesselink, R., K.J. Stafford, D.J. Mellor, S. Todd, and N.G. Gregory (1999). Colostrum intake by dairy calves. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 474: 31-34, ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Keywords: colostrum intake, imunoglobulin, behavior.

West, J.W., L.O. Ely, and S.A. Martin (1994). Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather. Journal of Dairy Science 77(1): 196-204, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, humid weather, feeding, diet, grain, feed intake, dry matter, milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, heat stress, environmental temperature, relative humidity, blood serum, rumen fluid, pH, respiration rate, body temperature, summer, Georgia.

Westwood, C.T., and L.J. Lean (2001). Nutrition and lameness in pasture‑fed dairy cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 128‑134, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: hoof, health, rumen, digestive system, diseases, chronic ruminal acidosis, digestive system disease, metabolic disease, lameness, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention and control, laminitis, bone disease, connective tissue disease, joint disease, endotoxins, histamine, lactic acid, nutrient detergent fiber, protein, degradation, serotonin, trace elements, inadequate uptake, nutrition, pH, fiber content, moisture content, New Zealand.

Whitaker, D.A., E.J. Smith, G.O. da Rosa, and J.M. Kelly (1993). Some effects of nutrition and management on the fertility of dairy cattle. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(3): 61-64, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: cows, energy status, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate level, plasma glucose level, interval between calving, onset of cyclicity, conception, silage-based diet, dry period.

Wu, Z., L.D. Satter, A.J. Blohowiak, R.H. Stauffacher and J.H. Wilson (2001). Milk production, estimated phosphorus excretion, and bone characteristics of dairy cows fed different amounts of phosphorus for two or three years. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (7): 1738-1748, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, multiparous, Holstein, breed, diet, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47% phosphorus, dry matter basis, bone analysis, bone strength, ash and Phosphorus content.

Wu, Z., V.R. Kanneganti, L.J. Massingill, M.C. Wiltbank, R.P. Walgenbach, and L.D. Satter (2001). Milk production of fall calving dairy cows during summer grazing of grass or grass clover pasture. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1166-1173, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, fall calving, milk production, summer grazing, grass pasture, clover mixed, bovine somatotropin, concentrate supplements, dry matter, average daily milk.

Zappavigna, P., P. Liberati, and U. Chiappini (1998). Feeding control system for dairy cows. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 71(4): 321-329, ISSN: 0021-8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Keywords: feeding, system, automatic control, feed rations, lactation, social behavior.

Zimmerly, C.A., and W.P. Weiss (2001). Effects of supplemental dietary biotin on performance of holstein cows during early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 498-506, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, blood samples, milk samples, dry matter intake, lactation, milk production, linear increase, biotin supplementation, milk fat, protein percentages.


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Table of Contents

General

Alban, L., A.K. Ersboll, T.W. Bennedsgaard, and P.F. Johnsen (2001). Validation of welfare assessment methods at herd level: an example. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 99‑102, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: dairy herds, animal welfare, validity, assessment methods, environment based method, animal based method.

Albright, J.L. (2000). Dairy cattle behaviour, facilities, handling and husbandry. In: Livestock Handling and Transport, 2nd ed. T. Grandin (ed.), CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, ISBN: 0-85-199409-1, p.127-150.
NAL Call No.: SF88.L58 2000
Keywords: handling, husbandry, behavior, housing, dairy cattle, social behavior, calves, bulls, transport of animals, animal welfare.

Albright, J.L. and C.W. Arave (1997). The Behaviour of Cattle. CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 306 p., ISBN: 0-85-199196-3.
NAL Call No.: SF202.5 A43 1997
Keywords: animal production, animal welfare, dairy cattle, beef cattle, maternal and calf behavior, behavioral responses to management systems, human-cattle interactions, training cattle, social behavior, reproductive behavior, feeding behavior.

Arave, C.W. and J.L. Albright (1998). Animal welfare issues: dairy. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 9(1/2): 3-10, ISSN: 1050-561X.
NAL Call No.: aHV4701.A952
Keywords: animal health, dairy farming, cows, reviews, animal welfare, transport of animals, exercise, tail docking, dehorning, disease, environmental issues.

Berentsen, P.B.M., G.W.J. Giesen, and M.M.F.H. Schneiders (1998). Conversion from conventional to biological dairy farming: Economic and environmental consequences at farm level dairy farming. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture: An International Journal 16(3): 311-328, ISSN: 0144-8765.
NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Abstract: Biological dairy farming is often advocated as a solution for environmental problems caused by Dutch dairy farming. At the same time, biological farming can improve animal welfare and increase income due to a higher milk price. In this paper the central issue is to quantify economic and environmental consequences for dairy farms when converting to biological dairy farming. A linear programming model is used to model an extensive and an intensive dairy farm typical for the Province of Utrecht, The Netherlands. The objective function of the model maximizes labour income of the farm. From the results it appears that the extensive farm benefits from conversion while the intensive farm loses income. The environmental consequences are quite diverse. The nitrogen surplus after conversion is much lower than before because nitrogen fixation by legumes is omitted from the calculation. On the other hand, ammonia emission is higher after conversion to biological farming due to a higher number of animals. On the extensive farm the phosphate surplus in the biological situation is much higher than in the conventional situation due to the fact that a shortage of nitrogen in the biological situation can only be made up by applying animal manure (slurry) from other farms with consequential overfertilization of phosphate. When environmental legislation is introduced, the biological farms appear to lose more income than the conventional farms. From the sensitivity analysis it appears that assumptions about milk yield per cow and milk price are crucial for the economic results of biological farms.
Keywords: dairy farming, organic farming, economic analysis, environmental impact, dairy farms, sustainability, animal welfare, milk, food prices, mathematical models, extensive husbandry, intensive husbandry, nitrogen fixation, nitrogen balance, ammonia, emission, phosphate, cattle slurry, milk yield, farm income.

Boettcher, P.J. (2001). 2020 Vision? The future of dairy cattle breeding from an academic perspective. Journal of Dairy Science 84 ( Elect. Supplement ): E62‑E68, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: breeding, dairy farming, dairy industry, dairy research, global marketing, genomics, technology, computers, forecasts, health, animal welfare, production costs.

Brade, W. (2001). Animal welfare aspects of dairy farming: definition, conditions, and criteria. [Tiergerechte Milchrinderhaltung: definition, Anforderungen und Kriterien]. Praktische Tierarzt 82(8): 588-594, ISSN: 0032‑681X.
NAL Call No: 41.8 P882
Keywords: age, animal behavior, feeding, housing, husbandry, nutrition, animal welfare, dairy farming, health hazards, stress, German language.

Burgat, F. and R. Dantzer, R. (2001). Does livestock has a right to welfare? [Les animaux d'elevage ont-ils droit au bien-etre?] Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique: Paris, France, 191p., ISBN: 2-7380-0965-4.
Keywords: large-scale livestock farming, animal welfare, philosophy, ethics, legislation, French language.

Chenoweth, P.J. (1998). Animal production and welfare issues: dairy cattle and veal calves. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 12: 902-903.
NAL Call No.: SF605.N672
Keywords: calves, animal welfare, cattle husbandry.

de Grassi, A.M. (2001). A look at bovine welfare: What's good, what's bad, and the lessons within. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1369‑1373, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: animal welfare, attitudes, farming American Farm Bureau Federation.

Farm Animal Welfare Council (1997). Report on The Welfare of Dairy Cattle. Farm Animal Welfare Council: Surbiton, UK, 96p.
Keywords: dairy industry, organic farming, animal welfare issues, stockmanship, training, housing and environment, lameness, machine milking, infectious diseases, mastitis, nutrition, fertility and reproduction, handling facilities, calf and heifer rearing, mutilations, new technology, somatotropin, unwanted progeny, extended lactation, United Kingdom.

Federation of Animal Science Societies (1999). Guidelines for Dairy Cattle Husbandry. In: Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, First Revised Edition, Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS): Savoy, Il., p. 37-47.
NAL Call No.: QL55.G8 1999
Keywords: facilities, environment, housing, bedding pasture, feed, water, social environment, tail-docking, foot care, handling, transportaion, euthanasia.

Francis, J., and S. Sibanda (2001). Case study of the viability of smallholder dairy farming in Nharira Lancashire, Zimbabwe. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (8): 1098-1105.
NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7
Keywords: smallholder dairy farming, Zimbabwe, considerable inter farm differences, economics, milk sales, cattle feed expenses, number of cows, size of land holdings.

Gregory, N.G. (1995). Welfare of dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 12th seminar for the Society of Dairy Cattle Veterinarians of the New Zealand Veterinary Association held at New Plymouth, New Zealand, June 27-30, 1995, p. 85-96.
Keywords: health, dairy farming, attitudes, veterinarians, animal welfare, New Zealand.

Gregory, N.G. (1995). Welfare of dairy cattle. Dairy Farming Annual 47: 130-139.
Keywords: cows, veterinarians, animal welfare, dairy farms, farm management, New Zealand.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, L. Beveridge, and L.R. Matthews (1995). The welfare of extensively managed dairy cattle: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42(3): 161-182, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farming, cattle husbandry, animal welfare, extensive livestock farming, literature reviews.

Ilgner, H. (1998). Operational organization and management of milk production in larger stocks as exemplified by the Gorlsdorf dairy farm. [Verfahrensgestaltung und Management der Milchproduktion in grosseren Bestanden am Beispiel des Milchgutes Gorlsdorf.] Zuchtungskunde 70(6): 414-421, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: milk production, farm management, dairy cattle, cows, dairy farms, dairy farming, production possibilities, milk, animal welfare, identification, health, prophylaxis, vaccination, Germany, German language.

Lindberg, R.A., and P.V. Phibbs (2001). Genetically modified organisms: basic technology, problems and promises. Bovine Practitioner 35 (1): 1-7, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: new biotechnologies, overview, genetic manipulation, food animals, introduction to biotechnology, genomics, bioinformatics, gene mapping, cloning, genetically modified organisms, transgenic animals, potential impact on the beef, dairy and veterinary industries, regulatory responsibilities, future challenges.

Ozawa, T., N. Lopez‑Villalobos, and H.T. Blair (2001). A comparison of dairy farming between New Zealand and Japan. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 203‑206, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, farm expense, rice, grain crop, milk solids, financial analysis, butter, dairy product, cash surplus ration, fixed expenses, gross assets, turnover ratio, hay, animal feed, high interest expenditure, milk, dairy product, production, non‑subsidized lone procurement, pasture grazing system, feeding method, silage, animal feed, skim milk powder, dairy product, variable cost, analytical method, Japan, New Zealand.

Rollin, B.E. (1996). The new ethic for animals and the dairy industry. Annual Meeting held on Feb. 18-21, 1996, Nashville, Tennessee, The Council: Arlington, VA, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: animal welfare, dairy cattle.

Rougoor, C. (1998). High production requires good animal welfare. [Hoge productie stelt eisen aan diermanagement.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 11(6): 22-24.
Keywords: dairy farms, cows, milk, costs, veterinary services, animal welfare, monitoring, dairy cattle, productivity, dairy farming, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Rushen, J. (2001). Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS 4(3): 223‑234.
NAL Call No.: HV4701 J68
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, lameness, bovine mastitis, intensive livestock farming, dairy farming, livestock numbers, selection criteria, farm structure, cow housing, floor type, literature reviews.

Schulte, R., B. Earley, and S.V.D. Wouw, and N. Culleton (1998). Animal welfare: development of methodology for its assessment. Farm and Food 8(3): 20-23, ISSN: 0046-3302.
NAL Call No.: TX341 F3
Keywords: dairy farming, animal welfare, case studies, evaluation, regulations, agricultural policy, dairy farms, organic farming, ethology, immunology, European Union Countries.

Seufert, H. (1997). Theoretical and practical experiences with milk production. [Art- und praxisgemasse Verfahren der Milcherzeugung.] Ergebnisse Landwirtschaftlicher Forschung an der Justus Liebig-Universitat 23: 29-55, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farming, milk production, animal welfare, costs, planning, Germany, German language.

Sundrum, A. (2001). Organic livestock farming: a critical review. Livestock Production Science 67 (3): 207‑215, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: livestock, animal welfare, livestock farming, organic farming, reviews, environmental impact, production methods, minimal standards, legislation standards, quality assurance.

Thomsen, J. (1999). Cow-comfort: just a word or an important factor [for increased milk yield]? [Kuh-Komfort: nur Schlagwort oder Erfolgsfaktor?] Milchpraxis 37(4): 183-186, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: milk yield, diary cows, animal welfare, dairy farming, German language.

Tosi, M.V., E. Canali, L. Gregoretti, V. Ferrante, C. Rusconi, M. Verga, and C. Carenzi (2001). A descriptive analysis of welfare indicators measured on Italian dairy farms: preliminary results. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 69‑72, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, dairy farms, farmer questionnaire, animal welfare, assessment tools, inter‑suckling in cows, human animal relationships, Italy.

Waterfield, W. (1999). The Provision and Developments in Management Advice to Dairy Farmers. Nuffield Farming Scholarships Trust (NFST): Uckfield, UK, 34 p., ISBN: 1-90-180186-1.
Keywords: extension, professional services, consultants, financial planning, farm planning, technology transfer, information services, diffusion of research, diffusion of information, farmers, dairy farms, farm management, consumer attitudes, animal welfare, comparisons between countries, United Kingdom, Japan, USA, Australia.

Webster, A.J.F. (2001). Welfare on the dairy farm: cows and their minders. Research in Veterinary Science 70 (Supplement A): 34, ISSN: 0034‑5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: animal care, animal welfare, improvement.

Webster, A.J.F. (1995). Welfare considerations in future selection and management strategies. BSAP Occasional Publication (19): 87-91, ISSN: 0263-967X.
NAL Call No.: SF5.B74
Keywords: dairy cows, genetic improvement, milk yield, cost benefit analysis, animal welfare, production costs, species differences, energy cost of activities, energy cost of production, beef cows, bovine mastitis, embryo transfer, lameness.

Whay, H.R., D.C.J. Main, L.E. Green, and A.J.F. Webster (2001). Identification of issues affecting the welfare of dairy cows through expert opinion. Research in Veterinary Science 70 (Supplement A): 34, ISSN: 0034‑5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: dystocia, reproductive system disease, mastitis, animal welfare issues, identification, body condition, calf disease, cleanliness, comfort, cubicle design, expert opinions, behavior, lameness, non‑specific disease, nutrition, production, skin lesions, social interaction, stockperson, animal interactions, dystocia, mastitis.

Wierenga, H.K. and H.J. Blokhuis (1997). Cattle welfare, science and policy. Presented at the XIX World Buiatrics Congress, Edinburgh, UK, July 8-12, 1996, Vol.32, No.31.2, p. 16-18.
Keywords: animal welfare, veal calves, beef cattle, dairy cows, health, behavior, housing, milk production, transport of animals.

Wilfried, B.V. (2001). Animal welfare aspects of dairy farming. [Tiergerechte Milchrinderhaltung.] Berichte ueber Landwirtschaft 79(4): 578‑596, ISSN: 0005‑9080.
Keywords: dairy cows, welfare issues, ethology, management specific indicators, housing, natural feedstuffs, stress avoidance, production stability, German language.

Wilson, J. (2001). Keeping a Cow NSW Agriculture: Orange, Australia, 5th.ed., 106p., ISBN: 0‑7313‑0552‑3.
Keywords: selection, behavior, breeding, reproduction, milking, milk handling, how a milking machine works, milk composition, quality, making dairy foods at home, feeding, calf rearing, health.


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Table of Contents

Health

Aeberhard, K., R.M. Bruckmaier, U. Kuepfer, and J.W. Blum (2001). Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high‑yielding dairy cows: Part 1. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A 48(2): 97‑110, ISSN: 0931‑184X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5
Keywords: dairy cows, high milk producing, feed intake, body conformation traits, body weight, body condition score, fertility, disease incidence, abortion, dyspepsia, hypocalcemia, incidence, lactation, live weight gain, mastitis, milk, milk composition, milk yield, ovarian cysts, type score, Switzerland.

Agger, J.F. and L. Alban L. (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 3. Health management and general routines in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 79-97, ISSN: 0044-605X.
Keywords: milk production, quotas, milk distribution, milk marketing, exports, cows, animal welfare, milk hygiene, somatotropin, tuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, United Kingdom.

Agricultural Committee, House of Commons (1996). Second Special Report: Reply by the Government to the First Report from the Agriculture Committee, Session 1995-96, The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime (HC 40). HMSO Publications Centre, London, UK, 16 p., ISBN: 0-10-551366-0.
Keywords: milk production, quotas, milk distribution, milk marketing, exports, cows, animal welfare, milk hygiene, somatotropin, tuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, United Kingdom.

Agriculture Committee, House of Commons (1996). The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime. Volume 1: Report, Proceedings of the Committee. HMSO Publications Centre: London, UK, 80 p., ISBN: 0-10-550276-6.
Keywords: milk production, milk marketing, quotas, farm income, dairy farms, milk processing, milk hygiene, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, animal welfare, somatotropin, tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 1. Disease management routines in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 49-63, ISSN: 0044-605X.
Keywords: Dutch Animal Health Service, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), problems with vaccine batch, contamination with bovine virusdiarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2, monoclonal antibodies, cine farm visits, laboratory results, disease symptoms, high morbidity, descreased feed intake and milk production, nasal discharge, fever, diarrhea, necropsy, erosions and ulcers of the mucosa of the digestive tract, degeneration of the liver, hyperaemia of the abomasum, swollen mesenterial lymph nodes, swollen spleen.

Alban, L. (1996). Assessing and managing welfare in a Danish dairy herd: problems and a proposal. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 262-266, ISBN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, animal welfare assessment, health, management, cattle diseases, foot diseases, clinical examinations, Denmark.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 2. Housing systems and grazing procedures in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 65-77, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, health, questionnaires, surveys, descriptive epidemiology, tie stall environments, lameness, feeding, pasture grazing, recommendations, partitions, cubicles, saw dust, resting area, housing systems.

Alonso‑Andicoberry, C., F.J. Garcia‑Pena, J. Pereira‑Bueno, E. Costas, and L.M. Ortega‑Mora (2001). Herd‑level risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle in Spain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (2): 109‑117, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: beef cattle, dairy cattle, disease, bacterial, leptospira, seroprevalence, risk factors, herds, grazing, animal husbandry, livestock numbers, serotypes, Spain.

Amstutz, H.E. (1996). International perspective on bovine medicine. Bovine Practitioner 30:1-4, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: veterinary medicine, animal welfare, production, cattle diseases.

Anderson, R.J., J.K. House, B.P. Smith, H. Kinde, R.L. Walker, S.B.J. Vande, and R.E. Breitmeyer (2001). Epidemiologic and biological characteristics of salmonellosis in three dairy herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 310-322, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: salmonellosis, bacterial disease, biological characteristics, epidemiologic characteristics, food safety, public veterinary medicine, livestock production, serologic profiles.

Andrews, A.H.(2000). The Health of Dairy Cattle. Blackwell Science:Oxford; Malden, MA., 359p., ISBN: 063204103X.
NAL Call No.: SF208 H43
Keywords: nutrition, calf health, fertility, lameness, milk production, disease, building design, husbandry, economics, recordkeeping.

Aubry, P., L.D. Warnick, C.L Guard, B.W. Hill, and M.F. Witt (2001). Health and performance of young dairy calves vaccinated with a modified‑live Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida vaccine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(12): 1739‑1742, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy calves, Holstein, breed, health, performance, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, vaccine, blood collection, antibody titers.

Baillargeon, P., G. Fecteau, J. Pare, P. Lamothe and R. Sauve (2001). Evaluation of the embryo transfer procedure proposed by the international embryo transfer society as a method of controlling vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (11): 1803-1806, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: embryo transfer, seronegative recipients, International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS), prevention, Neospora caninum, antibody titers, pregnancy, calf blood samples, tissue collection, stillborn calves, aborted fetuses, immunohistochemical (IHC) methods, pretransfer testing of embryo transfer recipients.

Ballard, C.S., P. Mandebvu, C.J. Sniffen, S.M. Emanuele, and M.P. Carter (2001). Effect of feeding an energy supplement to dairy cows pre and postpartum on intake, milk yield, and incidence of ketosis. Animal Feed Science and Technology 93(1‑2): 55‑69, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, ketosis, metabolic disease, calcium propionate,propylene glycol, beet pulp, ground corn, sugarcane molasses, dietary supplements, lactation, milk yield, tie stall housing.

Barkema, H.W., C.J.M Bartels, L. van Wuijckhuise, J.W. Hesselink, M. Holzhauer, M.F. Weber, P. Franken, P.A. Kock, C.J.M. Bruschke, and G.M. Zimmer (2001). Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhoea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovineherpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhoea virus type 2. [Uitbraak Van Bovine Virus Diarree Op Nederlandse Rundveebedrijven Na Vaccinatie Met Een Met BVDV Type 2 Gecontamineerd BHV1 Markervaccin.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 158-165.
NAL Call No.: SF601.N4
Keywords: Dutch Animal Health Service, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), problems with vaccine batch, contamination with bovine virusdiarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2, monoclonal antibodies, cine farm visits, laboratory results, disease symptoms, high morbidity, descreased feed intake and milk production, nasal discharge, fever, diarrhea, necropsy, erosions and ulcers of the mucosa of the digestive tract, degeneration of the liver, hyperaemia of the abomasum, swollen mesenterial lymph nodes, swollen spleen.

Barnett, J.L., G.J. Coleman, P.H. Hemsworth, E.A. Newman, S. Fewings-Hall, and C. Ziini (1999). Tail docking and beliefs about the practice in the Victorian dairy industry. Australian Veterinary Journal 77(11): 742-747, ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: docking, cows, dairy cows, husbandry, interviews, farmers, risk, leptospirosis, mastitis, bovine mastitis, milk quality, pain, milking, animal welfare, surveys, questionnaires.

Bartels, C.J.M., H.W. Barkema, M.L. Beiboer, J.A. Bouma, and A. Stegeman (2001). Management and herd performance of dairy herds with and without "chronic wasting" disease. [Bedrijfsvoering en kengetallen van tot slijterbedrijven verworden melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 198‑207, ISSN: 0040‑7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T43
Keywords: cattle diseases, farm management factors, questionnaire, epidemiology, predisposition, bovine herpesvirus 1, fertility, udder health, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Bauman, D.E. (1998). Bovine somatotropin and lactation: from basic science to commercial application. Third International Conference on Farm Animal Endocrinology: The Somatotropic Axis, December 7-10, 1998, Brussels, Belgium, Vol. 17, No.2/3, J. Buyse (ed.), p. 101-116.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, lactation, somatotropin, carbohydrates, farm income, growth factors, health, insulin-like growth factor, lipids, mammary glands, metabolism, milk, milk consumption, milk quality, milk synthesis, milk yield, minerals, nutrition physiology, milk prices, profitability, reviews.

Bebe, B.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, P.O. Ogore, J.O. Ondiek, and T. Fujihara (2001). A note on risk factors for calf mortality in large‑scale dairy farms in the tropics : a case study on Rift valley area of Kenya. Asian‑Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (6): 855‑857, ISSN: 1011‑2367.
NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Keywords: dairy calves, mortality, risk factors, dairy farms, tropics, risk assessment, sex differences, sex, calving season, pneumonia, dams, age, cattle housing, Kenya.

Bergsten, C. (2001). Effects of conformation and management system on hoof and leg diseases and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 17 (1): 1‑23, ISSN: 0749‑0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, conformation, disease prevention, environment, exercise, floors, hooves, lameness, legs, lesions, management, posture, risk factors, wear.

Berry, S.L. (2001). Milking the golden cow: Her comfort. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1382‑1386, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, calf, husbandry, behavior, philosophy, ethics, farmer, lameness, bone disease, muscle disease, animal housing, welfare, breeding, calving, comfort, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy.

Bertoni, G., L. Calamari, and E. Trevisi (1999). Evaluation of the welfare of dairy cattle. [Valutazione del benessere delle lattifere.] Informatore Agrario Supplemento 55(35): 5-66.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, husbandry, animal welfare, milk yield, reproduction, health, nutrition, housing, female fertility, intensive farming, Italy, Italian language.

Bertoni, G. (1999). Welfare, health and management of dairy cows. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari,(eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, p. 59-106, ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5.R432 1999
Keywords: dairy cows, health, animal welfare, management, reviews.

Bertoni, G. (1998). Alimentary prophylaxis of puerperal hypocalcemia (and of Downer cow) in the milking cow. [La profilassi alimentare dell'ipocalcemia puerperale (e della "downer cow") nella bovina da latte.] Congresso Nazionale, Piacenza, Italy, May 1998. Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria 30: 123-138.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, lactation, parturient paresis, parturition, hypocalcaemia, puerperal disorders, diet treatment, prevention, body condition scores, energy intake, diets, nutritional disorders, CA and P intakes Italian language.

Bijman, J. (1996). Recombinant bovine somatotropin in Europe and the USA. Biotechnology and Development Monitor 27: 2-5, ISSN: 0924-9877.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, dairy farms, milk yield, milk production, food safety, environmental impact, animal welfare, milk, quotas, socioeconomics, somatotropin, economics, economic impact, utilization.

Blanken, K., J. van Lent, and G. Smolders (2001). Claw health on steel grids is also good. [Klauwgezondheid op stalen roosters ook goed.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (2): 1‑3, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, health, animal welfare, steel floors, concrete grid floors concrete, feeding behavior, feet, floors, foot diseases.

Blowey, R.W. (1997). Current health challenges to dairy farming a practitioner's perspective. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 158: 32-39, ISSN: 0080-4134.
NAL Call No.: 10 R81
Keywords: cows, dairy farming, health, mastitis, lameness, fertility, respiratory diseases, cow housing, cow comfort.

Boelling, D. and G.E. Pollott (1997). The genetics of feet, legs and locomotion in cattle. Animal Breeding Abstracts 65(1): 1-11, ISSN: 0003-3499.
NAL Call No.: 241 IM72RA
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, longevity, legs, feet, dimensions, pasterns, foot angle, heritability, genetic correlation, genetic parameters, reviews, lameness, milk yield, locomotion, conformation, breeding programs.

Bonizzi, L., M. Amadori, M. Melegari, W. Ponti, A. Ceccarelli, and E. Bolzani. (1989). Characterization of some parameters of non-specific immunity in dairy cattle. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 36(5): 365-373.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: serum protein, immunoglobulin, complement, lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, blast transformation, peripheral blood lymphocytes, non-specific defense, field conditions, calves, colostrums uptake, animal welfare.

Bradley, A.J., and M.J. Green (2001). Adaptation of Escherichia coli to the bovine mammary gland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39(5): 1845 1849.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Keywords: clinical mastitis, Escherichia coli, DNA fingerprinting, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers, epidemiology, pathogen adaptation, host susceptibility.

Brand, A., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and Y.H. Schukken (1996). Herd Health and Production Management in Dairy Practice. Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, 566 p., ISBN: 9-07-413434-3.
Keywords: poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, animal welfare, disease, leg disorders, tibial dyschondroplasia, femoral head necrosis, broiler chickens, mastitis, dairy cow,.sheep scab, parasitic disease.

Broom, D.M., and M.J. Corke (2001). Effects of disease on farm animal welfare. Acta Veterinaria Brno 71 (1): 133‑136, ISSN: 0001‑7213.
NAL Call No.: SF604.B7
Keywords: poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, animal welfare, disease, leg disorders, tibial dyschondroplasia, femoral head necrosis, broiler chickens, mastitis, dairy cow,.sheep scab, parasitic disease.

Butler, J.A., C.C. Pinnow, J.U. Thomson, S. Levisohn, and R.F. Rosenbusch (2001). Use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction to investigate Mycoplasma bovis outbreaks. Veterinary Microbiology 78 (2): 175‑181, ISSN: 0378‑1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Keywords: mycoplasma bovis, outbreaks, polymerase chain reaction, diagnosis, incidence, case studies, beef herds, dairy cattle, infections, epidemiology.

Cambier, C., T. Clerbaux, B. Moreaux, B. Detry, D. Beerens, A. Frans, and P. Gustin. (2001). Blood oxygen binding in calves with naturally occurring diarrhea. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (5): 799-804, ISSN: 0002‑9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: calves, dairy, double muscled, blood oxygen binding, diarrhea, severity, ability of affected calves to stand, hydration, depression, arterial blood sampling, 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, ATP, chloride, inorganic phosphate, lactate, pyruvate, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin concentrations, oxygen equilibrium curves, hypocapnia, hypothermia.

Capdeville, J., and I. Veissier (2001). A method of assessing welfare in loose housed dairy cows at farm level, focusing on animal observations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 62‑68, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, environmental conditions, animal welfare, needs assessment, five freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress, scoring system.

Cattell, M.B., R.P. Dinsmore, A.P. Belschner, J. Carmen, and G. Goodell (2001). Environmental gram positive mastitis treatment: In vitro sensitivity and bacteriologic cure. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2036‑2043, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Streptococcus sp. (Gram‑Positive Cocci),pathogen, dairy cattle, host, bacterial disease, mastitis, treatment, clinical trial, pirlimycin hydrochloride, antibacterial drug, intramammary administration, resistant isolates, lactation.

Cavirani, S., C.S. Cabassi, G. Donofrio, B. De Iaco, S. Taddei, and C.F. Flammini (2001). Association between Chlamydia psittaci seropositivity and abortion in Italian dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 50 (1-2): 145-151, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: seroprevalence, Chlamydia psittaci, Italian dairy herds, genital disorders, aborted cow population, Northern Italy.

Chaplin, S.J., H.E. Ternent, J.E. Offer, D.N. Logue, and C.H. Knight (2000). A comparison of hoof lesions and behaviour in pregnant and early lactation heifers at housing. Veterinary Journal 159(2): 147-153.ISSN: 0042-4900.
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, preventive hoof trimming, dry period, foot health Portuguese language.

Clarkson, M.J., D.Y. Downham, W.B. Faull, J.W. Hughes, FJ Manson, J.B. Merritt, R.D. Murray, W.B. Russell, J.E. Sutherst, and W.R. Ward (1996). Incidence and prevalence of lameness in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 138(23): 563-567, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: lameness, health, milking, dairy farms.

Collier, R.J., J.C. Byatt, S.C. Denham, P.J. Eppard, A.C. Fabellar, R.L. Hintz, M.F. McGrath, C.L. McLaughlin, J.K. Shearer, and J.J. Veenhuizen (2001). Effects of sustained release bovine somatotropin (Sometribove) on animal health in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1098‑1108, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The health of dairy cows given bovine somatotropin (bST) for one lactation was evaluated in 28 commercial herds located in four regions of the United States. At least six herds were in a region and at least one herd/regioncontained fewer than 60 cows. Cows (n = 1213) were assigned randomly to control or bST groups and were treated beginning in wk 9 to 10 of lactation and every 14 d until dry‑off or d 400 of lactation. Management was according to site practices. Cows were observed for health‑related signs by farm personnel daily and by the herd veterinarian biweekly. Average 305‑d test‑day milk yields were 932 kg greater for bST‑treated cows. Pregnancy rates, days open, twinning, cystic ovaries, or abortions were unaffected by treatments. Supplementation of cows with bST had no effect on total mastitis cases, total days of mastitis, duration of mastitis, or the odds ratio of a cow to develop mastitis. Cows supplemented with bST used more medications for health events other than mastitis. This usage was associated primarily with treatments for disorders of the foot and hock. Supplemented cows had a slight increase in foot disorders. There was no effect of supplementation with bST on culling from the herd or removal from study. Overall, the results confirm that label directions for bST are adequate for safe use under field conditions. All clinical signs observed in this study occur normally in dairy herds and were managed in cows supplemented with bST.
Keywords: dairy herds, dairy cows, health, lactation, geographical variation, milk yield, pregnancy rate, open days, litter size, ovarian diseases, abortion, mastitis, duration, foot diseases, hocks, diseases, culling, cystic ovarian diseases.

Conedera, G., P.A. Chapman, S. Marangon, E. Tisato, P. Dalvit, and A. Zuin (2001). A field survey of Escherichia coli O157 ecology on a cattle farm in Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology 66(1-2): 85-93.
NAL Call No.: QR115 I57
Keywords: heifers, field survey, control measures, rectal swabs, isolation, Escherichia coli O157, Northern Italy.

Cooray, R. (1994). Use of bovine myeloperoxidase as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 42(4): 317-326.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V44.
Keywords: bovine myeloperoxidase (MPO), heme protein, diagnosis of udder infections, mastitic milk content.

Cox, V.S. and R.J. Farmsworth (1998). Prevention and treatment of down cows: a continuum. Proceedings of the AnnualConferenceof American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 167-169.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, disease prevention, treatment.

Cox, V.S. and J.S. Onapito (1998). The many causes of down cows. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 164-166.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, etiology.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Cruz, C., D. Driemeier, C. Cerva, and L.G. Corbellini (2001). Bovine digital dermatitis in southern Brazil. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association148(18): 576‑577, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, Holstein, breed, animal welfare, lameness, case reports, clinical aspects, dermatitis, digits, disease prevalence, prevention, correct trimming, adequate nutrition, hygiene, epidemiology, foot diseases, histopathology, lesions, medical treatment, oxytetracycline, Brazil.

de Mol, R.M., and W. Ouweltjes (2001). Detection model for mastitis in cows milked in an automatic milking system. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (1-2): 71-82, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, automated detection of disease, mastitis, automatic milking system (AMS), milk yield, electrical conductivity of milk, parameter values, residual variances, linear regression after each milking, mastitis alerts.

de Oliveira, N.J.B., M.A. de Alencar Araripe, N.J.N. Miranda, and G.M. Maria (2001). Heat stress indexes and the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in crossbred dairy cows (Bos indicus X Bos taurus) raised in a semi‑arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. [Indicadores de estresse termico e utilizacao da Somatotropina Bovina (bST) em vacas leiteiras mesticas (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) no semi arido do nordeste.] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30 (2): 360-367.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: crossbred dairy cows (Bos indicus X Bos taurus), semi arid zone, bovine somatotropin (bST), diet, elephant grass and concentrate, milk production, temperature, humidity index, heat stress, Brazil.

de Kruif, A. (2001). Did vaccination with an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) marker vaccine on thirteen cattle farms give rise to "chronic wasting" among dairy cattle? [Dertien rundveebedrijven waar koeien ziek zouden zijn geworden na vaccinatie tegen Infectieuze Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR).] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 166-173.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: cows, Dutch Animal Health Service, chronic wasting, illness after vaccination with all IBR marker vaccine, lameness, mastitis, diarrhea, stillbirth, subfertility, abomasal displacement, decreasing body condition, high milk production, longer periods of housing indoors, insufficient quality of stable and cubicles, high work load, insufficient management.

DesCoteaux, L., M. Doucet, and V. Caldwell (2001). Evaluation of the impact of parasite control with the IVOMEC(R) SR bolus given at breeding age on first lactation yield in holstein heifers. Veterinary Parasitology 98 (4): 309-314.
NAL Call No.: SF810 V4
Keywords: Holstein heifers, field trial, treatment, sustained release ivermectin bolus, first lactation, milk production, milk composition, percent fat, protein, fecal samples, nematode egg excretion, average daily gain, total weight gain, IVOMEC(R) SR bolus.

Dias, R.O.S., and A. de P. Marques Junior (2001). Preventive hoof trimming in dairy cattle during the dry period on the control of foot problems. [Casqueamento preventivo de vacas leiteiras em periodo seco, no controle de afeccoes podais.] Veterinaria Noticias 7(1): 33‑38, ISSN: 0104‑3463.
NAL Call No.: SF604.V484
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, preventive hoof trimming, dry period, foot health Portuguese language.

Dijkstra, T., H. Barkema, J. Hesselink, and W. Wouda (2002). Point source exposure of cattle to Neospora caninum consistent with periods of common housing and feeding and related to the introduction of a dog. Veterinary Parasitology 105(2): 89‑98, ISSN: 0304‑4017.
NAL Call No.: SF810.V4
Keywords: dairy herds, post‑natal transmission, Neospora caninum, point source exposure, common housing, feeding, abortion, vertical transmission of neosporosis.

Dirksen, G. (1996). Faults of housing and management as a cause of claw and leg disease in cattle: I. Faulty rebuilding of a stanchion-barn into a loose housing with cubicles and slatted floor. [Stallbau- und Haltungsfehler als Ursache von Klauen- und Gliedmassenerkrankungen in Rinderbestanden.] Praktische Tierarzt 77(10): 924-932, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882.
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicles, slatted floors, improper installation, design defects, feet, hooves, animal welfare, foot diseases, diseases, cattle diseases, Germany, German language.

