Health

Aeberhard, K., R.M. Bruckmaier, U. Kuepfer, and J.W. Blum (2001). Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high‑yielding dairy cows: Part 1. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A 48(2): 97‑110, ISSN: 0931‑184X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5
Keywords: dairy cows, high milk producing, feed intake, body conformation traits, body weight, body condition score, fertility, disease incidence, abortion, dyspepsia, hypocalcemia, incidence, lactation, live weight gain, mastitis, milk, milk composition, milk yield, ovarian cysts, type score, Switzerland.

Agger, J.F. and L. Alban L. (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 3. Health management and general routines in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 79-97, ISSN: 0044-605X.
Keywords: milk production, quotas, milk distribution, milk marketing, exports, cows, animal welfare, milk hygiene, somatotropin, tuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, United Kingdom.

Agricultural Committee, House of Commons (1996). Second Special Report: Reply by the Government to the First Report from the Agriculture Committee, Session 1995-96, The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime (HC 40). HMSO Publications Centre, London, UK, 16 p., ISBN: 0-10-551366-0.
Keywords: milk production, quotas, milk distribution, milk marketing, exports, cows, animal welfare, milk hygiene, somatotropin, tuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, United Kingdom.

Agriculture Committee, House of Commons (1996). The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime. Volume 1: Report, Proceedings of the Committee. HMSO Publications Centre: London, UK, 80 p., ISBN: 0-10-550276-6.
Keywords: milk production, milk marketing, quotas, farm income, dairy farms, milk processing, milk hygiene, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, animal welfare, somatotropin, tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 1. Disease management routines in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 49-63, ISSN: 0044-605X.
Keywords: Dutch Animal Health Service, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), problems with vaccine batch, contamination with bovine virusdiarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2, monoclonal antibodies, cine farm visits, laboratory results, disease symptoms, high morbidity, descreased feed intake and milk production, nasal discharge, fever, diarrhea, necropsy, erosions and ulcers of the mucosa of the digestive tract, degeneration of the liver, hyperaemia of the abomasum, swollen mesenterial lymph nodes, swollen spleen.

Alban, L. (1996). Assessing and managing welfare in a Danish dairy herd: problems and a proposal. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 262-266, ISBN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, animal welfare assessment, health, management, cattle diseases, foot diseases, clinical examinations, Denmark.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 2. Housing systems and grazing procedures in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 65-77, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, health, questionnaires, surveys, descriptive epidemiology, tie stall environments, lameness, feeding, pasture grazing, recommendations, partitions, cubicles, saw dust, resting area, housing systems.

Alonso‑Andicoberry, C., F.J. Garcia‑Pena, J. Pereira‑Bueno, E. Costas, and L.M. Ortega‑Mora (2001). Herd‑level risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle in Spain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (2): 109‑117, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: beef cattle, dairy cattle, disease, bacterial, leptospira, seroprevalence, risk factors, herds, grazing, animal husbandry, livestock numbers, serotypes, Spain.

Amstutz, H.E. (1996). International perspective on bovine medicine. Bovine Practitioner 30:1-4, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: veterinary medicine, animal welfare, production, cattle diseases.

Anderson, R.J., J.K. House, B.P. Smith, H. Kinde, R.L. Walker, S.B.J. Vande, and R.E. Breitmeyer (2001). Epidemiologic and biological characteristics of salmonellosis in three dairy herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 310-322, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: salmonellosis, bacterial disease, biological characteristics, epidemiologic characteristics, food safety, public veterinary medicine, livestock production, serologic profiles.

Andrews, A.H.(2000). The Health of Dairy Cattle. Blackwell Science:Oxford; Malden, MA., 359p., ISBN: 063204103X.
NAL Call No.: SF208 H43
Keywords: nutrition, calf health, fertility, lameness, milk production, disease, building design, husbandry, economics, recordkeeping.

Aubry, P., L.D. Warnick, C.L Guard, B.W. Hill, and M.F. Witt (2001). Health and performance of young dairy calves vaccinated with a modified‑live Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida vaccine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(12): 1739‑1742, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy calves, Holstein, breed, health, performance, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, vaccine, blood collection, antibody titers.

Baillargeon, P., G. Fecteau, J. Pare, P. Lamothe and R. Sauve (2001). Evaluation of the embryo transfer procedure proposed by the international embryo transfer society as a method of controlling vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (11): 1803-1806, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: embryo transfer, seronegative recipients, International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS), prevention, Neospora caninum, antibody titers, pregnancy, calf blood samples, tissue collection, stillborn calves, aborted fetuses, immunohistochemical (IHC) methods, pretransfer testing of embryo transfer recipients.

Ballard, C.S., P. Mandebvu, C.J. Sniffen, S.M. Emanuele, and M.P. Carter (2001). Effect of feeding an energy supplement to dairy cows pre and postpartum on intake, milk yield, and incidence of ketosis. Animal Feed Science and Technology 93(1‑2): 55‑69, ISSN: 0377‑8401.
NAL Call No.: SF95.A55
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, ketosis, metabolic disease, calcium propionate,propylene glycol, beet pulp, ground corn, sugarcane molasses, dietary supplements, lactation, milk yield, tie stall housing.

Barkema, H.W., C.J.M Bartels, L. van Wuijckhuise, J.W. Hesselink, M. Holzhauer, M.F. Weber, P. Franken, P.A. Kock, C.J.M. Bruschke, and G.M. Zimmer (2001). Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhoea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovineherpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhoea virus type 2. [Uitbraak Van Bovine Virus Diarree Op Nederlandse Rundveebedrijven Na Vaccinatie Met Een Met BVDV Type 2 Gecontamineerd BHV1 Markervaccin.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 158-165.
NAL Call No.: SF601.N4
Keywords: Dutch Animal Health Service, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), problems with vaccine batch, contamination with bovine virusdiarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2, monoclonal antibodies, cine farm visits, laboratory results, disease symptoms, high morbidity, descreased feed intake and milk production, nasal discharge, fever, diarrhea, necropsy, erosions and ulcers of the mucosa of the digestive tract, degeneration of the liver, hyperaemia of the abomasum, swollen mesenterial lymph nodes, swollen spleen.

Barnett, J.L., G.J. Coleman, P.H. Hemsworth, E.A. Newman, S. Fewings-Hall, and C. Ziini (1999). Tail docking and beliefs about the practice in the Victorian dairy industry. Australian Veterinary Journal 77(11): 742-747, ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: docking, cows, dairy cows, husbandry, interviews, farmers, risk, leptospirosis, mastitis, bovine mastitis, milk quality, pain, milking, animal welfare, surveys, questionnaires.

Bartels, C.J.M., H.W. Barkema, M.L. Beiboer, J.A. Bouma, and A. Stegeman (2001). Management and herd performance of dairy herds with and without "chronic wasting" disease. [Bedrijfsvoering en kengetallen van tot slijterbedrijven verworden melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 198‑207, ISSN: 0040‑7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T43
Keywords: cattle diseases, farm management factors, questionnaire, epidemiology, predisposition, bovine herpesvirus 1, fertility, udder health, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Bauman, D.E. (1998). Bovine somatotropin and lactation: from basic science to commercial application. Third International Conference on Farm Animal Endocrinology: The Somatotropic Axis, December 7-10, 1998, Brussels, Belgium, Vol. 17, No.2/3, J. Buyse (ed.), p. 101-116.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, lactation, somatotropin, carbohydrates, farm income, growth factors, health, insulin-like growth factor, lipids, mammary glands, metabolism, milk, milk consumption, milk quality, milk synthesis, milk yield, minerals, nutrition physiology, milk prices, profitability, reviews.

Bebe, B.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, P.O. Ogore, J.O. Ondiek, and T. Fujihara (2001). A note on risk factors for calf mortality in large‑scale dairy farms in the tropics : a case study on Rift valley area of Kenya. Asian‑Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (6): 855‑857, ISSN: 1011‑2367.
NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Keywords: dairy calves, mortality, risk factors, dairy farms, tropics, risk assessment, sex differences, sex, calving season, pneumonia, dams, age, cattle housing, Kenya.

Bergsten, C. (2001). Effects of conformation and management system on hoof and leg diseases and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 17 (1): 1‑23, ISSN: 0749‑0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, conformation, disease prevention, environment, exercise, floors, hooves, lameness, legs, lesions, management, posture, risk factors, wear.

Berry, S.L. (2001). Milking the golden cow: Her comfort. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1382‑1386, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, calf, husbandry, behavior, philosophy, ethics, farmer, lameness, bone disease, muscle disease, animal housing, welfare, breeding, calving, comfort, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy.

Bertoni, G., L. Calamari, and E. Trevisi (1999). Evaluation of the welfare of dairy cattle. [Valutazione del benessere delle lattifere.] Informatore Agrario Supplemento 55(35): 5-66.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, husbandry, animal welfare, milk yield, reproduction, health, nutrition, housing, female fertility, intensive farming, Italy, Italian language.

Bertoni, G. (1999). Welfare, health and management of dairy cows. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari,(eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, p. 59-106, ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5.R432 1999
Keywords: dairy cows, health, animal welfare, management, reviews.

Bertoni, G. (1998). Alimentary prophylaxis of puerperal hypocalcemia (and of Downer cow) in the milking cow. [La profilassi alimentare dell'ipocalcemia puerperale (e della "downer cow") nella bovina da latte.] Congresso Nazionale, Piacenza, Italy, May 1998. Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria 30: 123-138.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, lactation, parturient paresis, parturition, hypocalcaemia, puerperal disorders, diet treatment, prevention, body condition scores, energy intake, diets, nutritional disorders, CA and P intakes Italian language.

Bijman, J. (1996). Recombinant bovine somatotropin in Europe and the USA. Biotechnology and Development Monitor 27: 2-5, ISSN: 0924-9877.
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, dairy farms, milk yield, milk production, food safety, environmental impact, animal welfare, milk, quotas, socioeconomics, somatotropin, economics, economic impact, utilization.