Distl, O. (2001). Implications of health traits in breeding of dairy cattle. [Die Bedeutung Von Gesundheitsmerkmalen in Der Zucht Von Milchrindern.] Archiv Fuer Tierzucht 44 (4): 365-380.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: German cattle breeds. genetic improvement, health and fertility traits, datasets from Bavaria, Israel and Sweden, heritabilities for disease resistance, genetic variance.

Douglas, V.L., S.G. Fenwick, D.U. Pfeiffer, N.B. Williamson, and C.W. Holmes (2000). Genomic typing of Streptococcus uberis isolates from cases of mastitis, in New Zealand dairy cows, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Microbiology 75(1): 27-41.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Keywords: dairy cattle mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, genetic dissimilarity between isolates, banding patterns, New Zealand farms.

Drillich, M., O. Beetz, A. Pfuetzner, M. Sabin, H.J. Sabin, P. Kutzer, H. Nattermann, and W. Heuwieser (2001). Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2010‑2017, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: bacterial infection, bacterial disease, toxic puereral mastitis, treatment, systemic, ampicillin, ceftiofur, antibacterial drugs, intramuscular administration, economics, financial analysis.

Dubreuil, P., J. Daigneault, Y. Couture, P. Guay, and D. Landry (2001). Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 65 (3): 173-180.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C24
Keywords: cows, breed, crossbred Holstein, housed in tie stalls, procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300 000 IU/mL), intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, once daily for 5 consecutive days.

Egan, J., N. Leonard, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 1: Data on housing, calving and calf husbandry. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(8): 388‑392, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: farmer questionnaire, calving assistance, housing, cubicles, nutrition, animal welfare.

Ehinger, A.M. and M. Kietzmann (1998). Pharmacokinetic aspects of mastitis therapy. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 111(9): 337-343, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45 Keywords: mastitis treatment, antibiotics, inflammatin, weak acids, weak bases, benzylpenicillin potassium, in vitro, model, isolated perfused bovine udder, German language.

Eicher, S.D., J.L Morrow Tesch, J.L. Albright, and R.E. Williams (2001). Tail docking alters fly numbers, fly avoidance behaviors, and cleanliness, but not physiological measures. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1822-1828, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: tail docking, animal well being issue, fly season, comparison, docked versus nondocked cows, stage of lactation, physiological, immunological, behavioral measures, cows housed in a tie stall barn, blood samples, plasma and leukocyte separation, cleanliness scoring, fly avoidance behaviors, foot stomping.

El Eragi, A.M.S., M.M., Mukhtar, and S.H. Babiker (2001). Specific antibodies of Pasteurella multocida in newborn calves of vaccinated dams. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33 (4): 275-283.
NAL Call No.: SF601 T7
Keywords: newborn calves, breed, Holstein Friesian, dams vaccinated against haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), transferred antibody levels, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, IgG response, age of calf.

Emanuelson, U. and P.A. Oltenacu (1998). Incidences and effects of diseases on the performance of Swedish dairy herds stratified by production. Journal of Dairy Science 81(9): 2376-2382, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, risk factors, herd production, estrus detection, efficiency, health.

Enevoldsen, C. and Y.T. Grohn (1996). A methodology for assessment of the health-production complex in dairy herds to promote welfare. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science (Suppl. 27): 86-90, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: epidemiology, health, economics, herd health management, qualitative research, simulation, systems analysis, methodology, assessment, animal welfare.

Enting, H., D. Kooij, A.A. Dijkhuizen, R.B.M. Huirne, and E.N. Noordhuizen-Stassen (1997). Economic losses due to clinical lameness in dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 49(3): 259-267, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, economic losses, milking.

EU Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (1999). BST [bovine somatotropin] in the EU: welfare aspects. Irish Veterinary Journal 52(5): 268-269, ISSN: 0368-0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, mastitis, lesions, immune response, lameness, somatotropin.

Farr, V.C., K. Stelwagen, L.R. Cate, A.J Molenaar, T.B McFadden, and S.R. Davis (April 1996). An improved method for the routine biopsy of bovine mammary tissue. Journal of Dairy Science 79(4): 543-549, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Eight primiparous cows in midlactation were used to determine a method for the mammary biopsy of standing cows in full lactation. Cows were mildly sedated; therefore, preoperative feed withdrawal was not necessary. A core of secretory tissue (0.75 to 1 g) was extracted using a rotating stainless steel cannula with a retractable blade at the cutting edge. Postoperative recovery was rapid, taking only 15 min per cow, and the method was reliable and efficient. The presence of secretory tissue was verified by histology and in situ hybridization with alpha s1-casein and alpha-lactalbumin probes. The capsular end of the core contained more connective tissue, and the parenchyma showed heterogeneous expression of alpha s1-casein and alpha-lactalbumin. Despite some postoperative bleeding, milk yield and composition in the biopsied gland were affected only transiently. Yield recovered by 3.5 d after biopsy, and composition recovered by 6.5 d after biopsy. Yield and composition of milk from the control glands were not affected by the procedure. Biopsy sites healed rapidly and without infection. No clinical mastitis was observed in any of the biopsied cows throughout the remainder of the lactation.
Keywords: dairy cows, biopsy, mammary tissue, lactation, preoperative care, surgical instruments, cannulae, histology, milk composition, milk yield, healing, messenger RNA, AlphaS1-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, animal welfare.

Fayed, R.H. (1997). Effect of housing systems on behaviour and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 45(1): 101-110, ISSN: 1110-1423.
Keywords: housing systems, floors, behavior, health, Egypt.

Fernandes, C.A.C., D.S. Costa, and J.H.M. Viana (2001). Impact of the retained placenta on the reproductive performance in cattle. [Impacto da retencao de placenta sobre a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras.] Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 25 (1): 26-30.
NAL Call No.: QP251 R48
Keywords: cows, dairy farms, incidence of retained placenta, effect on the reproductive performance, incidence of uterine infection, interval from parturition to first estrus, number of services/conception, body condition.

Fetrow, J.P. (2001). Food animal welfare and the use of bovine somatotropin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (12): 1886‑1889, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, somatotropin, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, milk production.

Fleischer, P., M. Metzner, M. Beyerbach, M. Hoedemaker, and W. Klee (2001). The relationship between milk yield and the incidence of some diseases in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2025‑2035, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: breed, Holstein‑Friesian, logistic regression analysis, analytical method, milk yield, disease resistance, retained placenta, mastitis, milk fever, ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cysts, claw diseases, milk yield correlation, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Forshell, K.P., T. Fjeldaas, K.M. Hjorungdal, and A.L. Kleppa (2001). Claw disorders in a Norwegian dairy herd: A case study. [Klauvproblemer i en norsk storfebesetning: En kasusbeskrivelse.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(12): 775‑778, ISSN: 0332‑5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: cows, heifers, Norwegian dairy herd, case study, claw disorder, diagnosis, etiology, integumentary system disease, pathology, bacterial disease, prevention and control, therapy, corns, digital dermatitis, sole hemorrhage, oxytetracycline, antibacterial drug, antiinfective drug, wood tar copper sulfate, bactericide, disinfectant, fungicide, body scoring system, evaluation method, claw trimming, therapeutic method, Norway, Norwegian language.

Forshell, K.P. (1999). Hoof diseases: a hidden problem. [Klauvsjukdommer: et skjult problem!] Buskap 51(3): 20-21.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: foot diseases, health, productivity, hooves, floors, animal welfare, dairy cattle, cows, Norwegian language, Sweden, Norway.

Forshell, K.P., T. Fjeldaas, K.M. Hjorungdal, and A.L. Kleppa (2001). Claw disorders in a Norwegian dairy herd: A case study. [Klauvproblemer i en norsk storfebesetning: En kasusbeskrivelse.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(12): 775‑778, ISSN: 0332‑5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: cows, heifers, Norwegian dairy herd, case study, claw disorder, diagnosis, etiology, integumentary system disease, pathology, bacterial disease, prevention and control, therapy, corns, digital dermatitis, sole hemorrhage, oxytetracycline, antibacterial drug, antiinfective drug, wood tar copper sulfate, bactericide, disinfectant, fungicide, body scoring system, evaluation method, claw trimming, therapeutic method, Norway, Norwegian language.

Fossing, C., M. Vaarst, C.M. Christensen, S.M. Thamsborg, E.M. Vestergaard, C.L. Ingvartsen, T.W. Bennedsgaard (2001). Improving welfare in organic dairy cattle. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., p.151, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal welfare, coccidiosis, parasites, dairy cattle, homeopathy, organic farming.

Fourichon, C., H. Seegers, F. Beaudeau, L. Verfaille, and N. Bareille (2001). Health‑control costs in dairy farming systems in western France. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 141‑156, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: dairy farming, farming systems, costs, economic analysis, hygiene, infectious diseases, disease control, dairy herds, parasites, pest control, heifers, calves, digestive disorders, metabolic disorders, reproductive disorders, movement disorders, dairy farms, intensive husbandry, France.

Fourichon, C., F. Beaudeau, N. Bareille, and H. Seegers (2001). Incidence of health disorders in dairy farming systems in western France. Livestock Production Science 68 (2-3): 157-170.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: incidence of health disorders, dairy farms, France, clinical mastitis, locomotor disorders, digestive disorders, reproductive disorders, retained placenta, dystocia, milk fever, chronic metritis, somatic cell counts, size of the dairy unit, dairy specialization, breed differences in disorders.

Galindo, F., D.M. Broom, P.G.G. Jackson. (2000). A note on possible link between behaviour and the occurance of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 335-341, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, susceptibility, social dominance.

Galindo, F. and D.M. Broom (2000). The relationships between social behaviour of dairy cows and the occurrence of lameness in three herds. Research in Veterinary Science 69(1): 75-79, ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: lameness, social behavior, housing, lesions, hooves, social dominance.

Galland, J.C., H.F. Troutt, R.L. Brewer, B.I. Osburn, R.K. Braun, P. Sears, J.A., Schmitz, A.B Childers, E. Richey, and K. Murthy (2001). Diversity of Salmonella serotypes in cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (9): 1216‑1220.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: salmonella, serotypes, culling, slaughter, digesta, cecum, colon, geographical variation, seasonal variation, incidence, comparisons, USA.

Galligan, D.T. (1999). The economics of optimal health and productivity in the commercial dairy. Revue Scientifique et Technique: Office International des Epizooties 18(2): 512-519, ISSN: 0253-1933.
NAL Call No.: SF781 R4
Keywords: dairy farms, disease control, efficiency, optimization, case studies, economic analysis, health, bovine somatotropin, feed composition, computerized data, costs, productivity, new technology, postpartum diseases, USA.

Ghamsari, S.M., J.A. Acorda, K. Taguchi, N. Abe, and H. Yamada (1996). Evaluation of wound healing of the teat with and without low level laser therapy in dairy cattle by laser Doppler flowmetry in comparison with histopathology, tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis. British Veterinary Journal 152(5): 583-592, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, perforated teat wounds, suture patterns with or without low level laser therapy (LLLT), wound healing, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis, histopathological examination, invasiveness, pain.

Gibbs, A. (2001). Practical approach to the control of pneumonia in housed calves. In Practice 23(1): 32‑39, ISSN: 0263‑841X.
NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Keywords: calves, disease control, pneumonia, beef cattle, dairy cattle, disease transmission, colostral immunity, calf feeding, stress management, calf housing, viral diseases, vaccination, combined vaccines.

Gillund, P., O. Reksen, Y.T. Grohn, and K. Karlberg (2001). Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(6):1390‑1396, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dual‑purpose cows, body condition score, ketosis, reproductive performance, housing, tie stall barns, nutrition, Norway.

Giovannini, G., and A. Zecconi (2002). Field study on epidemiology of clinical mastitis in five Italian dairy herds. Milchwissenschaft 57(1): 3‑6, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: clinical mastitis, economical losses, farmers, consumer risk, epidemiological analysis, Italian dairy herds, housing management, udder hygiene, milking machine characteristic, milking procedures, risk factors, month of the year, days in milk (DIM), parity number, control measures.

Gitau, G.K., J.J. McDermott, B. McDermott, and B.D. Perry (2001). The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51 (3/4):149‑160.
NAL Call No.: SF601 P7
Keywords: dairy cattle calves, Theileria parva, infections, liveweight gain, small farms, protozoal infections, symptoms, geographical variation, climatic factors, age differences, animal housing, feeding, pest control, morbidity, mortality, grazing, breeds, concentrates, milk, mineral nutrition, compensatory growth, Kenya.

Gregory, N.G., J.K. Robins, D.G. Thomas, and R.W. Purchas (1998). Relationship between body condition score and body composition in dairy cows. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41(4): 527-532, ISSN: 0028-8233.
NAL Call No.: 23 V4892
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow, breed, Friesian, Friesian-cross, channel fat, dewlap thickness, weight, mesenteric fat, omental fat, udder, weight, body composition, body condition score, body contours, dentition, emaciation, New Zealand.

Guard, C. (2001). Investigating herds with lameness problems. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice 17(1):175‑87, ISSN: 0749-0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy herds, lameness, evaluation, etiologic diagnosis, prevention, corrective measures, risk factors.

Gudkov, I.N., G.M. Tkachenko, and A.I. Mazurkevich (2001). Difficulties in radiation safety of agricultural animals on territory contaminated by radionuclides. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 42 (2): 187.
NAL Call No.: SF757.8 A4
Keywords: toxicology, blood and lymphatics, immune system, B‑lymphocyte, T‑lymphocyte, neutrophil, dysentery, digestive system disease, genetic damage, genetic disease, injury, infectious disease, infectious disease, leukosis, blood and lymphatic disease, osteosarcoma, bone disease, injury, neoplastic disease, radiation cataract, eye disease, injury, tuberculosis, bacterial disease, cesium‑137, accumulation, mobile, radionuclide, transfer factor; heavy metal, mineral substance, nitrate, organic substance, pesticide, saponite, zeolite, ionizing radiation, radiologic method, toxicity, epizootic situation, forest, immune status, meat, meat, milk, dairy product; pest‑swampy soil, radiation safety, stress factor, trophic chain, Europe.

Guitian, F.J., F.J. Garcia Pena, J. Oliveira, M.L. Sanjuan, and E. Yus (2001). Serological study of the frequency of leptospiral infections among dairy cows in farms with suboptimal reproductive efficiency in Galicia, Spain. Veterinary Microbiology 80 (3): 275-284.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V44
Keywords: cows, lactating, farms, suboptimal reproductive efficiency, blood samples, microscopic agglutination, Leptospira interrogans serogroups: Australis, Autumnalis, Ballum, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Louisiana, Pomona, Sejroe, Shermani and Tarassovi, Spain.

Hallaran, G., and J. Sumner (2001). Prevalence of E coli O157 in dairy cows presented for slaughter in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 79(10): 707‑708, ISSN: 0005‑0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: dairy cows, escherichia coli, disease prevalence, feces, slaughter, Victoria.

Hansen, D. and V.A. Bridges (1999). Survey description of down-cows and cows with progressive or non-progressive neurological signs compatible with a TSE from veterinary-client herds in 38 states. Bovine Practitioner 33(2): 179-187, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: cows, herds, central nervous system, nervous system diseases, downer cows, non-ambulatory cows, beef cattle, beef herds, dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, injury, trauma, septicemia/toxemia, non-responsive milk fevers, parturient paresis, monitoring, surveillance, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, US cattle populations.

Hassall, S.A., W.R. Ward, and R.D. Murray (1993). Effects of lameness on the behaviour of cows during the summer. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association, 132(23): 578-580.ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, pain, productivity, behavior, milking parlor, feeding behavior, ruminating, lying, standing.

Hassan, L., H.O. Mohammed,and P.L. McDonough (2001). Farm‑management and milking practices associated with the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York state dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51 (1/2): 63‑73, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy herds, disease, bacterial, listeria monocytogenes, animal husbandry, farm management, milking, disease prevention, microbial contamination, food contamination, risk factors, milking machines, milking parlors, escherichia coli, vaccines, food safety, New York.

Hedges, J., R.W. Blowey, A. J. Packington, C.J. O'Callaghan, and L.E. Green (2001). A longitudinal field trial of the effect of biotin on lameness in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9): 1969-1975, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: milking cows, heifers, commercial farms, biotin supplementation, incidence of visible lameness, locomotion assessment, sole ulcer, white line separation, digital dermatitis, interdigital necrobacillosis, United Kingdom.

Henriksen, B.I.F. (2001). Effect of organic fodder on prevention of milk fever. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., pp.152‑153, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: cattle feeding, dairy cattle, fodder, organic farming, parturient paresis, pathogens, bacterial, fungal.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2001). Responses to selection against clinical mastitis in the Norwegian cattle population. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 155-160, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: genetic trend, clinical mastitis, Norwegian Cattle, mastitis resistance, average selection differential.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2001). Variance components of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle: effects of trait definition and culling. Livestock Production Science 67 (3): 265-272.
NAL Call No.: SF761.Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, mastitis, culling, lactation, incidence, heritability, health, duration, genetic variation estimation, variance components, Norway.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2000). Selection for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle: a review with focus on the situation in the Nordic countries. Livestock Production Science 64(2-3): 95-106, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cattle, literature review, selection for mastitis resistance, breeding programs, data recording, model selection, breeding value estimation, somatic cell counts, Denmark, Finland, Norway.

Hernandez, J. and J.K. Shearer (2000). Efficacy of oxytetracycline for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions on various anatomic locations in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(8): 1288-1290, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, oxytetracycline, topical application, efficacy, dermatitis, feet, lesions, size, papilloma, pain.

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and J.B. Elliott (1999). Comparison of topical application of oxytetracycline and four nonantibiotic solutions for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(5): 688-690, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, oxytetracycline, topical application, solutions, copper, hydrogen peroxide, efficacy, treatment, dermatitis, pain, lesions.

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and D.W. Webb (2001). Effect of lameness on the calving to conception interval in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (10): 1611-1614, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, lameness, reproductive performance, interval from calving to conception, number of breedings required per conception, foot rot, papillomatous digital dermatitis, claw lesions, multiple lesions.

Hernandez, J., C. Risco, and A. Donovan (2001). Association between exposure to Neospora caninum and milk production in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (5): 632-635, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, exposure to Neospora caninum, milk production in dairy cows, seropositive or seronegative cows, kinetic ELISA, production data, decrease in milk production, economic loss.

Heuer, C., Y.H. Schukken, L.J. Jonker, J.I.D. Wilkinson, and J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen (2001). Effect of monensin on blood ketone bodies, incidence and recurrence of disease and fertility in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1085-1097, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: effect of monensin, milk production, health, reproduction, calving, clinical mastitis, intramammary infection, lameness, calving to conception intervals, endometritis, cystic ovarian disease.

Hillerton, J.E. (1998). Mastitis treatment: a welfare issue. British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 3-8.
Keywords: mastitis, treatment, animal welfare, dairy cows, milk production, milk quality, economics, drug resistance, antibiotics, bovine mastitis, United Kingdom.

Hillerton, J.E. (1998). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: current status and possible impacts. Journal of Dairy Science 81(11): 3042-3048, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is an apparently new disease, first recognized in 1985, its pathological distinction was first reported in 1986. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a member of a group of transmissible encephalopathies that includes scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. Early indications of its epidemiology suggested that the disease was transmitted via cattle feed containing meat and bone meals from previously infected animals. The tissues most likely to contain infectious agents were considered to be nervous tissues and offal and their inclusion in ruminant feed was banned in the United Kingdom in 1989, regulations were tightened in 1992. Subsequent diagnosis has indicated that this ban has been effective and that confirmed cases are predicted to decline from a peak in the United Kingdom of 37,490 in 1992, to 7417 actual cases in 1996, and then to virtual extinction in 2001. Subsequent culling of all nonproductive cattle more than 30 mo of age and culling of cohort animals of confirmed cases is likely to reduce the predicted numbers and times significantly. Current interest is in the means of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within species and possibly to humans. A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, with 28 cases confirmed, is virtually certain to be bovine spongiform encephalopathy in humans. The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy has had major impacts on the United Kingdom dairy industry, including the loss of beef from dairy markets, the culling of more than 900,000 dairy bull calves, the removal of all cattle more than 30 mo of age from the human food chain, and now slaughter of cohort animals. Impacts on dairy marketing have yet to be properly assessed. Information and statistics for bovine spongiform encephalopathy can be found on the worldwide web at http://www.maff.gov.uk/maffhome.html
Keywords: cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, amyloid, molecular conformation, epidemics, disease transmission, feed formulation, dairy industry, EU regulations.

Hirvonen, J., K. Eklund, A.M. Teppo, G. Huszenicza, M. Kulcsar, H. Saloniemi, and S. Pyorala (1999). Acute phase response in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 40(1): 35-46, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: acute, acute phase response, phase, response, induced, Escherichia coli, mastitis, bovine, acute phase proteins, haptoglobin, nitric oxide.

Hoeben, D., C. Burvenich, P.J. Eppard, J.C. Byatt, and D.L. Hard (1999). Effect of bovine somatotropin on neutrophil functions and clinical symptoms during Streptococcus uberis mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 82(7): 1465-1481, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, bovine mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, experimental infections, insulin-like growth factor, somatotropin, blood plasma, neutrophils, chemiluminescence, heart rate, hydrocortisone, movement, surface antigens, leukocyte count, blood picture, alpha-lactalbumin.

Hoedemaker, M., B. Korff, B. Edler, M. Emmert, and E. Bleckmann (2001). Dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus infections during vaccination with an autogenous bacterin in dairy cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 48 (5): 373-383.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus, mastitis, somatic cell count, subcutaneously administered, supramammary lymph nodes, quarter milk samples.

Hoglund, J., C. Svensson, and A. Hessle (2001). A field survey on the status of internal parasites in calves on organic dairy farms in southwestern sweden. Veterinary Parasitology 99 (2): 113-128.
NAL Call No.: SF810 V4
Keywords: organic dairy herds, internal parasites, reduced productivity, first grazing season cattle, nematode infections, management practices, Eimeria alabamensis oocysts per gram of feces, pasture contamination, Ostertagia ostertagi infection, lungworm infection, dictyocaulosis, management practices, supplementary feeding, control of gastrointestinal parasites, Sweden.

Holloway, N.M., J.W. Tyler, J. Lakritz, S.L. Carlson, and J. Holle (2001). Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations in calves fed fresh and frozen colostrum. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 357-359, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: neonatal calves, Holstein, breed, serum IgG concentrations, fresh versus frozen colostrum.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der Werf, J.H.F. Erkens, and H.J. Blokhuis (1999). Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. Journal Animal Science 77(3): 708-714, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of first blood samples by venipuncture, 15 min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease of increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.
Keywords: dairy cows, handling, individual characteristics, remote sampling.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der. Werf, and H.J. Blokhuis (1998). Stress enhanced reduction in peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers in dairy cows during endotoxin-induced mastitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 66(1): 83-97, ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Keywords: dairy cows, lymphocytes, stress, endotoxins, mastitis, etiology, hydrocortisone, blood chemistry, lactation, defense mechanisms, body temperature, animal welfare, susceptibility, incidence, variation.

Hopster, H. and H.J. Blokhuis (1994). Validation of a heart-rate monitor for measuring a stress response in dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 74(3): 465-474, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: heart rate, stress, treadmill, telemetry.

Houe, H., S. Ostergaard, T. Thilsing‑Hansen, R.J. Jorgensen, T. Larsen, and J.T. Sorensen, J.F. Agger, and J.Y. Blom (2001). Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia: an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control. Acta Vet Scand 42(1):1‑29.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: milk fever, incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, subclinical hypocalcaemia, laboratory examinations, nutrition, cation‑anion balance, calcium level, reproductive disorders, dystocia, uterine prolapse, retained placenta, metritis repeat breeding, ketosis, displaced abomasum, mastitis.

Hu, S., C. Concha, A. Johannisson, G. Meglia, K.P. Waller (2001). Effect of subcutaneous injection of ginseng on cows with subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48(7): 519‑528, ISSN: 0931‑1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: cow, host, Staphylococcus aureus, bacterial disease, subclinical mastitis, immune system, oxidative burst activity, Panax ginseng extract, medicinal plant, immune stimulator, adverse reactions, dosage, subcutaneous injection, innate immunity, somatic cell count (SCC).

Hughes, J.W., W.B. Faull, P.J. Cripps, and N.P. French (1997). Environmental control of bovine lameness. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 5(3): 235-246, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: dairy cattle, farm comparisons, cattle housing, lameness, cubicles, walking surfaces, wood peelings, tracks, lanes, straw yards, comfort, mastitis incidence, United Kingdom.

Hultgren, J. (2002). Foot/leg and udder health in relation to housing changes in Swedish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 53(3): 167‑89, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
Keywords: Swedish commercial dairy herds, disease incidence rate, farmers' data, housing comparisons, tie‑stalls versus cubicles, management practices, foot/leg disorders, clinical mastitis, teat injuries, high milk somatic cell counts (MSCCs).

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25p, ISSN: 1401‑6257.
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Ilha, M.R.S., C.F. Riet, and C.S.L. Barros (2001). Dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) in cattle associated with poisoning by Claviceps purpurea. [Sindrome distermica (hipertermia) em bovinos associada a intoxicacao por Claviceps purpurea.] Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 21 (2): 81-86.
NAL Call No.: SF756.37 B7P5
Keywords: dairy cattle, outbreak of dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia), poisoning, Claviceps purpurea, feed contamination, fungus, clinical signs, pyrexia, dull, rough and long hair coats, intense salivation, difficult respiration with open mouth, environmental temperature, necropsy findings, Brazil.

Ingvartsen, K.L. and J.B. Andersen (2000). Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1573-1597, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: There has been great interest in dry matter intake regulation in lactating dairy cattle to enhance performance and improve animal health and welfare. Predicting voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) is complex and influenced by numerous factors relating to the diet, management, housing,environment and the animal. The objective of this review is to identify and discuss important metabolic factors involved in the regulation of VDMI and their integration with metabolism. We have described the adaptations of intake and metabolism and discussed mechanisms of intake regulation. Furthermore we have reviewed selected metabolic signals involved in intake regulation. A substantial dip in VDMI is initiated in late pregnancy and continues into early lactation. This dip has traditionally been interpreted as caused by physical constraints, but this role is most likelyoveremphasized. The dip in intake coincides with changes in reproductive status, fat mass, and metabolic changes in support of lactation, and we have described metabolic signals that may play an equally important role in intake regulation. These signals include nutrients, metabolites, reproductive hormones, stress hormones, leptin, insulin, gut peptides, cytokines, and neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, and corticotrophin-releasing factor. The involvement of these signals in the periparturient dip in intake is discussed, and evidence supporting the integration of the regulation of intake and metabolism is presented. Still, much research is needed to clarify the complex regulation of VDMI in lactating dairy cows, particularly in the periparturient animal.
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, dry matter intake, performance, health, animal welfare, metabolic factors, changes in reproductive status, fat mass, nutrients, metabolites, reproductive hormones, stress hormones, leptin, insulin, gut peptides, cytokines, neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y, galanin, corticotrophin-releasing factor.

Institute of Food Science and Technology (1998). Bovine Somatotropin (BST). News Release, June 11, 1998, Institute of Food Science and Technology: London, UK, 16p.
Keywords: somatotropin, milk production, dairy cows, synthetic hormones, adverse effects, drug residues, meat hygiene, milk hygiene, bovine mastitis, human health, product labels, health, animal welfare, reviews.

Janosi, S., and G. Huszenicza (2001). Role of drying off therapy of dairy cows in the control of mastitis. Review article. [A tejelo tehenek szarazraallitasi terapiajanak szerepe a togygyulladas elleni vedekezesben. Irodalmi attekintes.] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 123(7): 11‑416, ISSN: 0025‑004X
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V644
Keywords: mastitis, reproductive system disease, dry cow therapy, selective dry cow therapy, literature review, Hungarian language.

Janosi, S., F. Ratz G. Szigeti, M. Kulcsar, J. Kerenyi, T. Lauko, F. Katona, and G. Huszenicza (2001). Review of the microbiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of bovine mastitis caused by the alga Prototheca zopfii. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23 (2): 58-61.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V46
Keywords: high producing, machine milked dairy cows, mastitis, P. zopfii alga, resistant forms, poor management, economic loss, decreased milk quality and quantity, culling of infected animals, pathogen isolation and identification, clinical features, control, review.

Janosi, S., G. Szigeti, F. Ratz, T. Lauko, J. Kerenyi, M. Tenk, F. Katona, A. Huszenicza, M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2001). Prototheca zopfii mastitis in dairy herds under continental climatic conditions. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23 (2): 80‑83, ISSN: 0165‑2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46.
Keywords: dairy cows, prototheca zopfii, dairy herds, climatic factors, bovine mastitis, outbreaks, epidemics, hygiene, animal husbandry, risk factors, pathotypes, infections, lactation, inflammation, latent infections, milk yield, somatic cell count, histopathology, protothecosis, Hungary.

Johannesson, T., J.T. Sorensen, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Production environment as a component in a welfare assessment system in dairy cattle herds. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 251-255, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: cows, animal welfare assessment, herds, behavior, injuries.

Jong, S.K., S.K. Gong, H.K. Chung, and S.H. Dae (2001). Dairy‑cattle health in Gyeongnam, Korea. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (2): 163‑169, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal health, monitoring, disease prevalence, frequency, epidemiology, data collection, dairy herds, animal husbandry, livestock numbers, disease prevention, reproductive disorders, mastitis, parturition complications, gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic disorders, lameness, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, Korea Republic.

Jonsson, M.E., A. Aspan, E. Eriksson, and I. Vagsholm (2001). Persistence of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in calves kept on pasture and in calves kept indoors during the summer months in a Swedish dairy herd. International Journal of Food Microbiology 66 (1/2): 55‑61, ISSN: 0168‑1605.
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Abstract: In 1997, a Swedish dairy farm was implicated in a human case of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection. The bacterium was found in a faecal sample from the human case and in faecal samples from cattle on the farm. Subtyping with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the isolates were identical. The farm was further studied to assess the occurrence and the epidemiology of the agent at the farm level. The objective of this part of the study presented here was to examine the persistence of VTEC O157:H7 in calves that were kept on pasture and indoors, respectively, during the summer. Twelve calves in the herd, with one positive faecal sample each of VTEC O157:H7 in April 1999, were followed by faecal sampling during the summer months. Six calves were kept indoors and six were kept on pasture. Faecal samples from each calf were collected once a month on five occasions from April to September. Bacterial examination was performed with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and cultivation on CT‑SMAC. PCR was used to test for the presence of genes encoding for verocytotoxin (VT), intimin (eaeA), enterohemorrhagic E. coli‑hemolysin (EHEC‑Hly) and the flagellar antigen H7. PFGE was used for genotyping the isolates. The faecal samples from the calves kept on pasture were negative during the whole period. It is possible that the faecal samples had bacterial counts lower than the detection limits for our procedure, or that the faecal samples were free from the bacteria at the time of sampling. This suggests that calves on pasture may be less exposed to the bacteria or that they clear themselves. In the pen group, there were between one and six culture positive individuals per sampling occasion. One of the calves that was housed indoors was positive in faecal culture on four consecutive samplings.
Keywords: calves, escherichia coli, bacterial diseases, pastures, dairy farms, dairy herds, husbandry, pens, summer, Sweden.

Jorgensen, R.J., T. Hansen, M.L. Jensen, and H.T. Thilsing (2001). Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite a on total blood calcium in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (3): 609-613, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Danish Holstein, breed, late lactation, milked in the morning only, oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, total serum calcium, blood samples, daily fluctuations in blood calcium, hypocalcemia.

Kadarmideen, H.N., and J.E. Pryce (2001). Genetic and economic relationships between somatic cell count and clinical mastitis and their use in selection for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Animal Science Pencaitland 73 (1): 19-28.
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, clinical mastitis, somatic cell count, genetic and economic relationship of lactation average, genetic parameters, permanent environmental, residual and phenotypic correlations, selection for mastitis resistance, breeding goals, genetic resistance.

Kalis, C.H.J., J.W. Hesselink, H.W. Barkema, and M.T. Collins (2001). Use of long‑term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy herds. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (2): 270‑274, ISSN: 0002‑9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: dairy cows, dairy herds, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, mycobacterium paratuberculosis, feces, shedding, disease prevention, efficacy, culture techniques, culling, cattle husbandry.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Cubicle refusal and rearing accommodation as possible mastitis risk factors in cubicle‑housed dairy heifers. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 123‑130, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, cubicle refusal, sheds, animal wastes, bovine mastitis, calving, epidemiology, mastitis, pregnancy, regression analysis, risk factors, disease incidence, Norway.

Kobayashi, Y., M.J. Vandehaar, H.A. Tucker, B.K. Sharma, and M.C. Lucy (1999). Expression of growth hormone receptor 1A messenger ribonucleic acid in liver of dairy cows during lactation and after administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin. Journal of Dairy Science 82(9): 1910-1906, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein cows, mRNA, growth hormone receptor, physiology.

Koehler, H., H. Gyra, K. Zimmer, K.G. Draeger, B. Burkert, B. Lemser, D. Hausleithner, K. Cussler, W. Klawonn, and R.G. Hess (2001). Immune reactions in cattle after immunization with a mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine and implications for the diagnosis of M. paratuberculosis and M. bovis infections. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48 (3): 185-195.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: calves, immunization of with a live modified Mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine, humoral and cell mediated immune reactions, vaccine shedding, tuberculin skin test, diagnostic methods, antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, interferon gamma test, polymerase chain reaction, interferon gamma production, humoral immunity.

Kossaibati, M.A., and R.J. Esslemont (1997). The costs of production diseases in dairy herds in England. Veterinary Journal 154(1): 41-51, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Economic losses due to common health problems in dairy cattle were investigated in 90 Friesian/Holstein herds (average size 152 cows), which calved in England during the 1992/1993 season with an average annual yield of about 6000 1 per cow. By using only the direct costs of common production diseases and other health problems (mastitis, lameness, vulval discharge, treatments for oestrus-not-observed, retained foetal membranes, milk fever, twinning, calf mortality and aid at calving), the cost of ill health in a 100 cow herd with average rates of these problems (compared with target levels) was estimated at pound sterling 6300 per year. The costs ranged from pound sterling 1200 (average of the top 10%) to pound sterling 13600 (average of the worst 10% of the herds). The main losses were due to mastitis and lameness (38 and 27% of health cost, respectively).
Keywords: Friesian/Holstein herds, economic loss, health problems, mastitis, lameness, vulval discharge, treatments for estrus-not-observed, retained fetal membranes, milk fever, twinning, calf mortality, aid at calving, estimated costs, losses, animal welfare, indexes.

Krebs, S., J. Danuser, and G. Regula (2001). Using a herd health monitoring system in the assessment of welfare. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 78‑81, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: cows, dairy farms, health, claws, herd improvement, joints (animal), monitoring, skin tests, trauma.

Kremer, W.D.J., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and J.T. Weeda (2001). Veterinary herd health consultancy on dairy farms: Guidelines for starters. [Veterinaire advisering van melkveebedrijven: Een leidraad voor starters.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (13): 455-461.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: veterinary herd health and production management advisory programs, dairy farms, farmers, veterinarians, structured content, well planned activities, professional implementation.

Kristoffersen, S. (1999). Focus on milk quality, health of cows and animal welfare. [Fokus pa maelkekvalitet, kvaegsundhed og dyrevelfaerd.] Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 82(1): 16-17, ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 D23
Keywords: milk quality, animal welfare, cows, milk, Denmark.

Krohn, C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Kronfeld, D.S. (2000). Recombinant bovine somatotropin and animal welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(11): 1719-1724, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: somatotropin, dairy cows, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, law, ethics, data analysis, epidemiology, policy.

Kronfeld, D.S. (1997). Recombinant bovine somatotropin. Views on the ethics of communication and animal health. [Rekombinant bovint somatotropin. Synpunkter pa informations-och djurhalsoetik.] Svensk Veterinartidning 49(4): 157-165, ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 SV23
Keywords: dairy cows, adverse effects, bovine mastitis, somatotropin, milk production, milk yield, animal welfare, mastitis, Swedish.

Krukowski, H., M. Tietze, T. Majewski, and P. Rozanski (2001). Survey of yeast mastitis in dairy herds of small type farms in the Lublin region, Poland. Mycopathologia 150 (1): 5-7.
NAL Call No.: 450 M994
Keywords: cows, clinical and subclinical mastitis, isolate fungi, quarter milk, milk samples, blood agar, Mac Conkey agar, aesculin tallium acetate crystal violet blood agar, Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin.

Kumar, H., S. Mahmood, and L.P. Singh (2001). Treatment of placental retention with ecbolic drugs and its effect on subsequent fertility in crossbred cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (7): 654-657, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: cows, fertility response, retained fetal membranes, ecbolic drugs, intrauterine infusion, oriprim bolus, synotocinon, luprostiol, estradiol valerate, herbal drug, metrali, reproductive efficiency, interval from parturition to conception, number of services per conception.

Lam, T.J.G.M. (1999). Gain more from the Chain Quality Milk programme. Paper work can be useful. [Haal meer uit Keten Kwaliteit Melk. Papierwerk kan ook nuttig zijn.] Veehouder en Dierenarts 13(1): 26-27.
Keywords: dairy farms, milk processing, veterinary products, residues, milk, animal welfare, health, cows, milking, milking parlors, storage, cleaning, disinfection, contamination, dairy wastes, environmental impact, veterinarians, quality controls, milk quality, Netherlands, Dutch language.

LangRee, R. (1998). The cow will let you know. [Kua gir beskjed.] Buskap 50(1): 30-31.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, behavior, animal welfare, health, cows.

Le Fevre, A.M., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, I. McKendrick, and G. Gettinby (2001). Correlations of measurements of subclinical claw horn lesions in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 148(5): 135-138, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: breed, Holstein-Friesian cows, foot diseases, claws, sole and white line lesions, severity score, measurement, distribution, calving.

Leach, K.A., D.N. Logue, J.M. Randall, and S.A. Kempson (1998). Claw lesions in dairy cattle: methods for assessment of sole and white line lesions. The Veterinary Journal 155(1): 91-102, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Claw lesions are a major cause of lameness in dairy cattle. Analysis of the development of lesions is aided by numerical representation of their significance. Using data from observations on 31 heifers at 9 weeks post-calving, 5 lesion scoring method were compared. These were: (1) number of lesions; (2) severity (3) adjusted severity; (4) size (measured by a novel technique involving image analysis of distal view photographs) and (5) size multiplied by adjusted severity (combined score). Relationships between scores for sole and white line lesions and between different claws within a cow were investigated. The small size but high clinical significance of severe lesions means that severity must be weighted if combined with size in a score. Sole and white line lesions showed a moderate but significant correlation in terms of severity but none in terms of size. The highest correlation between scores for a single claw (the right hind outer) and the remaining claws was found for adjusted severity of sole lesions.
Keywords: heifers, claws, lesions, assessment, size, disease course, grading, hemorrhage, soles, image analysis.

Leach, K.A., D.N. Logue, S.A. Kempson, J.E. Offer, H.E. Ternent, and J.M. Randall (1997). Claw lesions in dairy cattle: development of sole and white line haemorrhages during the first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 154(3): 215-225, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Keywords: heifers, lesions, foot diseases, soles, claws, hemorrhage, calving, lactation, disease, course, pathogenesis, AG AB.

LeJeune, J.T., T.E. Besser, N.L. Merrill, D.H. Rice, and D.D. Hancock (2001). Livestock drinking water microbiology and the factors influencing the quality of drinking water offered to cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1856-1862, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: drinking water, microbial quality, cattle water troughs, coliform, Escherichia coli concentrations, proximity of the water trough to the feedbunk, increased contamination, protection of the trough from direct sunlight, concentrations of protozoa in the water, warm weather, Salmonella sp., shigatoxigenic E. coli O157, treatment with cycloheximide, increased persistence of E. coli O157.

Lende, T. van der, F.A.M. de Loos, and T. Jorna (2000). Postnatal health and welfare of offspring conceived in vitro: a case for epidemiological studies. Theriogenology 53(2): 549-554, ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: epidemiology, in vitro, animal experiments, blastocyst, dairy cattle, fertilization, in vitro culture, livestock, reproduction, culture, embryo transfer, animal welfare.

Leonard, N., J. Egan, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 2: Data on incidence of disease, culling and biosecurity measures. Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Irish Republic. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(9): 454‑456, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: cows, culling, dairy farms, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, disease prevention, disease surveys, epidemiology, heifers, incidence, infertility, lameness, mastitis, mineral supplements, mortality, biosecurity, Irish Republic.

Leonard, F.C., J.M. O'Connell, and K.J. O'Farrell (1996). Effect of overcrowding on claw health in first-calved Friesian heifers. British Veterinary Journal 152(4): 459-472, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643.
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers lameness, foot diseases, overcrowding, behavior.

Lin, Y.L., C.C. Chou and T.M. Pan (2001). Screening procedure from cattle feces and the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Taiwan dairy cattle. Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection 34 (1): 17-24.
Keywords: screening Escherichia coli O157:H7, bovine feces, enrichment, selective culture, phenotyping, genotyping, culture, species confirmation, serotyping to O157 and H7, detection of verocytotoxin (VT) production, Taiwan.

Lischer, C.J., and P. Ossent (2001). Bovine sole ulcer: a literature review. [Das Sohlengeschwur beim Rind: Eine Literaturubersicht.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114(1‑2):13‑21, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, sole ulcers, lameness, economic loss, animal wellbeing, corium, locus minoris, lesions, claw bone, tuberculum flexorium, healing process, epidemiological studies, German language.

Koller, H. Geyer, C. Mulling, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2002). Effect of therapeutic dietary biotin on the healing of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cattle: a double blinded controlled study. Veterinary Journal 163(1):51‑60, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cows, sole ulcers, healing, biotin, orally administered, orthopedic shoe, histological examination, horn samples.

Lischer, C.J., A. Dietrich‑Hunkeler, H. Geyer, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2001). Healing process of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cows kept in tie stalls: clinical description and biochemical investigations. [Heilungsverlauf von unkomplizierten Sohlengeschwuren bei Milchkuhen in Anbindehaltung: Klinische Beschreibung und blutchemische Untersuchungen.] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 143( 3 ):125‑133, ISSN: 0036‑7281.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 SCH9
Keywords: dairy cows, hoof health, lameness, scoring system, biotin, glucose, hematology, nutritional status, healing, horns, retinol, ulcers, German language.

Logan K.E., M.J. Stear, B. McGuirk, D.J. Platt, and J.L. Fitzpatrick (1998). Immunological responses of Holstein Friesian cattle to Staphylococcus aureus. British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 93.
Keywords: immunology, immune response, bovine mastitis, mastitis, economics, animal welfare, somatic cell count, latent infections, bulls, genetic markers, Holstein-Friesian, dairy cows, United Kingdom.

Logue, D.N. and J.E. Offer (2001). The effect of forage type on foot health in dairy heifers. Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 7-8, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Keywords: heifer, claw horn lesions, injury, diet; foot health, forage type, lameness.

Logue, D.N., J.E. Offer, K. Leach, S.A. Chaplin, A. le Fevre, and R. Berry (2001). Cattle lameness and the welfare of the dairy cow. Research in Veterinary Science 70(Supplement A): 35, ISSN: 0034‑5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: animal welfare, housing, cubicle, comfort, lameness, risk factors, nutrition, pre‑calving cubicle exposure.

Logue, D.N. (1999). A veterinary perspective on the development of a farm assurance scheme in Scotland: lessons for the national scheme? Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(4): 369-370, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: animal welfare, farm management, farm sector, animal production, legislation, hygiene, cattle housing, health, transport of animals, record keeping, Scotland.

Logue, D.N., R.J. Berry, J.E. Offer, et al. (1999). Consequences of "metabolic load" for lameness and disease. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association. 7(1): 113, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: metabolic disorders, lameness, animal diseases, health, animal welfare, dairy cows, behavior.

Logue, D.N., McNulty, D., and A.M. Nolan (1998). Lameness in the dairy cow: pain and welfare. Veterinary Journal 156(1): 5-6, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, cows, pain, animal welfare, experimental design.

Logue, D.N. (1997). Productivity, management and disease in dairy cattle. Bovine Practitioner 31(2): 51-55, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: dairy cattle, infertility, mastitis, lameness, animal welfare, behavior, management, cost benefit analysis, etiology, milk production, production, cattle diseases.

Logue, D.N., J.E. Offer, and J.J. Hyslop (1994). Relationship of diet, hoof type and locomotion score with lesions of the sole and white line in dairy cattle. Animal Production 59(2): 173-181, ISSN: 0003-3561.
NAL Call No.: 49 AN55
Keywords: breed, Jersey, Holstein-Friesian, diet, hoof angle, locomotion, milk yield, pathogenesis, foot diseases, diet, composition.

Loneragan, G.H., D.A. Dargatz, P.S. Morley, and M.A. Smith(2001). Trends in mortality ratios among cattle in US feedlots. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(8): 1122‑1127, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, beef cattle, feedlot, mortality, epidemiology, respiratory tract disorders, USA.

Luepping, W. (2001). Monitoring of feeding situation and health with physiologically based parameters. [Fuetterungs‑ und Gesundheitsmonitoring mit physiologischen Parametern.] Zuechtungskunde 73(6): 460‑470, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: dairy cow, Holstein, breed, bilirubin, calcium, glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, protein, selenium, urea, feed, fiber content, roughage content, starch content, health monitoring, lactation curve, milk, dairy product, milk production, net acid‑base excretion, German language.

Mahmoudzade, A.R., M Tarahomi, and H. Fotoohi (2001). Effect of abnormal vaginal discharge at oestrus on conception rate after artificial insemination in cows. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (3): 535-538.
Keywords: cows, heifers, Holstein Friesian, breed, estrus, visual characteristics of the cervical mucous discharge, cervical mucus with urine, cervical mucus with microbes, cervical mucus with blood, no cervical mucus, artificial insemination, conception rate.

Maloo, S.H., W. Thorpe, G. Kioo, P. Ngumi, G.J. Rowlands, and B.D. Perry (2001). Seroprevalences of vector‑transmitted infections of small‑holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (1): 1‑16, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: Zebu, breed, small farms, seroprevalence, pests, protozoa, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, theileria parva, vector‑borne diseases, risk factors, animal husbandry, crop management, surveys, elisa, hematocrit, metastigmata, pest control, Kenya.

Manske, T., J. Hultgren, and C. Bergsten (2002). Topical treatment of digital dermatitis associated with severe heel‑horn erosion in a Swedish dairy herd. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 53(3): 215‑31, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: cows, breed, Swedish Red and White, Swedish Holstein, commercial dairy herd, foot health, topical treatments, digital dermatitis, severe heel‑horn erosion, treatment, glutaraldehyde, oxytetracycline, foot trimming, cleansing, alone, grazing season, footbath twice daily after milking copper solution.

Martini, A., P. Tambini, M. Miccinesi, F. Ambrosini, A. Giorgetti, D. Rondina, R. Bozzi, C. Sargentini, and M. Moretti (2001). Utilisation of homeopathy in dairy cattle: first results of an Italian trial. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., pp.119‑124, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: cattle diseases, dairy cattle, homeopathy, legislation, organic farming, Italy.

Mele, M., P. Secchiari, A. Serra, G. Ferruzzi, F. Paoletti, and M. Biagioni (2001). Application of the Atracking signal@ method to the monitoring of udder health and oestrus in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 72(3): 279‑284, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: dairy cows, models, simulations, computational biology, udder health, reproductive system tracking signal method, monitoring method, estrus, milk electrical conductivity, moving average model, mastitis.

Metz, J. H. M., E. Maltz, T.T. Mottram (1999). Monitoring health and welfare in practice. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(1): 123, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: health, animal welfare, diagnosis, cows, milking, mastitis, dairy herds, milk yield.

Meyer, W., and H. Georg (2001). Influence of floor design on the claw health of dairy cows. [Einfluss der Laufflachengestaltung auf die Klauengesundheit von Milchkuhen.] Landtechnik 56(4): 258‑259, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, slatted, mats, chopped straw, unclean surfaces, claws, foot diseases, hooves, infection, German language.

Miettinen, P.V. (1995). Prevention of bovine ketosis with glucogenic substance and its effect on fertility in Finnish dairy cows. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 108(1): 14-19, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: negative energy balance, propylene glycol, nicotinic amide solution, post partum, acetone content in milk, fertility, milk yield, fat and protein.

Mill, J.M., and W.R. Ward (1994). Lameness in dairy cows and farmers' knowledge, training and awareness. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 134(7): 162-164, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: animal welfare, economics, knowledge, training of farmers, England.

Moore, D.A., S.L Berry, M.L. Truscott, and V. Koziy (2001). Efficacy of a nonantimicrobial cream administered topically for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (10): 1435‑1438, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows; Holstein, breed, drug therapy; interdigital dermatitis; pain scores, lesion activity, lesion size, pharmacology; lincomycin paste, potency; treatment; veterinary products.

Morales, E., F.J. Trigo, F. Ibarra, E. Puente, and M. Santacruz (2001). Neosporosis in mexican dairy herds: lesions and immunohistochemical detection of Neospora caninum in fetuses. Journal of Comparative Pathology 125 (1): 58-63.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Keywords: dairy herds, aborted bovine fetuses, microscopical lesions, lymphocytic myocarditis microgliosis multifocal necrosis in the brain, lymphocytic hepatitis, lymphocytic myositis, immunohistochemical examination, brain, myocardium, liver, Mexico.

Morrow, C.J., E.S., Kolver, K.A. Macdonald, G.A. Verkerk, and L.R. Matthews (2001). Monitoring adrenal activity in dairy cows under various feeding regimens using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 52‑55, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein Friesian, breed, adrenal activity, plasma glucocorticoid concentrations, fecal glucocorticoid concentrations, feeding, pastoral conditions, concentrate based, genotype effects, stocking rates, stress.

Morrow-Tesch, J., and K. Whitehead (1998). The effect of blood sampling site on measures of stress in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 58: 218-219, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: cows, blood sampling, stress, measures, haptoglobins, magnesium, blood specimen collection, stress analysis.

Mosure, W.L., R.A. Meyer, J. Gudmundson, and A.D. Barth (1998). Evaluation of possible methods to reduce pain associated with electroejaculation in bulls. Canadian Veterinary Journal 39(8): 504-506, ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Keywords: bulls, evaluation, pain, heart rate, electroejaculation, animal welfare, anaesthesia, lidocaine, xylazine, heart rate, semen collection.

Mudron, P., H. Scholz, H.P. Sallmann, J. Rehage, G. Kovac, F. Bartko, and M. Holtershinken. (1994). Effect of vitamin E injection on cortisol and white blood cell response to surgical stress in dairy cows. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64(3): 176-180, ISSN: 0300-9831.
NAL Call No.: 389.8 Z33
Keywords: Vitamin E, cortisol, white blood cell count, surgery, stress, alpha-tocopherol, hydrocortisone, leukocytes, intramuscular injection, liver, blood plasma, sequential sampling, vitamin supplements.

Mulling, C.K., H.H. Bragulla, S. Reese, K.D. Budras, and W. Steinberg (1999). How structures in bovine hoof epidermis are influenced by nutritional factors. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 28(2): 103-108, ISSN: 0340-2096.
Keywords: hoof epidermis, nutrition, horn quality, keratinization, cornification, bovine hoof epidermis,lipids, minerals, calcium, vitamins, biotin, dyskeratotic, light and transmission electron microscopy, histochemical and enzyme-histochemical techniques.

Munksgaard, L. and P. Lovendahl (1993). Effects of social and physical stressors on growth hormone levels in dairy cows. Canadian Journal Animal Science 73(4): 847-853, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: dairy cows, stress, ACTH, GH-release.

Murugaiyah, M., P. Ramakrishnan, A.R. Sheikh, C.H. Knight, and C.J. Wilde (2001). Lactation failure in crossbred Sahiwal Friesian cattle. Journal of Dairy Research 68 (2): 165-174, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: cows, Sahiwal Friesian, breed, susceptible to lactation failure, milk yield, post partum, acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase galactosyltransferase, key enzyme markers of cellular differentiation, failure of milk removal, impaired milk ejection reflex, Malaysia.

Musser, J.M.B., K.L. Anderson, and J.O. Boison (2001). Tissue disposition and depletion of penicillin G after oral administration with milk in unweaned dairy calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 346‑350, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy calves, antibiotic residues, benzylpenicillin, kidneys, liver, milk, oral administration.

Nelson, A.J., and M.B. Cattell (2001). Culling and laminitis: real herds, real cows, real deaths. Bovine Practitioner 35 (1): 42-45, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: cows, laminitis lesions, cull rate, foot and leg problems, reproduction, mastitis, low production, New York dairy herds, United States.

Nickerson, S.C., W.E. Owens, L.K. Fox, C.C. Scheifinger, T.R. Shryock, and T.E. Spike (1999). Comparison of tilmicosin and cephapirin as therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis at dry-off. Journal of Dairy Science 82(4): 696-703, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, staphylococcus aureus, bovine mastitis, dry period, antibiotics, experimental infections, lactation, application methods, secretions, somatic cell count, drug therapy, efficacy, antibiotic residues.

Nickerson, S.C., W.E. Owens, G.M. Tomita, and P.W. Widel (1999). Vaccinating dairy heifers with a Staphylococcus aureus bacterin reduces mastitis at calving. Large Animal Practice 20(3): 16, 18-19, 28, ISSN: 1092-7603.
NAL Call No.: SF601.B6
Keywords: heifers, Staphylococcus aureus, vaccination, mastitis.

Nicoletti, J.L.M. de, F.A.A. de Souza, A. Thomassian, C.A. Hussni, and A.LG. Alves (2001). Feet lesions and lameness prevalence in dairy cows kept in permanent confinement (free‑stall and tie‑stall). [Prevalencia de lesoes podais e graus de claudicacao em vacas leiteiras mantidas em confinamento permanente ("free‑stall" e "tie‑stall").] Revista de Educacao Continuada do CRMV‑SP 4 (2): 24‑32, ISSN: 1516‑3326.
Keywords: dairy cows, age differences, number of parturitions, housing, tie‑stall, free stall, disease prevalence, foot diseases, lameness, lesions, sole bleeding, white line disease, heel erosion, double sole, interdigital dermatitis, hoof cracks, Portuguese language, Sao Paulo farms.

Nielsen, B.L. (1999). Perceived welfare issues in dairy cattle, with special emphasis on metabolic stress. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(1): 97-98, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: stress, metabolic disorders, animal welfare, dairy cows, dairy farming.

Noordhuizen, J.P., and G.H. Wentink (2001). Developments in veterinary herd health programmes on dairy farms: a review. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23(4): 162‑9, ISSN: 0165‑2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46
Keywords: dairy farms, herd health, production management programs, epidemiology, quality assurance.

Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N., and J. Fink-Gremmels (1999). Use of rBST: renewed discussion. [rBST-toelating: opnieuw overwogen.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 124(12): 380-382, ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: cows, metabolism, animal breeding, reproduction, legislation, regulations, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, somatotropin, administration, marketing, public health, biotechnology, cattle diseases Europe, Dutch language.

Norgaard, N.H., K.M. Lind, and J.F. Agger (1999). Cointegration analysis used in a study of dairy-cow mortality. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 42(2): 98-119, ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, mortality, statistical analysis, intensive husbandry, livestock farming, market competition, costs, animal welfare, stress, health, diseases, epidemiology, concentrates, feed intake, growth rate, herds, assets, livestock numbers, milk yield, Norwegian language.

O'Brien, C.N., A.J. Guidry, L.W. Douglass, and D.C. Westhoff (2001). Immunization with Staphylococcus aureus lysate incorporated into microspheres. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1791-1799, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: antibiotics, Staphylococcus aureus, resistant strains, scar tissue formation, blockage of ducts, inflammation, macrophages, mammary gland, treatments, lysate in NaCl, lysate in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FICA), lysate in microspheres in NaCl, lysate in microspheres in FICA, antibody response.

Offer, J.E., D.N. Logue, and D.J. Roberts (1997). The effect of protein source on lameness and solear lesion formation in dairy cattle. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research. 65(Part 2): 143-149, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: breed, Holstein-Friesian, protein sources, dietary protein, soybean oilmeal, complete feeds, lameness, laminitis, fish meal, blood meal, hooves, meat and bone meal, milk yield, body weight, liveweight gain, body condition, hardness, foot diseases, blood composition, metabolites.

Offer, J.E., D. McNulty, and D.N., Logue (2000). Observations of lameness, hoof conformation and development of lesions in dairy cattle over four lactations. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 147(4): 105-109, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, claws, conformation, lesions, incidence, lactation, productive life, locomotion, calving.

Oikawa, S. and N. Katoh (2002). Decreases in serum apolipoprotein B‑100 and A‑I concentrations in cows with milk fever and downer cows. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66(1): 31‑34, ISSN: 0830‑9000.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C24
Keywords: cows, milk fever, peripartum period, fatty liver, non‑esterified fatty acids (NEFA), hepatic lipidosis, serum levels, apolipoprotein (apo) B‑100, apoA‑I, downer cow syndrome.

Oliver, S.P., B.E. Gillespie, M.J. Lewis, S.J. Ivey, R.A. Almeida, D.A. Luther, D.L. Johnson, K.C. Lamar, Moorehead, and H.H. Dowlen (2001). Efficacy of a new premilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic h d combination for the prevention of mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1545-1549, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: premilking, teat disinfectant, phenolic combination, prevention, intramammary infection, split udder experimental design, clinical mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

Olsson, I.M., S. Jonsson, and A. Oskarsson (2001). Cadmium and zinc in kidney, liver, muscle and mammary tissue from dairy cows in conventional and organic farming. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 3 (5): 531‑538, ISSN: 1464‑0325.
Keywords: cows, kidneys, liver, mammary tissue, organic farming, metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, tissue levels.

Oltenacu, P.A., Hultgren, J., and B. Algers (1998). Associations between use of electric cow-trainers and clinical diseases, reproductive performance and culling in Swedish dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 37(1/4): 77-90, ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: The role of electric cow-trainer technology as a risk factor for several diseases was evaluated. Diseases considered were retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, cystic ovaries, silent heat, milk fever, clinical mastitis, and foot and leg problems. Historical and contemporary controls (with control herds selected to match the experimental herds for size and location) were used. Data consisted of 10 264 Swedish Red and White (SRB) and 5461 Swedish Friesian (SLB) lactation records in 150 herds in Sweden, of which 33 used cow-trainers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of parity and exposure to electric cow-trainers on the risks of diseases and the effects of diseases and exposure to electric cow-trainers on risk of culling. The dominant effects associated with use of electric cow-trainers were an increased risk for silent heat, clinical mastitis, ketosis and culling relative to cows in herds not using cow-trainers. Diseases had negative effects on reproductive performance and the effects were larger for cows in herds using cow-trainers. In herds using electric cow-trainers, the largest increase in the interval from first service to conception (58 days) was caused by the occurrences of silent heat, cystic ovaries and the combination of two or more diseases. Retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries, clinical mastitis and a combination of two or more diseases increased the risk of culling about two times relative to healthy primiparous cows with the increase being greater for cows in herds using cow-trainers. Silent heat did not increase risk of culling in control groups, but was the largest risk factor for culling in the exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to electric cow-trainers increased the incidence risk of silent heat, clinical mastitis, and ketosis and changed silent heat from a neutral disease with respect to culling to a major risk factor. Finally, exposure to cow-trainers increased the general negative effect of diseases on the cows' reproductive performance and risk for culling.
Keywords: cow trainers, electrical equipment, placental retention, puerperal disorders, metabolic disorders, ketosis, lameness,culling, infertility, reproductive disorders, estrus, husbandry, animal welfare, Sweden.

Omer, M.K., E. Skjerve, Z. Woldehiwet, and G. Holstad (2001). A cross‑sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in dairy farms in Asmara, Eritrea. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33(4): 295‑303, ISSN: 0049‑4747.
NAL Call No.: SF601.T7
Keywords: dairy cattle, tuberculosis, dairy farms, disease prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, mathematical models, dairy breeds, risk assessment, livestock numbers, epidemiology, cattle housing.

Owens, W.E., S.C. Nickerson, R.L. Boddie, G.M. Tomita, and C.H. Ray (2001). Prevalence of mastitis in dairy heifers and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 814-817, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: heifers, Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotics, cephapirin, penicillin novobiocin penicillin streptomycin, tilmicosin, cephalonium, dry cow products, not available in the United States.

Owens, W.E., S.C. Nickerson, and C.H. Ray (1999). Efficacy of parenterally or intramammarily administered tilmicosin or ceftiofur against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis during lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 82(3): 645-647, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, Staphylococcus aureus, mastitis, ceftiofur, antibiotics, application methods, efficacy, lactation, evaluation, dosage, duration, drugs, treatment, somatic cell count, bacteria, milk.

Owens, W.E., S.P. Oliver, B.E. Gillespie, C.H. Ray, and S.C. Mickerson (1998). Role of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in dairy heifers. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(9): 1122-1124, ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: horn flies, mastitis, disease, health, production.

Paulino do L.E., P.A. Vaz, S. Ivanete, de F.V. Pedroso, and do L.L. Alberto (2001). Effect of body condition score at calving on energy metabolism, milk yield and disease occurence in postpartum of dairy cows. [Efeito da Condicao Corporal ao Parto sobre Alguns Parametros do Metabolismo Energetico, Producao de Leite e Incidencia de Doencas no Pos‑Parto de Vacas Leiteiras.] Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 30(5): 1544‑1549.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: Holstein, calf, cow, body condition score, calving, disease occurrence, energy metabolism, milk production, fat content, blood beta‑hydroxybutirate (BHBA), aspartate‑aminotransferase (AST) glucose, lactation, milk yield, parturition, Portuguese language.

Pavlata, L., A. Pechova, and J. Illek (2001). Muscular dystrophy in dairy cows following a change in housing technology. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70 (3): 269‑275, ISSN: 0001‑7213.<
NAL Call No: SF604 B7
Keywords: dairy cows, Bohemian Red Pied, breed, muscle tissue damage, muscular dystrophy, mineral deficiencies, potassium, selenium, stress, downer cows, transport of animals, change in housing, locomotor activity, deaspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase.

Phillips, C.J.C. and S.A. Schofield (1994). The effect of cubicle and straw yard housing on the behaviour, production and hoof health of dairy cows. Animal Welfare 3: 37-44, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: cattle housing, animal welfare, lameness.

Phipps, A.M., L.R. Matthews, and G.A. Verkerk (1995). Tail docked dairy cattle: fly induced behaviour and adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 55: 61-63, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: tail docking, flies, behavior, adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, production.

Platz, S., F. Miller, and J. Unshelm (1999). The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability - the example of tie-in versus loose housing system of dairy cattle. [Auswirkung von haltungsmangeln auf tiergesundheit und wirtschaftlichkeit am beispiel der anbinde- und laufstallhaltung von milchkuhen.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(12): 422-429, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, husbandry, loose housing, tethering, profitability, abnormalities, animal welfare, leukocyte count, checklists, cows, trauma, interviews, milk, milk yield, pregnancy, questionnaires, interviews, economics, qualifications of dairy stockmen, handling of animals, poor management, injury, number of inseminations per pregnancy, age of cow, cell count of milk, milk yield, German language.

Pillai, S.R., E. Kunze, L.M. Sordillo, and B.M. Jayarao (2001). Application of differential inflammatory cell count as a tool to monitor udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1413-1420, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: flow cytometric technique, differential inflammatory cell count, bovine peripheral blood leukocytes, quarter milk samples, mononuclear leukocyte count, polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, udder health status.

Pocknee, B. (1998). Quality milk production: meeting the challenge. In: British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 97-98.
Keywords: economics, dairy farming, bovine mastitis, treatment, teat management, milking machines, animal welfare, milk production, milk production costs, quality standards, prevention, farm management, dairy farms, husbandry, udders, cow culling, United Kingdom.

Polk, C. (2001). Cows, ground surface potentials and earth resistivity. Bioelectromagnetics 22(1): 7‑18.
Keywords: dairy farms, cows, stray voltage, step voltage, long term exposure, soil resistivity, health, milk production.

Porfir'ev, I.A. (2001). Metabolism disturbances in high productive milk cows during unsatisfactory conditions of feeding and keeping. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: 20-40.
Keywords: cows, high producing, Black and White, Kholmogorskaya, breeds, metabolic diseases, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, phosphorus calcium, vitamin A metabolisms, liver function, reproductive disorders.

Prasad, H., R.K. Roychoudhury, and G. Patgiri (2001). Incidence of subclinical mastitis at drying off. Indian Veterinary Journal 78 (4): 316-318, ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Keywords: subclinical mastitis, per cent cow wise, per cent quarter wise, number of lactations.

Rajan, G.H., C.A. Morris, V.R. Carruthers, R.J. Wilkins, and T.T. Wheeler (December 1996). The relative abundance of a salivary protein, bSP30, is correlated with susceptibility to bloat in cattle herds selected for high or low bloat susceptibility. Animal Genetics 27(6): 407-414, ISSN: 0268-9146.
NAL Call No: QP98 A1A5
Keywords: dairy cattle, pasture bloat, economics, animal welfare, salivary proteins, etiology of bloat, cattle grazed on legumes in New Zealand.

Rankin, M. (1998). An overview of nuisance flies on cattle. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 6(1): 59-62, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: disease vectors, disease transmission, Musca autumnalis, Hydrotaea irritans, Morellia simplex, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans, Haematopota pluvialis, Chrysops, Simulium, Culicoides, biology and behavior of flies.

Rasmussen, M.D, J.Y. Blom, L.A.H. Nielsen, and P. Justesen (2001). Udder health of cows milked automatically. Livestock Production Science 72(1‑2): 147‑156, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: automatic milking, cull somatic cell count, new somatic cell count, old somatic cell count, dairy product, monthly cow cell count, new infections, udder health, Denmark.

Reeves, V.B. (1995). Liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of novobiocin residues in bovine milk: interlaboratory study. Journal of AOAC International 78(1): 55-58, ISSN: 1060-3271.
NAL Call No.: S583 A7
Keywords: treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle, novobiocin residues, tolerance, liquid chromatography.

Rothbauer, D.L. (1994). The relationship between production, stress, and the health of dairy cows. Veterinary Medicine 89(12): 1164-1168.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 M69
Keywords: stress, nutrition, management, health, production, housing, handling.

Ruegg, P.L. and L. Sekito (2004). Test characteristics and comparison of methods used to detect subclinical mastitis. Annual Meeting National Mastitis Council. 2004(43): 361-362, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: dairy cows; bovine mastitis; disease detection; diagnostic techniques, asymptomatic infections, bulk milk; California mastitis test, mandatory screening, milk testing, somatic cell count.

Rufenacht, J., P. Schaller, L. Audige, B. Knutti, U. Kupfer, and E. Peterhans (2001). The effect of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on the fertility of Swiss dairy cattle. Theriogenology 56 (2): 199-210, ISSN: 0093‑691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea virus, cattle pathogen, worldwide distribution, protective immunity, immunotolerance, viral invasion of fetuses, epidemiology, viral shedding, infection sources, increased rate of return to estrus, abortion, birth of calves with malformations, fetal deaths, gestation failures, management practices, Switzerland.

Schreiner, D.A.and P.L Ruegg (2002). Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (10): 2503-2511, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail docking, somatic cell count, milk, hygiene, udders, legs, bovine mastitis, pathogens, contagious pathogens, environmental pathogens, stalls, Wisconsin.

Schreiner, D.A. and P.L. Ruegg (2003). Relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores and subclinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 86(11): 3460-3465, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: bovine mastitis, dairy cattle, dairy herds, hygiene, legs, milk, somatic cell count, subclinical mastitis, etiology, prevention and control, husbandry, udders, standards, milk.

Schrick, F.N., M.E. Hockett, A.M. Saxton, M.J. Lewis, H.H. Dowlen, and S.P. Oliver (2001). Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1407-1412, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Jersey, breed, mastitis, subclinical, clinical, early lactation, reproductive performance, quarter foremilk samples, microbiological examination, services per conception, days open, days to first service, reproductive performance.

Schultz, C.E. (1999). Detection of antibiotic residues in cull dairy cows at slaughter. In: Proceedings One Hundred and Third Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, San Diego, California, USA, October 7-14, 1999, p. 277-293, United States Animal Health Association: Richmond, USA.
Keywords: antibiotics, cows, dairy cows, drug residues, antibiotic residues, meat inspection, meat hygiene.

Scott, P.R. (1996). Lameness in dairy cattle. The British Veterinary Journal 152(1): 11-12, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, cattle husbandry, animal welfare.

Seimiya, Y.M., F. Kikuchi, N. Yamaguchi, K. Sugawara, and Y. Nakashima (2001). Effective control of periparturient diseases in dairy cows owing to preparturient feed management practices. Animal Science Journal 72(10): J587‑J593, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, heifer, Holstein, breed, periparturient disease, prevention and control, reproductive system disease, preparturient feed management practices, high energy feeds, gestation, Japanese language.

Simon, K.H. (1997). Health and fertility of dairy cows and veterinary service contracts for herd health care. [Gesundheit und Fruchtbarkeit von Milchkuhen, Service-Vertrag zur Bestandsuberwachung und Gesundheitsvorsorge.] Zuchtungskunde 69(6): 464-470, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: veterinary practice, veterinary medicine, veterinary services dairy, herd medicine, fertility, health, animal welfare, farm management, herds, quality controls, dairy industry, dairy farms, contracts, quality standards, Germany, German language.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, J.W. Hughes, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows in a straw yard in relation to lameness. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 135(11): 251-253, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: housing, straw, lameness, behavior, handling, farmyards, rumination, diurnal variation, cattle housing.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1993). Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(9): 204-208, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: behavior, housing, cubicles, straw, lameness, health, behavior, housing, cubicles.

Singh, S.S., R.D. Murray, and W.R. Ward (1992). Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis. Journal of Comparative Pathology 107(3): 319-328, ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Keywords: histopathology, outer hind claws, overgrown sole, wall epidermis, lameness in diary cattle versus beef cattle.

Sischo, W.M., E.R. Atwill, L.E. Lanyon, and J. George (2000). Cryptosporidia on dairy farms and the role these farms may have in contaminating surface water supplies in the northeastern United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 43(4): 253-267.
NAL Call No.: SF601 P7
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, dairy farms, water contamination, risk factors, surface waters, manure-management practices, on-farm water, stream samples, cryptosporidia shedding.

Sixt, A., C. Stanek and E. Mostl (1997). Effect of different ways of trimming the claws of cows on plasma cortisol concentration. [Der Einfluss verschiedener Methoden der Klauenkorrektur auf den Plasmakortisolspiegel bei der Milchkuh.] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 84(7): 181-188, ISSN: 0043-535X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, stress, restraint, hydrocortisone, claw trimming, German language.

Smith, B.P. (1997). Down cows: causes and treatments. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 43-45.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, paresis, prevention.

Spranger, J. (1998). [Guidelines for prevention and therapy in ecological animal farms as in the example of bovine mastitis]. DTW: Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift 105(8): 321-323, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: dairy cattle, mastitis, forbidden prophylactic use of antibiotics, restricted therapy antibiosis, systematic homeopathic prophylaxis, sanitation measures, false homeopathic medications, German language.

Stefanowska, J., D. Swierstra, C.R. Braam, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2001). Cow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into account. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 87‑103, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, floor type, slatted floors, animal behavior, time, movement, claws, trauma, animal health, animal welfare, cattle dung, farm equipment, time budgets, floor walkability, manure scrapers.

Stehr, W., B. Twele, and L. Rosales (2001). Use of recombinant somatotropin in dairy cows. [Uso de somatotrofina recombinante en vacas lecheras.] Archivos de Zootecnia 50(191): 419‑422, ISSN: 0004‑0592.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR22
Keywords: lactose, recombinant somatotropin, total protein, milk fat, milk production.

Steinhardt, M. And H.H. Thielscher (2001). Heart rate and diurnal rhythmicity in dairy calves at different ages.[Herzfrequenz und Tagesperiodik bei Milchrindkaelbern waehrend der Aufzucht am Traenkeautomaten.] Tieraerztliche Umschau 56(8): 413‑423, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cattle, German Holstein Friesian, German Red Pied, breed, calf age, 5, 15, 40 and 60 days of age, diurnal rhythmicity, heart rate, circadian rhythms, German language.