Blanken, K., J. van Lent, and G. Smolders (2001). Claw health on steel grids is also good. [Klauwgezondheid op stalen roosters ook goed.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (2): 1‑3, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, health, animal welfare, steel floors, concrete grid floors concrete, feeding behavior, feet, floors, foot diseases.

Blowey, R.W. (1997). Current health challenges to dairy farming a practitioner's perspective. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 158: 32-39, ISSN: 0080-4134.
NAL Call No.: 10 R81
Keywords: cows, dairy farming, health, mastitis, lameness, fertility, respiratory diseases, cow housing, cow comfort.

Boelling, D. and G.E. Pollott (1997). The genetics of feet, legs and locomotion in cattle. Animal Breeding Abstracts 65(1): 1-11, ISSN: 0003-3499.
NAL Call No.: 241 IM72RA
Keywords: cows, dairy cattle, longevity, legs, feet, dimensions, pasterns, foot angle, heritability, genetic correlation, genetic parameters, reviews, lameness, milk yield, locomotion, conformation, breeding programs.

Bonizzi, L., M. Amadori, M. Melegari, W. Ponti, A. Ceccarelli, and E. Bolzani. (1989). Characterization of some parameters of non-specific immunity in dairy cattle. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 36(5): 365-373.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: serum protein, immunoglobulin, complement, lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, blast transformation, peripheral blood lymphocytes, non-specific defense, field conditions, calves, colostrums uptake, animal welfare.

Bradley, A.J., and M.J. Green (2001). Adaptation of Escherichia coli to the bovine mammary gland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39(5): 1845 1849.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Keywords: clinical mastitis, Escherichia coli, DNA fingerprinting, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers, epidemiology, pathogen adaptation, host susceptibility.

Brand, A., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and Y.H. Schukken (1996). Herd Health and Production Management in Dairy Practice. Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, 566 p., ISBN: 9-07-413434-3.
Keywords: poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, animal welfare, disease, leg disorders, tibial dyschondroplasia, femoral head necrosis, broiler chickens, mastitis, dairy cow,.sheep scab, parasitic disease.

Broom, D.M., and M.J. Corke (2001). Effects of disease on farm animal welfare. Acta Veterinaria Brno 71 (1): 133‑136, ISSN: 0001‑7213.
NAL Call No.: SF604.B7
Keywords: poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, animal welfare, disease, leg disorders, tibial dyschondroplasia, femoral head necrosis, broiler chickens, mastitis, dairy cow,.sheep scab, parasitic disease.

Butler, J.A., C.C. Pinnow, J.U. Thomson, S. Levisohn, and R.F. Rosenbusch (2001). Use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction to investigate Mycoplasma bovis outbreaks. Veterinary Microbiology 78 (2): 175‑181, ISSN: 0378‑1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Keywords: mycoplasma bovis, outbreaks, polymerase chain reaction, diagnosis, incidence, case studies, beef herds, dairy cattle, infections, epidemiology.

Cambier, C., T. Clerbaux, B. Moreaux, B. Detry, D. Beerens, A. Frans, and P. Gustin. (2001). Blood oxygen binding in calves with naturally occurring diarrhea. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (5): 799-804, ISSN: 0002‑9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: calves, dairy, double muscled, blood oxygen binding, diarrhea, severity, ability of affected calves to stand, hydration, depression, arterial blood sampling, 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, ATP, chloride, inorganic phosphate, lactate, pyruvate, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin concentrations, oxygen equilibrium curves, hypocapnia, hypothermia.

Capdeville, J., and I. Veissier (2001). A method of assessing welfare in loose housed dairy cows at farm level, focusing on animal observations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 62‑68, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, environmental conditions, animal welfare, needs assessment, five freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress, scoring system.

Cattell, M.B., R.P. Dinsmore, A.P. Belschner, J. Carmen, and G. Goodell (2001). Environmental gram positive mastitis treatment: In vitro sensitivity and bacteriologic cure. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2036‑2043, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Streptococcus sp. (Gram‑Positive Cocci),pathogen, dairy cattle, host, bacterial disease, mastitis, treatment, clinical trial, pirlimycin hydrochloride, antibacterial drug, intramammary administration, resistant isolates, lactation.

Cavirani, S., C.S. Cabassi, G. Donofrio, B. De Iaco, S. Taddei, and C.F. Flammini (2001). Association between Chlamydia psittaci seropositivity and abortion in Italian dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 50 (1-2): 145-151, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: seroprevalence, Chlamydia psittaci, Italian dairy herds, genital disorders, aborted cow population, Northern Italy.

Chaplin, S.J., H.E. Ternent, J.E. Offer, D.N. Logue, and C.H. Knight (2000). A comparison of hoof lesions and behaviour in pregnant and early lactation heifers at housing. Veterinary Journal 159(2): 147-153.ISSN: 0042-4900.
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, preventive hoof trimming, dry period, foot health Portuguese language.

Clarkson, M.J., D.Y. Downham, W.B. Faull, J.W. Hughes, FJ Manson, J.B. Merritt, R.D. Murray, W.B. Russell, J.E. Sutherst, and W.R. Ward (1996). Incidence and prevalence of lameness in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 138(23): 563-567, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: lameness, health, milking, dairy farms.

Collier, R.J., J.C. Byatt, S.C. Denham, P.J. Eppard, A.C. Fabellar, R.L. Hintz, M.F. McGrath, C.L. McLaughlin, J.K. Shearer, and J.J. Veenhuizen (2001). Effects of sustained release bovine somatotropin (Sometribove) on animal health in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1098‑1108, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The health of dairy cows given bovine somatotropin (bST) for one lactation was evaluated in 28 commercial herds located in four regions of the United States. At least six herds were in a region and at least one herd/regioncontained fewer than 60 cows. Cows (n = 1213) were assigned randomly to control or bST groups and were treated beginning in wk 9 to 10 of lactation and every 14 d until dry‑off or d 400 of lactation. Management was according to site practices. Cows were observed for health‑related signs by farm personnel daily and by the herd veterinarian biweekly. Average 305‑d test‑day milk yields were 932 kg greater for bST‑treated cows. Pregnancy rates, days open, twinning, cystic ovaries, or abortions were unaffected by treatments. Supplementation of cows with bST had no effect on total mastitis cases, total days of mastitis, duration of mastitis, or the odds ratio of a cow to develop mastitis. Cows supplemented with bST used more medications for health events other than mastitis. This usage was associated primarily with treatments for disorders of the foot and hock. Supplemented cows had a slight increase in foot disorders. There was no effect of supplementation with bST on culling from the herd or removal from study. Overall, the results confirm that label directions for bST are adequate for safe use under field conditions. All clinical signs observed in this study occur normally in dairy herds and were managed in cows supplemented with bST.
Keywords: dairy herds, dairy cows, health, lactation, geographical variation, milk yield, pregnancy rate, open days, litter size, ovarian diseases, abortion, mastitis, duration, foot diseases, hocks, diseases, culling, cystic ovarian diseases.

Conedera, G., P.A. Chapman, S. Marangon, E. Tisato, P. Dalvit, and A. Zuin (2001). A field survey of Escherichia coli O157 ecology on a cattle farm in Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology 66(1-2): 85-93.
NAL Call No.: QR115 I57
Keywords: heifers, field survey, control measures, rectal swabs, isolation, Escherichia coli O157, Northern Italy.

Cooray, R. (1994). Use of bovine myeloperoxidase as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 42(4): 317-326.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V44.
Keywords: bovine myeloperoxidase (MPO), heme protein, diagnosis of udder infections, mastitic milk content.

Cox, V.S. and R.J. Farmsworth (1998). Prevention and treatment of down cows: a continuum. Proceedings of the AnnualConferenceof American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 167-169.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, disease prevention, treatment.

Cox, V.S. and J.S. Onapito (1998). The many causes of down cows. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 164-166.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, etiology.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Cruz, C., D. Driemeier, C. Cerva, and L.G. Corbellini (2001). Bovine digital dermatitis in southern Brazil. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association148(18): 576‑577, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, Holstein, breed, animal welfare, lameness, case reports, clinical aspects, dermatitis, digits, disease prevalence, prevention, correct trimming, adequate nutrition, hygiene, epidemiology, foot diseases, histopathology, lesions, medical treatment, oxytetracycline, Brazil.

de Mol, R.M., and W. Ouweltjes (2001). Detection model for mastitis in cows milked in an automatic milking system. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (1-2): 71-82, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, automated detection of disease, mastitis, automatic milking system (AMS), milk yield, electrical conductivity of milk, parameter values, residual variances, linear regression after each milking, mastitis alerts.

de Oliveira, N.J.B., M.A. de Alencar Araripe, N.J.N. Miranda, and G.M. Maria (2001). Heat stress indexes and the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in crossbred dairy cows (Bos indicus X Bos taurus) raised in a semi‑arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. [Indicadores de estresse termico e utilizacao da Somatotropina Bovina (bST) em vacas leiteiras mesticas (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) no semi arido do nordeste.] Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30 (2): 360-367.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: crossbred dairy cows (Bos indicus X Bos taurus), semi arid zone, bovine somatotropin (bST), diet, elephant grass and concentrate, milk production, temperature, humidity index, heat stress, Brazil.

de Kruif, A. (2001). Did vaccination with an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) marker vaccine on thirteen cattle farms give rise to "chronic wasting" among dairy cattle? [Dertien rundveebedrijven waar koeien ziek zouden zijn geworden na vaccinatie tegen Infectieuze Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR).] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (6): 166-173.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: cows, Dutch Animal Health Service, chronic wasting, illness after vaccination with all IBR marker vaccine, lameness, mastitis, diarrhea, stillbirth, subfertility, abomasal displacement, decreasing body condition, high milk production, longer periods of housing indoors, insufficient quality of stable and cubicles, high work load, insufficient management.

DesCoteaux, L., M. Doucet, and V. Caldwell (2001). Evaluation of the impact of parasite control with the IVOMEC(R) SR bolus given at breeding age on first lactation yield in holstein heifers. Veterinary Parasitology 98 (4): 309-314.
NAL Call No.: SF810 V4
Keywords: Holstein heifers, field trial, treatment, sustained release ivermectin bolus, first lactation, milk production, milk composition, percent fat, protein, fecal samples, nematode egg excretion, average daily gain, total weight gain, IVOMEC(R) SR bolus.

Dias, R.O.S., and A. de P. Marques Junior (2001). Preventive hoof trimming in dairy cattle during the dry period on the control of foot problems. [Casqueamento preventivo de vacas leiteiras em periodo seco, no controle de afeccoes podais.] Veterinaria Noticias 7(1): 33‑38, ISSN: 0104‑3463.
NAL Call No.: SF604.V484
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, preventive hoof trimming, dry period, foot health Portuguese language.

Dijkstra, T., H. Barkema, J. Hesselink, and W. Wouda (2002). Point source exposure of cattle to Neospora caninum consistent with periods of common housing and feeding and related to the introduction of a dog. Veterinary Parasitology 105(2): 89‑98, ISSN: 0304‑4017.
NAL Call No.: SF810.V4
Keywords: dairy herds, post‑natal transmission, Neospora caninum, point source exposure, common housing, feeding, abortion, vertical transmission of neosporosis.

Dirksen, G. (1996). Faults of housing and management as a cause of claw and leg disease in cattle: I. Faulty rebuilding of a stanchion-barn into a loose housing with cubicles and slatted floor. [Stallbau- und Haltungsfehler als Ursache von Klauen- und Gliedmassenerkrankungen in Rinderbestanden.] Praktische Tierarzt 77(10): 924-932, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882.
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicles, slatted floors, improper installation, design defects, feet, hooves, animal welfare, foot diseases, diseases, cattle diseases, Germany, German language.

Distl, O. (2001). Implications of health traits in breeding of dairy cattle. [Die Bedeutung Von Gesundheitsmerkmalen in Der Zucht Von Milchrindern.] Archiv Fuer Tierzucht 44 (4): 365-380.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR23
Keywords: German cattle breeds. genetic improvement, health and fertility traits, datasets from Bavaria, Israel and Sweden, heritabilities for disease resistance, genetic variance.

Douglas, V.L., S.G. Fenwick, D.U. Pfeiffer, N.B. Williamson, and C.W. Holmes (2000). Genomic typing of Streptococcus uberis isolates from cases of mastitis, in New Zealand dairy cows, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Microbiology 75(1): 27-41.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Keywords: dairy cattle mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, genetic dissimilarity between isolates, banding patterns, New Zealand farms.

Drillich, M., O. Beetz, A. Pfuetzner, M. Sabin, H.J. Sabin, P. Kutzer, H. Nattermann, and W. Heuwieser (2001). Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2010‑2017, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: bacterial infection, bacterial disease, toxic puereral mastitis, treatment, systemic, ampicillin, ceftiofur, antibacterial drugs, intramuscular administration, economics, financial analysis.

Dubreuil, P., J. Daigneault, Y. Couture, P. Guay, and D. Landry (2001). Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 65 (3): 173-180.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C24
Keywords: cows, breed, crossbred Holstein, housed in tie stalls, procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300 000 IU/mL), intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, once daily for 5 consecutive days.

Egan, J., N. Leonard, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 1: Data on housing, calving and calf husbandry. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(8): 388‑392, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: farmer questionnaire, calving assistance, housing, cubicles, nutrition, animal welfare.

Ehinger, A.M. and M. Kietzmann (1998). Pharmacokinetic aspects of mastitis therapy. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 111(9): 337-343, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45 Keywords: mastitis treatment, antibiotics, inflammatin, weak acids, weak bases, benzylpenicillin potassium, in vitro, model, isolated perfused bovine udder, German language.

Eicher, S.D., J.L Morrow Tesch, J.L. Albright, and R.E. Williams (2001). Tail docking alters fly numbers, fly avoidance behaviors, and cleanliness, but not physiological measures. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1822-1828, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: tail docking, animal well being issue, fly season, comparison, docked versus nondocked cows, stage of lactation, physiological, immunological, behavioral measures, cows housed in a tie stall barn, blood samples, plasma and leukocyte separation, cleanliness scoring, fly avoidance behaviors, foot stomping.

El Eragi, A.M.S., M.M., Mukhtar, and S.H. Babiker (2001). Specific antibodies of Pasteurella multocida in newborn calves of vaccinated dams. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33 (4): 275-283.
NAL Call No.: SF601 T7
Keywords: newborn calves, breed, Holstein Friesian, dams vaccinated against haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), transferred antibody levels, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, IgG response, age of calf.

Emanuelson, U. and P.A. Oltenacu (1998). Incidences and effects of diseases on the performance of Swedish dairy herds stratified by production. Journal of Dairy Science 81(9): 2376-2382, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, risk factors, herd production, estrus detection, efficiency, health.

Enevoldsen, C. and Y.T. Grohn (1996). A methodology for assessment of the health-production complex in dairy herds to promote welfare. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science (Suppl. 27): 86-90, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: epidemiology, health, economics, herd health management, qualitative research, simulation, systems analysis, methodology, assessment, animal welfare.

Enting, H., D. Kooij, A.A. Dijkhuizen, R.B.M. Huirne, and E.N. Noordhuizen-Stassen (1997). Economic losses due to clinical lameness in dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 49(3): 259-267, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, economic losses, milking.

EU Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (1999). BST [bovine somatotropin] in the EU: welfare aspects. Irish Veterinary Journal 52(5): 268-269, ISSN: 0368-0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, mastitis, lesions, immune response, lameness, somatotropin.

Farr, V.C., K. Stelwagen, L.R. Cate, A.J Molenaar, T.B McFadden, and S.R. Davis (April 1996). An improved method for the routine biopsy of bovine mammary tissue. Journal of Dairy Science 79(4): 543-549, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Eight primiparous cows in midlactation were used to determine a method for the mammary biopsy of standing cows in full lactation. Cows were mildly sedated; therefore, preoperative feed withdrawal was not necessary. A core of secretory tissue (0.75 to 1 g) was extracted using a rotating stainless steel cannula with a retractable blade at the cutting edge. Postoperative recovery was rapid, taking only 15 min per cow, and the method was reliable and efficient. The presence of secretory tissue was verified by histology and in situ hybridization with alpha s1-casein and alpha-lactalbumin probes. The capsular end of the core contained more connective tissue, and the parenchyma showed heterogeneous expression of alpha s1-casein and alpha-lactalbumin. Despite some postoperative bleeding, milk yield and composition in the biopsied gland were affected only transiently. Yield recovered by 3.5 d after biopsy, and composition recovered by 6.5 d after biopsy. Yield and composition of milk from the control glands were not affected by the procedure. Biopsy sites healed rapidly and without infection. No clinical mastitis was observed in any of the biopsied cows throughout the remainder of the lactation.
Keywords: dairy cows, biopsy, mammary tissue, lactation, preoperative care, surgical instruments, cannulae, histology, milk composition, milk yield, healing, messenger RNA, AlphaS1-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, animal welfare.

Fayed, R.H. (1997). Effect of housing systems on behaviour and lameness in dairy cows. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 45(1): 101-110, ISSN: 1110-1423.
Keywords: housing systems, floors, behavior, health, Egypt.

Fernandes, C.A.C., D.S. Costa, and J.H.M. Viana (2001). Impact of the retained placenta on the reproductive performance in cattle. [Impacto da retencao de placenta sobre a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras.] Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 25 (1): 26-30.
NAL Call No.: QP251 R48
Keywords: cows, dairy farms, incidence of retained placenta, effect on the reproductive performance, incidence of uterine infection, interval from parturition to first estrus, number of services/conception, body condition.

Fetrow, J.P. (2001). Food animal welfare and the use of bovine somatotropin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (12): 1886‑1889, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, somatotropin, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, milk production.

Fleischer, P., M. Metzner, M. Beyerbach, M. Hoedemaker, and W. Klee (2001). The relationship between milk yield and the incidence of some diseases in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2025‑2035, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: breed, Holstein‑Friesian, logistic regression analysis, analytical method, milk yield, disease resistance, retained placenta, mastitis, milk fever, ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cysts, claw diseases, milk yield correlation, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Forshell, K.P., T. Fjeldaas, K.M. Hjorungdal, and A.L. Kleppa (2001). Claw disorders in a Norwegian dairy herd: A case study. [Klauvproblemer i en norsk storfebesetning: En kasusbeskrivelse.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(12): 775‑778, ISSN: 0332‑5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: cows, heifers, Norwegian dairy herd, case study, claw disorder, diagnosis, etiology, integumentary system disease, pathology, bacterial disease, prevention and control, therapy, corns, digital dermatitis, sole hemorrhage, oxytetracycline, antibacterial drug, antiinfective drug, wood tar copper sulfate, bactericide, disinfectant, fungicide, body scoring system, evaluation method, claw trimming, therapeutic method, Norway, Norwegian language.

Forshell, K.P. (1999). Hoof diseases: a hidden problem. [Klauvsjukdommer: et skjult problem!] Buskap 51(3): 20-21.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: foot diseases, health, productivity, hooves, floors, animal welfare, dairy cattle, cows, Norwegian language, Sweden, Norway.

Forshell, K.P., T. Fjeldaas, K.M. Hjorungdal, and A.L. Kleppa (2001). Claw disorders in a Norwegian dairy herd: A case study. [Klauvproblemer i en norsk storfebesetning: En kasusbeskrivelse.] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 113(12): 775‑778, ISSN: 0332‑5741.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N81
Keywords: cows, heifers, Norwegian dairy herd, case study, claw disorder, diagnosis, etiology, integumentary system disease, pathology, bacterial disease, prevention and control, therapy, corns, digital dermatitis, sole hemorrhage, oxytetracycline, antibacterial drug, antiinfective drug, wood tar copper sulfate, bactericide, disinfectant, fungicide, body scoring system, evaluation method, claw trimming, therapeutic method, Norway, Norwegian language.

Fossing, C., M. Vaarst, C.M. Christensen, S.M. Thamsborg, E.M. Vestergaard, C.L. Ingvartsen, T.W. Bennedsgaard (2001). Improving welfare in organic dairy cattle. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., p.151, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal welfare, coccidiosis, parasites, dairy cattle, homeopathy, organic farming.