Stelwagen, K., D.C. van Espen, G.A. Verkerk, H.A. McFadden, and V.C. Farr (1998). Elevated plasma cortisol reduces permeability of mammary tight junctions in the lactating bovine mammary epithelium. Journal of Endocrinology 159: 173-178. ISSN: 0022-0795.
NAL Call No.: 448.8 J8293
Keywords: plasma cortisol, mammary tight junctions, lactation, milking.

Stelwagen, K., G.A. Verkerk, A.H. Phipps, and L.R. Matthews (1997). Effect of cortisol on mammary tight junction (TJ) permeability in lactating dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 50(1): 39-40, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: cortisol, permeability, mammary tight junction.

Stockdale, C.R.(2001). Body condition at calving and the performance of dairy cows in early lactation under Australian conditions: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41(6): 823‑839, ISSN: 0816‑1089.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au792
Keywords: dairy cows, body condition, calving, performance, lactation, stress, nutritional state, pastures, grazing, energy intake, dietary protein, fiber, starch, feed supplements, crude protein, rumen digestion, protein digestibility, reproductive performance, milk composition, milk yield, literature reviews.

Stull, C.L., Payne, M.A., Berry, S.L., and P.J Hullinger (2002). Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (9): 1298-1303, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, tail docking, pain, animal welfare, regulations, methodology, physiological functions, animal behavior, insect control, animal health, public health, literature reviews.

Thilsing, H.T., and R.J. Jorgensen (2001). Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite a administration in the dry period. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (3): 691-693, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dry cows, zeolite feed supplement, parturient calcium status, milk fever, calcium carbonate, drench, blood samples, serum calcium, subclinical hypocalcemia.

Thompson, R.C., R.M. Hopkins, and W.L. Homan (2000). Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitology Today 16(5): 210-213, ISSN: 0169-4758.
NAL Call No.: QL757 P374
Keywords: enteric parasite, zoonotic diseases, humans, dogs, dairy cattle, diarrhea in child-care centers, molecular characterization, morphologically of isolates, taxonomy.

Tucker, C.B., D. Fraser, and D.M. Weary (2001). Tail docking dairy cattle: effects on cow cleanliness and udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (1): 84‑87, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: To determine whether tail docking would influence cow cleanliness and udder health in a free‑stall system, we monitored milking cows after half the animals in a herd were docked. A sample of 223 docked and 190 undocked cows (reducing to 169 and 105 over the study as cows were dried off) were monitored for 8 wk. Cow cleanliness was scored in two areas: along the spine, and the rump adjacent to the tail at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 wk after docking. Cleanliness was evaluated by counting squares that were soiled (0 to 14 on a 5‑ x 17.5‑cm grid) and judging soiling severity on a scale from 0 (clean) to 3 (thickly caked). Udder cleanliness was scored with the same scale (0 to 3) and by counting the number of teats with debris on them. Udder health was assessed by measuring SCC of two milk samples and the number of animals diagnosed as mastitic by the on‑farm veterinarian. No treatment differences were found in four measures of cow cleanliness, two measures of udder cleanliness, or udder health. However, cow cleanliness did differ over time, and analysis of a subsample of cows illustrated individual differences in cleanliness.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail, docking, cow housing, stalls, hygiene, udders, somatic cell count, individual characteristics, machine milking, milkers, animal welfare.

UK, Agriculture Committee, House of Commons (1996). The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime. Volume 2: Minutes of Evidence and Appendices HMSO Publications Centre: London, UK, 431 p., ISSN: 0-10-550236-7.
Keywords: milk production, milk marketing, quotas, farm income, dairy farms, milk processing, milk hygiene, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, animal welfare, somatotropin, tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

UK, Institute of Food Science and Technology (1998). Bovine Somatotropin (BST). Food Science and Technology Today 12(3): 169-176, ISSN: 0950-9623.
NAL Call No.: TX341 F664
Keywords: cows, somatotropin, somatic cell count milk quality, safety, risk, health, mastitis, somatic cell count, legislation, GATT, labelling, health, antibiotic residues, public health, food safety, milk production, United Kingdom, USA, Europe.

Vaarst, M. and C. Enevoldsen (1996). Claw disorders among dairy cows in organic and in deep bedded pack barn systems in Denmark. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a meeting held at the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK, March 27-29, 1996, M.V. Thrusfield and E.A. Goodall (eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine: Roslin, UK, p.185-194, ISSN: 0-94-807324-1.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, floors, litter, hooves, epidemiology, lameness, foot diseases, animal welfare, Denmark.

van Klink, E.G., W.G. de Ruyter, C.D. Sijpkens, P.W. van Ham (March 1995). [Veterinary medicine and organic animal husbandry. III. Animal health in organic dairy farms]. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 120(5): 144-146, ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: organic farms versus conventional farms, stockmen, relationship with animals, disease prevention, selective medicine use, regulations, disease incidence, Dutch language.

van Schaik, G., M. Nielen, and A.A. Dijkhuizen (2001). Biosecurity on dairy farms: the economic benefits. In: Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands March 28‑30, 2001, F.D. Menzies and S.W. J. Reid (eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings, Coventry, UK, p. 175‑185, ISSN: 0956‑7496 ISBN: 0‑948073‑49‑7.
NAL Call No.: SF780.9.S63
Keywords: infectious disease, biosecurity, dairy farms, economic benefits, book chapter.

van Schaik, G. (2001). Risk and economics of disease introduction to dairy farms. [Risico en economie van insleep van ziekten op melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 126(12):414‑8, ISSN: 0040‑7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: closed farming system, disease eradication, transmission, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), direct animal contacts, sales, shows, economic model, Dutch languge.

van der Lende, T., F.A. de Loos, and T. Jorna (January 2000). Postnatal health and welfare of offspring conceived in vitro: a case for epidemiological studies. Theriogenology 53(2): 549-554, ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: in vitro fertilization, humans, livestock, long-term effects on health and welfare of offspring, in vitro culture, blastocyst, epidemiological studies in humans, animal experiments, livestock industry.

Vandenberg, A. (August 14, 2001). Dairy feeding stanchion having flipper locking design. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1249 (2): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098‑1133.
NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Keywords: stanchions, housing, milking, feeding, vertically spaced upper and lower horizontal members, swing pipes, spaced positions, free access, economically feasible manner.

Veissier, I., J. Rushen, D. Colwell, and A.Md. Passille (2000). A laser-based method for measuring thermal nociception of cattle. Russian Journal of Ecology 66(4): 289-304, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: Holstein calves, methodology, thermography, lasers, measurement, temperature, pain, leg lift, tail flick, response latency, animal welfare, health, management.

Ventura, P.G. (1997). Ways of increasing the well-being of high-yielding dairy cows. [Soluzioni per aumentare il benessere delle bovine da latte ad alta produzione.] Informatore Agrario 53(35): 77-79.
Keywords: cow housing, barn roof design, ventilation, drinking water, cubicles, bedding, flooring, skin and foot care, Italy, Italian language.

Verkerk, G.A., A.D. Fisher, C.J. Morrow, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The effects of stressors on milk composition in dairy cows. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 59: 192-194, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: breed, Jersey, stress, feed restriction, bodyweight, lying, milk composition, protein.

Verkerk, G.A., A.M. Phipps, J.F. Carragher, L.R. Matthews, and K. Stelwagen (1998). Characterization of milk cortisol concentrations as measure of short-term stress responses in lactating dairy cows. Animal Welfare 7(1): 77-86, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation, corticotropin, transport, hydrocortisone, concentration, milk, blood plasma, stress, animal welfare.

Vokey F.J., C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and D.M. Galton (2001). Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free‑stall barn. Journal of Dairy Science 84(12): 2686‑99, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy herd, housing, alley surfaces, grooved concrete, rubber mats, free stall beds, deep sand, rubber mattresses, concrete, sawdust, hind claws, hocks, lesions, dorsal wall length, heel depth, toe angle, digital dermatitis, scoring.

Vollebregt, R.J., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and H. van der Wal (2001). From dairy herd health and production management to veterinary consultancy. [Van veterinaire begeleiding naar veterinaire advisering van melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (13): 448-454.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: herd health, production management, programs, veterinary practices, professionally oriented veterinary consultancy, profit gains.

Vos, P. (1999). "The repeat breeder cow," aetiopathogenesis and possible therapies. Cattle Practice 7(1): 93-95, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: ovarian cysts, ovarian diseases, female infertility, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, cows, economics, reproductive disorders, embryo mortality, estrus, fertilization, calving interval, milk production, animal housing, nutrition, calving, animal health, animal welfare, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness, endometritis.

Waage, S., S.A. Odegaard, A. Lund, S. Brattgjerd and T. Rothe (2001). Case control study of risk factors for clinical mastitis in postpartum dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 392-399ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: heifers, risk factors, clinical mastitis, postpartum, blood in the milk, udder edema, teat edema, milk leakage, significant risk factors, Staphylococcus aureus.

WagtendonkdeLeeuw, A.Mv., E. Mullaart, A.P.Wd. Roos, et al. (2000). Effects of different reproduction techniques: AI, MOET or IVP, on health and welfare of bovine offspring. In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Maastricht, The Netherlands, January 9-11, 2000, Vol.53, No.1, S.J. Dieleman (ed.), p. 575-597.
Keywords: MOET, reproduction, birth weight, bulls, calving, culture techniques, congenital abnormalities, embryos, estrus, heart rate, heifers, in vitro culture, malformations, perinatal mortality, semen production, culture, embryo transfer, culture media.

Waiblinger, S., U. Knierim, and C. Winckler,(2001). The development of an epidemiologically based on‑farm welfare assessment system for use with dairy cows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 114‑117, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: animal welfare, assessment, dairy cows, epidemiology, multivariate analysis.

Ward, W. R. (1999). Lameness in dairy cattle, an overview. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(4): 333-340, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: dairy cattle, reviews, lameness, lesions, foot diseases, dermatitis, animal welfare, pain, economics, risk factors, physiology, locomotion, animal behavior, cattle housing.

Ward, J.L. and W.C. Rebhun (1992). Chronic frontal sinusitis in dairy cattle: 12 cases (1978-1989). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201(2): 326-328, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dehorning, respiratory tract, Actinomyces pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida, infection, clinical signs, anorexia, lethargy, fever, frontal bone distortion, exophthalmos, abnormal posture, nasal discharge, neurologic abnormalities, treatment, drainage and lavage of the sinus cavity, antibiotics, analgesics.

Warnick, L.D., D. Janssen, C.L. Guard, and Y.T. Grohn (2001). The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9):1988‑1997, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: foot abscess, foot rot, foot ulcer, lameness, milk production, treatment, New York, USA.

Warnick, L.D., L.M. Crofton, K.D. Pelzer, and M.J. Hawkins (2001). Risk factors for clinical salmonellosis in Virginia, USA cattle herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (3 4): 259-275ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: clinical salmonellosis, fecal samples, water samples, feed samples, Salmonella Typhimurium, significant factors, number of mature cows in herd, calves born in a buildings, poultry manure spread on bordering property, rodents infestation, wild geese.

Weber, M.F., and J. Verhoeff (2001). Integrated disease control in dairy herds: A case study from the veterinarians' viewpoint. [Integrale dierziektebestrijding op melkveebedrijven: visie van rundveedierenartsen op een casus.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (10): 340-345.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: disease control, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella Dublin, economic benefits, culling, Netherlands.

Weber, M.F., and J. Verhoeff (2001). Prevalence of chronic wasting in Dutch dairy herds with a history of chronic health problems. [Prevalentie van slijtend rundvee op nederlandse melkveebedrijven met een historie van chronische gezondheidsproblemen.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126(6): 180-183.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: Dutch dairy farms, chronic wasting, health problems, cull rates, mortality.

Webster, A.J.F. (2001). Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 56‑65, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: This paper describes a systematic study of the development of lesions of the claw horn (CHL, sole and white line) in heifers calving for the first time, housed either in cubicles or a straw yard and fed either a low‑ or high‑dry‑matter forage diet. The feet of all animals were inspected on five occasions, at approximately four weeks before and four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks post calving. Haemorrhagic lesions of the sole and white line were described according to a geometric lesion score for severity and a cumulative lesion score based on the product of (severity x area) for each lesion. Geometric and cumulative lesion scores increased in all groups of cattle in the first eight weeks after calving. However, the severity and persistence of the lesions were significantly greater in cattle housed in cubicle yards. Wet feeding increased the severity of CHL in the cubicle yard only. There were no associations between lesion scores and body weight, body condition or foot conformation. The heels of the cattle in straw yards tended to be thick but many showed pitting erosions. In cubicles the heels were smooth but thin. This may have contributed to CHL by increasing concussive forces within the hoof. There was a highly significant (but relatively low) correlation between scores for sole lesions and lameness in individual animals. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that systemic events associated with calving and the onset of lactation may set in motion the chain of events that lead to the lesions of CHL; the extent and severity of these lesions being then determined by the externally imposed conditions of housing and feeding.
Keywords: heifers, calving, lactation, cow housing, cubicles,straw yards, forage, dry matter, cattle feeding, moisture, interactions, claws, lesions, body weight, body condition, risk factors, hemorrhage, conformation, feet, lameness, etiology.

Webster, A.J.F. (1997). The role of the bovine practitioner in cattle welfare. Presented at the XIX World Buiatrics Congress, Edinburgh, UK, July 8-12, 1996, Vol.32, No.31.2, p.10-15.
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, lameness, metabolic disorders, bovine mastitis, milk production.

Weller, R.F. and P.J. Bowling (2000). Health status of dairy herds in organic farming dairy cows. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 46(3): 80-81, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: organic farming, farm management, dairy herds, health, organic farming, diseases, bovine mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, bulk milk, somatic cell count, incidence, cubicles, straw yards.

Wells, S.J., S.L. Ott, and A.H. Seitzinger (November 1998). Key health issues for dairy cattle: new and old. Journal of Dairy Science 81(11): 3029-3035, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to use available information to evaluate the relative importance of various health issues affecting dairy cattle. In addition to traditional ranking using evaluation methods based on impacts to animal productivity, this paper considers zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns. Traditional production costs rank mastitis, reproductive problems, and lameness as the top dairy cattle diseases. When the other areas of importance are included, the top-ranked diseases change to include salmonella, Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhea-associated disease, and mastitis. Researchers in the dairy industry may want to reevaluate their criteria for setting research priorities to include zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns.
Keywords: dairy cows, health, milk production, health issues affecting dairy cattle, zoonotic risks, international trade implications, animal welfare concerns, mastitis, reproductive problems, lameness, dairy cattle diseases, salmonella, Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhea, review, bovine mastitis, production costs, bovine diarrhea virus, paratuberculosis, zoonoses, cryptosporidiosis, foodborne diseases, international trade, decision making, research projects, dairy research.

Westwood, C.T., and L.J. Lean (2001). Nutrition and lameness in pasture‑fed dairy cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 128‑134, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: hoof, health, rumen, digestive system, diseases, chronic ruminal acidosis, digestive system disease, metabolic disease, lameness, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention and control, laminitis, bone disease, connective tissue disease, joint disease, endotoxins, histamine, lactic acid, nutrient detergent fiber, protein, degradation, serotonin, trace elements, inadequate uptake, nutrition, pH, fiber content, moisture content, New Zealand.

Whay, H.R., A.E., A.E. Waterman, A.J.F. Webster, and J.K. O'Brien (1998). The influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Journal 156: 23-29, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Keywords: health, lameness, claw lesions, hyperalgsia, nociceptive threshold, milking.

Whay, H.R., A.E. Waterman and A.J.F. Webster (1997). Associations between locomotion, claw lesions and nociceptive threshold in dairy heifers during the peri-partum period. The Veterinary Journal 154 (2): 155-161, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Abstract: The locomotion of 15 heifers was examined at fortnightly intervals over a 4 month peri-partum period. Measurements were made of the development of gait abnormalities, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds, and severity and size of sole lesions observed in the hind claws. All heifers developed lesions at, or shortly after, parturition, and in seven animals this induced marked lameness. Abnormalities of gait were related more to the severity, than to the size of the lesion. Lameness was associated with a significant increase in sensitivity to mechanical noxious stimuli applied to the lame leg but not to a thermal stimulus applied to the ear. This study demonstrated interactions between lameness, claw lesions and the development of hyperalgesia in heifers during the post-partum period.
Keywords: heifers, gait, claws, lesions, pain, prepartum period, postpartum interval, lameness, predisposition.

Whitaker, D.A., J.M. Kelly, and S. Smith (2000). Disposal and disease rates in 340 British dairy herds. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 146(13): 363-367, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: disposal rates, disease rates, health.

White, L.J., Y.H., Schukken, T.J.G.M. Lam, G. F. Medley, and M.J. Chappell (2001). A multispecies model for the transmission and control of mastitis in dairy cows. Epidemiology and Infection 127 (3): 567‑576, ISSN: 0950‑2688.
NAL Call No: RA651 A1E74
Keywords: bovine mastitis, cows, dairy cows, disease control, disease transmission, mastitis,

Wiederkehr, T.U., K. Friedli, and B. Wechsler (2001). Influence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systems. [Einfluss von regelmassigem Auslauf auf das Vorkommen und den Schweregrad von Sprunggelenksschaden bei Milchvieh im Anbindestall.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 163‑170.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, disease prevention, exercise, joint diseases, hock lesions, lameness, exercise, lying area, litter, German language.

Wilson, J.H. (July 1992) The art of physical diagnosis. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice 8(2): 169-176, ISSN: 0749-0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy cattle, sick animals, physical examination of food animals, physical and rectal, sample recording form.

Winckler, C., and S. Willen (2001). The reliability and repeatability of a lameness scoring system for use as an indicator of welfare in dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 103‑107, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, lameness, scoring system, inter‑observer repeatability, lesions, sole disorders, locomotion, methodology.

Wolf,V., H. Hamann, H. Scholz, and O. Distl (2001). Systematic effects on the occurrence of abomasal displacements in German Holstein cows. [Systematische einfluesse auf das auftreten von labmagenverlagerungen bei Deutschen Holstein Kuehen.] Zuechtungskunde 73 (4): 257-265, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cows, German Holstein,breed, risk factors, abomasal displacement, genetic disposition, percent left abomasal displacement, percent right abomasal displacement, influence of calving month, the lactation number, age at calving, calving performance, duration of pregnancy, inbreeding coefficient, did not explain a significant part of the variation of the frequency of the abomasal displacement.

Wolferstan, F. (2001). A preliminary report on a study of BSE in cattle in relation to farm husbandry: its possible relevance to vCJD and infertility problems in humans. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 11 (3): 205‑216, ISSN: 1359‑0847.
NAL Call No.: RM214 J68
Keywords: farm survery, questionnaire, agricultural chemicals, organophosphorus compounds, breeding, husbandry, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, calves, copper, dams (mothers), suckler herds, trace element deficiencies, etiology vCJD, human infertility problems, United Kingdom.

Woolhouse, M.E., D.T. Haydon, A. Pearson, and R.P. Kitching (1996). Failure of vaccination to prevent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease. Epidemiology and Infection 116(3): 363-371, ISSN: 0950-2688.
NAL Call No.: RA651 A1E74
Keywords: dairy cattle, vaccine trials, antibody responses following vaccination, mathematical model, Saudi Arabia.

Zadnik, T. (1998). Herd health management and dairy production strategies in Slovenia in the 21st century. Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana 36(1): 129-141, ISSN: 0353-8044.
NAL Call No.: SF604 L51
Keywords: cows, dairy herds, dairy farms, health, production, animal welfare, biotechnology, breeding programs, milk composition, consumer preferences, data collection, feeding, feed formulation, milk, lactose, metabolic disorders, milk production, disease prevention, udders, milk fat, milk protein, environment, pollutants, intensive farming, genetic engineering, computers, information technology, data processing, trends, Slovenia.

Yamada, A. (2001). The potential pathway of dioxins in grassland husbandry. Grassland Science 47 (1): 72-79.
NAL Call No.: 60.9 J27
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, produced during combustion processes, by products of the manufacture of chlorinated compounds, environmental contaminants, cow's milk, beef, animal fat, forage sampling, field investigation.

Young, F., D. Platt, D. Logue, H. Ternent, and J. Fitzpatrick (2001). Bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis: Strain recognition and dynamics of infection. Journal of Dairy Research 68(3): 377‑388, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, pathogen, strain variation, mastitis, bacterial disease.


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Table of Contents

Housing

Adrighetto, I., F. Gottardo, D. Andreoli, and G. Cozzi. (1999). Effect of type of housing on veal calf growth performance, behaviour and meat quality. Livestock Production Science 57(2): 137-145, ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: veal calves, housing system, behavior, weight gain, meat quality, housing, growth, growth performance, meat quality.

Alban, L. (1996). Assessing and managing welfare in a Danish dairy herd: problems and a proposal. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 262-266, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, animal welfare assessment, health, management, cattle diseases, foot diseases, clinical examinations, Denmark.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 2. Housing systems and grazing procedures in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 65-77, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, health, questionnaires, surveys, descriptive epidemiology, tie stall environments, lameness, feeding, pasture grazing, recommendations, partitions, cubicles, saw dust, resting area, housing systems.

Amon, B., T. Amon, J. Boxberger, and C. Alt (2001). Emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 from dairy cows housed in a farmyard manure tying stall (housing, manure storage, manure spreading). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60 (1/3): 103‑113, ISSN: 1385‑1314.
NAL Call No: S631 F422
Keywords: air pollution, ammonia, composting, cow housing, tie stalls, dairy cows, emission, farmyard manure, fermentation, methane, nitrous oxide, stacking, manure treatment.

Amon, T., J. Boxberger, P. Schatz, and C. Kummernecker (1997). Evaluating the suitability of dairy husbandry systems in terms of animal welfare by means of a comparative analysis of the models TGI 35 L/1995 and TGI 200/1994. [Beurteilung der Tiergerechtheit von Milchviehhaltungssystemen anhand einer vergleichenden Modellanalyse TGI 35 L/1995 und TGI 200/1994.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland, No.45, p. 24-35.
Keywords: cows, husbandry, cattle housing, dairy farming, animal welfare, models, evaluation, quality standards, testing, comparisons, German language.

Aneshansley, D.J., and R.C. Gorewit (1999). Sensitivity of Holsteins to 60 Hz and other waveforms present on dairy farms. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 13 p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3 A54
Keywords: dairy farms, lactating Holstein cows, animal welfare, electricity, electric current, steady state, transient and momentary waveforms.

Barash, H., N. Silanikove, A. Shamay, and E. Ezra (2001). Interrelationships among ambient temperature, day length and milk yield in dairy cows under a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (10): 2314‑2320, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein, breed, calving season, dairy performance, daylight, photoperiod, Mediterranean climate, environmental temperature, temperature patterns, effects on lactation, milk protein yield, milk yield, stress, stress response.

Barrington, S. (1999). Comfort of cows in tethered housing. [Le confort de la vache en stabulation entravee.] Producteur de Lait Quebecois 19(5): 22-26, ISSN: 0228-1686.
Keywords: cow housing, tethered housing, design, animal welfare, rest, feeding, cattle housing, milk yield, French language.

Bergmann, J. and W. Heuwieser (2000). Cow-comfort: optimal performance only possible under optimal conditions. Cubicle design. [Kuh-Komfort: optimale Leistung nur durch optimale Bedingungen. Liegeboxengestaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(2): 68-71, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cows, animal welfare, design, housing, dairy cattle, German language.

Bergmann, J., J. Kluth, and W. Heuwieser (2000). Cow comfort: optimal keeping only possible under optimal conditions. Part 1: behaviour and cattle housing. [Kuh-Komfort: optimale Leistung nur durch optimale Bedingungen. Teil 1: Verhaltungsbiologie und Stallgestaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(1): 14-16, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cows, cattle farming, behavior, cattle housing, animal welfare, German language.

Berry, E.A. (1998). Mastitis incidence in straw yards and cubicles. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 142(19): 517-518, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle housing, cubicles, yards, bovine mastitis, winter, lameness, bulk milk, leukocyte count, dairy herds, animal welfare.

Bewley, J., R.W. Palmer, and D.B. Jackson‑Smith (2001). A comparison of free‑stall barns used by modernized Wisconsin dairies. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 528‑541, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No: 44.8 J822.
Abstract: A primary objective of the Wisconsin Dairy Modernization Survey was to compare features of free‑stall barns available to dairy producers. This study used data from a large random sample of expanding dairy farms to determine whether the theoretical benefit of particular free‑stall configurations bear out under on‑farm conditions. Comparisons were made among herds using free‑stall barns as their primary housing for new versus remodeled facilities, barn design, bedding used, feed‑delivery design, manure removal strategies, animal restraint, maternity areas, overcrowding, and cooling methods. Producers who made the transition from tie‑stall housing to free‑stall housing were satisfied with this decision. New free‑stall barns provided a more desirable environment for the herds than remodeled free‑stall barns, although initial investments were higher. When new free‑stall barns were compared, herds with four‑row barns had higher production, lower somatic cell count, and higher stocking rates than herds with six‑row barns. Respondents were more satisfied with four‑ and six‑row barns than with two‑ and three‑row barns. Respondents felt sand provided some advantages for cow comfort, while satisfaction with bedding cost and manure handling was higher with mattresses. Dairy Herd Improvement data showed no difference in milk production or somatic cell count for producers who chose sand or mattress‑based free stalls. Respondents were more satisfied with the use of drive‑through feeding than other feed‑delivery designs. Most producers chose to use tractor scrapers to remove manure; however, producers who used automated systems were more satisfied with manure management. Few differences were observed when comparing self‑locking head gates to palpation rails. Overcrowding did not have any adverse affect on production or user satisfaction with feed intake or cow comfort. Using supplemental cooling appeared to facilitate higher production.
Keywords: dairy farms, dairy herds, expansion, barns, stalls, cow housing, litter, sand, mats, animal welfare, cattle dung, waste disposal, milk production, stocking density, building, construction, somatic cell count, cattle husbandry, mobile feeders, restraint of animals, calving, pens, cow comfort, new barns, remodeled barns, drive‑through feeding, Wisconsin.

Bickert, W.G. and G.W. Atkeson (1997). Dry cow facilities: early dry, pre-calving and maternity. In: Livestock Environment 5, Volume 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, May 29-31, 1997, No.1, R.W. Bottcher and S.J. Hoff (eds.) American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 1063-1068, ISSN: 0-92-935584-9.
NAL Call No.: SF91 L58 1997.
Keywords: cow housing, cow comfort, barn design, management, dairy farms, stalls.

Blanken, K., and J. van Lent (2001). Reduced ammonium emission with steel grids. [Lagere ammoniakemissie bij stalen roosters.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14(2): 29‑30, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: ammonium, housing, cattle manure, dairy cows, emission, floors, steel grid floor, steel grid floor and top layer covered by sand, steel grid floor and grooved top layer temperature, concrete grid floors, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Blanken, K., H.J. van Dooren, and M. de Haan (2001). New housing for young cattle at the low cost farm. [Nieuwe jongveestal op het lagekostenbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (5): 11‑13, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: calves, calf housing costs, investment, comparison of different types of housing Dutch language, Netherlands

Blanken, K., J. van Lent, and G. Smolders (2001). Claw health on steel grids is also good. [Klauwgezondheid op stalen roosters ook goed.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (2): 1‑3, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, health, animal welfare, steel floors, concrete grid floors concrete, feeding behavior, feet, floors, foot diseases.

Bockisch, F.J., T. Jungbluth, and A. Rudovsky (1999). Technical indicators for evaluation of housing systems for cattle, pigs and laying hens relating to animal welfare. Zuechtungskunde 71(1): 38-63, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cattle, chickens, laying hens, pigs, production, animal welfare, climate control, feed supply, floor design, housing system, evaluation indicators, waste handling, water supply, German language.

Bockisch, F.J. (1996) Aspects of animal-friendly loose housing for dairy cows. [Aspekte zu tierangepassten Laufstall sustemen fur Milchkuhe.] KTBL-Arbeitspapier 233: 149-156, ISSN: 0930-0295.
NAL Call No.: S674.43 G3K8
Keywords: dairy farms, cow housing, automation, loose housing versus stanchion systems, animal welfare, ergonomics, labor, costs, free movement, lying and feeding area, cow size, milk yields, conference paper.

Bodman, G.R. (1994/1995). Designing the Cow Environment for Comfort Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln (65-A): 31-32.
NAL Call No.: 100 N27M
Keywords: cow housing, design, dairy hygiene.

Bolinger, D.J., J.L. Albright, J. MorrowTesch, and S.J. Kenyon, and M.D. Cunningham (1997). The effects of restraint using self-locking stanchions on dairy cows in relation to behavior, feed intake, physiological parameters, health, and milk yield. Journal of Dairy Science 80(10): 2411-2417, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Holstein cows (n = 64) ranging from peak to end lactation were restrained in self-locking stanchions (i.e., head locks) for approximately 4 h/d for four periods in a modified switchback design. Milk yield, milk fat percentage, somatic cell count, and dry matter intake and dry matter intake were unaffected by restraint. Milk protein percentage was significantly lower for cows that were restrained. Plasma cortisol concentrations and the ratio of neutrophils to mononuclear cells were not significantly different between restrained and unrestrained (control) cows. No difference in the incidence of mastitis or other health concerns was noted. Behaviorally, cows that were locked in the stanchions spent significantly more time lying after release from restraint. For cows that were locked up, eating frequency over 24 h was significantly reduced, but dry matter intake was not affected. Total rumination frequency over 24 h was not significantly different for cows that were restraubed; however, cows that were restrained ruminated less during the day following release. Grooming was considered to be a behavioral need and was significantly increased during all times when cows were not locked up. Grooming was also one of the first behaviors performed following release. Acts of aggression were elevated during all periods following restraint, but oral behaviors, such as tongue playing and chewing on objects, drinking behavior, and resting postures were not affected. The use of self-locking stanchions did not appear to affect substantially the overall well-being of the cow.
Keywords: dairy cows, restraint of animals, milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, animal welfare, somatic cell count, feed intake, dry matter, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, blood picture, agonistic behavior, physical activity, pastures, rumination, eating, grooming, drinking, self locking stanchions, tethering, restraint, behavior, grooming, tongue playing, chewing objects, animal welfare, feed intake, milk yield, health, milk composition, milk fat, milk protein, hydrocortisone, plasma cortisol, neutrophils, somatic cell.

Borell, E. von, and S. van den Weghe (1999). Development of criteria for the assessment of housing systems for cattle, pigs and laying hens in relation to animal welfare and environmental impact. [Erarbeitung von messbaren Kriterien fur die Einschatzung von Haltungsverfahren fur Rinder, Schweine und Legehennen bezuglich ihrer Tiergerechtheit und Umweltwirkung.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 8-16, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: housing, poultry, cattle, pig, animal welfare, environmental impact, economics, feeding, manures, waste disposal, German language.

Boxberger, J., T. Amon, and B. Amon (1996). Trends in development of dairy cow housing. [Stallbauliche Entwicklungstendenzen in der Milchviehhaltung.] Praktische Tierarzt 77: 35-40, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, housing, behavior, movement, animal welfare, design, trends, German language.

Brade, W. (1999). Recommendations for appropriate humane housing for dairy cattle. [Empfehlungen zur tiergerechten Milchrinderhaltung.] Tierarztliche Umschau 54(12): 692-698, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, cubicles, tethered, loose housing milking parlors, computers, milking machines, hygiene, automation, animal welfare, German language.

Brunsch, R., J. Trilk, D. May, and O. Kaufmann (2001). Large open‑front dairy cow house with automatic milking system in Gross Kreutz. Landtechnik 56 (4): 262‑263, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: cow housing, dairy farming, design, milking machines, milking robots, design, German language, Germany.

Buenger, A, V. Ducrocq, and H.H. Swalve (2001). Analysis of survival in dairy cows with supplementary data on type scores and housing systems from a region of northwest Germany. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1531‑1541, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: In survival analysis, type traits can be included as covariates to evaluate their use as predictors for survival. One problem in such an analysis is the availability of suitable data. Whereas data on the length of productive life (LPL) of individual cows can be retrieved from milk recording data, for type traits, all cows in the population must be scored for type at least once. In the present analysis, a dataset from the Osnabruck region in northwestern Germany, which fulfilled this requirement in recent years, was used. Data consisted of 169,733 cows with information on LPL for calving years 1980 to 1996 (dataset I) and of 39,233 cows with information on LPL and type for calving years 1990 to 1996 (dataset II). A further dataset (III) contained 43,116 cows from calving years 1987 to 1996 and included information on the housing system for each herd. The basic model included stage of lactation, relative production within herd, change of herd size, and year‑season as time dependent effects; age at calving as a time‑independent effect; and herd‑year‑season and sire as random effects. Other effects (information on type, housing system) were included additionally. For dataset II, the scores for 15 linear type traits were also included as corrected phenotypic values, estimated breeding values, and residuals from a previous BLUP analysis. The package Survival Kit 3.0 was used for all analyses. The results indicate a moderate heritability of 0.17 and 0.18 for true and functional LPL (dataset I). Almost all type traits analyzed (dataset II) exceeded a 0.001 level of significance in their effect on survival. The strongest relationships between survival and type were found for udder depth, fore udder attachment, and front teat placement. The main result from the comparison of housing systems (dataset III) was that bedding has a positive effect on survival.
Keywords: dairy cows, survival, housing, prediction, milk yield, calving, livestock numbers, temporal variation, phenotypes, Germany.

Busato, A., P. Trachsel, J.W. Blum (May 2000). Frequency of traumatic cow injuries in relation to housing systems in Swiss organic dairy herds. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A. 47(4): 221-229, ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5
Keywords: dairy herds, dairy cows, housing, trauma, risk factors, risk assessment, organic farming, animal welfare, nutritional state, milk yield, body condition, lesions, husbandry.

Caenegem, L. van, and J.M. Anceau (2001). Cattle houses in mountain areas (Engadin): optimized cold house or warm house. [Rindviehstalle im Berggebiet (Engadin): Kaltstall oder Warmstall optimieren.] FAT‑Berichte, Switzerland (No.572), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland,12p., ISSN: 1018‑502X.
NAL Call No.: S671.B55
Keywords: building materials, carbon dioxide, cattle housing, costs, cows, design, heat, nurse cows, relative humidity, roofs, snow, temperature, bulletin, Switzerland.

Caenegem, L.V. and H.K. Messerli (1997). The Open Yard Attached to Loose Housing for Dairy Cows. Ethological and Construction Aspects. [Der Laufhof Fur Den Milchvieh-Laufstall. Ethologische Und Bauliche Aspekte.] No. 504, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland, 8p.
Keywords: dairy cattle, health, animal welfare, seasonal behavior, housing, stalls, outdoor yards, Switzerland German language.

Calamari, L., M.G. Maianti, V. Cappa, and E. Frazzi (1995). The influence of air speed on yield and milk characteristics in dairy cows during summer. Annali della Facolta di Agraria 35(1/2): 95-107, ISSN: 0540-049X.
NAL Call No.: 16 M582
Keywords: milk composition, milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, lactation, ventilation, housing, summer, heat stress, temperature, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, hydrocortisone, respiration, pH, Italy.

Carlsson, H. (1999). Cubicles for dairy cows in loose housing dimensions and partition design for more comfort and cleaner cows. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet: Institution for lantbruksteknik, Uppsala, Sweden, 47 p., ISSN: 0283-0086.
NAL Call No.: S760.S8 U6 no. 236
Keywords: housing, loose, design, comfort, animal welfare.

Chaplin, S., and L. Munksgaard (2001). Evaluation of simple method for assessment of rising behaviour in tethered dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 191‑197, ISSN: 1357‑7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, tethered housing, posture, rest, duration, lactation stage, lactation number, physical activity, animal behavior, animal welfare.

Chaplin, S.J., G. Tierney, C. Stockwell, D.N. Logue, and M. Kelly (2000). An evaluation of mattresses and mats in two dairy units. Russian Journal of Ecology 66(4): 263-272, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: cows, comfort, mats, floors, litter, ethylethene vinyl acetate, loose rubber crumb with a polypropylene cover, body condition, feed intake, body weight, trauma, hock and knee injury, lameness, locomotion, milk composition, milk yield, milk quality, somatic cell count, feeding, ruminating, and lying behavior, animal welfare, United Kingdom.

Chua, B., E. Coenen, J. van Delen, and D. Weary (2002). Effects of pair versus individual housing on the behavior and performance of dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 85(2): 360‑4, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: health, performance, behavior, individually and pair‑housed calves, milk fed, ad libitum, artificial teats, single pen, group pen, pair‑housed calves.

Cielejewski, H. (1997). Experience with cold housing for dairy cows. [Erfahrungen mit Kaltstallen fur Milchvieh.] Landtechnik 52(4): 204-205, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: winter, cold zones, cold resistance, cold tolerance, frost, temperature, snow, cattle housing, cow housing, behavior, animal welfare, non-insulated, frozen ball drinkers, frozen silage, frozen slurries, Germany, German language.

Collins, E.R., J.M. Swisher, T.M. Younos, B.B. Ross, R.F. Shank, and K.G. Wooden (1998). Dairy loafing lot rotational management systems for improving animal well-being and water quality. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 28-30 January 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 336-345, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998.
Keywords: cows, best management practice, cleanliness of cattle, mastitis, grass paddock, earth-surfaced paddock, total dissolved solids, fecal and total coliforms, Escherichia coli, farm management, animal welfare.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Damasceno, J.C., F. Baccari, and L.A. Targa (1999). Behavior responses of Holstein dairy cows with constant or limited access to shade. [Respostas comportamentais de vacas Holandesas, com acesso a sombra constante ou limitada.] Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34(4): 709-715, ISSN: 0100-204X.
NAL Call No.: S15 P452
Keywords: behavior, limited, shade, feeding behavior, heat stress, housing, thermal comfort, rumination, rest, water intake, language, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Demmers, T.G.M., V.R. Phillips, L.S. Short, L.R. Burgess, R.P. Hoxey, and C.M. Wathes (2001). Validation of ventilation rate measurement models and the ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy and beef buildings in the United Kingdom. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79(1): 107‑116, ISSN: 0021‑8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Abstract: Measurements of ammonia emission, especially from cattle buildings, are needed to assess the environmental impact of ammonia. There are no data available for cattle buildings in the United Kingdom because most buildings are naturally ventilated and methods for long‑term measurement of emission from naturally ventilated buildings have not been developed. Two measurement methods, based on either the release of a tracer gas or on the pressure difference across ventilation openings, were validated in a full‑scale cross‑section of a naturally ventilated livestock building against a known release rate of a gaseous pollutant at high and low wind speeds. A good correlation between the measured and the actual release rates was found for the tracer gas method with an average recovery rate of 108%. The method based on pressure difference failed to estimate the ventilation rate correctly when only measured pressure coefficients were used, because the measurements of mass flow rates in and out through all openings of the building failed to balance. The traditional approach, based on measured values for the external pressure coefficients and an estimate of the internal coefficient balanced the flow through the building by definition, but failed to estimate the actual emission rate correctly. Current knowledge of the discharge coefficient for the opening designs of the building is insufficient for the pressure difference method to be used to estimate the ventilation rate. Using the tracer method, measurements were carried out between February and May 1996 in a straw‑based beef house and a slurry‑based dairy cow house with cubicles and scraped passage ways. The buildings were space boarded and had a covered ridge. The ammonia emission was estimated to be 3.5 and 8.9 kg NH3 per livestock unit per year for the beef and dairy buildings, respectively.
Keywords: ammonia, pollutants, emission, natural ventilation, animal housing, U.K.

Demmers, T.G.M., V.R. Phillips, L.S. Short, L.R. Burgess, R.P. Hoxey, and C.M. Wathes (2001). Validation of ventilation rate measurement methods and the ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy and beef buildings in the United Kingdom. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79 (1): 107‑116, ISSN: 0021‑8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Keywords: air pollution, ammonia, housing, straw-based beef house, slurry‑based dairy cow house with cubicles, emission, mass flow, measurement, methodology, natural ventilation, tracer techniques, United Kingdom.

Dirksen, G. (1996). Faults of housing and management as a cause of claw and leg disease in cattle: I. Faulty rebuilding of a stanchion-barn into a loose housing with cubicles and slatted floor. [Stallbau- und Haltungsfehler als Ursache von Klauen- und Gliedmassenerkrankungen in Rinderbestanden.] Praktische Tierarzt 77(10): 924-932, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicles, slatted floors, improper installation, design defects, feet, hooves, animal welfare, foot diseases, diseases, cattle diseases, Germany, German language.

Dobson, T. (1999). Getting the Most From Cubicle Housing Comparisons of Dairy Cow Housing in Eastern Europe and North America. Nuffield Farming Scholarships: Trust (NFST), Uckfield, UK, 19 p., ISBN: 1-90-180181-0.
Keywords: dairy farms, housing, mechanization, animal welfare, management, calf housing, bedding, tethered housing, free stalls, cubicles, labor costs, Europe, North America.

Dooren, H.J. van, and K. Blanken (2001). Walking on closed floors with furrows: less skidding on floors with profile.[Begaanbaarheid van dichte vloeren beter met groeven: minder slippartijen op geprofileerde vloeren. Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (6): 13‑15, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: cows, health, animal welfare, cattle housing, walking, skidding, dairy farming, floors, Netherlands.

Dumelow, J. (Winter 1995). Testing cubicle mats for dairy cows. The Agricultural Engineer 50(4): 17-21, ISSN: 0308-5732.
NAL Call No.: 58.9 In7
Keywords: dairy cows, cubicles, mats, design, materials, hardness, durability, abrasion resistance, animal welfare, physical properties, hygiene.

Egan, J., N. Leonard, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 1: Data on housing, calving and calf husbandry. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(8): 388‑392, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: farmer questionnaire, calving assistance, housing, cubicles, nutrition, animal welfare.

Ekelund, K., A. Herlin, P. Michanek, and M. Ventorp (1998). Simplified Floor Constructions in Cubicles for Cattle. [Forenklade Golv-Konstruktioner I Liggbas For Notkreatur I Losdrift.] Report No.230, Institutionen for Jordbrukets Biosystem och Teknologi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet: Lund, Sweden, 46p.
Keywords: housing, lying behavior, floors, cubicles, sand, litter/bedding, sand/sawdust mixture on compacted tarmac, sawdust on a soft rubber, concrete, lying behaviour, hygiene of lying area, contamination of soil, costs, comfort, health, animal behavior, animal welfare, comparison between countries, Sweden, USA, Swedish language.

Ferrante, V., E. Canali, M.Verga, S. Mattiello, F. Monti, and F. Gottardo (1999). Veal calves rearing: behavioural, physiological and pathological indicators. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari (eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, p. 575-577, ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5 R432 1999
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, abnormal behavior, veal calves, cattle housing, animal husbandry.

Flaba, J. (1995). Improving the comfort of fettering in stalls [for cows]. [L'amelioration du confort des stabulations entravees.] Agricontact 275: 27-29, ISSN: 0770-285X.
Keywords: cow housing, tethering, stalls, Belgium, French language.

Fleming, M.W. (1998). Experimental inoculations with Ostertagia ostertagi or exposure to artificial illumination alter peripheral cortisol in dairy calves (Bos taurus). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 119A(1): 315-319.
NAL Call No.: QP1 C6
Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted on dairy calves (Bos taurus) to assess, by way of circulating cortisol, the impact of a parasitic infection as a systemic stressor. The first study was designed to assess the effects of chronic stress on dairy calves resulting from a large bolus inoculation of the nematode parasite, Ostertagia ostertagi. Peripheral cortisol concentrations and adrenal cortical competency to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge were utilized as indicators of chronic stress for 5 weeks. Calves were cleared of nematodes by anthelminthic treatment after the third week of infection. Calves were challenged with ACTH on weeks 0 and 2, and blood samples were obtained at a 12 x 10-min bleeding schedule. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the infected calves than in the uninfected calves. The maximal response level to the ACTH challenge was also higher while the calves were infected. Two additional experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of experimental procedures that became evident during Experiment 1. Firstly, calves that had previously been fitted with jugular cannulae were sampled from 3 hr predawn until 5 hr after dawn under red-or white-light incandescent illumination. Calves under red lights had lower initial cortisol concentrations but increased to the concentrations in calves under white lights, indicating a compounding effect of lighting with the procedures of blood-sample acquisition. Secondly, 12 calves were inoculated with 10,000, 100,000, or 200,000 third-stage, infective larvae of O. ostertagi. Blood samples were obtained similarly to the regimen in Experiment 1. Cortisol concentrations were elevated only in the 200,000-dose.
Keywords: cortisol, dairy calves, experimental infections, parasite, nematode, stress, adrenal glands, lighting, well-being.

Forshell, K.P. (1999). Hoof diseases: a hidden problem. [Klauvsjukdommer: et skjult problem!] Buskap 51(3): 20-21.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: foot diseases, health, productivity, hooves, floors, animal welfare, dairy cattle, cows, Norwegian language, Sweden, Norway.

Frazzi, E. (2001). Protection against extreme heat on dairy farms. [Le difese contro il caldo estremo nell'allevamento bovino da latte.] Informatore Agrario 57(21): 50‑56, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy farming, housing, heat, temperature, cooling systems, design, water sprayers, location, ventilation, ventilators, water, Italian language.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, and F. Calegari, and L. Stefanini (2000). Behavior of dairy cows in response to different barn cooling systems. Transactions of the ASAE 43(2): 387-394, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Keywords: cooling, heat stress, climate, feeding, milk yield, relative humidity, summer, cow housing, behavior, milk quality, environmental temperature, Italy.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, and F. Calegari (1998). Dairy cows heat stress index including air speed parameter. Rivista di Ingegneria Agraria 29(2): 91-96, ISSN: 0304-0593.
NAL Call No.: S671 R5
Keywords: ventilation, sprinklers, dairy cows, heat stress, airflow, cattle housing, Italy.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, F. Calegari, M.G. Maianti, and V. Cappa (1997). The aeration, with and without misting: effects on heat stress in dairy cows. In: Livestock Environment 5, Volume 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, May 29-31, 1997, No.1, R.W. Bottcher and S.J. Hoff (eds.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 907-914,ISSN: 0-92-935584-9.
NAL Call No.: SF91 L58 1997
Keywords: environmental control, dairy farms, cow housing, milk production, milk yield, milk composition, rectal temperature, respiration rate, animal welfare, mists, sprinklers, ventilation, Italy.

Fregonesi, J.A., and L.D. Leaver (2001). Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 205‑216, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, performance, health, animal welfare, housing, straw, milk yield, indicators, loose housing, hygiene, somatic cell count, locomotion, feed intake, rumination, hooves, lameness, lying.

Fritzsche, S. and W. Hartmann (1996). The 1995/1996 German competition: exemplary cow houses for large dairy herds. [Bundeswettbewerb 1995/96: beispielhafte Milchviehstalle fur grossere Bestande.] Landtechnik 51(6): 344-345, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: cow housing, dairy cattle, design, German competition, best cow houses for large dairy herds, cost, animal welfare, Germany, German language.

Gaudin, V., P. Billon, and O. Sauvee (1998). What kind of milking parlour for efficient and comfortable working conditions? [Choisir une salle de traite efficace et confortable.] Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 5: 321-326.
NAL Call No.: SF191.2 R46
Keywords: milking parlors, milking, animal welfare, size, dimensions, husbandry, economics, labor requirements, efficiency, reviews, milking machines, French language.

Gerighausen, G. (1997). From straw to water beds. Comfortable lying areas in cattle housing. [Vom Stroh bis zum Wasserbett. Liegekomfort in Kuhstallen.] Milchpraxis 35(2): 78-81, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: floor covering evaluation, straw, sawdust, mats, cows, costs, dairy cattle housing, udders, hygiene, dairy hygiene, service life, labor, maintenance, wood chips, wood shavings, floors, litter, characteristics, durability, Germany, German language.

Glaszczka, A. and W. Wardal (1998). Tests of open stalls in chosen family farms. [Badania obor wolnostanowiskowych w wybranych gospodarstwach rodzinnych.] In: Problemy intensyfikacji produkcji zwierzecej przy uwzglednieniu ograniczen ochrony srodowiska. Materialy: IV Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa, Warszawa, 29-30 Wrzesnia 1998, Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnicywa, Komitet Techniki Rolniczej PAN, Polskie Towarzystwo Inzynierii Polniczej: Warsaw, Poland, p. 97-102, ISBN: 8-38-626453-5.
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, milk quality, management, milk production, cows.

Goodger, W.J., G.G. Frank, K.V. Nordlund, B. Hilbelink, and C. Eisele (1996). Financial assessment of results of intervention to correct a housing-system problem on a dairy farm. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(8): 1406-1410, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, somatic cell count, mastitis, performance, milk production, lameness, health, economics, cow housing, bovine mastitis, milk production, milk prices, costs, investment, returns, cattle diseases, USA, Wisconsin farm, case study.

Halachmi, I. and J.A.P. Heesterbeek (1999). Computer simulation and a stochastic model for optimal facility allocation in a robotic milking barn. ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 18-21, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, ASAE Paper No. 994011, 4p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3.A54
Keywords: milking, animal welfare, dairy cattle, design, computer simulation, Queuing/Markov model, computer software, milking parlors, milking robots, economics.

Haley, D.B, A. M. de Passille, J. Rushen (2001). Assessing cow comfort: effects of two floor types and two tie stall designs on the behaviour of lactating dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 105-117, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behaviour, animal welfare, cow housing, floors, stalls.

Haley, D.B., J. Rushen, J., and A.M. De Passille (2000). Behavioural indicators of cow comfort: activity and resting behaviour of dairy cows in two types of housing. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80 (2): 257-263.ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: We explored which aspects of dairy cow behaviour provide measures of cow comfort and how housing affects resting time. Following a crossover design, we observed the behaviour of eight lactating Holstein cows kept for three weeks in stalls believed to represent a contrast in comfort. Cows individually housed in large pens with a mattress flooring lay down 4.2 h d-1 longer than cows housed in tie-stalls on a concrete floor, while cows in tie-stalls stood idle (without eating) for longer. Cows stood up and lay down more often in the large pens and the duration of individual standing bouts was longer in tie-stalls. We found no differences in eating time and few differences in body, head or leg positions cows assumed while lying. There was little evidence of diurnal rhythm in activity. A lower frequency of standing and lying and an increase in the duration of lying bouts suggests that in tie-stalls cows are more reluctant to change position from lying to standing. The type of pen or stall in which cows are housed can have a substantial impact on resting time. The duration and frequency of lying behaviour and the time spent standing without eating appear to be probable behavioural indicators of cow comfort.
Keywords: housing, pens stalls, animal behavior, rest, behavior patterns, diurnal activity, animal welfare.

Hansen, K. and C.N. Pallesen (1998). Dairy cow pressure on self-locking feed barriers. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, January 28-30, 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 312-319, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998
Keywords: non-lactating cows, feeding systems, sloping and vertical self-locking feed barriers, pressure exerted by cows on barrier, narrow and wide feed mangers, automatic feed dispensers, animal welfare.

Harada, H. (1997). Yearly changes of freestall housing and the facilities on dairy management in Aichi Pref. One way towards modern dairy management. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center 29: 275-281, ISSN: 0388-7995.
Keywords: cattle husbandry, dairy farming, dairy cattle, stalls, loose housing, litter, crowding, cattle farming, cattle housing, farm workers, farm dairies, farm buildings, farm equipment, agricultural economics, Japan, Japanese language.

Havrevoll, O. (1999). Feeding and housing of calves. [Foring og oppstalling af kalv.] Buskap 51(3): 12-14.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, feeding, animal welfare, stalls, meat animals, dairy cattle.

Herlin, A.H. (1997). Comparison of lying area surfaces for dairy cows by preference, hygiene and lying down behaviour. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 27(4): 189-196, ISSN: 0049-2701.
NAL Call No.: S3 S8
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, husbandry, concrete flooring, conventional rubber matting, soft rubber matting, tie-down stalls, concrete surfaced cubicles, milk leakage, comfort, hygiene, animal behavior.

Hindhede, J., L. Mogensen, and J.T Sorensen (1999). Effect of group composition and feeding system on behaviour, production and health of dairy heifers in deep bedding systems. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(4): 211-220, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: housing, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, feed intake, liveweight gain, feeding, cattle feeding, nutrition programs, heifers, concentrates, dairy herds, group size, housing, litter, productivity, aggression, stress, groups.

Horning, B. (2001). The assessment of housing conditions of dairy cows in littered loose housing systems using three scoring methods. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 42‑47, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing systems, straw‑based, organic farms, conventional farms, costs, comparison of housing systems, Germany.

Horning, B., C. Zeitlmann, and J. Tost (2001). Differences in the behaviour of dairy cows in the lying area of 40 loose houses.[Unterschiede im Verhalten von Milchkuhen im Liegebereich verschiedener Laufstallsysteme.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 153‑162.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, cubicles, lying time, straw yards, bedded slope floors, German language.

Horning, B. (1997). Evaluating the suitability of loose housing with straw litter for dairy cattle using an evaluation index. [Bewertung der Tiergerechtheit von eingestreuten Milchviehlaufstallen anhand eines Punkteschemas.] Schriftenreihe: Institut fur Organischen Landbau 4: 431-437, ISBN: 3-89-574225-2.
NAL Call No.: 59 V42
Keywords: comparison of dairy farms, conventional farming methods versus organic farming methods, types of housing, deep-litter loose housing, single-section, multi-section, deep litter loose housing, sloping floor, cubicle, loose housing with litter, animal behavior, lying down, feeding, walking, feeding troughs, waterers, space requirements, animal welfare, Germany, German language.

Horning, B. and C. Gaio (1997). Investigations of loose housing with straw litter for dairy cattle with respect to amounts of straw used, dirtiness of animals and process technology. [Erhebungen zu Strohverbrauch, Tierverschmutzung und Verfahrenstechnik in eingestreuten Milchviehlaufstallen.] In: Contributions to the 4th Scientific Meeting on Ecological Agriculture, held on 3-4 March 1997, at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, Vol.4, Institut fur Organischen Landbau: Bonn, Germany, p. 480-487, ISBN: 3-89-574225-2.
NAL Call No.: 59 V42
Keywords: comparison of dairy farms, conventional farming methods versus organic farming methods, cattle housing, loose housing, numbers of straw bales used for litter, cow body soiling index, hygiene, manure removal, costs of using straw, animal welfare, health, Germany, German language.

Horning, B., C. Gaio, and D.W. Folsch (1997). How loose dairy cattle housing systems with straw function in practice. [Eingestreute Milchviehlaufstalle in der Praxis.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland, No. 45, p. 198-206.
Keywords: cows, cattle housing, animal husbandry, animal welfare, hygiene, dairy farming, evaluation, loose housing, deep litter housing, litter, characteristics, design, utilization, costs, investment, Germany, German language.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(3): 167‑177, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, resting behavior, slipping behavior, cow housing, tethered housing, tie stalls, solid floors, slatted floors, mats, litter, wood shavings, straw, animal welfare.

Hultgren, J., and C. Bergsten (2001). Effects of a rubber‑slatted flooring system on cleanliness and foot health in tied dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (1): 75‑89, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, hygiene, floors, cattle housing, feet, foot diseases, feces, urine, hooves, disease prevalence, Sweden.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25 p., ISSN: 1401‑6257.
NAL Call No.: SF615.A28
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Hultgren, J., T. Ekman, J. Malgeryd, J. Svedberg, and K. Sallvik (1998). Don't get caught in the centimetre trap! State directive on minimum stall dimensions for housed cattle. [Fastna inte i centimeterfallan!] Svensk Veterinartidning 50(7): 323-325, ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 SV23
Keywords: legislation, dairy cattle, cows, animal welfare, tethered housing, cattle housing, Sweden, Swedish language.

Igono, M.O., H.D. Johnson, B.J. Steevens, G.F. Krause, and M.D. Shanklin (1987). Physiological, productive, and economic benefits of shade, spray, and fan system versus shade for Holstein cows during summer heat. Journal of Dairy Science 70(5): 1069-1079, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: spray, fan, freestall areas, feeding areas, milk yield, plasma growth hormone, prolactin, freestall utilization, Holstein cows, weekly milk and rectal temperatures, diurnal patterns, plasma growth hormone, assessment of heat stress using milk temperature, cow comfort.

Ipema, A.H. (1997). Integration of robotic milking in dairy housing systems. Review of cow traffic and milking capacity aspects. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 17(1): 79-94, ISSN: 0168-1699.
NAL Call No.: S494.5 D3C652
Keywords: milking, housing systems, review, cow integration.

Jacobsen, K.L. (1996). The well-being of dairy cows in hot and humid climates. Part I. Housing and effects of heat stress. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian18 (Supplement 4): S137-S143.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C66
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, heat, humidity, housing, husbandry, milk production, cost benefit analysis, ventilation, heat stress, nutritional disorders, animal welfare, cooling systems.

Jadhav, K.L., S. Brahma, and M.M. Kale (1995). Comfort zone for maximum milk production in crossbred cattle at Leh (Ladakh). Indian Journal of Dairy Science 48(5): 336-338, ISSN: 0019-5146.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 IN28
Keywords: Holstein x Sahiwal crossbreds, animal welfare, cows, crossbreeding, milk yield, high altitude, environmental temperature, mountain areas, seasonal variation in milk yield, India.

Jensen, M.B. (2001). A note on the effect of isolation during testing and length of previous confinement on locomotor behaviour during open-field test in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 309-315, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cattle, housing, isolation, physical activity, social animal behavior.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Russian Journal of Ecology 67(1/2): 35-46, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: dairy cattle, Danish Holstein Friesian calves, locomotor play, open-field test, animal behavior, calf housing, pens, animal welfare, Denmark.

Jensen, M.B., L. Munksgaard, L. Mogensen, and C.C. Krohn (1999). Effects of housing in different social environments on open-field and social responses of female dairy calves. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(2): 113-120, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: effects, housing, social environment, open field responses, group housing, individual housing, loose housing, tethered housing, social behavior, social tests.

Jensen, M.B., K.S. Vestergaard, and C.C. Krohn, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Effect of single versus group housing and space allowance on responses of calves during open-field tests. [Erratum: Dec 28, 1998, v. 61 (2), p. 185.] Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2/3): 109-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, animal behavior, fearfulness, heart rate, behavior patterns, animal welfare.

Johannesson, T., J.T. Sorensen, and L. Munksgaard (1996). Production environment as a component in a welfare assessment system in dairy cattle herds. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 251-255, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: cows, animal welfare assessment, herds, animal behavior, injuries.

Kaczor, A. and J. Szyndler (1997). Resting comfort and body weight gains of calves housed in pens with sloping beds. [Komfort wypoczynku i przyrosty masy ciala cielat w kojcach z pochylymi legowiskami.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 263-272, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, heifers, bulls, type of bed, inclination angles of bed, conventional horizontal bed, animal behavior, weight gain, Poland, Polish.

Kain, M.L., S.L. Kochevar, J.N. Sofos, K.E. Belk, C. Rossiter, J.O. Reagon, and G.C. Smith (2001). Relationships of live animal scores for ambulatory status, body condition, hide cleanliness, and fecal matter consistency to microbiological contamination of dairy cow carcasses. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation 21(12): 990‑998.
NAL Call No.: SF221 D342
Keywords: dairy cows, carcass quality, slaughter, microbial contamination, plate count, lameness, hygiene.

Kant, P. and Jv. Lent (1998). Much attention to climate and animal well being in high-tech enterprises. [Veel aandacht voor klimaat en welzijn dier in het high-techbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 11(4): 5-6.
Keywords: cow housing, cattle housing, cubicles, dairy cows, milking machines, robots, ventilation, floor space, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Karrer, M. and R. Nitsche (1997). Investigations into uninsulated housing for dairy cattle. [Erfahrungen mit Aussenklimastallen fur Milchvieh.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), No.45, p. 166-172, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland.
Keywords: cows, dairy farming, husbandry, animal welfare, cattle housing, temperature, environmental control, insulation, design, characteristics, evaluation, cold zones, Germany, German language.

Kaufmann, R., M. Keck, and R. Hauser (1998). Indications for the design of loose housing in cubicles. [Indications pour la configuration de stabulations libres a logettes.] Technique Agricole 60(5): 9-24.
Keywords: cubicles, dairy farms, building construction, cattle housing, animal welfare, Switzerland, French language.

Kavolelis, B. (2001). The climatic conditions in uninsulated cowshed. In: [Problemy intensyfikacji produkcji zwierzecej z uwzglednieniem ochrony srodowiska i przepisow UE. VII Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa, Warszawa, Polska, 25‑26 wrzesnia 2001] E. Bien (ed.), Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnictwa: Warsaw, Poland, ISBN: 83‑86264‑71‑3.
Keywords: housing, dairy cows, insulation, microclimate, cold loose housing, cubicle housing, straw bedding, deep litter, tie stalls, air quality, ammonia, dust, Lithuania.

Kavolelis, B., and R. Bleizgys (2001). Uninsulated cowshed. In: [Aktualni Zadaci Mehanizacije Poljoprivrede. Zbornik Radova 29. Medunarodnog Simpozija Iz Podrucja Mehanizacije Poljoprivrede, Opatija, 06. ‑ 09. Veljace], Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Lithuanian Institute of Agricultural Engineering: Kaunas, Lithuania, p. 307‑314, ISBN: 953‑6135‑32‑9.
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicle housing system, straw bedding, microclimate conditions, ammonia emission, health, mathematical model, moisture balance, condensation heat transmission coefficient, daily outside air temperature, air quality.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., A.H. Ipema, E.N.J. van Ouwerkerk, M.M. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, J.P. Noordhuizen, and W.G. Schouten (1999). Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows: Milking frequency and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64(2): 91-109, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, breed, Holstein-Friesian, cow, automatic milking system, farm equipment, voluntary automatic milking method, robots, grazing, feeding behavior, resting behavior, pastures, milking, frequency.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., M.M.W.B. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, and W.G.P. Schouten (1998). Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56(1): 13-28.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: cow traffic, automatic milking, milking parlors, milking interval, environment, selection system, simulation, animal behavior.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Management of calving in Norwegian cubicle‑housed dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 131‑137, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal housing, calves, calving, cows, dairy cows, management, location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence, assisted births, suckling, time after birth when cow and calf were separated, cubicles, pasture, calving pens, tethered cows, calf injuries, sheds, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Cubicle refusal and rearing accommodation as possible mastitis risk factors in cubicle‑housed dairy heifers. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 123‑130, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, cubicle refusal, sheds, animal wastes, bovine mastitis, calving, epidemiology, mastitis, pregnancy, regression analysis, risk factors, disease incidence, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Cubicle refusal in Norwegian dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 181‑187, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy herds, heifers, behavior, housing, cubicles, litter, slatted floor pens, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Failure to use cubicles and concentrate dispenser by heifers after transfer from rearing accommodation to milking herd. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42(1): 171‑180, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy heifers, age, animal behavior, housing, cubicles, feed dispensers, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Klungel, G.H. (1996). Comfort of mats defines differences. [Comfort stalmatten bepaalt verschillen.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 9(6): 10-11.
Keywords: dairy cattle, effects of different types of mats, milk production, hygiene, udders, tits, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Kraszewski, J., S. Wawrzynczak, A. Mandecki, and J. Szyndler(1998). Comparison of heifer rearing performance in lying-box and deep-litter systems. [Porownanie efektywnonsci wychowu jalowic utrzymywanych systemem boksowo-legowiskowym i na glebokiej sciolce.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 25(3): 153-165, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cows, heifers, liveweight gain, housing, bedding, deep litter, performance, animal welfare, milk yield, animal behavior, Polish language.

Kraszewski, J., J. Szyndler, and S. Wawryznczak (1996). Effect of tethered and loose housing on milk yield, milk composition and hygienic quality, and cow behaviour. [Wplyw utrzymania uwieziowego i wolnostanowiskowego krow na ich wydajnosc, sklad i jakosc higieniczna, mleka oraz zachowanie.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 23(1): 223-234, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cows, cow housing, loose housing, tethered housing, animal behavior, milk yield, milk composition, mastitis, milk quality, milk hygiene, Poland, Polish language.

Krohn, C.C. (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. III. Grooming, exploration and abnormal behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42(2): 73-86.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: environment, grooming, loose housing, tethered housing, exercise, exploration, abnormal behavior, extensive livestock farming.

Krohn, C.C. and L. Munksgaard (1993). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. II. Lying and lying-down behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(1): 1-16, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: intensive environments, lying behavior, stalls, animal behavior, activity, auditory system, parental behavior.

Kromann, H. (1999). Cattle housing for calves or young cattle. [Stalde til kalve og ungkvaeg.] Landbonyt, Erhvervsjordbruget 6(9): 21-26.
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, legislation, ventilation, management, construction, litter, stalls, animal welfare, Danish language.

Le Neindre, P. (1993). Evaluating housing systems for veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 71(5): 1345-1354, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: literature review, veal calves, animal behavior, animal welfare, environment, housing systems, diet, slaughter weight, age, France.

Leblanc, R. (1997). Comfortable housing for increasing [milk] yield. [Des logettes confortables pour augmenter la production.] Producteur de Lait Quebecois 17(9): 19-22.
Keywords: stress, milk yield, cow housing, stalls, dimensions, feeding, rest, design, reduction, cows, floors, litter, French language.

Lensink, B.J, I. Veissier, and L. Florand (2001). The farmers' influence on calves' behaviour, health and production of a veal unit. Animal Science: An International Journalof Fundamental and Applied Research 72(1): 105-116.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Abstract: Although veal production is a highly standardized system, there still remains considerable variability in productivity between units. This variability might be due to the farmers working on these units, through differences in stockmanship, work attitudes or behaviour, which in turn may affect animals' fear responses, productivity and health. A survey was conducted on 50 commercial farms affiliated to the same veal company. All units had calves housed in individual crates, a similar number of crates, and the same diets and management advice. Data were collected on: building and general farm characteristics, farmers' backgrounds and their attitudes towards their work and calves, farmers' behaviour food efficiency and mortality) were used to classify veal units as 'high producing' (no. = 24) v. "moderate producing" (no. = 26). Calves were less reactive to people in units where the farmer behaved sympathetically and where there were several stockpersons working. The disease level was lower in units where the farmer had a positive attitude towards the sensitivity of the calves to contact and towards the importance of cleaning. Productivity of the veal unit was associated with the health of the calves but not with their reactivity to people. It is suggested that the farmer can have an influence on the success of the veal unit mainly through his/her ability to control the health of the calves and that a positive attitude towards animals and towards work (specifically cleaning actions) can improve the accuracy of surveillance and care of the animals. Moreover, through his/her behaviour with the calves and his/her ability to control their health, the farmer can play an important role in assuring calves' welfare.
Keywords: veal calves, calf production, calf diseases, animal health, farmers' attitudes, fearfulness, calf housing, hygiene, stockmen, liveweight gain, feed conversion, mortality, animal welfare, human animal interactions. France.

Lensink, B.J., X. Fernandez, G. Cozzi, L. Florand, and I. Veissier (2001). The influence of farmers' behavior on calves' reactions to transport and quality of veal meat. Journal of Animal Science 79 (3): 642-652.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The relationships between farmers' behavior toward veal calves, calves' responses to handling and transport, and veal meat quality were assessed. Two groups of 10 veal units were selected based on previous observed farmers' behavior toward the calves: one group consisted of farmers who had shown predominantly "positive" behavior toward the calves, and the other group of farmers had shown predominantly "negative" behavior. Calves were observed for their reactions to people at the unit, and 20 calves per veal unit were transported either directly to the slaughterhouse or subjected to additional transport consisting of a supplementary 20-min transport with additional unloading and loading. The effort needed to load the calves onto the truck and their behavior during loading was observed. During loading and unloading, and during lairage at the slaughterhouse, potentially traumatic incidents (falling down, hits against structures, slips) were recorded, and heart rate and cortisol measurements were taken. Carcasses were evaluated on their weight, color, conformation, pH, and bruise level. A meat sample was taken from the longissimus thoracis muscle for physical, chemical, and sensory analysis. Calves originating from "positive behavior" units showed fewer fear responses to people at the veal unit, needed less effort to be loaded to the truck, had lower heart rates during loading and unloading, and had fewer incidents at the slaughterhouse than calves from "negative behavior" units (P < 0.05). Carcasses from calves from "positive behavior" units were paler, and analyses of the meat sample revealed lower pH, moisture level, and redness compared to carcasses from calves from "negative behavior" units (P < 0.05). Additional transport led to a lower cortisol level after transport and to higher carcass pH values at slaughter compared to direct transport (P < 0.05) but did not affect meat quality. We concluded that farmers' positive behavior toward veal calves during rearing is likely to reduce the emotional responses of calves to handling and transport and to lead to fewer incidents, compared to negative behavior. This reduction of calves' emotional responses seems to be the reason for improved veal meat color.
Keywords: veal calves, transport of animals, cattle husbandry, animal husbandry, animal behavior, stress, hydrocortisone, heart rate, carcass quality, carcass weight, meat quality, color, pH, conformation, bruises, heme, cooking losses, shear strength, moisture content, sensory evaluation, tenderness, flavor, veal, farmers, behavior patterns, animal handling.

Lensink, B.J., X. Boivin, P. Pradel, P. Le Neindre, and I. Veissier (2000). Reducing veal calves' reactivity to people by providing additional human contact. Journal of Animal Science 78(5): 1213-1218, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: We studied the importance of the stock-person's behavior on veal calf behavior using 22 veal calves housed in individual crates. Eleven calves received minimal contact from the stockperson, and the other 11 calves were stroked and allowed to suck the stockperson's fingers after each meal during the entire fattening period (21 wk). The effects of this additional contact with the stockperson on the calves' responses to people was studied, when in their home environment (crate) or outside their home environment (singly in a novel arena). When tested in their home environment, the calves receiving additional contact withdrew less from the approach of humans (familiar or unfamiliar) (P < .05) compared with control calves. When tested outside the home environment with a human (familiar or unfamiliar) standing motionless, calves that had received additional contact interacted more frequently and for a longer time with the humans and defecated less often compared with control calves (P < .05). In conclusion, being stroked and sucking the stockperson's fingers seemed to be experienced as positive by the calf, because they reduced withdrawal from and increased approaches to familiar and unfamiliar humans in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Such a lower reactivity to people could improve ease of handling, animal performance, and animal welfare.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, veal calves, fearfulness, escape responses, handling, human-animal interactions.

Lensink, B.J., X. Fernandez, X. Boivin, P. Pradel, P. Le Neindre, and I. Veissier (2000). The impact of gentle contacts on ease of handling, welfare, and growth of calves on quality of veal meat. Journal of Animal Science 78(5): 1219-1226, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: It has been demonstrated previously that regularly stroking and letting calves suck fingers leads to less avoidance and more approach behavior of the calves toward people. To examine whether these positive contacts affect the welfare and productivity of calves and the quality of veal meat we used 22 veal calves housed in individual crates. Half of them received minimal contact with the stockperson (controls), and the other half were given additional gentle contacts around meals, by stroking the calves and allowing them to suck the stockperson's fingers, during the entire fattening period (21 wk). Welfare was assessed through behavioral reactivity (reactions to handling, to surprise stimuli, and to novelty), neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol in response to an ACTH challenge, catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes), and health (number of medical treatments, abomasal lesions). Calf productivity was assessed through growth rates and meat quality through glycolytic potential (an estimator of resting glycogen level in muscle), pH, and color. Calves that received gentle contacts were less agitated (P < .01) and tended to defecate less (P = .08) when handled in a cart on wheels than the control calves, but no treatment effects were found in reactivity to novelty and surprise stimuli, responses to ACTH, and catecholamine synthetic potential. Calves given gentle contacts had fewer abomasal lesions than controls (0/11 vs 4/11, P = .05). The glycolytic potential of the semimembranosus muscle was higher in calves that received gentle contacts than in controls (172.6 vs 154.1 micromol/g, P < .05), but no treatment effects were observed on meat pH, meat color, or growth rates. It is concluded that gentling veal calves reduces their reactions to handling. Gentle contacts reduce the reaction to transport shown by differences in glycolytic potential. In addition, the reduction in reactions to handling and the decreased incidence of abomasal lesions can contribute to an improvement of the calves' welfare.
Keywords: animal behavior, calves, handling, meat quality, veal, human-animal interactions.

Lent, Jv. and A. Pieters (1998). Building for a high-tech farm. [Bouwen voor een high-techbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 11(5): 6-8.
Keywords: cattle housing, dairy farms, slatted floors, ventilation, animal welfare, cattle feeding, lying cubicles, design, cow housing, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Leonard, F.C. and J.M. Oconnell (1997). Cubicle housing conditions and cow comfort. Irish Veterinary Journal 50(11): 675-682, ISSN: 0368-0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4.
Keywords: cattle housing, animal behavior.