Fourichon, C., H. Seegers, F. Beaudeau, L. Verfaille, and N. Bareille (2001). Health‑control costs in dairy farming systems in western France. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 141‑156, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: dairy farming, farming systems, costs, economic analysis, hygiene, infectious diseases, disease control, dairy herds, parasites, pest control, heifers, calves, digestive disorders, metabolic disorders, reproductive disorders, movement disorders, dairy farms, intensive husbandry, France.

Fourichon, C., F. Beaudeau, N. Bareille, and H. Seegers (2001). Incidence of health disorders in dairy farming systems in western France. Livestock Production Science 68 (2-3): 157-170.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: incidence of health disorders, dairy farms, France, clinical mastitis, locomotor disorders, digestive disorders, reproductive disorders, retained placenta, dystocia, milk fever, chronic metritis, somatic cell counts, size of the dairy unit, dairy specialization, breed differences in disorders.

Galindo, F., D.M. Broom, P.G.G. Jackson. (2000). A note on possible link between behaviour and the occurance of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 335-341, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, susceptibility, social dominance.

Galindo, F. and D.M. Broom (2000). The relationships between social behaviour of dairy cows and the occurrence of lameness in three herds. Research in Veterinary Science 69(1): 75-79, ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: lameness, social behavior, housing, lesions, hooves, social dominance.

Galland, J.C., H.F. Troutt, R.L. Brewer, B.I. Osburn, R.K. Braun, P. Sears, J.A., Schmitz, A.B Childers, E. Richey, and K. Murthy (2001). Diversity of Salmonella serotypes in cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (9): 1216‑1220.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: salmonella, serotypes, culling, slaughter, digesta, cecum, colon, geographical variation, seasonal variation, incidence, comparisons, USA.

Galligan, D.T. (1999). The economics of optimal health and productivity in the commercial dairy. Revue Scientifique et Technique: Office International des Epizooties 18(2): 512-519, ISSN: 0253-1933.
NAL Call No.: SF781 R4
Keywords: dairy farms, disease control, efficiency, optimization, case studies, economic analysis, health, bovine somatotropin, feed composition, computerized data, costs, productivity, new technology, postpartum diseases, USA.

Ghamsari, S.M., J.A. Acorda, K. Taguchi, N. Abe, and H. Yamada (1996). Evaluation of wound healing of the teat with and without low level laser therapy in dairy cattle by laser Doppler flowmetry in comparison with histopathology, tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis. British Veterinary Journal 152(5): 583-592, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, perforated teat wounds, suture patterns with or without low level laser therapy (LLLT), wound healing, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis, histopathological examination, invasiveness, pain.

Gibbs, A. (2001). Practical approach to the control of pneumonia in housed calves. In Practice 23(1): 32‑39, ISSN: 0263‑841X.
NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Keywords: calves, disease control, pneumonia, beef cattle, dairy cattle, disease transmission, colostral immunity, calf feeding, stress management, calf housing, viral diseases, vaccination, combined vaccines.

Gillund, P., O. Reksen, Y.T. Grohn, and K. Karlberg (2001). Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84(6):1390‑1396, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dual‑purpose cows, body condition score, ketosis, reproductive performance, housing, tie stall barns, nutrition, Norway.

Giovannini, G., and A. Zecconi (2002). Field study on epidemiology of clinical mastitis in five Italian dairy herds. Milchwissenschaft 57(1): 3‑6, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: clinical mastitis, economical losses, farmers, consumer risk, epidemiological analysis, Italian dairy herds, housing management, udder hygiene, milking machine characteristic, milking procedures, risk factors, month of the year, days in milk (DIM), parity number, control measures.

Gitau, G.K., J.J. McDermott, B. McDermott, and B.D. Perry (2001). The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51 (3/4):149‑160.
NAL Call No.: SF601 P7
Keywords: dairy cattle calves, Theileria parva, infections, liveweight gain, small farms, protozoal infections, symptoms, geographical variation, climatic factors, age differences, animal housing, feeding, pest control, morbidity, mortality, grazing, breeds, concentrates, milk, mineral nutrition, compensatory growth, Kenya.

Gregory, N.G., J.K. Robins, D.G. Thomas, and R.W. Purchas (1998). Relationship between body condition score and body composition in dairy cows. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41(4): 527-532, ISSN: 0028-8233.
NAL Call No.: 23 V4892
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow, breed, Friesian, Friesian-cross, channel fat, dewlap thickness, weight, mesenteric fat, omental fat, udder, weight, body composition, body condition score, body contours, dentition, emaciation, New Zealand.

Guard, C. (2001). Investigating herds with lameness problems. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice 17(1):175‑87, ISSN: 0749-0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy herds, lameness, evaluation, etiologic diagnosis, prevention, corrective measures, risk factors.

Gudkov, I.N., G.M. Tkachenko, and A.I. Mazurkevich (2001). Difficulties in radiation safety of agricultural animals on territory contaminated by radionuclides. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 42 (2): 187.
NAL Call No.: SF757.8 A4
Keywords: toxicology, blood and lymphatics, immune system, B‑lymphocyte, T‑lymphocyte, neutrophil, dysentery, digestive system disease, genetic damage, genetic disease, injury, infectious disease, infectious disease, leukosis, blood and lymphatic disease, osteosarcoma, bone disease, injury, neoplastic disease, radiation cataract, eye disease, injury, tuberculosis, bacterial disease, cesium‑137, accumulation, mobile, radionuclide, transfer factor; heavy metal, mineral substance, nitrate, organic substance, pesticide, saponite, zeolite, ionizing radiation, radiologic method, toxicity, epizootic situation, forest, immune status, meat, meat, milk, dairy product; pest‑swampy soil, radiation safety, stress factor, trophic chain, Europe.

Guitian, F.J., F.J. Garcia Pena, J. Oliveira, M.L. Sanjuan, and E. Yus (2001). Serological study of the frequency of leptospiral infections among dairy cows in farms with suboptimal reproductive efficiency in Galicia, Spain. Veterinary Microbiology 80 (3): 275-284.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V44
Keywords: cows, lactating, farms, suboptimal reproductive efficiency, blood samples, microscopic agglutination, Leptospira interrogans serogroups: Australis, Autumnalis, Ballum, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Louisiana, Pomona, Sejroe, Shermani and Tarassovi, Spain.

Hallaran, G., and J. Sumner (2001). Prevalence of E coli O157 in dairy cows presented for slaughter in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 79(10): 707‑708, ISSN: 0005‑0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: dairy cows, escherichia coli, disease prevalence, feces, slaughter, Victoria.

Hansen, D. and V.A. Bridges (1999). Survey description of down-cows and cows with progressive or non-progressive neurological signs compatible with a TSE from veterinary-client herds in 38 states. Bovine Practitioner 33(2): 179-187, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: cows, herds, central nervous system, nervous system diseases, downer cows, non-ambulatory cows, beef cattle, beef herds, dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, injury, trauma, septicemia/toxemia, non-responsive milk fevers, parturient paresis, monitoring, surveillance, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, US cattle populations.

Hassall, S.A., W.R. Ward, and R.D. Murray (1993). Effects of lameness on the behaviour of cows during the summer. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association, 132(23): 578-580.ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, pain, productivity, behavior, milking parlor, feeding behavior, ruminating, lying, standing.

Hassan, L., H.O. Mohammed,and P.L. McDonough (2001). Farm‑management and milking practices associated with the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York state dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51 (1/2): 63‑73, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy herds, disease, bacterial, listeria monocytogenes, animal husbandry, farm management, milking, disease prevention, microbial contamination, food contamination, risk factors, milking machines, milking parlors, escherichia coli, vaccines, food safety, New York.

Hedges, J., R.W. Blowey, A. J. Packington, C.J. O'Callaghan, and L.E. Green (2001). A longitudinal field trial of the effect of biotin on lameness in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9): 1969-1975, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: milking cows, heifers, commercial farms, biotin supplementation, incidence of visible lameness, locomotion assessment, sole ulcer, white line separation, digital dermatitis, interdigital necrobacillosis, United Kingdom.

Henriksen, B.I.F. (2001). Effect of organic fodder on prevention of milk fever. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., pp.152‑153, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: cattle feeding, dairy cattle, fodder, organic farming, parturient paresis, pathogens, bacterial, fungal.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2001). Responses to selection against clinical mastitis in the Norwegian cattle population. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 155-160, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: genetic trend, clinical mastitis, Norwegian Cattle, mastitis resistance, average selection differential.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2001). Variance components of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle: effects of trait definition and culling. Livestock Production Science 67 (3): 265-272.
NAL Call No.: SF761.Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, mastitis, culling, lactation, incidence, heritability, health, duration, genetic variation estimation, variance components, Norway.

Heringstad, B., G. Klemetsdal, and J. Ruane (2000). Selection for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle: a review with focus on the situation in the Nordic countries. Livestock Production Science 64(2-3): 95-106, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cattle, literature review, selection for mastitis resistance, breeding programs, data recording, model selection, breeding value estimation, somatic cell counts, Denmark, Finland, Norway.

Hernandez, J. and J.K. Shearer (2000). Efficacy of oxytetracycline for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions on various anatomic locations in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(8): 1288-1290, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, oxytetracycline, topical application, efficacy, dermatitis, feet, lesions, size, papilloma, pain.

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and J.B. Elliott (1999). Comparison of topical application of oxytetracycline and four nonantibiotic solutions for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(5): 688-690, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, oxytetracycline, topical application, solutions, copper, hydrogen peroxide, efficacy, treatment, dermatitis, pain, lesions.

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and D.W. Webb (2001). Effect of lameness on the calving to conception interval in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (10): 1611-1614, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, lameness, reproductive performance, interval from calving to conception, number of breedings required per conception, foot rot, papillomatous digital dermatitis, claw lesions, multiple lesions.

Hernandez, J., C. Risco, and A. Donovan (2001). Association between exposure to Neospora caninum and milk production in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (5): 632-635, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, exposure to Neospora caninum, milk production in dairy cows, seropositive or seronegative cows, kinetic ELISA, production data, decrease in milk production, economic loss.