Lischer, C.J., A. Dietrich‑Hunkeler, H. Geyer, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2001). Healing process of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cows kept in tie stalls: clinical description and biochemical investigations. [Heilungsverlauf von unkomplizierten Sohlengeschwuren bei Milchkuhen in Anbindehaltung: Klinische Beschreibung und blutchemische Untersuchungen.] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 143( 3 ):125‑133, ISSN: 0036‑7281.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 SCH9
Keywords: dairy cows, hoof health, lameness, scoring system, biotin, glucose, hematology, nutritional status, healing, horns, retinol, ulcers, German language.

Manninen, E., A. M. de Passille, J. Rushen, M. Norring, and H. Saloniemi (2002). Preferences of dairy cows kept in unheated buildings for different kind of cubicle flooring. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75(4): 281‑292, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, flooring, cubicles, deep straw, soft rubber mats, sand bedding, preference testing, paired choice procedure, summer, winter.

Marten, F. and J. Wolf (1999). Effect of different mats on resting time of dairy cows. [Einfluss verschiedener Bodenbelage auf die Liegedauer von Milchkuhen.] Milchpraxis 37(2): 90-94, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cattle housing, dairy farms, mats, floors, costs, cleaning, installing, labor requirements, resting behavior, German language, European Union countries.

Matias, J.M. (1998). Behavior of grazing purebred and crossbred dairy cows under tropical conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(1/3): 235-243, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, crossbreds, Holstein-Friesian, Sahiwal, physical activity, grazing, respiration rate, air temperature, imported breeds, relative humidity, wind speed, rain, animal behavior.

Mayer, D.G., T.M. Davison, M.R. McGowan, B.A. Young, A.L. Matschoss, A.B. Hall, P.J. Goodwin, N.N. Jonsson, and J.B. Gaughan (1999). Extent and economic effect of heat loads on dairy cattle production in Australia dairy cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 77(12): 804-808, ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: heat loads, temperature, humidity, mapping, milk production, economics, thermoregulation.

McFarland, D.F. and M.J. Gamroth (1994). Freestall designs with cow comfort in mind. Annual Meeting 270-285, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: dairy cows, cubicles, structural design, space requirements, dimensions,animal welfare.

Metz, J.H.M. (1999). Future perspectives for the integration of the requirements of animal welfare and environmental compatibility in animal housing systems. [Zukunftsperspektiven fur eine tiergerechte und umweltschonende Tierhaltung.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 89-98, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare requirements, dairy cows, milking parlors, cattle housing, pig housing, slatted floors, poultry housing, broilers, deep litter housing, waste gases, ammonia, ventilation, environmental impact, German language.

Meyer, W., and H. Georg (2001). Influence of floor design on the claw health of dairy cows.[Einfluss der Laufflachengestaltung auf die Klauengesundheit von Milchkuhen.] Landtechnik 56(4): 258‑259, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, slatted, mats, chopped straw, unclean surfaces, claws, foot diseases, hooves, infection, German language.

Millar, K.M. (2000). Respect for animal autonomy in bioethical analysis: the case of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12(1): 41-50, ISSN: 0893-4282.
NAL Call No.: BJ52.5 J68
Keywords: milking, cows, ethics, robots, animal welfare, behavioral freedom, motivation, automation, milking machines.

Mogensen, L., C.C. Krohn, and J. Foldager (1999). Long-term effect of housing method during the first three months of life on human-animal relationship in female dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(3): 163-171, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, calves, cows, handling, lactation, milk, milk production, milking, pens, cattle housing, animal welfare, human-animal relationship.

Mogensen, L., Krohn, C.C., Sorensen, J.T., Hindhede, J., and L.H. Nielsen (1997). Association between resting behaviour and live weight gain in dairy heifers housed in pens with different space allowance and floor type. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(1/2): 11-19, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, heifers, rest, behavior patterns, liveweight gain, cattle housing, floor pens, space requirements, floor space, floor type, slatted floors, litter, welfare.

Mogensen, L., L.H. Nielsen, J. Hindhede, J.T. Soorensen, and C.C. Krohn (1997). Effect of space allowance in deep bedding systems on resting behaviour, production, and health of dairy heifers. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 47(3): 178-186, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: Danish commercial dairy farms, Danish Friesian, breed, dairy cows, heifers, resting behavior, daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, heel horn erosion, animal welfare, health, production, Denmark.

Moore, R.P. (1998). Perception and reality welfare in farm animals. In: Ethics, Welfare, Law and Market Forces: The Veterinary Interface: Proceedings of a Symposium Organised on Behalf of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare and Held at the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 14th-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank (eds.), UFAW: Wheathampstead, England, p. 67-70, ISBN: 0900767995.
NAL Call No.: HV4704.E84 1998.
Keywords: livestock, animal welfare, housing, cattle, dairy cows, husbandry.

Morita, S., M. Komiya, K. Izumi, K. Oikawa, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Changes of the utilization of trough, stall and automatic milking machine after the transfer cows to automatic milking system. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 26 (1): 57‑61, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, diurnal variation, automatic milking machines, housing, tie-stalls, free-stall, automatic milking trough use, Japanese language.

Morita, S., S. Nishino, S. Hoshiba, A.H. Ipema, and J.H.M. Metz (1996). Choice of feeding position of dairy cows in free-stall barn. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 21(1): 115-122, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
NAL Call No.: QH2.J68
Keywords: choice, feeding, free stall.

Mudron, P., G. Kovac, P. Bartko, J. Choma, and I. Zezula (1996). Effect of vitamin E on the cortisol and lactate levels and the acid base equilibrium of calves subjected to transport stress.[Vplyv vitaminu E na hladinu kortizolu, laktatu a acidobazicku rovnovahu u teliat vystavenych transportnej zatazi.] Veterinarni Medicina 41(3): 71-76, ISSN: 0375-8427.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Keywords: blood chemistry, lactates, hydrocortisone, transport of animals, calves, vitamin E, stress, language, Slovakian.

Mudron,P., G. Kovac, V. Bajova, J. Pistl, J. Choma, P. Bartko,and H. Scholz (1994). Effect of vitamin E on some leukocytic parameters and functions in transported calves. DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101(2): 47-49, ISSN: 0012-0847.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: stress, calf diseases, road transport, leukocytes, immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, vitamin E, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hydrocortisone.

Muller, C.J.C., J.A. Botha, and W.A. Smith (1996). Effect of confinement area on production, physiological parameters and behaviour of Friesian cows during winter in a temperate climate. South African Journal of Animal Science 26(1): 1-5, ISSN: 0375-1589.
NAL Call No.: SF1 S6
Keywords: feed-intake, earthen mound, dry lots, camp size.

Munksgaard, L. and H.B. Simonsen (1995). Behavioural and pituitary-adrenal axis responses of tethered cows or cows kept in pens with slatted floors. Acta Agriculture Scandinavica Section A, Animal Science 45(2): 132-138, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, ACTH, animal behavior, cortisol, floor-type.

Nardone, A., N. Lacetera, U. Bernabucci, and B. Ronchi (1997). Composition of colostrum from dairy heifers exposed to high air temperatures during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Journal of Dairy Science 80(5): 838-844, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal comfort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the other group was exposed to high air temperatures (temperature-humidity index = 82 from 0900 to 2000 h and temperature-humidity index = 76 from 2100 to 0800 h). Heifers under heat stress had higher rectal temperatures and respiratory rates; lower plasma triiodothyronine and glucose; higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate; lower intakes of dry matter, net energy for lactation, and crude protein; higher water intakes; and lower body condition scores. The decline of plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) over the final 2 wk of pregnancy was less pronounced for heifers under heat stress. For the first four milkings, colostrum of cows exposed to high air temperatures had lower mean concentrations of IgG and IgA; lower mean percentages of total protein, casein, lactalbumin, fat, and lactose; lower contents (grams per liter) of short- and medium-chain fatty acids; lower energy; lower titratable acidity; and higher pH. Thus, high air temperatures during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period markedly affected the composition of colostrum from primiparous dairy cows.
Keywords: heifers, cow colostrum, heat stress, pregnancy, dry period, postpartum period, dairy cows, lactation number, body temperature, environmental temperature, blood sugar, blood plasma, fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, respiration rate, triiodothyronine, feed intake, dry matter, water intake, energy intake, protein intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, lactose, pH, IGG, IGM, IGA, casein, lactalbumin, lactoglobulins,pregnancy, heat stress, air temperature, humidity, feed intake, dry matter, energy requirements, immunoglobulins, immunity, blood, milk protein, lactose, lactalbumin, medium chain fatty acids, titratable acidity, triiodothyronine, water intake, IgA, IgG, pH, milking, colostrum, composition, environmental temperature, heifers.

Nicoletti, J.L.M. de, F.A.A. de Souza, A. Thomassian, C.A. Hussni, and A.LG. Alves (2001). Feet lesions and lameness prevalence in dairy cows kept in permanent confinement (free‑stall and tie‑stall). [Prevalencia de lesoes podais e graus de claudicacao em vacas leiteiras mantidas em confinamento permanente ("free‑stall" e "tie‑stall").] Revista de Educacao Continuada do CRMV‑SP 4 (2): 24‑32, ISSN: 1516‑3326.
Keywords: dairy cows, age differences, number of parturitions, housing, tie‑stall, free stall, disease prevalence, foot diseases, lameness, lesions, sole bleeding, white line disease, heel erosion, double sole, interdigital dermatitis, hoof cracks,

Nielsen, L.H., L. Mogensen, C. Krohn, J. Hindhede, and J.T. Sorensen (1997). Resting and social behaviour of dairy heifers housed in slatted floor pens with different sized bedded lying areas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(4): 307-316, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: social behavior, slatted floor, pens, area, resting.

Nita, O. (2001). Application of slaked lime in the byre and dairy and its results. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 54 (3): 191‑194, ISSN: 0447‑0192.
Keywords: cow housing, buildings, calcium hydroxide, ceilings, dairies, paints, slaked lime, walls, Japanese language.

Nosal, D.and E. Bilgery (2002). Milking without stress. [Larm und Vibrationen in Melkanlagen.] Agrarforschung 9(1): 4‑7, ISSN: 1022‑663X.
NAL Call No: S469 S9A37
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, stress, noise, airborne, structure‑borne sound (vibration).

Pavlata, L., A. Pechova, and J. Illek (2001). Muscular dystrophy in dairy cows following a change in housing technology. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70 (3): 269‑275, ISSN: 0001‑7213.
NAL Call No: SF604 B7
Keywords: dairy cows, Bohemian Red Pied, breed, muscle tissue damage, muscular dystrophy, mineral deficiencies, potassium, selenium, stress, downer cows, transport of animals, change in housing, locomotor activity, deaspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase.

Perrey, A., G. Rehkamper, C.W. Werner, and A. Gorlach (2001). Influence of housing‑systems in arousal behaviour by cattle bulls towards a human. [Der Einfluss der Haltungsform auf das Erregungsverhalten von erwachsenen Milchrinderbullen gegenuber dem Menschen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 71‑80.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: bulls, Holstein Friesian, Red Holstein, breed, behavior, human animal interaction, aggressive behaviors, presenting body; pulling mouth to a bow, pawing with forelegs, rubbing head on the ground, snorting, bellowing, poking tongue, housing, German language.

Phillips, C. J. C. and I.D. Morris (2002). The ability of cattle to distinguish between, and their preference for, floors with different levels of friction, and their avoidance of floors contaminated with excreta. Animal Welfare 11(1): 21‑29, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, training, food reward, flooring type, discrimination, preferences, smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregates, floors covered in excreta, static friction, walking.

Phillips, C.J., and I.D. Morris (2001). The locomotion of dairy cows on floor surfaces with different frictional properties. Journal of Dairy Science 84(3):623‑8, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, locomotion, floors, with a smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregate, static friction, walking, food reward.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2001). A novel operant conditioning test to determime whether dairy cows dislike passageways that are dark or covered with excreta. Animal Welfare 10(1): 65‑72, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, conditioning, stimuli, molasses, learning ability, cattle slurry, floors, lighting, animal welfare, preferences.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2000). The locomotion of dairy cows on concrete floors that are dry, wet, or covered with a slurry of excreta. Journal of Dairy Science 83(8): 1767-1772, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call number: 44.8 J822
Keywords: locomotion, floor type, concrete, cattle slurry, depth, slip, velocity, joints, legs, gait.

Phillips, C.J.C., I.D. Morris, C.A. Lomas, and S.J. Lockwood (2000). The locomotion of dairy cows in passageways with different light intensities. Animal Welfare 9(4): 421-431, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: gait, legs, joints, light intensity, velocity, animal welfare.

Platz, S., F. Miller and J. Unshelm (1999). The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability - the example of tie-in versus loose housing system of dairy cattle. [Auswirkung von haltungsmangeln auf tiergesundheit und wirtschaftlichkeit am beispiel der anbinde- und laufstallhaltung von milchkuhen.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(12): 422-429, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, husbandry, loose housing, tethering, profitability, abnormalities, animal welfare, leukocyte count, checklists, cows, trauma, interviews, milk, milk yield, pregnancy, questionnaires, interviews, economics, qualifications of dairy stockmen, handling of animals, poor management, injury, number of inseminations per pregnancy, age of cow, cell count of milk, milk yield, German language.

Purushottam, S. and S. Kiran (2002). Shelter seeking behaviour of dairy cattle in various types of housing systems. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72(1): 91‑95, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
Keywords: crossbred, lactating cows, shelter system, shelter seeking behavior, loose housing, loose housing with central shed, closed housing, tree‑shade, summer, rainy season, winter season.

Rabaud, N.E., T.A. James, L.L. Ashbaugh, and R.G. Flocchini (2001). A passive sampler for the determination of airborne ammonia concentrations near large‑scale animal facilities. Environmental Science and Technology 35 (6): 1190‑1196, ISSN: 0013‑936X.
NAL Call No.: TD420.A1E5
Keywords: dairies, cow housing, dairy cattle, pollution.

Redbo, I., A. Ehrlemark, and P. Redbo‑Torstensson (2001). Behavioural responses to climate demands of dairy heifers housed outdoors. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 9‑15, ISSN: 0008‑3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the behavioural responses to different climatic demands of growing dairy heifers, during winter at a latitude of 60 degrees N. Two groups (n = 11, 12) of yearling dairy heifers were housed in two similar 3‑ha enclosures, characterised by deciduous forest, ley and pasture. Each enclosure also contained a lying area, a heated water source and a feed bunk from which the heifers had free access to grass silage. The behaviour and location of each heifer were recorded by instant interval observations every 5 min between 0600 h and 2000 h during 23 observation days spread over the entire winter period. Outdoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation were measured continuously. The climatic energy demand (CED, W m‑2) was measured with a heated animal model. The climate had significant effects on all the main activities and on the location of the heifers. Higher CED values corresponded to a greater number of observations of heifers in the lying area, and a greater incidence of lying and of ruminating, but to a decreased incidence of eating and grazing. Increased migration to the forested areas instead of to open areas reflected increasing CED values. The results from the present study show that dairy heifers adapt their behavioural activity and choice of location to the climatic conditions, to reduce energy expenditure. Thus, dairy heifers can be sustained in a cold climate if they are provided with wind breaks and dry lying places.
Keywords: heifers, dairy cattle, winter, cold, animal behavior, environmental temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, energy expenditure, Sweden.

Reinemann, D.J., L.E. Stetson, J.P Reilly and N.K. Laughlin (1999). Dairy cow sensitivity to short duration electrical currents. Transactions of the ASAE 42(1): 215-222, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Abstract: The results of 299 tests to determine the behavioral response threshold of dairy cows to a variety of short-duration or "transient" electrical current waveforms via the muzzle to 4-hoof pathway are reported. The phase duration of stimuli tested ranged from 10 micros to 8.3 ms. Phase duration is defined as the time between two consecutive zero crossing points of the waveform (e.g., 1/2 cycle of a sinusoidal waveform). The amplitude of the electrical currents, at a given phase duration, were increased in an ascending series. The lowest threshold current at which an observer could detect a behavioral change was determined for individual cows. Various behaviors were quantified. Facial activity was the most sensitive behavioral response followed by front hoof lifting. Human observers measurements of hoof lifting agreed well with automated recording of animal motion. Tail motion showed no statistically significant response to the current stimulus. Cows were less sensitive (e.g., more current was required to elicit a response) to shorter duration or higher frequency waveforms. The strength-duration relationship observed for cows agreed well with neuro-electrical models previously verified by human response.
Keywords: sensitivity, duration, electrical, current, stray voltage, stray current, transient voltage, electrical stimulation duration, electric fences, animal behavior.

Ronchi, B., G. Stradaioli, A.V. Supplizi, U. Bernabucci, N. Lacetera, P.A. Accorsi, A. Nardone, and E. Seren (2001). Influence of heat stress or feed restriction on plasma progesterone, oestradiol‑17beta, LH, FSH, prolactin and cortisol in holstein heifers. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 231‑242, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: heifers, dairy cows, heat stress, food restriction, blood chemistry, progesterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, prolactin, hydrocortisone, hormone secretion, feed rations, air temperature.

Rossi, P., and A. Gastaldo (2001). The milking parlour: a difficult choice for the breeder of dairy cows. [Sala mungitura: una scelta difficile per gli allevatori di vacche da latte.] Informatore Agrario 57 (8): 85‑90, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, dairy farming, animal welfare, design, herringbone parlors, auto‑tandem arrangement, investment, labor requirements, milk production, milk quality, milking machines, milking parlors, Italian language.

Rossi, P. and A. Gastaldo (1999). Innovative solutions for free stables organized in cubicles. [Soluzioni innovative per la stalla libera a cuccette.] Informatore Agrario 55(21): 35-41.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cattle housing, cow housing, dairy cows, mats, cubicles, stalls, floor coverings, Italian language, European Union countries.

Ruud, L.E.(1999). Stalls that permit lying down: cows' beds. [Liggebasen: kuas seng.] Buskap 51(3): 28-29.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, loose housing, floor coverings, hay, mattresses, stall dimensions, cleaning, drainage, welfare, farm buildings, animal behavior, Norway, Norwegian language.

Saharia, J., S. Saikia, and G.N. Dutta (1998). Effect of flooring type on foot and leg abnormalities in dairy cows. Indian Veterinary Journal 75(6): 579-580, ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, concrete flooring, wooden flooring, bursitis, bruises, hooves, foot diseases, hoof elongation, hock injuries, animal welfare.

Schaub, J., K. Friedli and B. Wechsler (1999). Soft floor mats for loose box housing of dairy cattle. Straw mats and six makes of soft floor mats are compared. [Weiche Liegematten fur Milchvieh-Boxenlaufstalle. Strohmatratzen und sechs Fabrikate von Weichen Liegematten im Vergleich.] Bundesamt fur Veterinarwesen (BVET), c/o Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT), CH-8356 Tanikon, Switzerland, No.537, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland, 8p.
Keywords: cows, housing, animal behavior, resting, standing, litter, types of floor mats, Mouflex, Cow Comfort, Kraiburg Typ KSK, Pasture, Comfy Cushion, Agriprom, joint damage, injuries, animal welfare, hygiene, German language.

Schon, H., L. Rittel, G. Wendl, M. Karrer, and H. Pirkelmann (1998). Cattle housing solutions for the use of automatic milking systems. [Stallbaulosungen fur den Einsatz automatischer Melksysteme.] Landtechnik 53(4): 262-263, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: automation, milking, cattle housing, dairies, animal welfare, design, German language.

Seufert, H. (1997). Dairy cattle housing which takes into account cost-effectiveness, animal physiology and animal welfare. [Tier- und leistungsgerechte Haltungssysteme fur Milchkuhe unter Beachtung der Kostenminimierung.] Zuchtungskunde 69(6): 421-434, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: overview of housing for dairy cows in Germany, profitability, farmers, dairy technology, animal welfare, production, husbandry, cost analysis, manure removal, floor types, litter, milking parlors, milking robots, udders, milk production, labor, farm management, financial planning, Germany, German language.

Sevegnani, K.B., I.J.Od. Silva, and H.G. Filho (1994). Thermal comfort of dairy cattle. [Conforto termico en bovinos leiteiros.] Ecossistema 19: 169-176, ISSN: 0100-4107.
NAL Call No.: S542 B7E3
Keywords: cows, heat stress, climate, housing, European breeds, Brazil, Portuguese language.

Shearer, J.K., D.K. Beede, D.R. Bray, and R.A. Bucklin (1999). Managing during heat stress. Proceedings of the Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference 99-111.
NAL Call No.: SF203.T75
Keywords: dairy cattle, heat stress, performance, health, environmental management, cooling systems, shade, acidosis, acid base equilibrium, lameness, body heat loss.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1993). Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(9): 204-208, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: animal behavior, housing, cubicles, straw, lameness, health, animal behavior, housing, cubicles.

Sonck, B., J. Daelemans, and J. Langenakens (1999). Preference test for free stall surface material for dairy cows. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 18-21, 1999, ASAE Paper No. 994011, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 10 p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3.A54
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, housing, preference tests, Kraiburg rubber mat, Supercomfort cow mattress, Pasture Mat, Blister Mattress, Kraiburg Soft Bed System, Enkamat K2000, Comfy Cushion, Alfa Laval Comfort Mat, Alanta Waterbed, Agritarp Mattress, concrete littered with sawdust, comfort, animal welfare, rest, animal behavior, claw and leg lameness.

Stale, F. (1998). Two convincing buildings in Jura. [Deux constructions convaincantes en pays jurassien.] Technique Agricole 60(6): 5-7.
Keywords: legislation, pig housing, cattle housing, cow housing, steers, dairy cows, animal welfare, Switzerland, French language.

Stefanowska, J., D. Swierstra, C.R. Braam, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2001). Cow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into account. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 87‑103, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, floor type, slatted floors, animal behavior, time, movement, claws, trauma, animal health, animal welfare, cattle dung, farm equipment, time budgets, floor walkability, manure scrapers.

Stefanowska, J., M. Plavsic, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2000). The effect of omitted milking on the behaviour of cows in the context of cluster attachment failure during automatic milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 277-291, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking interval, milking parlors, automatic control, failure, clusters, animal behavior, posture, eating, resting, drinking, urination, defecation, milk yield, lactation number, social dominance, animal welfare.

Stefanowska, J. and H. Hogeveen (1997). Time study on dairy cows in an automatic milking system with a selection unit and one-way cow traffic. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 39(3): 221-229, ISSN: 0045-432X.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 C164
Keywords: selection, time, automatic system, cow traffic.

Steinhardt, M. and H.H. Thielscher (March 1997). Hemoglobin derivatives in blood of cattle during during winter housing. Effect of age as well as developmental and functional conditions. DTW: DeutscheTierärztliche Wochenschrift 104(3): 99-103, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: peripheral venous blood samples, lactating dairy cattle, calves, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, oxygen saturation, oxygen capacity, oxygen content, hemoglobin derivatives, differences between age groups and breeds, German language.

Sunesson, A.L., J. Gullberg, and G. Blomquist (2001). Airborne chemical compounds on dairy farms. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 3(2): 210‑6.
Keywords: dairy farms, housing, cow sheds, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, ammonia, carbon dioxide, p‑cresol, 2‑butanone, ethyl acetate, alpha‑pinene and delta 3‑carene, occupational exposure level.

Swierstra, D., C.R. Braam, and M.C. Smits (2001). Grooved floor system for cattle housing: ammonia emission reduction and good slip resistance. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 17(1): 85‑90, ISSN: 0883‑8542.
NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Abstract: To improve the slip resistance of solid floors in dairy cow houses and to achieve the ammonia emission reduction prescribed by the Dutch government, precast concrete floors with grooves and a dung scraper were investigated. The grooves parallel to the alley had 160 mm center‑to‑center spacing and were 35 mm wide and 30 mm deep. The urine could drain along the grooves. Perforations in the grooves were spaced 1.1 m apart and could be open or closed. When the perforations were open, urine could be drained directly into a slurry pit below. In case of closed perforations, draining of urine was only possible at one alley end. The feces were dragged to one end of the alley using a scraper, provided with facilities, that also cleaned the grooves. The floor system was constructed in a compartment of a mechanically ventilated experimental cow house. In another compartment a traditional slotted floor served as a reference. Ammonia emissions from both compartments were recorded continuously. The effects on ammonia emission and the performance of the perforations in the floor were determined. The floor system was also implemented into various practical farms and some practical experiences were gathered. Ammonia emission from the compartment with the grooved solid floor operating with open perforations was reduced by 46% compared with the reference compartment. Closing of the perforations resulted in an ammonia emission reduction of 35% compared to the reference compartment.
Keywords: cattle housing, floors, cattle dung, urine, removal, equipment, ammonia, emission, grooved concrete floors, dung scrapers.

Szyndler, J. and A. Kaczor (1997). Behaviour of dairy cows in litter and litter-free tie-in stalls of different size. [Zachowanie sie krow mlecznych na wiazanych stanowiskach sciolowych i bezsciolowych o roznych wymiarach.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 249-262, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cattle housing, litter, litter-free tie-in stalls, stall dimensions, on the, cleanliness, skin injuries and abrasions, legs, udder, health, animal behavior, lying, standing, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Takahashi, K., H. Takenaka, and I. Inano (1998). Improvement of cow comfort by using rubber filled cow mattresses. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural, Agricultural Experiment Stations 75:89-94, ISSN: 0441-0807.
NAL Call No.: S304 H6E22
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, cow housing, cattle housing, litter, rubber, Japan.

Terosky, T.L., L.L. Wilson, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1997). Effects of individual housing design and size on special-fed Holstein veal calf growth performance, hematology, and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 75(7): 1697-1703, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: veal, calves, carcass quality, housing, design, size, Holstein, growth, performance, width, blood, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, meat, color, carcass weight, dressing percentage, stalls, pens, management.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Behavioral pattern of dairy cows milked in a two-stall automatic milking system with a holding area. Journal of Animal Science 75(4): 954-958, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Behavioral pattern was investigated in dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system (AMS) in contrast to cows milked in a conventional milking parlor. Forty-eight Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of 24 animals. The two groups were housed in adjacent free stall pens. Both groups were milked twice a day at 0500 and at 1500 for 30 d before commencement of the experiment, one in a two-stall AMS (AMS Group), the other in a 16-stall herringbone parlor (Parlor Group). The respective holding areas were used to encourage cows to enter the milking compartments. All cows consumed total mixed rations ad libitum, provided once a day between 0500 and 0600 in indoor feed bunks. Cows in both groups were allowed daily access to two adjacent outdoor paddocks from 1030 to 1230. Behavioral observations were carried out in the free stall barn from 0400 to 0900 and from 1250 to 1900 for 30d. The number of cows lying down, standing in the stalls, standing in the passageway, and eating was recorded every 10 min. Analyses of variance were used to compare time serial changes in behavioral states between groups. Although the time serial changes in the behavioral states were not different between groups after returning from paddocks, they became significantly different between groups for all four recorded behavioral states after the onset of milking. Ethograms during the 11-h observation period showed that cows in the AMS group spent less time eating at the feed bunk and standing in the stalls to compensate for the longer time standing in the holding area. The results indicate that AMS milking with a holding area affects social synchronization of cows eating and resting and reduces time spent eating.
Keywords: automation, milking machines, milking parlors, behavior, milk yield, lactation stage, age, posture, eating, duration, activity sampling.

Vaarst, M., J. Hindhede, and C. Enevoldsen (1998). Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems. Journal of Dairy Research 65(2): 175-186, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: dairy herds, housing, lameness, handling, feet, lesions, hemorrhage, lactation stage, breed differences, Friesian, body weight, lameness, deep litter housing, stalls, hooves, organic farming, slatted floors, straw, litter, calving season, Denmark., AG AB.

Valtorta, S.E., P.E. Leva, and M.R. Gallardo (1997). Evaluation of different shades to improve dairy cattle well-being in Argentina. International Journal of Biometeorology 41(2): 65-67, ISSN: 0020-7128.
NAL Call No.: 340.8 In8
Keywords: tree shades, artificial shade structure, black woven polypropylene cloth, black globe temperatures, effectiveness in reducing heat load, floor temperatures, holding pens, pasture-based system, animal well-being.

Valtorta, S.E., M.R. Gallardo, H.C. Castro, and M.E. Castelli (1996). Artificial shade and supplementation effects on grazing dairy cows in Argentina. Transactions of the ASAE 39(1): 233-236, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Keywords: cows, mid-laactation, heat stress, summer, grazing, parity, somatic cell count, milk quality, blood composition, milk protein, sodium, potassium, urea, body temperature, milk yield, milk composition, milk protein yield.

van Schaik, G., M. Nielen, and A.A. Dijkhuizen (2001). An economic model for on‑farm decision support of management to prevent infectious disease introduction into dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51(3‑4): 289‑305, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No: SF601 P7
Keywords: closed farming system, disease control, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), models. sanitary barrier, protective clothing.

Veissier, I., A.R. Ramirez, and P. Pradel (1998). Nonnutritive oral activities and stress responses of veal calves in relation to feeding and housing conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57(1-2): 35-49, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Abstract: This study assessed the extent to which eating solid foods and social contacts influence nibbling objects and improve the welfare of veal calves. Animals were fed milk replacer only vs. supplemented with solid foods and were housed in individual stalls vs. together in pens. Time budget, reactions to handling in a weighing machine, growth, health (length of medical treatments) and abomasal lesions were assessed. In addition, chronic activation of the hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenocortical axis was evaluated after ACTH and CRF challenges, and that of the sympathetic nervous system, through activities of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes. The provision of solid foods reduced time spent nibbling objects and being inactive in proportion to and at the time of the increase in time spent eating and chewing. The calves housed together in pens had higher basal cortisol levels and they reacted to weighing. Health and physiological indices of chronic stress did not vary with feeding or housing conditions. It is concluded that nibbling in veal calves derives at least in part from a lack of development of feeding behaviour appropriate to ruminants. There was no clear evidence of poorer welfare due to feeding on milk replacer only or individual housing, but calves reared in groups seemed more stressed by handling than calves reared in individual stalls.
Keywords: oral activities, food, chewing, feeding behavior, milk replacer, social contacts, individual housing, group housing, stalls, pens, time budget, handling, growth, health, medical, treatments, lesions, sympathetic nervous system, stress response, enzymes, basal, cortisol, chronic stress conditions, development.

Veissier, I., P. Chazal, P. Pradel, and P. Le Neindre (1997). Providing social contacts and objects for nibbling moderates reactivity and oral behaviors in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 75(2): 356-365, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the role of social and physical enrichment in the adaptation of veal calves totheir environment. We compared calves housed in individual stalls that varied in the extent of contacts they allowed between neighbors (16 calves: open partitions; 16 calves: solid partitions; 32 calves: solid and extended partitions preventing all contact). All but 16 out of the 32 isolated calves were provided with a piece of tire and a chain, objects they could easily nibble. We assessed time budget, behavioral reactions to a water throw, neuroendocrine responses to stress (ACTH challenge and catecholamine synthesis), health, and growth. Calves kept in isolation displayed more startled reactions (16 isolated calves vs 5 non-isolated calves were startled by the throw, P < .05). Calves without objects spent more time nibbling at the feeding grille (5 vs 3% time, P < .01), licking their lips and tongue-rolling (7 vs 4% time, P <.05). Social contacts and the provision of objects had no incidence on neuroendocrine measurements and growth. Contacts with neighbors resulted in a slight but nonsignificant rise in disease. Depriving calves of social contacts increases behavioral reactivity, probably because there are no peer animals through which reactions can be moderated, and the lack of adequate objects to nibble promotes self-directed activities.
Keywords: calves, animal behavior, neurohormones, stress, veal, calf housing, stalls, group size, animal welfare, partitions, enrichment, toys, grooming, fright, rest, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress response, breed differences, Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliard, health, lesions, stomach ulcers, scars, nibbling, sniffing, lip-licking, tongue-rolling.

Veissier, I., V. Gesmier, P. Le Neindre, J.Y. Gautier, and G. Bertrand (1994). The effects of rearing in individual crates on subsequent social behaviour of veal calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(3/4): 199-210, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: veal calves, social behavior, housing, isolation rearing, crates.

Ventura, P.G. (1999). European cow-sheds ever more economic in 2000. [Sempre piu economica la stalla europea del 2000.] Informatore Agrario 55(25): 38-41.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cattle housing, design, costs, waste management, construction materials, netting walls, European Union Countries, Italian language.

Ventura, P.G. (1997). Ways of increasing the well-being of high-yielding dairy cows. [Soluzioni per aumentare il benessere delle bovine da latte ad alta produzione.] Informatore Agrario 53(35): 77-79.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cow housing, barn roof design, ventilation, drinking water, cubicles, bedding, flooring, skin and foot care, Italy, Italian language.

Vokey F.J., C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and D.M. Galton (2001). Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free‑stall barn. Journal of Dairy Science 84(12): 2686‑99, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy herd, housing, alley surfaces, grooved concrete, rubber mats, free stall beds, deep sand, rubber mattresses, concrete, sawdust, hind claws, hocks, lesions, dorsal wall length, heel depth, toe angle, digital dermatitis, scoring.

Wandel, H. and T. Jungbluth (1997). Assessing new design of lying boxes for cows. [Bewertung neuer Liegeboxenkonstruktionen.] Landtechnik 52(5): 266-267, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, design, construction, costs, cubicles, boxes, husbandry, mats, floors, German language.

Webster, A.J.F. (2001). Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 56‑65, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: This paper describes a systematic study of the development of lesions of the claw horn (CHL, sole and white line) in heifers calving for the first time, housed either in cubicles or a straw yard and fed either a low‑ or high‑dry‑matter forage diet. The feet of all animals were inspected on five occasions, at approximately four weeks before and four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks post calving. Haemorrhagic lesions of the sole and white line were described according to a geometric lesion score for severity and a cumulative lesion score based on the product of (severity x area) for each lesion. Geometric and cumulative lesion scores increased in all groups of cattle in the first eight weeks after calving. However, the severity and persistence of the lesions were significantly greater in cattle housed in cubicle yards. Wet feeding increased the severity of CHL in the cubicle yard only. There were no associations between lesion scores and body weight, body condition or foot conformation. The heels of the cattle in straw yards tended to be thick but many showed pitting erosions. In cubicles the heels were smooth but thin. This may have contributed to CHL by increasing concussive forces within the hoof. There was a highly significant (but relatively low) correlation between scores for sole lesions and lameness in individual animals. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that systemic events associated with calving and the onset of lactation may set in motion the chain of events that lead to the lesions of CHL; the extent and severity of these lesions being then determined by the externally imposed conditions of housing and feeding.
Keywords: heifers, calving, lactation, cow housing, cubicles,straw yards, forage, dry matter, cattle feeding, moisture, interactions, claws, lesions, body weight, body condition, risk factors, hemorrhage, conformation, feet, lameness, etiology.

Wiederkehr, T.U., K. Friedli, and B. Wechsler (2001). Influence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systems. [Einfluss von regelmassigem Auslauf auf das Vorkommen und den Schweregrad von Sprunggelenksschaden bei Milchvieh im Anbindestall.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 163‑170.
Keywords: dairy cows, disease prevention, exercise, joint diseases, hock lesions, lameness, exercise, lying area, litter, German language.