Heuer, C., Y.H. Schukken, L.J. Jonker, J.I.D. Wilkinson, and J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen (2001). Effect of monensin on blood ketone bodies, incidence and recurrence of disease and fertility in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (5): 1085-1097, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: effect of monensin, milk production, health, reproduction, calving, clinical mastitis, intramammary infection, lameness, calving to conception intervals, endometritis, cystic ovarian disease.

Hillerton, J.E. (1998). Mastitis treatment: a welfare issue. British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 3-8.
Keywords: mastitis, treatment, animal welfare, dairy cows, milk production, milk quality, economics, drug resistance, antibiotics, bovine mastitis, United Kingdom.

Hillerton, J.E. (1998). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: current status and possible impacts. Journal of Dairy Science 81(11): 3042-3048, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is an apparently new disease, first recognized in 1985, its pathological distinction was first reported in 1986. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a member of a group of transmissible encephalopathies that includes scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. Early indications of its epidemiology suggested that the disease was transmitted via cattle feed containing meat and bone meals from previously infected animals. The tissues most likely to contain infectious agents were considered to be nervous tissues and offal and their inclusion in ruminant feed was banned in the United Kingdom in 1989, regulations were tightened in 1992. Subsequent diagnosis has indicated that this ban has been effective and that confirmed cases are predicted to decline from a peak in the United Kingdom of 37,490 in 1992, to 7417 actual cases in 1996, and then to virtual extinction in 2001. Subsequent culling of all nonproductive cattle more than 30 mo of age and culling of cohort animals of confirmed cases is likely to reduce the predicted numbers and times significantly. Current interest is in the means of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within species and possibly to humans. A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, with 28 cases confirmed, is virtually certain to be bovine spongiform encephalopathy in humans. The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy has had major impacts on the United Kingdom dairy industry, including the loss of beef from dairy markets, the culling of more than 900,000 dairy bull calves, the removal of all cattle more than 30 mo of age from the human food chain, and now slaughter of cohort animals. Impacts on dairy marketing have yet to be properly assessed. Information and statistics for bovine spongiform encephalopathy can be found on the worldwide web at http://www.maff.gov.uk/maffhome.html
Keywords: cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, amyloid, molecular conformation, epidemics, disease transmission, feed formulation, dairy industry, EU regulations.

Hirvonen, J., K. Eklund, A.M. Teppo, G. Huszenicza, M. Kulcsar, H. Saloniemi, and S. Pyorala (1999). Acute phase response in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 40(1): 35-46, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: acute, acute phase response, phase, response, induced, Escherichia coli, mastitis, bovine, acute phase proteins, haptoglobin, nitric oxide.

Hoeben, D., C. Burvenich, P.J. Eppard, J.C. Byatt, and D.L. Hard (1999). Effect of bovine somatotropin on neutrophil functions and clinical symptoms during Streptococcus uberis mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 82(7): 1465-1481, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, bovine mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, experimental infections, insulin-like growth factor, somatotropin, blood plasma, neutrophils, chemiluminescence, heart rate, hydrocortisone, movement, surface antigens, leukocyte count, blood picture, alpha-lactalbumin.

Hoedemaker, M., B. Korff, B. Edler, M. Emmert, and E. Bleckmann (2001). Dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus infections during vaccination with an autogenous bacterin in dairy cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 48 (5): 373-383.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus, mastitis, somatic cell count, subcutaneously administered, supramammary lymph nodes, quarter milk samples.

Hoglund, J., C. Svensson, and A. Hessle (2001). A field survey on the status of internal parasites in calves on organic dairy farms in southwestern sweden. Veterinary Parasitology 99 (2): 113-128.
NAL Call No.: SF810 V4
Keywords: organic dairy herds, internal parasites, reduced productivity, first grazing season cattle, nematode infections, management practices, Eimeria alabamensis oocysts per gram of feces, pasture contamination, Ostertagia ostertagi infection, lungworm infection, dictyocaulosis, management practices, supplementary feeding, control of gastrointestinal parasites, Sweden.

Holloway, N.M., J.W. Tyler, J. Lakritz, S.L. Carlson, and J. Holle (2001). Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations in calves fed fresh and frozen colostrum. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 357-359, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: neonatal calves, Holstein, breed, serum IgG concentrations, fresh versus frozen colostrum.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der Werf, J.H.F. Erkens, and H.J. Blokhuis (1999). Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. Journal Animal Science 77(3): 708-714, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of first blood samples by venipuncture, 15 min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease of increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.
Keywords: dairy cows, handling, individual characteristics, remote sampling.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der. Werf, and H.J. Blokhuis (1998). Stress enhanced reduction in peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers in dairy cows during endotoxin-induced mastitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 66(1): 83-97, ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Keywords: dairy cows, lymphocytes, stress, endotoxins, mastitis, etiology, hydrocortisone, blood chemistry, lactation, defense mechanisms, body temperature, animal welfare, susceptibility, incidence, variation.

Hopster, H. and H.J. Blokhuis (1994). Validation of a heart-rate monitor for measuring a stress response in dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 74(3): 465-474, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: heart rate, stress, treadmill, telemetry.

Houe, H., S. Ostergaard, T. Thilsing‑Hansen, R.J. Jorgensen, T. Larsen, and J.T. Sorensen, J.F. Agger, and J.Y. Blom (2001). Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia: an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control. Acta Vet Scand 42(1):1‑29.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: milk fever, incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, subclinical hypocalcaemia, laboratory examinations, nutrition, cation‑anion balance, calcium level, reproductive disorders, dystocia, uterine prolapse, retained placenta, metritis repeat breeding, ketosis, displaced abomasum, mastitis.

Hu, S., C. Concha, A. Johannisson, G. Meglia, K.P. Waller (2001). Effect of subcutaneous injection of ginseng on cows with subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48(7): 519‑528, ISSN: 0931‑1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: cow, host, Staphylococcus aureus, bacterial disease, subclinical mastitis, immune system, oxidative burst activity, Panax ginseng extract, medicinal plant, immune stimulator, adverse reactions, dosage, subcutaneous injection, innate immunity, somatic cell count (SCC).

Hughes, J.W., W.B. Faull, P.J. Cripps, and N.P. French (1997). Environmental control of bovine lameness. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 5(3): 235-246, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: dairy cattle, farm comparisons, cattle housing, lameness, cubicles, walking surfaces, wood peelings, tracks, lanes, straw yards, comfort, mastitis incidence, United Kingdom.

Hultgren, J. (2002). Foot/leg and udder health in relation to housing changes in Swedish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 53(3): 167‑89, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
Keywords: Swedish commercial dairy herds, disease incidence rate, farmers' data, housing comparisons, tie‑stalls versus cubicles, management practices, foot/leg disorders, clinical mastitis, teat injuries, high milk somatic cell counts (MSCCs).

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25p, ISSN: 1401‑6257.
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Ilha, M.R.S., C.F. Riet, and C.S.L. Barros (2001). Dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) in cattle associated with poisoning by Claviceps purpurea. [Sindrome distermica (hipertermia) em bovinos associada a intoxicacao por Claviceps purpurea.] Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 21 (2): 81-86.
NAL Call No.: SF756.37 B7P5
Keywords: dairy cattle, outbreak of dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia), poisoning, Claviceps purpurea, feed contamination, fungus, clinical signs, pyrexia, dull, rough and long hair coats, intense salivation, difficult respiration with open mouth, environmental temperature, necropsy findings, Brazil.

Ingvartsen, K.L. and J.B. Andersen (2000). Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1573-1597, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: There has been great interest in dry matter intake regulation in lactating dairy cattle to enhance performance and improve animal health and welfare. Predicting voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) is complex and influenced by numerous factors relating to the diet, management, housing,environment and the animal. The objective of this review is to identify and discuss important metabolic factors involved in the regulation of VDMI and their integration with metabolism. We have described the adaptations of intake and metabolism and discussed mechanisms of intake regulation. Furthermore we have reviewed selected metabolic signals involved in intake regulation. A substantial dip in VDMI is initiated in late pregnancy and continues into early lactation. This dip has traditionally been interpreted as caused by physical constraints, but this role is most likelyoveremphasized. The dip in intake coincides with changes in reproductive status, fat mass, and metabolic changes in support of lactation, and we have described metabolic signals that may play an equally important role in intake regulation. These signals include nutrients, metabolites, reproductive hormones, stress hormones, leptin, insulin, gut peptides, cytokines, and neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, and corticotrophin-releasing factor. The involvement of these signals in the periparturient dip in intake is discussed, and evidence supporting the integration of the regulation of intake and metabolism is presented. Still, much research is needed to clarify the complex regulation of VDMI in lactating dairy cows, particularly in the periparturient animal.
Keywords: lactating dairy cows, dry matter intake, performance, health, animal welfare, metabolic factors, changes in reproductive status, fat mass, nutrients, metabolites, reproductive hormones, stress hormones, leptin, insulin, gut peptides, cytokines, neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y, galanin, corticotrophin-releasing factor.

Institute of Food Science and Technology (1998). Bovine Somatotropin (BST). News Release, June 11, 1998, Institute of Food Science and Technology: London, UK, 16p.
Keywords: somatotropin, milk production, dairy cows, synthetic hormones, adverse effects, drug residues, meat hygiene, milk hygiene, bovine mastitis, human health, product labels, health, animal welfare, reviews.

Janosi, S., and G. Huszenicza (2001). Role of drying off therapy of dairy cows in the control of mastitis. Review article. [A tejelo tehenek szarazraallitasi terapiajanak szerepe a togygyulladas elleni vedekezesben. Irodalmi attekintes.] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 123(7): 11‑416, ISSN: 0025‑004X
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V644
Keywords: mastitis, reproductive system disease, dry cow therapy, selective dry cow therapy, literature review, Hungarian language.

Janosi, S., F. Ratz G. Szigeti, M. Kulcsar, J. Kerenyi, T. Lauko, F. Katona, and G. Huszenicza (2001). Review of the microbiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of bovine mastitis caused by the alga Prototheca zopfii. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23 (2): 58-61.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V46
Keywords: high producing, machine milked dairy cows, mastitis, P. zopfii alga, resistant forms, poor management, economic loss, decreased milk quality and quantity, culling of infected animals, pathogen isolation and identification, clinical features, control, review.

Janosi, S., G. Szigeti, F. Ratz, T. Lauko, J. Kerenyi, M. Tenk, F. Katona, A. Huszenicza, M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2001). Prototheca zopfii mastitis in dairy herds under continental climatic conditions. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23 (2): 80‑83, ISSN: 0165‑2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46.
Keywords: dairy cows, prototheca zopfii, dairy herds, climatic factors, bovine mastitis, outbreaks, epidemics, hygiene, animal husbandry, risk factors, pathotypes, infections, lactation, inflammation, latent infections, milk yield, somatic cell count, histopathology, protothecosis, Hungary.

Johannesson, T., J.T. Sorensen, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Production environment as a component in a welfare assessment system in dairy cattle herds. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 251-255, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: cows, animal welfare assessment, herds, behavior, injuries.

Jong, S.K., S.K. Gong, H.K. Chung, and S.H. Dae (2001). Dairy‑cattle health in Gyeongnam, Korea. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (2): 163‑169, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal health, monitoring, disease prevalence, frequency, epidemiology, data collection, dairy herds, animal husbandry, livestock numbers, disease prevention, reproductive disorders, mastitis, parturition complications, gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic disorders, lameness, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, Korea Republic.

Jonsson, M.E., A. Aspan, E. Eriksson, and I. Vagsholm (2001). Persistence of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in calves kept on pasture and in calves kept indoors during the summer months in a Swedish dairy herd. International Journal of Food Microbiology 66 (1/2): 55‑61, ISSN: 0168‑1605.
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Abstract: In 1997, a Swedish dairy farm was implicated in a human case of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection. The bacterium was found in a faecal sample from the human case and in faecal samples from cattle on the farm. Subtyping with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the isolates were identical. The farm was further studied to assess the occurrence and the epidemiology of the agent at the farm level. The objective of this part of the study presented here was to examine the persistence of VTEC O157:H7 in calves that were kept on pasture and indoors, respectively, during the summer. Twelve calves in the herd, with one positive faecal sample each of VTEC O157:H7 in April 1999, were followed by faecal sampling during the summer months. Six calves were kept indoors and six were kept on pasture. Faecal samples from each calf were collected once a month on five occasions from April to September. Bacterial examination was performed with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and cultivation on CT‑SMAC. PCR was used to test for the presence of genes encoding for verocytotoxin (VT), intimin (eaeA), enterohemorrhagic E. coli‑hemolysin (EHEC‑Hly) and the flagellar antigen H7. PFGE was used for genotyping the isolates. The faecal samples from the calves kept on pasture were negative during the whole period. It is possible that the faecal samples had bacterial counts lower than the detection limits for our procedure, or that the faecal samples were free from the bacteria at the time of sampling. This suggests that calves on pasture may be less exposed to the bacteria or that they clear themselves. In the pen group, there were between one and six culture positive individuals per sampling occasion. One of the calves that was housed indoors was positive in faecal culture on four consecutive samplings.
Keywords: calves, escherichia coli, bacterial diseases, pastures, dairy farms, dairy herds, husbandry, pens, summer, Sweden.

Jorgensen, R.J., T. Hansen, M.L. Jensen, and H.T. Thilsing (2001). Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite a on total blood calcium in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (3): 609-613, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Danish Holstein, breed, late lactation, milked in the morning only, oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, total serum calcium, blood samples, daily fluctuations in blood calcium, hypocalcemia.

Kadarmideen, H.N., and J.E. Pryce (2001). Genetic and economic relationships between somatic cell count and clinical mastitis and their use in selection for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Animal Science Pencaitland 73 (1): 19-28.
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, clinical mastitis, somatic cell count, genetic and economic relationship of lactation average, genetic parameters, permanent environmental, residual and phenotypic correlations, selection for mastitis resistance, breeding goals, genetic resistance.

Kalis, C.H.J., J.W. Hesselink, H.W. Barkema, and M.T. Collins (2001). Use of long‑term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy herds. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (2): 270‑274, ISSN: 0002‑9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: dairy cows, dairy herds, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, mycobacterium paratuberculosis, feces, shedding, disease prevention, efficacy, culture techniques, culling, cattle husbandry.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Cubicle refusal and rearing accommodation as possible mastitis risk factors in cubicle‑housed dairy heifers. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 123‑130, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, cubicle refusal, sheds, animal wastes, bovine mastitis, calving, epidemiology, mastitis, pregnancy, regression analysis, risk factors, disease incidence, Norway.

Kobayashi, Y., M.J. Vandehaar, H.A. Tucker, B.K. Sharma, and M.C. Lucy (1999). Expression of growth hormone receptor 1A messenger ribonucleic acid in liver of dairy cows during lactation and after administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin. Journal of Dairy Science 82(9): 1910-1906, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: Holstein cows, mRNA, growth hormone receptor, physiology.

Koehler, H., H. Gyra, K. Zimmer, K.G. Draeger, B. Burkert, B. Lemser, D. Hausleithner, K. Cussler, W. Klawonn, and R.G. Hess (2001). Immune reactions in cattle after immunization with a mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine and implications for the diagnosis of M. paratuberculosis and M. bovis infections. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48 (3): 185-195.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Keywords: calves, immunization of with a live modified Mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine, humoral and cell mediated immune reactions, vaccine shedding, tuberculin skin test, diagnostic methods, antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, interferon gamma test, polymerase chain reaction, interferon gamma production, humoral immunity.

Kossaibati, M.A., and R.J. Esslemont (1997). The costs of production diseases in dairy herds in England. Veterinary Journal 154(1): 41-51, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Economic losses due to common health problems in dairy cattle were investigated in 90 Friesian/Holstein herds (average size 152 cows), which calved in England during the 1992/1993 season with an average annual yield of about 6000 1 per cow. By using only the direct costs of common production diseases and other health problems (mastitis, lameness, vulval discharge, treatments for oestrus-not-observed, retained foetal membranes, milk fever, twinning, calf mortality and aid at calving), the cost of ill health in a 100 cow herd with average rates of these problems (compared with target levels) was estimated at pound sterling 6300 per year. The costs ranged from pound sterling 1200 (average of the top 10%) to pound sterling 13600 (average of the worst 10% of the herds). The main losses were due to mastitis and lameness (38 and 27% of health cost, respectively).
Keywords: Friesian/Holstein herds, economic loss, health problems, mastitis, lameness, vulval discharge, treatments for estrus-not-observed, retained fetal membranes, milk fever, twinning, calf mortality, aid at calving, estimated costs, losses, animal welfare, indexes.

Krebs, S., J. Danuser, and G. Regula (2001). Using a herd health monitoring system in the assessment of welfare. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 78‑81, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3.A27
Keywords: cows, dairy farms, health, claws, herd improvement, joints (animal), monitoring, skin tests, trauma.

Kremer, W.D.J., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and J.T. Weeda (2001). Veterinary herd health consultancy on dairy farms: Guidelines for starters. [Veterinaire advisering van melkveebedrijven: Een leidraad voor starters.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (13): 455-461.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: veterinary herd health and production management advisory programs, dairy farms, farmers, veterinarians, structured content, well planned activities, professional implementation.

Kristoffersen, S. (1999). Focus on milk quality, health of cows and animal welfare. [Fokus pa maelkekvalitet, kvaegsundhed og dyrevelfaerd.] Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 82(1): 16-17, ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 D23
Keywords: milk quality, animal welfare, cows, milk, Denmark.

Krohn, C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Kronfeld, D.S. (2000). Recombinant bovine somatotropin and animal welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(11): 1719-1724, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: somatotropin, dairy cows, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, law, ethics, data analysis, epidemiology, policy.

Kronfeld, D.S. (1997). Recombinant bovine somatotropin. Views on the ethics of communication and animal health. [Rekombinant bovint somatotropin. Synpunkter pa informations-och djurhalsoetik.] Svensk Veterinartidning 49(4): 157-165, ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 SV23
Keywords: dairy cows, adverse effects, bovine mastitis, somatotropin, milk production, milk yield, animal welfare, mastitis, Swedish.

Krukowski, H., M. Tietze, T. Majewski, and P. Rozanski (2001). Survey of yeast mastitis in dairy herds of small type farms in the Lublin region, Poland. Mycopathologia 150 (1): 5-7.
NAL Call No.: 450 M994
Keywords: cows, clinical and subclinical mastitis, isolate fungi, quarter milk, milk samples, blood agar, Mac Conkey agar, aesculin tallium acetate crystal violet blood agar, Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin.

Kumar, H., S. Mahmood, and L.P. Singh (2001). Treatment of placental retention with ecbolic drugs and its effect on subsequent fertility in crossbred cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (7): 654-657, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Keywords: cows, fertility response, retained fetal membranes, ecbolic drugs, intrauterine infusion, oriprim bolus, synotocinon, luprostiol, estradiol valerate, herbal drug, metrali, reproductive efficiency, interval from parturition to conception, number of services per conception.

Lam, T.J.G.M. (1999). Gain more from the Chain Quality Milk programme. Paper work can be useful. [Haal meer uit Keten Kwaliteit Melk. Papierwerk kan ook nuttig zijn.] Veehouder en Dierenarts 13(1): 26-27.
Keywords: dairy farms, milk processing, veterinary products, residues, milk, animal welfare, health, cows, milking, milking parlors, storage, cleaning, disinfection, contamination, dairy wastes, environmental impact, veterinarians, quality controls, milk quality, Netherlands, Dutch language.

LangRee, R. (1998). The cow will let you know. [Kua gir beskjed.] Buskap 50(1): 30-31.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, behavior, animal welfare, health, cows.

Le Fevre, A.M., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, I. McKendrick, and G. Gettinby (2001). Correlations of measurements of subclinical claw horn lesions in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 148(5): 135-138, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: breed, Holstein-Friesian cows, foot diseases, claws, sole and white line lesions, severity score, measurement, distribution, calving.