Wilson, L.L., T.L. Terosky, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1999). Effects of individual housing design and size on behavior and stress indicators of special-fed Holstein veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 77(6): 1341-1347, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine effects of housing design (calves tethered in open stalls vs untethered in individual pens) and widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments) on indicators of stress and behavior in special-fed veal calves. Three production cycles (groups) were used, each with 36 Holstein bull calves. Calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted to treatments upon arrival at the facility. Blood samples were collected four times (wk 4, 9, 13, and 18) during the 18-wk production cycle. Blood serum values for cortisol and (alpha1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) exhibited few treatment differences. Blood leukocyte differential counts at 4 and 18 wk (segmented neutrophils [N], banded neutrophils, lymphocytes [L], basophils, and the N:L ratio) were not different (P > .05) among housing designs or widths. However, there were differences (P < .05) in monocytes and eosinophils during the 28-d period after arrival; calves in stalls 76 cm wide had the greatest percentage of both leukocytes, and calves in the 66-cm stalls had the lowest monocyte percentage. Calves were recorded on videotape during wk 4, 13.5, and 18 to determine frequencies and durations of postures and behaviors (e.g., lying, standing, chewing, tongue playing, grooming, and investigative activities). There were no consistent differences (P > .05) in postures or behaviors among calves in different housing designs or widths. Calves spent approximately 71 and 31% in lying and standing positions, with no preference for the right or left side while recumbent. There was a tendency for calves in wider stalls or pens at wk 9 and 18 to exhibit more self-grooming activities. Tongue playing and investigative and chewing activities were exhibited in all teatments, but no differences (P > .05) were observed. However, calves housed in the 56-cm pens displayed difficulty in changing from lying to a standing position and were unable to extend one or more legs while recumbent. Even though there were few differences in behavioral, physiological, growth, or anatomical traits in this study, further increases in age and (or) weight of finished calves will require a reassessment of the appropriateness of individual veal calf housing design and dimensions.
Keywords: calves, young animals, Holstein, stress, veal calves, basophils, blood serum, hydrocortisone, eosinophils, glycoproteins, grooming, leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, tethered housing, cattle housing, animal welfare, animal experiments, hematology, blood chemistry, calf housing, stalls, pens, cubicles.

Yamamoto, S., B.A. Young, B.P. Purwanto, F. Nakamasu, and T. Matsumoto (1994). Effect of solar radiation on the heat load of dairy heifers solar-radiation. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 45(8): 1741-1749.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au783
Keywords: dairy heifers, respiration rate, mean body temperature, effective temperature, heat load, solar radiation, thermoregulation, respiration rate, heat production, heart rate, shading, summer, autumn, equations.

Zahner, M., M. Keck, W. Langhans, B. Wechsler, and R. Hauser (2001). Influence of weather protection in winter on ethological and physiological parameters in dairy cows. [Einfluss von Witterungsschutz im Winter auf ethologische und physiologische Parameter bei Milchkuhen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 28‑36.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, cubicles, winter weather, cold, stress, body temperature, heart rate, milk cortisol.


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Table of Contents

Husbandry

Baumgartner, G. (1999). General regulations for the humane husbandry of livestock. [Rahmenbedingungen fur die tierschutzgerechte Haltung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 2-7, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: animal welfare, legislation, livestock, husbandry, Europe, German language.

Bazeley, K., G. Anderson, and A. Hibbert (2000). Measurement of the quality of stockmanship. Cattle Practice 8(1): 13-14, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: stockmen, dairy cattle, cows, animal welfare, husbandry, United Kingdom.

Bewley, J., R.W. Palmer, and D.B. Jackson‑Smith (2001). An overview of experiences of Wisconsin dairy farmers who modernized their operations. Journal of Dairy Science 84(3):717‑29.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: farm expansion, modernization, production increase, herd size, milk production, labor efficiency, herd performance, profitability, labor management, financing, loan procurement, construction and cost overruns, feet and leg health.

Brade, W. (2001). Comparison of automatic and conventional milking systems. [Automatische und konventionelle Melksysteme im Vergleich]. Berichte ueber Landwirtschaft 79(2): 275‑292, ISSN: 0005‑9080.
NAL Call No.: 18 G31
Keywords: dairy cows, farmer, automatic milking system, cost effectiveness, milk collection method, milk quality, quality of life, German language.

Brade, W. (2001). Precision farming in animal husbandry. [Precision farming in der tierischen Erzeugung.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (11): 582‑590, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy farming, cattle feeding, machine milking, animal recognition, automatic data collection, German language.

Breuer, K., P.H. Hemsworth, J.L. Barnett, L.R. Matthews, and G.J. Coleman (2000). Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66(4): 273-288, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, productivity, attitudes, stockmen, dairy farms, animal behavior, fearfulness, vocalization, stress response, trauma, animal welfare, milk yield, milkers, milk yield, milk protein, milk yield, milk fat.

Buchwalder, T., T. Oswald, and B. Wechsler (1999). Alternatives to the cow trainer: evaluation of cow behaviour when using the Albrecht iron and the aktorik. [Alternativen zum elektrischen Kuhtrainer: Beurteilung des Verhaltens der Kuhe unter dem Albrecht-Bugel und unter der Aktorik.] Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT), Switzerland, No. 535, 8p., ISSN: 1018-502X.
NAL Call No.: S671.B55
Keywords: cows, restraint of animals, housing, animal behavior, animal welfare, movement, electric current, cow trainers, equipment, waste disposal, cattle manure, Switzerland, German language.

Choi, D.Y., H.T. Kim, D.W. Lee, J.D. Han, H.S. Kang, D.J. Kwon, and S.K. Lee (2001). A computer vision system for weighing dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 43 (1): 131-138.
NAL Call No.: SF1.H36
Keywords: Holstein Friesian, breed, dairy cows, body weight, computer vision system, pixel values of images, top and side view of dairy cow, cameras, personal computer, effect of light reflection, dark illumination.

Davis, S.R., V.C. Farr, and K. Stelwagen (1999). Once-daily milking of dairy cows: an appraisal. In: 59th conference, Holy Cross College, Mosgiel, 28 June-1 July 1999, Vol.59, p.36-40, Dairy Science Group, AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre: Hamilton, New Zealand.
Keywords: milking, cows, milk quality, milk yield, milking interval, costs, economics, productivity, milk composition, cow comfort, animal welfare.

Devir, S., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and P.J.M. Huijsmans (1996). Validation of a daily automatic routine for dairy robotic milking and concentrates supply. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 64(1): 49-60, ISSN: 0021-8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Keywords: automatic system, diet, concentrate supplementation, Freisian-Holstein, breed.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrow-Tesch, J.L. Albright, J.W. Dailey, C.R. Young, and L.H. Stanker (2000). Tail-docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1456-1462, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Behavioral and physiological changes were measured following tail-docking in primiparous heifers. One month before projected first parturition, 21 heifers were assigned to control (nondocked), docked, or docked with lidocaine groups. Heifers were banded to initiate taildocking and the necrotic tail was removed after 144 h. Physiological, immunological, and behavioral measures were taken for 240 h following banding. Cortisol was not different for control and treated heifers. Haptoglobin increased for docked heifers by 168 h postbanding (24 h postdocking). alpha1-Acid glycoprotein decreased as haptoglobin increased, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein increased until 240 h postbanding. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased only with lidocaine and did not show an effect of docking by 240 h postbanding. Lymphocyte phenotyping demonstrated increased CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells for docked plus lidocaine heifers and gammadelta+ cells of those heifers tended to be reduced compared with docked heifers. Eating was the only maintenance behavior affected by banding in both docked groups (increased with banding and decreased with docking). The initial banding procedure did not alter heifer physiology and altered only eating behavior, but the cutting of the tail (docking) increased haptoglobin in response to the tissue damage and turned eating behavior to baseline. The use of lidocaine to anesthetize the tail before banding affected lymphocyte henotypes and TNF-alpha (banding alone did not alter these parameters).
Keywords: heifers, animal behavior, docking, feeding behavior, haptoglobins, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, lymphocytes, stress, tail, tumor necrosis factor.

Fossing, C., M. Vaarst, C.M. Christensen, S.M. Thamsborg, E.M. Vestergaard, C.L. Ingvartsen, T.W. Bennedsgaard (2001). Improving welfare in organic dairy cattle. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., p.151, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal welfare, coccidiosis, parasites, dairy cattle, homeopathy, organic farming.

Frazzi, E. (2001). How to adapt the stable to the milking robot. [Come adattare la stalla al robot di mungitura.] Informatore Agrario 57(18): 58‑62, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, dairy farming, machine milking, milking machines, milking robots, comfort, design, milking parlors, movement of cows, Italian language, Netherlands.

Fuchs, C. (2001). Economic efficiency of intensive and extensive animal husbandry. [Okonomischer Nutzen von extensiver und intensiver Tierproduktion.] Praktische Tierarzt 82(8): 578-585, ISSN: 0032‑681X.
NAL Call No: 41.8 P882
Keywords: agricultural economics, animal welfare, beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, climate, grazing, intensive husbandry, housing, straw handling, labor costs, research, German language.

Gobbel, T. (1998). Opportunities only for big farms with best performance: milk production in Wisconsin. [Chance nur fur grosse Betriebe mit Hochstleistungen: Milchproduktion in Wisconsin.] Milchpraxis 36(4): 196-199, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farms, milk production, milking techniques, nutrition, animal welfare, cattle feeding, machine milking, milk prices, cows, German language.

Fuhrmann, T. (2001). Dairy heifer replacements: Caring for the future. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1387‑1388, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: National Animal Health Monitoring System; animal welfare, herd size, ethics.

Giovannini, G., and A. Zecconi (2001). Tools of production and health management: autocontrol in dairy cattle rearing. [Come strumento di produzione e di gestione sanitaria: l'autocontrollo negli allevamenti bovini.] Informatore Agrario 57(19): 67‑69, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: health, dairy cattle, dairy industry, farm management, guidelines, livestock, mastitis, milk products, sanitary risks, monitoring, productivity, quality controls, Italian language.

Graham, M.H.(2001). Voltage compensation circuit and method for reducing electric shocks to teats of an animal during its milking. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1246(4): Pagination May 22, 2001, Patent Number: US 6234108, ISSN: 0098‑1133.
NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Keywords: dairy cow, equipment, milk pipeline, milk stream, method for reducing electric shocks to cows during milking.

Hamann, J. (2001). Actual aspects on automatic milking systems. [Aktuelle aspekte zum einsatz automatischer melkverfahren.] DTW Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrif 108 (3): 110-112.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: dairy cows, automatic milking systems, working conditions, quality of life of the dairy farmer, performance status of the cow, milk quality, milk hygiene regulations, udder health, German language.

Hamann, J., V. Bronzo, P. Moroni, A. Casula, and A. Zecconi (2001). Conventional and positive pressure pulsation effects on bovine teats and on immunological components of different milk fractions. Milchwissenschaft 56 (8): 423-427.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: physical forces, mechanical milking, changes in the teat tissue, blood circulation, cell population, teat tissue immune status, positive pressure milking system, conventional milking unit, relationship between machine milking and changes in differential cell counts.

Heissenhuber, A., and H. Hoffmann (2001). Intensive or extensive milk production? [Intensive oder extensive Milcherzeugung?] Zuechtungskunde 73(6): 422‑429, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: agricultural intensity, building costs, environmental incentives, extensive milk production, farm management, farming efficiency, feed costs, forage costs, intensive milk production, location quality, organizational intensity, price‑cost ratio, German language, Germany.

Hill, J. (2001). Dairy research in New Zealand. Milchwissenschaft 56(9): 484‑487, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: animal health, welfare, dairy foods, dairy product, dairy research, food ingredients, food processing, genetics, research and development, literature review.

Hogeveen, H., W. Ouweltjes, C.J.A.M de Koning, and K. Stelwagen (2001). Milking interval, milk production and milk flow‑rate in an automatic milking system. Livestock Production Science 72(1‑2): 157‑167, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: milking robot, automatic milking, voluntary visits by cow, milk flow rate, milking interval, milk production, variation, udder health.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der. Werf, J.H.F. Erkens, H.J. Blokhuis (March 1999). Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 77(3): 708-714, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of first blood samples by venipuncture, 15min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease of increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response pattern over successive series varied largely. The results of this study show that in cows that were accustomed to the handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.
Keywords: dairy cows, blood chemistry, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress, jugular vein, acclimatization, animal welfare.

Ipema, A.H. (1997). Integration of robotic milking in dairy housing systems. Review of cow traffic and milking capacity aspects. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 17(1): 79-94, ISSN: 0168-1699.
NAL Call No.: S494.5 D3C652
Keywords: milking, housing systems, review, cow integration.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (Feb. 15, 1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 137-151, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, feeding, handling, approach behavior, group size, liveweight gain.

Kashiwamura, F., J. Suda, K. Furumura, S. Hidaka, T. Seo, and T. Iketaki (2001). Habituation training for dairy cattle to milking boxes of new installed automatic milking system. Animal Science Journal 72 (8): J266-J273, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, training of cows to enter milking boxes, automatic milking system, conventional stanchion stall barn, free stall barn, entrance gate, alley, three tandem milking boxes, parameters observed, duration of passing through the entrance gate, duration from passing the gate to entering into a milking box, score of training difficulty, number of trainings required for the cows to enter the milking box without difficulty.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Management of calving in Norwegian cubicle‑housed dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 131‑137, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal housing, calves, calving, cows, dairy cows, management, location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence, assisted births, suckling, time after birth when cow and calf were separated, cubicles, pasture, calving pens, tethered cows, calf injuries, sheds, surveys, Norway.

Kotting, C., H. Seufert, H.P. Schwarz, and J. Hesse (1999). Milking and milking technique in the USA. [Melkverfahren und Melktechnik in den USA.] Milchpraxis 37(1): 26-28, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farms, cows, milking, milking machines, udders, cleaning, movement, human behavior, animal behavior, milking parlors, automation, milkers, techniques, German language.

Krohn, C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Lawson, T.J., and A.D. Kennedy ( 2001). Inhibition of nighttime melatonin secretion in cattle: threshold light intensity for dairy heifers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 153-156.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: heifers, Holstein, breed, melatonin secretion, lower light intensities, plasma melatonin concentrations.

Ledin, I. and A. Lema (1996). An eye for the animals: a necessary competence in Swedish milk production? In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 106-113, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy farming, cows, husbandry, animal welfare, milk production, farmers' attitudes, farmer interviews, Sweden.

Lewis, N.J. and J.F. Hurnik (1998). The effect of some common management practices on the ease of handling of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58(3): 213-230, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: management, temperament, animal behavior, handling, human-animal interactions.

Masoero, G., G. Bergoglio, C.F. Cereti, and L. Cialie Rosso (1996). Stocking rate on pasture and productive response of Valdostana Red Pied and Piedmont cattle for veal or milk production. [Intensita di carico al pascolo e risposte produttive da bovine Valdostane p.r. e Piemontesi munte o allattanti.] Rivista di Agronomia 31(Supplement 1): 337-340, ISSN: 0035-6034.
NAL Call No.: S9.R58
Keywords: dairy cows, nursing cows, Red Pied and Piedmont, breed, stocking rate, high, low, milk, milk yield, veal, pastures, Italy, Piedmont, Italian language.

Mauries, M., G. Allard, J.C. Emile, D. Parent, D. Pellerin, and F. Sarrazin (1998). Producing organic milk: making the transition successfully. [Produire du lait biologique: reussir la transition.] Editions France Agricole: Paris, France, 192p., ISBN: 2-85-557039-5.
Keywords: organic farming, farm management, dairy farms, monitoring, ecosystems, soil, fertilizers, grasslands, grassland management, soil amendments, rotations, regulations, farmers' associations, cost analysis, conflict, animal welfare, book, French language, France, Quebec, Canada.

Mayntz, M., R. Sederstrom, and G. Sender (2001). Quantitative effect of after milking stimulation on milk yield and fat composition in dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 107-113, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: cows, Swedish Red and White, breed, milking stimulation, pushes towards the teat base, hand milking bouts, milk yield, blood serum, fat content, fatty acids,

Morita, S., K. Uetake, S. Shimizu, K. Yayou, S. Kume, T. Tanaka, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Evaluation of routine rearing work for human animal interactions in commercial dairy farm. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University Natural Science 25 (2): 263-269.
NAL Call No.: QH7 J68
Keywords: stockperson's working position, human animal relationship, contact with cows, flight distance.

Munksgaard, L., A.Md. Passille, J. Rushen, K. Thodberg, and M.B. Jensen (1997). Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal of Dairy Science 80(6): 1106-1112, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined whether dairy cows could distinguish among people based on the treatment received, whether cows used color as a cue to make this discrimination, and whether cows generalized their discrimination to other locations. Twelve cows were each repeatedly treated in a special treatment stall by two people wearing red or yellow overalls. One person always treated the cows aversively, and the other always treated them gently. The distance between each person and each cow in the home stall and in the treatment stall was scored during tests. Before treatment, the distances that cows maintained from the two people were uncorrelated, and the distances that they maintained in the treatment stall were uncorrelated with those in the home stall. Before and after treatments, the cows stood further from the handlers in the treatment stall than in the home stall, regardless of color of the overalls. Defecation and urination were more frequent during aversive treatments. After treatment, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler in both stalls, and distance from the aversive handler was positively correlated with distance from the gentle handler. The cows did not discriminate when the aversive and gentle handlers wore blue overalls (as worn by the usual barn handlers), when two unfamiliar people wore the same color overalls as the handlers, or when the cows were shown photographic slides of the two handlers. In conclusion, the cows learned to discriminate among the handlers, partially based on the color of the clothes worn. This discrimination was generalized to another location.
Keywords: cows, breed, Friesian, husbandry, animal welfare, stress, animal behavior, stockmen, color of clothes worn, descrimination, rough versus gentle handling, Denmark.

Norman, H.D., J.L. Edwards, J.R. Wright (2001). Accuracy of recorded birth and calving dates of dairy cattle in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2089‑2096, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: husbandry, record keeping, birth recording, accuracy, calving dates, cow age, herd size, standardized yield, fitness records, genetic evaluations, USA.

Ordolff, D. (2001). Introduction of electronics into milking technology. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 30 (1-3): 125-149.
NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
Keywords: machine milking, milk flow, application of electricity, electronic components, sensors, control units, teat cups, automatic checks of udder condition, milk quality, on line milk analysis, dairy farmer, technology, former German Democratic Republic,

Paranhos da Costa, M.J.R. and D.M. Broom. (2001). Consistency of side choice in the milking parlour by Holstein‑Friesian cows and its relationship with their reactivity and milk yield. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 177‑186, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, behavior, temperament, milking, milking parlors, milk yield, animal welfare, milking side preferences.

Ruegg, P.L. (2004). Tail docking and animal welfare. Bovine Practitioner 38(1): 24-29.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Abstract: Tail docking is a common practice on many dairy farms, and is perceived by many farmers to improve cleanliness and enhance milking parlour efficiency. It is a controversial practice attracting increasing scrutiny by the animal welfare community. Scientific studies have been performed to evaluate physiological and behavioural responses to tail docking in preweaned calves and preparturient heifers. The effect of tail docking on animal behaviour, indicators of pain, fly avoidance behaviours, immune responses and circulating plasma cortisol have been reported. Additional studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of tail docking on cleanliness and udder health in lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this paper is to review current research related to tail docking in dairy cattle.
Keywords: animal behavior, husbandry, animal welfare, blood chemistry, calves, dairy cows, heifers, hygiene, docking, hydrocortisone, immune response, pain, surgery, tail, udders.

Reubold, H. (1999). Automatic water dispensers tested by the DLG. [DLG-geprufte Selbsttranken.] Milchpraxis 37(3): 148-153, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: livestock, drinkers, design, installation, water troughs, bowl drinkers, dispensers, testing, characteristics, evaluation, Germany, German language.

Rossing, W, E. Aurik, and W. Smit (1998). Robot milking systems and the integration in the dairy farm: Automatic Milking. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, January 28-30, 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 61-70, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998
Keywords: dairy cows, automatic milking system design, social aspects, animal welfare, milk yield, milk quality, milking interval, individual cow management.

Rossing, W., P.H. Hogewerf, A.H. Ipema, C.C. KetelaarDeLauwere, and C.J.A.Md. Koning (1997). Robotic milking in dairy farming. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 45(1): 15-31, ISSN: 0028-2928.
Keywords: cows, milk yield, animal welfare, labor, dairy farming, robots, automation, machine milking, milking parlors, dairy farms, reviews, Netherlands.

Sandoe, P., L. Munksgaard, N.P. Badsgard, and K.H. Jensen (1996). How to manage the management factor: assessing animal welfare at the farm level. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 221-230, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farms, animal welfare assessment, effects of management, reviews.

Schon, H. and G. Wendl (2000). Precision animal husbandry. [Rechnergestutzte Tierhaltung.] Landtechnik 55(3): 238-239, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: animal welfare, intensive husbandry, precision agriculture, data records, computer-aided methods, individual electronic animal identification, feeding, resting, milking, costs, dairy farms, husbandry, German language.

Schreiner, D.A.and P.L Ruegg (2002). Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (10): 2503-2511, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail docking, somatic cell count, milk, hygiene, udders, legs, bovine mastitis, pathogens, contagious pathogens, environmental pathogens, stalls, Wisconsin.

Schreiner, D.A. and P.L. Ruegg (2002). Responses to tail docking in calves and heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (12): 3287-3296, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42 d of age. Preparturient heifers (n = 24) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) tails were cleaned and handled; 2) tails were cleaned, handled, and an elastrator band was applied to the tail; 3) an epidural was administered 15 min before cleaning and handling; and 4) an epidural was administered 15 min before application of an elastrator band. Behavioral observations and physiological responses were collected for 6 wk. Additionally, behavioral responses to tail banding were recorded for 10 d on Holstein heifer calves that were 1 to 6 wk of age (n = 40). No significant differences in behavior were observed among treatment groups of preparturient heifers at any time during the 6-wk observation period. Preweaned calves that were 21 to 42 d of age demonstrated significantly more restlessness after application of tail bands compared to younger calves or control calves of the same age. Plasma cortisol values of preparturient heifers remained within limits previously described for nonstressed animals and no significant differences were detected among groups. Hematological values remained within the reference values for cattle, and there were no significant differences between groups except for relatively more eosinophils in the heifers that received epidurals. No significant differences in heart rate or body temperature were detected among groups.
Keywords: calves, heifers, tail docking, tail banding, behavior, posture, pain, conduction anesthesia, age differences, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, blood picture, heart rate, body temperature, animal welfare.

Seabrook, M.F. (1994). Psychological interaction between the milker and the dairy cow. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting 163-174, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: psychology, human animal interactions, man, perception, animal welfare.

Smolders, G. (2001). Animal management on organic dairy farms.[Diermanagement op biologische melkveebedrijven.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14(4): 31‑36, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: dairy cows, age at first calving, age at first insemination, health, body condition, breeds, housing, dairy farming, farm management, fertility, milk, milk production, organic farming, somatic cell count, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Sorensen, A., D.D. Muir, and C.H. Knight (2001). Thrice‑daily milking throughout lactation maintains epithelial integrity and thereby improves milk protein quality. The Journal of Dairy Research 68 (1): 15‑253, ISSN: 0022‑0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: Cows managed for extended lactations of 16 months duration were milked on a half‑udder basis twice or thrice daily, commencing in lactation week 9.Mammary epithelial integrity (assessed by milk sodium:potassium ratio) was greater in the half‑udder which was milked thrice daily. This difference was evident throughout the lactation but became greater after week 41. Milk protein composition was assessed during late lactation (52+/‑3 weeks). Casein number (casein as a proportion of total protein) was significantly higher in half‑udders milked thrice daily, as were the relative amounts of alpha‑ and beta‑caseins, whilst those of kappa‑ and gamma‑caseins were reduced. Two days of inverted milking frequency (i.e. thrice‑milked udder halves now milked twice, and vice versa) only partly reversed these difference. We concluded that thrice‑daily milking will help to prevent or ameliorate the usual decline in milk processing quality associated with late lactation. Part of this effect is due simply to reduced exposure to proteolytic enzymes as a result of decreased storage time in the udder, but part is due to a better maintenance of epithelial tight junction integrity as lactation advances, which restricts leakage of proteolytic enzymes from serum into milk.
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, lactation, frequency, epithelium, milk protein, protein quality, milk composition, animal husbandry, sodium, potassium, ratios, mammary glands, protein composition, alpha‑casein, beta‑casein, gamma‑casein, kappa‑casein, processing quality, temporal variation.

Srairi, M.T., and M. El Khattabi (2001). Economical and technical performance of an intensive dairy cattle barn in a semi‑arid zone in Morocco. [Evaluation economique et technique de la production laitiere intensive en zone semi aride au Maroc.] Cahiers Agricultures 10 (1): 51-55.
NAL Call No.: S5 C34
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, economic profitability, intensive dairy cattle barn, breeding practices, seasonally dependent, weather changes, rainfall, drought, semi arid zone, availability of forage, milk yields, concentrates, artificial insemination, natural mating, calf mortality rate, production costs, feed costs, Morocco.

Stonehouse, D.P., E.A. Clark, and Y.A. Ogini (2001). Organic and conventional dairy farm comparisons in Ontario, Canada. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 19 (2): 115‑125, ISSN: 0144‑8765.
NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Keywords: husbandry, dairy cows, dairy farms, economic analysis, intensive livestock farming versus, organic farming, milk yield, costs, crop production, feed costs, replacement livestock. profits, Canada.

Stull, C., E. DePeters, and G. Beall (1993). Dairy Care Practices. Dairy Workgroup: University of California, Cooperative Extension, 48 p.
NAL Call No.: SF196 U6D35 1993
Keywords: calf care, heifer care, lactating cow care, dry cow care, care of dairy bulls, handling, slaughter, euthanasia, dairy industry in California.

Stull, C.L., Payne, M.A., Berry, S.L., and P.J Hullinger (2002). Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (9): 1298-1303, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, tail docking, pain, animal welfare, regulations, methodology, physiological functions, animal behavior, insect control, animal health, public health, literature reviews.

Tozer, P.R., and A.J. Heinrichs (2001). What affects the costs of raising replacement dairy heifers: a multiple component analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1836-1844, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy replacement herd, model, herd variables, cost of rearing, age at first calving, calving interval, cull rate, preweaned calf deaths, Pennsylvania, United States.

Turki, H. and S. Winnicki (2001). Effect of premilking procedures of cows on milk flow duration and machine‑on time. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Zootechnica (42): 157‑162, ISSN: 1506‑1698.
NAL Call No.: 20.5 St4
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, manually cleaning and drying the teats, machine milking, milk flow, milking, milking time, udder quarters.

Vargas, B., M. Herrero, and J.A.M. van Arendonk (2001). Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds. Livestock Production Science 69 (1): 17-31.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: performance model, cull rate, artificial insemination, estimates, feed intake, milk yield body weight change, availability and quality of feed, interactions between nutrition, reproduction, breeding at the animal and herd level, Costa Rican herds.

Waiblinger, S., T. Baars, and C. Menke (2001). Understanding the cow: the central role of human animal relationship in keeping horned dairy cows in loose housing. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), p. 64-78, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, cattle housing, cows, dairy cows, loose housing, organic farming, stockmen.

Wendl, G, and K. Klindtworth (2000). Computer-supported production management in dairy farming. [Rechnergestutztes Produktionsmanagement in der Milchviehhaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(1): 9-13, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farming, cows, computer monitored feeding, milk quality, milking machines, animal welfare, German language.

Wenzel, C. (2001). Initial ethological improvements for the management of cows milked by an automatic milking system.[Erste ethologische Empfehlungen zum Management von Milchrindern beim Melken in einem automatischen Melksystem.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (1): 21‑24, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, automation, milking, robots, management, milking parlors, stress, adaptation, animal welfare, milkers, milking robots, human animal relationships, German language.

Worstorff, H., and D. Weiss (2001). Performance of single teat cups in simulated automatic routines compared to conventional cluster milking of cows. Milchwissenschaft 56 (7): 363-366, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: routines, automatic milking systems, teat cleaning, quarter milk flow, milking performance, twice daily milking, tandem boxes,, standard cluster, robot teat cups, milk flow, peak flow.


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Table of Contents

Legislation

Bieri, H. and K. Aeberhard (2000). Milk processing at the farm and the main legislative regulations. [Milchverarbeitung auf dem Hof und wichtigste gesetzliche Vorschriften.] Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants 48(3): 4-6.
Keywords: Swiss legislation, milk processing, dairy farms, milk quality, quality controls, farm buildings, hygiene, microbial contamination, animal welfare, health, water quality, Switzerland, German and French language.

Burgoyne, D. (1999). International trade and animal welfare. Cahiers Agricultures 8(6): 445-449, ISSN: 1166-7699.
NAL Call No.: S5 C34
Keywords: Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Measures), agricultural commerce, animal welfare, international agreements, international regulations, international trade, negotiations, trade regulation, voluntary standards, European Union, French.

Friend, T.H., D.C. Jr. Lay, D.M. Bushong, and D.W. Pierce (1994). Wisconsin's "stale calf" issue and a study designed to resolve some of the animal welfare concerns. Journal of Animal Science 72(9): 2260-2263, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: veal calves, identification, ear cropping, pain, legislation.

Kellogg, D.W., J.A. Pennington, Z.B. Johnson, and R. Panivivat (2001). Survey of management practices used for the highest producing DHI herds in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E128‑E143, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein, Jersey, breeds, dairy herds, dairy farming, animal husbandry, dairy education, farm surveys, teaching methods, management practices, breeding, feeding, information for producers, Dairy Herd Improvement herds, USA.

Khaitsa, M.L., T.E. Wittum, K.L. Smith, J.L. Henderson, and K.H. Hoblet (2001). Characteristics and management practices associated with milk production in dairy herds in Ohio enrolled in official Dairy Herd Improvement Association programs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (8): 1262‑1265, ISSN: 0002‑9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: dairy herds, dairy cows, milk production, farmers' associations, husbandry, dairy farms, bulk milk, livestock numbers, staphylococcus aureus, lactating females, estrus, calves, mortality, somatotropin, Ohio.

Kolacz, R. (1999). European regulations affecting welfare of animals during transport. [Europejskie regulacje prawne dotyczace dobrostanu zwierzat gospodarskich podczas transportu.] Zycie Weterynaryjne 74(10): 491-497, ISSN: 0137-6810.
NAL Call No.: SF604 Z9
Keywords: cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, body weight, feeding, rest, transport of animals, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Kronfeld, D.S. (2000). Recombinant bovine somatotropin and animal welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(11): 1719-1724, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: somatotropin, dairy cows, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, law, ethics, data analysis, epidemiology, policy.

MacDonald, A. (1998). Quality systems in the dairy industry. Who benefits? Who pays? In: Proceedings of 50th Meeting of Dairy Farmers, Massey University, New Zealand, May 19-21, 1998, Vol. 51, G.F. Wilson (eds), p.71-81.
Keywords: dairy farming, dairy farms, milk quality, legislation, animal welfare, quality standards, milk marketing, Milk Marketing Boards, New Zealand.

Macpherson, R. (1998). Dairy cattle welfare: The FAWC perspective. Cattle Practice 6(2): 125-126, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: UK Farm Animal Welfare Council's perspective, dairy cattle welfare, United Kingdom.

Schulte, R., B. Earley, and S.V.D. Wouw, and N. Culleton (1998). Animal welfare: development of methodology for its assessment. Farm and Food 8(3): 20-23, ISSN: 0046-3302.
NAL Call No.: TX341 F3
Keywords: dairy farming, animal welfare, case studies, evaluation, regulations, agricultural policy, dairy farms, organic farming, ethology, immunology, European Union Countries.

Stull, C., E. DePeters, and G. Beall (1993). Dairy Care Practices Dairy Workgroup: University of California, Cooperative Extension, 48 p.
NAL Call No.: SF196 U6D35 1993
Keywords: calf care, heifer care, lactating cow care, dry cow care, care of dairy bulls, handling, slaughter, euthanasia, dairy industry in California. Available online at
http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-DA/INF-DA_CAREPRAX.HTML

Vaarst, M., L. Alban, L. Mogensen, S. Milan, S.M. Thamsborg, and E.S. Kristensen (2001). Health and welfare in Danish dairy cattle in the transition to organic production: problems, priorities and perspectives. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (4): 367‑390, ISSN: 1187‑7863.
NAL Call No.: BJ52.5.J68
Keywords: health, husbandry, animal welfare, behavior, calves, dairy cattle, dairy farming, organic farming, farm interviews, veterinarians, farmers, poor management, legislation, Denmark.

Verstegen, J.A.A.M. (1998). A Preparatory Study to Determine Policy for Livestock Farming.[Voorstudie Technology Assessment Koersbepaling Veehouderij.] Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI), Den Haag, Netherlands, No.3 (170), ISBN: 9-05-242455-1, 73p.
Keywords: livestock farming, cattle farming, pig farming, poultry farming, processing, meat products, milk products, egg products, agricultural production, public opinion, health, animal welfare, breeders' associations, consumer attitudes, dairy farming, Netherlands, Dutch language.


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Reproduction

Allore, H.G., L D Warnick, J Hertl, and Y T Grohn (2001). Censoring in survival analysis: a simulation study of the effect of milk yield on conception. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (3-4): 223-234, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: interval from calving to conception, milk yield on days open, culling, simulated data sets.

Arbel, R, Y. Bigun, E. Ezra, H. Sturman, and D. Hojman (2001). The effect of extended calving intervals in high yielding lactating cows on milk production and profitability. Journal of Dairy Science 84(3): 600 608, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: calving interval, high yielding cows, primiparous cows, lactation, multiparous cows, lactation, economic advantage.

At Taras, E.E. and S.L. Spahr (2001). Detection and characterization of estrus in dairy cattle with an electronic heatmount detector and an electronic activity tag. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 792-798, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, length, onset of estrus, electronic heatmount sensor, HeatWatch, electronic activity tag, Heat Seeker, activity ratio, mounting, physical activity, estrus detection, improved the efficiency of detection over visual observation.

Becker, F., W. Kanitz, and F. Schneider (2001). Timed artificial insemination in cattle: Mission impossible? Archiv fuer Tierzucht 44 (Special Issue): 68‑70, ISSN: 0003‑9438.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: estradiol, fertility‑drug, hormone drug, gonadotrophin releasing hormone, fertility drug, hormone drug, luteinizing hormone, prostaglandin F 2 alpha, fertility drug, hormone drug, estrous synchronization, assisted reproduction method, timed artificial insemination, assisted reproduction method, fertility, lactation, reproductive efficiency.

Cartmill, J.A., S.Z. El Zarkouny, B.A. Hensley, G.C. Lamb, and J.S. Stevenson (2001). Stage of cycle, incidence, and timing of ovulation, and pregnancy rates in dairy cattle after three timed breeding protocols. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1051-1059, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Ovsynch protocol, GnRH injection, PGF2alpha injection, insemination, palpation, pregnancy rates, embryo survival.

Cordoba, M.C., R. Sartori, and P.M. Fricke (2001). Assessment of a commercially available Early Conception Factor (ECF) test for determining pregnancy status of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1884-1889, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: breed, Holstein cows, heifers, Early Conception Factor (ECF) test, commercially available qualitative assay, pregnancy detection, glycoprotein, bovine serum, conception, embryonic loss, false positive results, blood sampling, unreliable method.

Darwash, A.O., G.E. Lamming, and M.D. Royal (2001). A protocol for initiating oestrus and ovulation early post partum in dairy cows. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (3): 539-546.
Keywords: Holstein Friesian, breed, cows, prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and progesterone (P4) treatment, initiating estrus and ovulation post partum, incidence of silent ovulation, reproductive performance.

de Mol, R.M., G.H. Kroeze, J.M.F.H. Achten, K. Maatje, and W. Rossing (1997). Results of a multivariate approach to automated oestrus and mastitis detection dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 48(3): 219-227, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: estrus detection, mastitis detection, time series analysis, Kalman filter, telemetry.

Deshmukh, B.T., A.S. Nagvekar, B.A. Talvelkar, S.H. Dalvi, and S.R. Chinchkar (2001). Effect of bovine somatotropin on blood serum minerals, thyroid hormones and reproductive performance of lactating crossbred cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71(7): 663-666.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: multiparous lactating crossbred cows, treatment, sometribove zinc suspension, sustained release preparation, blood samples, bovine somatotropin, blood serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine concentrations,

Dobson, H., J.E. Tebble, R.F. Smith, and W.R. Ward (2001). Is stress really all that important? Theriogenology 55 (1): 65‑73, ISSN: 0093‑691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: dairy cows, embryo transfer, female fertility, pregnancy rate, animal welfare, stress.

Fernandes, C.A.C., D.S. Costa, and J.H.M. Viana (2001). Impact of the retained placenta on the reproductive performance in cattle. [Impacto da retencao de placenta sobre a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras.] Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 25 (1): 26-30.
NAL Call No.: QP251.R48
Keywords: cows, dairy farms, incidence of retained placenta, effect on the reproductive performance, incidence of uterine infection, interval from parturition to first estrus, number of services/conception, body condition.

Galimberti, A.M., F.A. Fonseca, M.C.C. Araujo, E.P. da Costa, C. de Freitas, J.D. Guimaraes, and A. de M. Ferreira (2001). Pregnancy rate and plasma progesterone concentrations in bovine embryo recipients treated with buserelin after embryo transfer. [Taxa De Gestacao e Niveis Plasmaticos De Progesterona, Em Receptoras De Embriao Bovino, Tratadas Com Buserelina Apos a Inovulacao.] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30(2): 353-359.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, crossbred, hormonal treatment, GnRH agonist, buserelin, embryo transfer, pregnancy rate, progesterone in bovine embryo recipients, plasma concentrations, blood collection pregnancy diagnosis, transrectal way.

Garcia, S.C., and C.W. Holmes (2001). Lactation curves of autumn and spring calved cows in pasture based dairy systems. Livestock Production Science 68 (2-3): 189-203.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: linear based, non linear based, analysis method for lactation curves, effects of calving season, total milk yield, milk composition, autumn and spring calved cows, seasonal variation.

Godden, S.M., D.F. Kelton, K.D. Lissemore, J.S. Walton, K.E. Leslie, and J.H. Lumsden (2001). Milk urea testing as a tool to monitor reproductive performance in Ontario dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1397-1406, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein, breed, cows, dairy herd improvement test day data, commercial dairy herds, milk urea concentrations, infrared test method, reproductive performance, fertility pregnancy, insemination, nitrogen excretion.

Guzeloglu, A., J.D. Ambrose, T. Kassa, T. Diaz, M.J. Thatcher, and W.W. Thatcher (2001). Long‑term follicular dynamics and biochemical characteristics of dominant follicles in dairy cows subjected to acute heat stress. Animal Reproduction Science 66 (1/2): 15‑34, ISSN: 0378‑4320.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, ovarian follicles, heat stress, estrus, quality, progesterone, prostaglandins, air temperature, body temperature, follicular fluid, heat shock proteins, molecular weight.

Hansen, P.J. and C.F. Arechiga, (1999). Strategies for managing reproduction in the heat-stressed dairy cow. Journal of Animal Science 77(Suppl. 2): 36-50.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy is difficult in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress because of reductions in estrous detection rate and the proportion of inseminated cows that maintain pregnancy. The most common approach to ameliorate heat stress in developed countries has been to alter the cow's environment through provision of shade, fans, sprinklers, and so on. Nonetheless, seasonal variation in reproductive function persists. Increased understanding of bovine reproductive function and its alteration by heat stress has led to additional strategies for reducing deleterious consequences of heat stress on reproduction. These include hormonally induced timed artificial insemination, which can reduce losses in reproductive efficiency caused by poor detection of estrus, and embryo transfer, which can increase pregnancy rate by allowing embryos to bypass the period when they are most sensitive to elevated temperature (i.e., in the first 1 to 2d after breeding). Other efforts are directed toward developing methods to protect the embryo from harmful actions of elevated temperature. Approaches being studied include manipulation of embryonic synthesis of heat shock proteins and use of antioxidants to reduce free radical damage associated with heat stress. It may also be possible to reduce the magnitude of hyperthermia caused by heat stress. This might be possible physiologically, for example by feeding of agents that affect thermoregulatory systems, or genetically by selecting for specific traits conferring thermal resistance. Finally, the development of bovine somatotropin as a lactational promotant means that it may be possible to extend lactations beyond 305 d and voluntarily discontinue inseminations during periods of heat stress.
Keywords: dairy cows, heat stress, lactation, body temperature, body temperature regulation, estrus detection, postpartum interval, pregnancy rate, embryo mortality, uterus, oviducts, spermatozoa, heat shock, genetic resistance,embryo transfer, literature reviews.

Hansen, P.J., M. Drost, R.M. Rivera, F.F. Paula-Lopes, Y.M. Al-Katanani, C.E. Krininger, and C.C. Chase (2001). Adverse impact of heat stress on embryo production: causes and strategies for mitigation. Theriogenology 55 (1): 91-103.
NAL Call No.: QP251 A1T5
Keywords: dairy cows, beef cows, body temperature regulation, superovulation.

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and D.W. Webb (2001). Effect of lameness on the calving to conception interval in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (10): 1611-1614, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, lameness, reproductive performance, interval from calving to conception, number of breedings required per conception, foot rot, papillomatous digital dermatitis, claw lesions, multiple lesions.

Hernandez, C.J. and R.J.S. Morales(2001). Conception failure in dairy cattle: Evaluation of hormone therapies.[Falla en la concepcion en el ganado lechero: Evaluacion de terapias hormonales.] Veterinaria Mexico 32(4): 279‑287, ISSN: 0301‑5092.
NAL Call No.: SF604.V485
Keywords: bovine somatotrophin, human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, conception rate, fertility, milk production, pregnancy, mortality, early embryonic death, repeat breeder cows.

Heuer, C., Y.H. Schukken, L.J. Jonker, J.I.D. Wilkinson, and J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen (2001). Effect of monensin on blood ketone bodies, incidence and recurrence of disease and fertility in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1085-1097, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: effect of monensin, milk production, health, reproduction, calving, clinical mastitis, intramammary infection, lameness, calving to conception intervals, endometritis, cystic ovarian disease.

Holmes, C.W. (2001). Managing fertility in the New Zealand dairy herd. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61:135‑140, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, body condition, feeding, fertility, genetics, health, lactation, milk products, milk yield, reviews, New Zealand.

Kennedy, A.D. and J.R. Ingalls (1995). Estrus detection with activity tags in dairy cows housed in tie-stalls. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75(4): 633-636, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: activity, estrus-detection, tie-stall, reproduction.

Kruip, T.A.M., J. Stefanowska, and W. Ouweltjes (2000). Robot milking and effect on reproduction in dairy cows: a preliminary study. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61: 443-447.
NAL Call No.: QP251 A5
Keywords: robot milking, fertility, sexual reproduction, lactation, energy balance, fecundity, husbandry, feed rations, live weight, weight loss, body condition.

Kumar, H., S. Mahmood, and L.P. Singh (2001). Treatment of placental retention with ecbolic drugs and its effect on subsequent fertility in crossbred cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (7): 654-657.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: cows, fertility response, retained fetal membranes, ecbolic drugs, intrauterine infusion, oriprim bolus, synotocinon, luprostiol, estradiol valerate, herbal drug, metrali, reproductive efficiency, interval from parturition to conception, number of services per conception.

LeBlanc, S. (2001). The Ovsynch breeding program for dairy cows: a review and economic perspective. Bovine Practitioner 35 (1): 13-22.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: program for synchronization of ovulation (Ovsynch), heat detection, reproductive performance, artificial insemination, economic impact, literature review.

Lucy, M.C. (2001). Reproductive loss in high producing dairy cattle: where will it end? Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1277-1293, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy industry, milk production per cow, steady increase, improved management, better nutrition, intense genetic selection, larger herd size, reproductive physiology control of the estrous cycle, metabolic effects of lactation on reproduction, mechanisms linking disease to reproduction, early embryonic mortality, infertility, United States.

Mahmoudzade, A.R., M Tarahomi, and H. Fotoohi (2001). Effect of abnormal vaginal discharge at oestrus on conception rate after artificial insemination in cows. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (3): 535- 538.
Keywords: cows, heifers, Holstein Friesian, breed, estrus, visual characteristics of the cervical mucous discharge, cervical mucus with urine, cervical mucus with microbes, cervical mucus with blood, no cervical mucus, artificial insemination, conception rate.

Mele, M., P. Secchiari, A. Serra, G. Ferruzzi, F. Paoletti, and M. Biagioni (2001). Application of the Atracking signal@ method to the monitoring of udder health and oestrus in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 72(3): 279‑284, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: dairy cows, models, simulations, computational biology, udder health, reproductive system tracking signal method, monitoring method, estrus, milk electrical conductivity, moving average model, mastitis.

Morales, R.J.S., L Zarco, C.J. Hernandez, and G. Rodriguez (2001). Effect of short term treatment with bovine somatotropin at estrus on conception rate and luteal function of repeat breeding dairy cows. Theriogenology 55 (9): 1831-1841.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, estrus on progesterone concentrations, conception rate, repeat breeding, artificial insemination, recombinant bovine somatotropin, luteal function, blood samples.

Moran, J. and D. McLean (2001). Heifer Rearing: A Guide to Rearing Dairy Replacement Heifers in Australia Bolwarrah Press: Bolwarrah, Vic., 135 p.
NAL Call No: SF208 H44
Keywords: calving weights, liveweights, growth, first calving, natural mating, artificial insemination, nutrition, grazing management, disease prevention, herd health, economics, dairy beef, replacement heifers, best management practices

Moreira, F., C. Orlandi, C.A. Risco, R. Mattos, F. Lopes, and W.W. Thatcher (2001). Effects of presynchronization and bovine somatotropin on pregnancy rates to a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (7): 1646-1659, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, lactating Holstein, breed, presynchronization, bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy rates, artificial insemination, GnRH, PGF2alpha, increase first service pregnancy.

Mosure, W.L., R.A. Meyer, J. Gudmundson, and A.D. Barth (1998). Evaluation of possible methods to reduce pain associated with electroejaculation in bulls. Canadian Veterinary Journal 39(8): 504-506, ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Keywords: bulls, evaluation, pain, heart rate, electroejaculation, animal welfare, anaesthesia, lidocaine, xylazine, heart rate, semen collection.

Norup, L.R., P.W. Hansen, K.L. Ingvartsen, and N.C. Friggens (2001). An attempt to detect oestrus from changes in Fourier transform infrared spectra of milk from dairy heifers. Animal Reproduction Science 65(1/2): 43-50.
NAL Call No.: QP251 A5
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, milk, estrus, infrared spectroscopy, estrous cycle, lactation, prostaglandins, synchronized females, diagnosis.

Pryce J.E., M.P. Coffey, and G. Simm(2001). The relationship between body condition score and reproductive performance. Journal of Dairy Science 84(6):1508‑15, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, body condition score, ad libitum diets, high concentrates, low concentrates, genetic differences, production.

Rensis, F. de, and R.J. Scaramuzzi (2001). The heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in dairy cow. Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria, Universita di Parma 20: 92, ISSN: 0393‑4802.
Keywords: female fertility, Graafian follicles, heat stress, hypothalamus, infertility, ovaries, pituitary, pregnancy, reviews, summer, Italy.

Ronchi, B., G. Stradaioli, A.V. Supplizi, U. Bernabucci, N. Lacetera, P.A. Accorsi, A. Nardone, and E. Seren (2001). Influence of heat stress or feed restriction on plasma progesterone, oestradiol‑17beta, LH, FSH, prolactin and cortisol in holstein heifers. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 231‑242, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: heifers, dairy cows, heat stress, food restriction, blood chemistry, progesterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, prolactin, hydrocortisone, hormone secretion, feed rations, air temperature.

Rutledge, J.J. (2001). Use of embryo transfer and IVF to bypass effects of heat stress. Theriogenology 55 (1): 105‑111, ISSN:0093‑691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: dairy cows, embryo culture, pregnancy rate.

Smeaton D.C., and H.W. Vivanco (2001). Potential benefits from new reproductive technologies in commercial dairy herds, a case study simulation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 199‑202, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: bull, calf, dairy cow, embryo, female, heifer, immature, male, computer software, embryo transfer, assisted reproduction method, milking, collection method, new reproductive technologies, potential benefits, reproductive method, simulation model, mathematical model method, status quo selection system, breeding method, breeding worth, genetic gain, production cull, control method, selection pressure, New Zealand.

Stevenson, J.S. (2001). Reproductive management of dairy cows in high milk‑producing herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E128‑E143, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, breeding, husbandry, reproduction, reproductive efficiency, body condition, dry matter intake, transition from the dry period to lactation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, embryonic survival, diet formulation, feed bunk management, cow comfort, free stalls, holding pens, milking parlor, temperature, humidity, proper hoof care, milking management, mastitis prevention.

Tolleson, D.R, R.D. Randel, J.W. Stuth, S.T. Willard, and B.S. Gandy (2001). Detection of pregnancy in cattle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of feces. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 19, ISSN: 0021‑8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: dairy cows, feces, digestive system, near IR reflectance spectroscopy, assessment method, determination method, pregnancy, reproductive status.

van Eerdenburg F.J.C.M. and H. Verhoeven (2001). The influence of environmental stress around puberty on fertility in dairy cattle: Possible relations with sexual differentiation? Hormones and Behavior 39 (4): 353, ISSN: 0018‑506X.
NAL Call No.: QP801 H7H64
Keywords: behavior, behavioral neuroendocrinology, environmental stress, fertility, puberty, sexual behavior, sexual differentiation.

Velasco‑Garcia, M.N. and T. Mottram (2001). Biosensors in the livestock industry: An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows. Trends in Biotechnology 19(11): 433‑434, ISSN: 0167‑7799.
NAL Call No.: TA166 T72
Keywords: ovulation prediction system, automated, progesterone biosensor, pregnancy detection.

Verkerk, G.A., R.W. Claycomb, V.K. Taufa, P. Copeman, A. Napper, and E. Kolver (2001). CowTrakkerTM technology for improved heat detection. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61:172‑175, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: breed, Holstein Friesian, progesterone, field equipment, Bovine Beacon, CowTrakker, motion detector, HeatWatch, pedometer; Kamar Heat Detector, artificial insemination, behavioral observation, pasture grazing, proactive reproductive management, tail paint, identification, New Zealand.

Wagner, D.C., R.H. BonDurant, and W.M. Sischo (2001). Reproductive effects of estradiol cypionate in postparturient dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (2): 220-223, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: cows, postparturient, estradiol cypionate, reproductive efficiency, pregnancy rate.

Wainstein, A.G., A.S. Bernal, M.R. Iriondo, A.O. Luco (2001). Heatwatch, electronic heat detection system used in Holstein Friesian. [Heatwatch, sistema electronico de deteccion de celo evaluado en hembras Holstein Friesian.] Archivos de Zootecnia 50(191): 403‑406, ISSN: 0004‑0592.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR22
Keywords: cows, heifers, Holstein Friesian, breed, electronic heat detection system, traditional heat detection methods, farm equipment, field conditions.

Walker, W.L., R.L. Nebel, and M.L. Mcgilliard (1996). Time of ovulation relative to mounting activity in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 79(9): 1555-1561, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: ovulation, mounting, time activity, Holstein-Friesian, estrus, duration, mating behavior, synchronized females, artificial insemination, timing, telemetry, environmental temperature.

Xu, Z.Z., D.J. McKnight, R. Vishwanath, C.J. Pitt, and L.J. Burton (1998). Estrus detection using radiotelemetry or visual observation and tail painting for dairy cows on pasture. Journal of Dairy Science 81(1): 2890-2896, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: estrus detection, radiotelemetry, visual observation, remote recording, grazing, sexual behavior, calving season, Jersey, Friesian, remote sensing, milk composition, progesterone, conception rate, mounting, New Zealand.


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Table of Contents

Slaughter

Burchardt, S. (1999). Stunning and slaughter of animals. [Bedovelse og aflivning af slagtedyr.] Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 82(21): 928-932, ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 D23
Keywords: slaughter, slaughtering equipment, animal welfare, stunning, meat animals, poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, European Union, Denmark, Danish language.

Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (1990). Recommended Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle Available from Communications Branch,Agriculture Canada: Ottawa, Ontario, 41 p.
NAL Call No.: 7 C16Pu no.1853/E
Keywords: care, handling, slaughter, transport.
Available online govt.nz

http://www.nfacc.ca/codes-of-practice/dairy-cattle

Dousek, J., V. Vecerek, A. Kozak, and O. Valcl (1999). Veterinary inspection at slaughterhouses and protection of animals against cruelty. [Veterinarni dozor nad porazenim zvirat z hlediska ochrany zvirat.] Veterinarstvi 49(11): 474-477, ISSN: 0506-8231.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6439
Keywords: animal welfare, abattoirs, legislation, Czech Republic, Czech language.

Grandin, T. (2001). Welfare of cattle during slaughter and the prevention of nonambulatory (downer) cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1377‑1382, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, downers, ambulation, animal handling, welfare, behavior, slaughter, stress, stunning, vocalization

Holleben, K. von, and M. von Wenzlawowicz (1999) Humane killing of animals on the farm. [Tierschutzgerechtes Toten von Tieren in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben.] DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 106(4): 163-165, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: slaughter, husbandry, destruction of animals, poultry, animal welfare, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, fowls, German language.

Lowe, A.G. (1999). Casualty slaughter: a whole new industry. Cattle Practice 7(4): 389-394, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: slaughter, emergencies, animal welfare, euthanasia.

Schultz, C.E. (1999). Detection of antibiotic residues in cull dairy cows at slaughter. In: Proceedings One Hundred and Third Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, San Diego, California, USA, October 7-14, 1999, p. 277-293, United States Animal Health Association: Richmond, USA.
NAL Call No.: SF601.U83
Keywords: antibiotics, cows, dairy cows, drug residues, antibiotic residues, meat inspection, meat hygiene.

Tennessen, T. and J. Morrigan (1999). Welfare of cull Holstein cows at an abattoir. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 79(4): 586, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: cattle, breed-Holstein, cull dairy cow, female, abattoir, animal welfare, avoidance behavior, balking, electric prod, escape behavior, ethology, humane handling.

Tuckey, J.B. (1999). Slaughter of infant [letter]. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 145(12): 352, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: animal welfare, newborn, attitude of health personnel, cattle.


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Transport

Bergeron, R., and N. Lewis (1999). Farm animal transportation, health and welfare. [Transport, sante et bien-etre des animaux de ferme.] Cahiers Agricultures 8(6): 437-444, ISSN: 1166-7699.
NAL Call No.: S5 C34
Keywords: animal welfare, health, transport, livestock, French language.

Eicher, S.D. (2001). Transportation of cattle in the dairy industry: current research and future directions. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E19‑E23, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, heifers animal welfare, transport, stress, stress factors, stress response, increased heart rate, cortisol concentrations, enzymatic changes, immunological effects, transport of animals, footing, driver, driving conditions, stocking density, postsecondary mortality.

Ferrari, A. (1999). Stress and the welfare of transported cattle. [Stress e benessere nel trasporto dei bovini.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 20(6): 43-46, ISSN: 0392-1913.
Keywords: road transport, animal welfare, stress, losses, Italian language.

Fisher, A. D., P.V. Pearce, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The effects of long haul transport on pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 47(5): 161-166, ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, breed, Jersey, pregnancy, long-haul transport, creatine kinase, supplementary feeding, body weight, transport of animals, rest, blood serum, blood chemistry, magnesium, mineral supplements, feed supplements.

Kolacz, R.(1999). European regulations affecting welfare of animals during transport. [Europejskie regulacje prawne dotyczace dobrostanu zwierzat gospodarskich podczas transportu.] Zycie Weterynaryjne 74(10): 491-497, ISSN: 0137-6810.
NAL Call No.: SF604 Z9
Keywords: cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, body weight, feeding, rest, transport of animals, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Kreuzer, M., W. Langhans, F. Sutter, R.E. Christen, H. Leuenberger, and P.L. Kunz (1998). Metabolic response of early-lactating cows exposed to transport and high altitude grazing conditions. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 67(2): 237-248, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, high altitude, transport of animals, adaptation, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, blood sugar, blood lipids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, lacticacid, urea, mountain grasslands, grazing, heat production, environmental temperature, duration.

Pearce, P. (1998). Effects of long distance travel on dairy cows. Surveillance (Wellington) 25(3): 8-9, ISSN: 0112-4927.
NAL Call No.: SF604.63 N45S87
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, dairy cows, transport of animals, health, New Zealand.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2001). Transport stress in dairy calves. Effects of rearing conditions on acid‑base balance, haematological variables, blood gas content and heart rate. [Transportbelastung bei Milchrindkalbern. Effekte von Aufzuchtbedingungen auf Saure‑Basen‑Status, hamatologische Variablen, Blutgasgehalte und Herzfrequenz.] Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere 29 (1): 8‑16, ISSN: 1434‑1220.
NAL Call No.: SF603.V43
Keywords: calves, housing, single box, blood sampling, blood chemistry, hematology, stress, transport of animals, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2000). Response of dairy calves to transport stress at 60 days of age. Effects of rearing conditions and development on selected physiological variables. [Reaktionen von Milchrindkalbern im Alter von 60 Lebenstagen auf Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen: Effekte durch Haltungsvarianten und Entwicklungsqualitat der Kalber auf physiologische Variablen und deren Anderungen.] DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 107(2): 59-65, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: stress, albumins, blood sampling, creatinine, heart rate, urea, blood chemistry, transport of animals, young animals, calves, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2000). Transport stress in dairy calves. Effects of rearing conditions on metabolic and hormonal variables. [Transportbelastung bei Milchrindern: Effekte von Aufzuchtbedingungen auf metabolische und hormonelle Variablen.] Tierarztliche Umschau 55(1): 22-28, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: stress, physiological parameters, albumins, body temperature, body weight, creatinine, hormones, road transport, saliva cortisol, thyroid gland, thyroid hormones, urea, calves, transport of animals, blood chemistry, Germany, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H. Thielscher (1999). Maturity of suckler calves and dairy calves at 2- and 3-weeks-of-age and reactions to road transport. [Entwicklungsqualitat von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung und von Trankkalbern in der zweiten und dritten Lebenswoche sowie Reaktionen der Tiere auf den Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(2): 70-89, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: calves, transport stress, epinephrine, albumins, venous blood sampling, body temperature, cortisol, norepinephrine, heart rate, haemoglobin, hormones, metabolites, minerals, norepinephrine, thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, dairy cattle, suckler herds, blood chemistry, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Observations on acid-base balance, metabolic, hormonal variables and heart rate in dairy calves from the end of automatic milk feeding to transport by road. [Reaktionen von am Trankeautomaten aufgezogenen Milchrindkalbern am Ende der Milchernahrungsperiode auf Transportbelastung Saure-Basen-Status, metabolische und hormonelle Variablen und Herzschlagfrequenz.] Tierarztliche Umschau 54(11): 610-617, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: calves, heart rate, milk production, transport of animals, albumins, body temperature, hydrocortisone, saliva cortisol, stress, urea, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, proteins, blood sampling, blood sugar, lactic acid, blood chemistry, acid base equilibrium, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Response of animals to familiar and unfamiliar situations. Transport and temporary separation of suckled calves from the herd at different ages during rearing. Effect of playing recordings of maternal vocalization on hormones, heart rate and vocal responses. [Reaktionsmuster von Tieren auf gewohnte und ungewohnte Ereignisse. Transport und temporare Separation von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung in verschiedenen Altersperioden wahrend der fruhen Aufzuchtperiode sowie Effekte der Prasentation von Muttertierrufen auf hormonelle Variablen, Herzfrequenz und Lautausserungen der Tiere.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(3): 153-166, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: cows, dams, heart, heart rate, young animals, vocalization, animal welfare, calves, body temperature, hydrocortisone, stress, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1998). Effects of age and type of husbandry on the the response of dairy calves and suckled calves to transport by road.[Reaktionen junger Milchrindkalber und junger Saugkalber der Mutterkuhhaltung auf Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen, Effekte durch Alter und Haltungsbedingungen.] DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 105(1): 17-24, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: calves, road transport, stress response, heart rate, rectal temperature, age differences, bucket-fed versus suckled calves, German language.

Wilson, L.L., J.L. Smith, D.L. Smith, D.L. Swanson, T.R. Drake, D.R. Wolfgang, and E.F. Wheeler (April 2000). Characteristics of veal calves upon arrival, at 28 and 84 days, and at end of the production cycle. Journal of Dairy Science 83(4): 843-854, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Holstein bull calves arriving at five special-fed veal farms (eight production groups) were scored for various physical condition traits and blood-sampled within 2 h after arrival and at 28 d, 84 d, and 1 wk prior to slaughter at 116 to 143 d. Of 1179 total calves in the production groups, 758 calves were scored and evaluated. Blood cell analyses (red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume) were conducted at all four sampling times, total serum protein concentration was obtained at 0 and 28 d. The study was initiated in autumn and ended the following autumn. Mean initial and final body weights were 46.3 +/- 0.17 and 209.7 +/- 0.77 kg, mean mortality was 2.5%. Average daily gain of the eight groups ranged from 1.23 to 1.70 kg/d. Subjective scores of 5 = excellent to 1 = very poor condition were used to evaluate 16 different physical condition characteristics. With the exception of leg joint, hoof, and foot scores, most of the physical condition scores exhibited improvement during the first 28 d. Foot and leg impairments did not appear to hinder the ambulatory ability of the calves during the production period. Physical condition scores at d 0 and 28 were generally not related to numbers or types of medical treatments (enteric, respiratory, other, or total) or to average daily gain during the production period. Means for most erythrocytic and leukocytic traits upon arrival (d 0) were within normal ranges, although 27.4% of the calves were clinically or marginally anemic. Final mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume were 8.53 g/dl and 26.1%. Forty-three percent of the calves at d 0 were colostral deficient, assuming that total serum protein concentrations of <5.5 g/dl indicate colostral deficiency. No blood trait was consistently correlated with body weight gain when gain during the production period was divided into quartiles and the blood traits were averaged by gain quartile. Calves in the lowest serum total protein quartile (mean 4.58 g/dl) had more respiratory and total medical treatments than quartiles with higher total protein means. Dairy bull calves arriving at veal production units after transporting from the dairy farm to the auction market (or other collection facility) have several physical impairments. However, most of these physical impairments are improved early in the veal feeding period and are not generally related to subsequent growth rate or medical treatment.
Keywords: veal calves, Holstein-Friesian, breed, milk substitutes, body weight, liveweight gain, body condition, animal health, mortality, respiratory diseases, hair, hooves, dehydration (physiological), joint diseases, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hemoglobin value, hematocrit, blood protein, anemia, medical treatment, colostral immunity, IGG.

Wilson, L.L., P.A. Nordstrom, M.J. Richards, D.L.Smith, and K.J. Vandergrift (March 1999). Dairy and veal producer assessment of changes in care, handling, and transportation factors. The Professional Animal Scientists 15(1): 24-33, ISSN: 1080-7446.
NAL Call No.: SF51.P76
Keywords: dairy cows, veal calves, calf production, milk production, cattle husbandry, artificial rearing, livestock numbers, transport of animals, stress management, loss prevention, health, animal welfare, ventilation.


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Websites

Website addresses change periodically. The sites listed are current as of January 2003.

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
http://www.agr.ca/index_e.phtml

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada provides information, research and technology, and policies and programs to achieve security of the food system, health of the environment and innovation for growth. Abstracts available from "The Lennoxville Symposium on Farm Animal Welfare In Canada: New technologies, research and world trade."

Alberta Farm Animal Care (AFAC) Association
http://afac.ab.ca
Cambrian PO Box 75028
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
T2K 6J8
Tel: (403) 932‑8050, Fax: (403) 932‑8052, Email: info@afac.ab.ca

AFAC is an association started by farmers. AFAC's goal is to promote responsible animal care and enhance public understanding of Alberta's animal agriculture. AFAC participates in issues and legislation that affect animal care and encourages research relevant to animal care. Website contains Farm Animal Welfare News a publication that contains current information on farm animal welfare initiatives, relevant issues, and research conducted in Canada. Reports, codes of practice, legislative information, and information on training courses in dairy handling and transport are also listed.

American Dairy Science Association
http://www.adsa.org
1111 N. Dunlap Avenue
Savoy, IL 61874
Tel: (217) 356-3182, Fax: (217) 398-4119. E-mail: adsa@assochq.org

The objectives of American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) are to stimulate the discovery, application, and dissemination of knowledge. Original research, reviews and timely information are published in the official ADSA publication, the Journal of Dairy Science. Special topic publications available for purchase covering dairy health, housing, and management. The ADSA website includes additional links to university dairy related websites, breed associations, and databases.

Animal Health and Welfare
http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/animindx.htm

The health and welfare of animals is central to Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affair's (DEFRA) work of protecting and improving livestock and controlling and eradicating disease. The Animal Health and Welfare pages are divided into various subject areas including: BSE, Tuberculosis, Identification, Animal Welfare, International Trade, Disease surveillance and control.

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Blvd.
Beltsville, MD 20705
Tel: (301) 504-6212, Fax: (301) 504-7125, Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us

The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) located at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library provides reference services primarily for patrons using animals covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Farm animals used in teaching, testing, and non-production oriented research are covered by the Act. AWIC produces bibliographies on the welfare and husbandry of swine, cattle, horses, sheep, poultry, dogs, cats, rabbits, and rodents. The Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin contains several articles on agricultural animal care and use including anesthesia, analgesia, animal transport, and animal welfare issues. The AWIC website includes these documents. The site also contains links to US farm animal policies, guidelines, and congressional activity.

Animal Welfare Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) New Zealand
http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/regs/animal-welfare

Full text Codes of Recommendations and Minimum Standards available for dairy cattle and bobby calves. Humane treatment of cattle during transport, slaughter, and sale yards covered.

Animal Well-Being and Stress Control Systems
http://www.nps.ars.usda.gov/programs/programs.htm?NPNUMBER=105

The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ARS is charged with extending the nation's scientific knowledge across a broad range of program areas. This website describes ARS research initiatives in the area of farm animal well-being and stress.

Annotated Database on Refinement of Housing and Handling Conditions and Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Animals. Part II: Cattle, Calves, Chickens, Goats, Horses, Quails, Pigs, Sheep
http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/refine.htm

Database of articles, abstracts, book chapters, and books on all aspects of refinement and environmental enrichment of housing and handling conditions. Regularly updated.

Canadian Dairy Information Database©
http://cgilnt.aps.uoguelph.ca/cgi-bin/foliocgi.exe/dairy.nfo/query=*/doc/{t9}?

Provides fact sheets, research reports, codes of practice, and other materials regarding the care, health, diseases, breeding, environment, feeding, and reproduction of dairy cattle raised in Canada.

Colonel K.L. Campbell Centre for the Study of Animal Welfare
http://www.aps.uoguelph.ca/~csaw/

Located at the University of Guelph, the Centre's mission is to promote the welfare of animals through research and education. Research projects focus on: alternatives for the use of animals in teaching; assessing animal well being; enriching the lives of laboratory animals; ethical issues of animal use; animal breeding and genetic engineering; humane husbandry systems alleviating animal suffering; and relationships between animals and people.

Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service (CSREES) Home Page
http://www.nifa.usda.gov

CSREES links the research and education programs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and works with land-grant institutions in each state, territory and the District of Columbia. The mission of CSREES is in cooperation with partners and customers, to advance a global system of research, extension and higher education in the food and agricultural sciences and related environmental and human sciences to benefit people, communities, and the Nation. A clickable map of extension programs by state is available at http://www.nifa.usda.gov/Extension/index.html. Dairy producers are encouraged to use this site to locate extension materials that are specific to their state's climate conditions, breeds of cattle, types of housing, etc.

Combined Livestock Issues Database Information
http://www.liru.asft.ttu.edu/refman/index.htm

Reference database compiled for farm animal researchers and educators. Provides references on contemporary issues in animal agriculture.

Companion Animals and Livestock
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/dairy-cattle

Information provided by New South Wales Department of Agriculture on dairy cattle breeding and selection, health, nutrition, facilities, handling, and quality assurance.

Dr. Temple Grandin's Web Page
http://www.grandin.com/

Full text, abstracts, reviews, and general information based on or related to the work of applied ethologist Temple Grandin. Topics include livestock behavior, design of stockyards and restraining systems, humane and ritual slaughter, stress and meat quality, current research, animal welfare/rights, and books.

Encyclopedia of Farm Animal Behavior (EFAB)
http://www.liru.asft.ttu.edu/EFAB/default.asp

Includes audio and video images. This encyclopedia is intended for research and teaching and will provide a standard for what actions compose a given behavior. Provided by the USDA, ARS, Southern Plains Area, Livestock Issues Research Unit, and Multimedia Division.

European Commission on Animal Welfare
http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/index_en.htm

The European Commission's activities on animal welfare start with the recognition that animals are sentient beings. The Directorate General for Health and Consumer Protection is responsible for an important part of this work, setting standards for the welfare of animals on the farm, during transport and at slaughter. Links to animal welfare policy objectives, legislative action, ongoing initiatives, and international animal welfare issues.

Farm Animal Welfare Council Report on the Welfare of Dairy Cattle
http://www.fawc.org.uk/reports/dairycow/dcowrtoc.htm

Response of the Royal Agricultural Society of England to the Farm Animal Welfare Council Report on Dairy Cattle.

Healthy Animals
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/ha/

The Healthy Animals website offers an online compilation of animal health-related research news by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific agency, the Agricultural Research Service.

The International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS)
http://www.ivis.org

A not-for-profit organization created to provide clinically relevant, up-to-date information to veterinary practitioners, veterinary students, clinicians and researchers worldwide using the Internet and provides free access to original, electronic textbooks, reviews, updates, and other resources on a wide variety of veterinary topics. All publications are original contributions written specifically for the IVIS website and reviewed by the editor(s) of the book. Each book is available on‑line and includes links to information about relevant medications and to abstracts of references. Book chapters can be printed on a desktop printer for easy reading. Veterinary related information available for farm, laboratory, companion, and exotic animal species.

NetVet
http://netvet.wustl.edu/vet.htm

NetVet focuses on veterinary resources with links to veterinary education, listservs, organizations, publications, and images. This award-winning site is an excellent starting point for looking for materials for training personnel in care and use of agricultural animals. A useful feature of NetVet is the Electronic Zoo. Among the Electronic Zoo animal group icons are horses, cows, pigs, small ruminants, and birds. Each icon contains a list of websites related to these species. The cow page for example, http://netvet.wustl.edu/cows.htm includes links to professional associations such as the American Dairy Science Association, trade publications including Hoard's Dairyman, university departments of animal or dairy sciences, and information publications including Information Resources for Mastitis.

Oklahoma State University, Department of Animal Science Web page
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu

Livestock virtual library, breeds of livestock, multimedia CD-ROM on livestock reproduction, dairy publications on feeding, etc.

Ontario, Canada, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Livestock Web page
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/index.html

Web pages are available for dairy, beef, swine, goats, and alternative livestock. Dairy page includes conference listings, facts sheets on dry cows, calves, health management, forages, waste management, and current legislation.

Texas A&M Dairy Cattle Website
http://animalscience.tamu.edu/ansc/index.htm

Fact sheets available on dairy cattle feeding, heat stress, hoof care, pest control, mastitis, and more. Select dairy cattle from the menu bar.

Total Dairy Management at the Cornell Animal Science Department
http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/dm/index.html

This program is designed for students, dairy farmers, agribusiness people and others who have a sincere interest in dairy farm management. Objectives are to gain further understanding of the integration and application of dairy farm management principles and programs with respect to progressive dairying and related industries.

UC Davis Dairy Cattle Programs and Welfare Page
http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/DA-Progs.html

Fact sheets available on West Nile Virus, Antrax, Foot and Mouth Disease, biosecurity on dairy farms, body scoring of dairy cattle, colostrum intake in calves, and more. "Dairy Care Practices" a 44 page document covering many aspects of health and production available in PDF format.

University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension Dairy Page
http://animalscience.unl.edu/web/anisci/anscextensiondairycattle

Fact sheets published by Extension Dairy Specialists, from the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Full text articles on breeding, reproduction, herd management, heat stress, feeding, nutrition, and more.

Virginia Cooperative Extension Dairy Page
http://www.ext.vt.edu/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Docs.woa/wa/getcat?cat=ir-lpd-da

Dairy experts from the Common Wealth review literature and suggest recommendations for dairy cattle care and husbandry in the state of Virginia. Abstracts available online covering health, management, nutrition, and reproduction of dairy cattle.

University of Alberta, Canada, Western Canadian Dairy Seminar Home Page
http://www.afns.ualberta.ca

Seminar designed for participants who want to improve their knowledge and decision-making abilities in dairy production and technology. Site includes keyword searchable proceedings from 1995.

USDA APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) Dairy page
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cahm/Dairy_Cattle/dairy.htm

Information on biosecurity strategies for dairy farms. E coli, Salmonella other disease pathogens covered.

WWW Library Dairy Cattle Resources Focuses on Specific Problems
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/library/dairy/sp-prob.htm#welfare

Links provided to websites and online documents covering management, housing, nutrition, health, disease, genetics, reproduction, and welfare.

XPLOR, University of Missouri, Cooperative Extension Dairy Publications
http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/dairy/index.htm

Factsheets and abstracts available on dairy feeding, management, mastitis treatment, breeding, housing, and waste management.


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The Animal Welfare Information Center, Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/dairy/dairy2.htm
Updated March 27, 2012