Leach, K.A., D.N. Logue, J.M. Randall, and S.A. Kempson (1998). Claw lesions in dairy cattle: methods for assessment of sole and white line lesions. The Veterinary Journal 155(1): 91-102, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Claw lesions are a major cause of lameness in dairy cattle. Analysis of the development of lesions is aided by numerical representation of their significance. Using data from observations on 31 heifers at 9 weeks post-calving, 5 lesion scoring method were compared. These were: (1) number of lesions; (2) severity (3) adjusted severity; (4) size (measured by a novel technique involving image analysis of distal view photographs) and (5) size multiplied by adjusted severity (combined score). Relationships between scores for sole and white line lesions and between different claws within a cow were investigated. The small size but high clinical significance of severe lesions means that severity must be weighted if combined with size in a score. Sole and white line lesions showed a moderate but significant correlation in terms of severity but none in terms of size. The highest correlation between scores for a single claw (the right hind outer) and the remaining claws was found for adjusted severity of sole lesions.
Keywords: heifers, claws, lesions, assessment, size, disease course, grading, hemorrhage, soles, image analysis.

Leach, K.A., D.N. Logue, S.A. Kempson, J.E. Offer, H.E. Ternent, and J.M. Randall (1997). Claw lesions in dairy cattle: development of sole and white line haemorrhages during the first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 154(3): 215-225, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Keywords: heifers, lesions, foot diseases, soles, claws, hemorrhage, calving, lactation, disease, course, pathogenesis, AG AB.

LeJeune, J.T., T.E. Besser, N.L. Merrill, D.H. Rice, and D.D. Hancock (2001). Livestock drinking water microbiology and the factors influencing the quality of drinking water offered to cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1856-1862, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: drinking water, microbial quality, cattle water troughs, coliform, Escherichia coli concentrations, proximity of the water trough to the feedbunk, increased contamination, protection of the trough from direct sunlight, concentrations of protozoa in the water, warm weather, Salmonella sp., shigatoxigenic E. coli O157, treatment with cycloheximide, increased persistence of E. coli O157.

Lende, T. van der, F.A.M. de Loos, and T. Jorna (2000). Postnatal health and welfare of offspring conceived in vitro: a case for epidemiological studies. Theriogenology 53(2): 549-554, ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: epidemiology, in vitro, animal experiments, blastocyst, dairy cattle, fertilization, in vitro culture, livestock, reproduction, culture, embryo transfer, animal welfare.

Leonard, N., J. Egan, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 2: Data on incidence of disease, culling and biosecurity measures. Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Irish Republic. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(9): 454‑456, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: cows, culling, dairy farms, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, disease prevention, disease surveys, epidemiology, heifers, incidence, infertility, lameness, mastitis, mineral supplements, mortality, biosecurity, Irish Republic.

Leonard, F.C., J.M. O'Connell, and K.J. O'Farrell (1996). Effect of overcrowding on claw health in first-calved Friesian heifers. British Veterinary Journal 152(4): 459-472, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643.
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers lameness, foot diseases, overcrowding, behavior.

Lin, Y.L., C.C. Chou and T.M. Pan (2001). Screening procedure from cattle feces and the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Taiwan dairy cattle. Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection 34 (1): 17-24.
Keywords: screening Escherichia coli O157:H7, bovine feces, enrichment, selective culture, phenotyping, genotyping, culture, species confirmation, serotyping to O157 and H7, detection of verocytotoxin (VT) production, Taiwan.

Lischer, C.J., and P. Ossent (2001). Bovine sole ulcer: a literature review. [Das Sohlengeschwur beim Rind: Eine Literaturubersicht.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114(1‑2):13‑21, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, sole ulcers, lameness, economic loss, animal wellbeing, corium, locus minoris, lesions, claw bone, tuberculum flexorium, healing process, epidemiological studies, German language.

Koller, H. Geyer, C. Mulling, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2002). Effect of therapeutic dietary biotin on the healing of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cattle: a double blinded controlled study. Veterinary Journal 163(1):51‑60, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cows, sole ulcers, healing, biotin, orally administered, orthopedic shoe, histological examination, horn samples.

Lischer, C.J., A. Dietrich‑Hunkeler, H. Geyer, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2001). Healing process of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cows kept in tie stalls: clinical description and biochemical investigations. [Heilungsverlauf von unkomplizierten Sohlengeschwuren bei Milchkuhen in Anbindehaltung: Klinische Beschreibung und blutchemische Untersuchungen.] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 143( 3 ):125‑133, ISSN: 0036‑7281.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 SCH9
Keywords: dairy cows, hoof health, lameness, scoring system, biotin, glucose, hematology, nutritional status, healing, horns, retinol, ulcers, German language.

Logan K.E., M.J. Stear, B. McGuirk, D.J. Platt, and J.L. Fitzpatrick (1998). Immunological responses of Holstein Friesian cattle to Staphylococcus aureus. British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 93.
Keywords: immunology, immune response, bovine mastitis, mastitis, economics, animal welfare, somatic cell count, latent infections, bulls, genetic markers, Holstein-Friesian, dairy cows, United Kingdom.

Logue, D.N. and J.E. Offer (2001). The effect of forage type on foot health in dairy heifers. Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 7-8, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Keywords: heifer, claw horn lesions, injury, diet; foot health, forage type, lameness.

Logue, D.N., J.E. Offer, K. Leach, S.A. Chaplin, A. le Fevre, and R. Berry (2001). Cattle lameness and the welfare of the dairy cow. Research in Veterinary Science 70(Supplement A): 35, ISSN: 0034‑5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Keywords: animal welfare, housing, cubicle, comfort, lameness, risk factors, nutrition, pre‑calving cubicle exposure.

Logue, D.N. (1999). A veterinary perspective on the development of a farm assurance scheme in Scotland: lessons for the national scheme? Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(4): 369-370, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: animal welfare, farm management, farm sector, animal production, legislation, hygiene, cattle housing, health, transport of animals, record keeping, Scotland.

Logue, D.N., R.J. Berry, J.E. Offer, et al. (1999). Consequences of "metabolic load" for lameness and disease. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association. 7(1): 113, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: metabolic disorders, lameness, animal diseases, health, animal welfare, dairy cows, behavior.

Logue, D.N., McNulty, D., and A.M. Nolan (1998). Lameness in the dairy cow: pain and welfare. Veterinary Journal 156(1): 5-6, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, cows, pain, animal welfare, experimental design.

Logue, D.N. (1997). Productivity, management and disease in dairy cattle. Bovine Practitioner 31(2): 51-55, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Keywords: dairy cattle, infertility, mastitis, lameness, animal welfare, behavior, management, cost benefit analysis, etiology, milk production, production, cattle diseases.

Logue, D.N., J.E. Offer, and J.J. Hyslop (1994). Relationship of diet, hoof type and locomotion score with lesions of the sole and white line in dairy cattle. Animal Production 59(2): 173-181, ISSN: 0003-3561.
NAL Call No.: 49 AN55
Keywords: breed, Jersey, Holstein-Friesian, diet, hoof angle, locomotion, milk yield, pathogenesis, foot diseases, diet, composition.

Loneragan, G.H., D.A. Dargatz, P.S. Morley, and M.A. Smith(2001). Trends in mortality ratios among cattle in US feedlots. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(8): 1122‑1127, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, beef cattle, feedlot, mortality, epidemiology, respiratory tract disorders, USA.

Luepping, W. (2001). Monitoring of feeding situation and health with physiologically based parameters. [Fuetterungs‑ und Gesundheitsmonitoring mit physiologischen Parametern.] Zuechtungskunde 73(6): 460‑470, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: dairy cow, Holstein, breed, bilirubin, calcium, glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, protein, selenium, urea, feed, fiber content, roughage content, starch content, health monitoring, lactation curve, milk, dairy product, milk production, net acid‑base excretion, German language.

Mahmoudzade, A.R., M Tarahomi, and H. Fotoohi (2001). Effect of abnormal vaginal discharge at oestrus on conception rate after artificial insemination in cows. Animal Science Pencaitland 72 (3): 535-538.
Keywords: cows, heifers, Holstein Friesian, breed, estrus, visual characteristics of the cervical mucous discharge, cervical mucus with urine, cervical mucus with microbes, cervical mucus with blood, no cervical mucus, artificial insemination, conception rate.

Maloo, S.H., W. Thorpe, G. Kioo, P. Ngumi, G.J. Rowlands, and B.D. Perry (2001). Seroprevalences of vector‑transmitted infections of small‑holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (1): 1‑16, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: Zebu, breed, small farms, seroprevalence, pests, protozoa, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, theileria parva, vector‑borne diseases, risk factors, animal husbandry, crop management, surveys, elisa, hematocrit, metastigmata, pest control, Kenya.

Manske, T., J. Hultgren, and C. Bergsten (2002). Topical treatment of digital dermatitis associated with severe heel‑horn erosion in a Swedish dairy herd. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 53(3): 215‑31, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: cows, breed, Swedish Red and White, Swedish Holstein, commercial dairy herd, foot health, topical treatments, digital dermatitis, severe heel‑horn erosion, treatment, glutaraldehyde, oxytetracycline, foot trimming, cleansing, alone, grazing season, footbath twice daily after milking copper solution.

Martini, A., P. Tambini, M. Miccinesi, F. Ambrosini, A. Giorgetti, D. Rondina, R. Bozzi, C. Sargentini, and M. Moretti (2001). Utilisation of homeopathy in dairy cattle: first results of an Italian trial. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., pp.119‑124, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: cattle diseases, dairy cattle, homeopathy, legislation, organic farming, Italy.

Mele, M., P. Secchiari, A. Serra, G. Ferruzzi, F. Paoletti, and M. Biagioni (2001). Application of the Atracking signal@ method to the monitoring of udder health and oestrus in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 72(3): 279‑284, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: dairy cows, models, simulations, computational biology, udder health, reproductive system tracking signal method, monitoring method, estrus, milk electrical conductivity, moving average model, mastitis.

Metz, J. H. M., E. Maltz, T.T. Mottram (1999). Monitoring health and welfare in practice. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(1): 123, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: health, animal welfare, diagnosis, cows, milking, mastitis, dairy herds, milk yield.

Meyer, W., and H. Georg (2001). Influence of floor design on the claw health of dairy cows. [Einfluss der Laufflachengestaltung auf die Klauengesundheit von Milchkuhen.] Landtechnik 56(4): 258‑259, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, slatted, mats, chopped straw, unclean surfaces, claws, foot diseases, hooves, infection, German language.

Miettinen, P.V. (1995). Prevention of bovine ketosis with glucogenic substance and its effect on fertility in Finnish dairy cows. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 108(1): 14-19, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: negative energy balance, propylene glycol, nicotinic amide solution, post partum, acetone content in milk, fertility, milk yield, fat and protein.

Mill, J.M., and W.R. Ward (1994). Lameness in dairy cows and farmers' knowledge, training and awareness. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 134(7): 162-164, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: animal welfare, economics, knowledge, training of farmers, England.

Moore, D.A., S.L Berry, M.L. Truscott, and V. Koziy (2001). Efficacy of a nonantimicrobial cream administered topically for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (10): 1435‑1438, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows; Holstein, breed, drug therapy; interdigital dermatitis; pain scores, lesion activity, lesion size, pharmacology; lincomycin paste, potency; treatment; veterinary products.

Morales, E., F.J. Trigo, F. Ibarra, E. Puente, and M. Santacruz (2001). Neosporosis in mexican dairy herds: lesions and immunohistochemical detection of Neospora caninum in fetuses. Journal of Comparative Pathology 125 (1): 58-63.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Keywords: dairy herds, aborted bovine fetuses, microscopical lesions, lymphocytic myocarditis microgliosis multifocal necrosis in the brain, lymphocytic hepatitis, lymphocytic myositis, immunohistochemical examination, brain, myocardium, liver, Mexico.

Morrow, C.J., E.S., Kolver, K.A. Macdonald, G.A. Verkerk, and L.R. Matthews (2001). Monitoring adrenal activity in dairy cows under various feeding regimens using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 52‑55, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein Friesian, breed, adrenal activity, plasma glucocorticoid concentrations, fecal glucocorticoid concentrations, feeding, pastoral conditions, concentrate based, genotype effects, stocking rates, stress.

Morrow-Tesch, J., and K. Whitehead (1998). The effect of blood sampling site on measures of stress in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 58: 218-219, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: cows, blood sampling, stress, measures, haptoglobins, magnesium, blood specimen collection, stress analysis.

Mosure, W.L., R.A. Meyer, J. Gudmundson, and A.D. Barth (1998). Evaluation of possible methods to reduce pain associated with electroejaculation in bulls. Canadian Veterinary Journal 39(8): 504-506, ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Keywords: bulls, evaluation, pain, heart rate, electroejaculation, animal welfare, anaesthesia, lidocaine, xylazine, heart rate, semen collection.

Mudron, P., H. Scholz, H.P. Sallmann, J. Rehage, G. Kovac, F. Bartko, and M. Holtershinken. (1994). Effect of vitamin E injection on cortisol and white blood cell response to surgical stress in dairy cows. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64(3): 176-180, ISSN: 0300-9831.
NAL Call No.: 389.8 Z33
Keywords: Vitamin E, cortisol, white blood cell count, surgery, stress, alpha-tocopherol, hydrocortisone, leukocytes, intramuscular injection, liver, blood plasma, sequential sampling, vitamin supplements.

Mulling, C.K., H.H. Bragulla, S. Reese, K.D. Budras, and W. Steinberg (1999). How structures in bovine hoof epidermis are influenced by nutritional factors. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 28(2): 103-108, ISSN: 0340-2096.
Keywords: hoof epidermis, nutrition, horn quality, keratinization, cornification, bovine hoof epidermis,lipids, minerals, calcium, vitamins, biotin, dyskeratotic, light and transmission electron microscopy, histochemical and enzyme-histochemical techniques.

Munksgaard, L. and P. Lovendahl (1993). Effects of social and physical stressors on growth hormone levels in dairy cows. Canadian Journal Animal Science 73(4): 847-853, ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: dairy cows, stress, ACTH, GH-release.

Murugaiyah, M., P. Ramakrishnan, A.R. Sheikh, C.H. Knight, and C.J. Wilde (2001). Lactation failure in crossbred Sahiwal Friesian cattle. Journal of Dairy Research 68 (2): 165-174, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: cows, Sahiwal Friesian, breed, susceptible to lactation failure, milk yield, post partum, acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase galactosyltransferase, key enzyme markers of cellular differentiation, failure of milk removal, impaired milk ejection reflex, Malaysia.

Musser, J.M.B., K.L. Anderson, and J.O. Boison (2001). Tissue disposition and depletion of penicillin G after oral administration with milk in unweaned dairy calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (3): 346‑350, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy calves, antibiotic residues, benzylpenicillin, kidneys, liver, milk, oral administration.

Nelson, A.J., and M.B. Cattell (2001). Culling and laminitis: real herds, real cows, real deaths. Bovine Practitioner 35 (1): 42-45, ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Keywords: cows, laminitis lesions, cull rate, foot and leg problems, reproduction, mastitis, low production, New York dairy herds, United States.

Nickerson, S.C., W.E. Owens, L.K. Fox, C.C. Scheifinger, T.R. Shryock, and T.E. Spike (1999). Comparison of tilmicosin and cephapirin as therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis at dry-off. Journal of Dairy Science 82(4): 696-703, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, staphylococcus aureus, bovine mastitis, dry period, antibiotics, experimental infections, lactation, application methods, secretions, somatic cell count, drug therapy, efficacy, antibiotic residues.

Nickerson, S.C., W.E. Owens, G.M. Tomita, and P.W. Widel (1999). Vaccinating dairy heifers with a Staphylococcus aureus bacterin reduces mastitis at calving. Large Animal Practice 20(3): 16, 18-19, 28, ISSN: 1092-7603.
NAL Call No.: SF601.B6
Keywords: heifers, Staphylococcus aureus, vaccination, mastitis.

Nicoletti, J.L.M. de, F.A.A. de Souza, A. Thomassian, C.A. Hussni, and A.LG. Alves (2001). Feet lesions and lameness prevalence in dairy cows kept in permanent confinement (free‑stall and tie‑stall). [Prevalencia de lesoes podais e graus de claudicacao em vacas leiteiras mantidas em confinamento permanente ("free‑stall" e "tie‑stall").] Revista de Educacao Continuada do CRMV‑SP 4 (2): 24‑32, ISSN: 1516‑3326.
Keywords: dairy cows, age differences, number of parturitions, housing, tie‑stall, free stall, disease prevalence, foot diseases, lameness, lesions, sole bleeding, white line disease, heel erosion, double sole, interdigital dermatitis, hoof cracks, Portuguese language, Sao Paulo farms.

Nielsen, B.L. (1999). Perceived welfare issues in dairy cattle, with special emphasis on metabolic stress. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(1): 97-98, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: stress, metabolic disorders, animal welfare, dairy cows, dairy farming.

Noordhuizen, J.P., and G.H. Wentink (2001). Developments in veterinary herd health programmes on dairy farms: a review. The Veterinary Quarterly: Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science 23(4): 162‑9, ISSN: 0165‑2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46
Keywords: dairy farms, herd health, production management programs, epidemiology, quality assurance.

Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N., and J. Fink-Gremmels (1999). Use of rBST: renewed discussion. [rBST-toelating: opnieuw overwogen.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 124(12): 380-382, ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: cows, metabolism, animal breeding, reproduction, legislation, regulations, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, somatotropin, administration, marketing, public health, biotechnology, cattle diseases Europe, Dutch language.

Norgaard, N.H., K.M. Lind, and J.F. Agger (1999). Cointegration analysis used in a study of dairy-cow mortality. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 42(2): 98-119, ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, mortality, statistical analysis, intensive husbandry, livestock farming, market competition, costs, animal welfare, stress, health, diseases, epidemiology, concentrates, feed intake, growth rate, herds, assets, livestock numbers, milk yield, Norwegian language.

O'Brien, C.N., A.J. Guidry, L.W. Douglass, and D.C. Westhoff (2001). Immunization with Staphylococcus aureus lysate incorporated into microspheres. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1791-1799, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: antibiotics, Staphylococcus aureus, resistant strains, scar tissue formation, blockage of ducts, inflammation, macrophages, mammary gland, treatments, lysate in NaCl, lysate in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FICA), lysate in microspheres in NaCl, lysate in microspheres in FICA, antibody response.

Offer, J.E., D.N. Logue, and D.J. Roberts (1997). The effect of protein source on lameness and solear lesion formation in dairy cattle. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research. 65(Part 2): 143-149, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: breed, Holstein-Friesian, protein sources, dietary protein, soybean oilmeal, complete feeds, lameness, laminitis, fish meal, blood meal, hooves, meat and bone meal, milk yield, body weight, liveweight gain, body condition, hardness, foot diseases, blood composition, metabolites.

Offer, J.E., D. McNulty, and D.N., Logue (2000). Observations of lameness, hoof conformation and development of lesions in dairy cattle over four lactations. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 147(4): 105-109, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cows, lameness, claws, conformation, lesions, incidence, lactation, productive life, locomotion, calving.

Oikawa, S. and N. Katoh (2002). Decreases in serum apolipoprotein B‑100 and A‑I concentrations in cows with milk fever and downer cows. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66(1): 31‑34, ISSN: 0830‑9000.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C24
Keywords: cows, milk fever, peripartum period, fatty liver, non‑esterified fatty acids (NEFA), hepatic lipidosis, serum levels, apolipoprotein (apo) B‑100, apoA‑I, downer cow syndrome.

Oliver, S.P., B.E. Gillespie, M.J. Lewis, S.J. Ivey, R.A. Almeida, D.A. Luther, D.L. Johnson, K.C. Lamar, Moorehead, and H.H. Dowlen (2001). Efficacy of a new premilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic h d combination for the prevention of mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1545-1549, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: premilking, teat disinfectant, phenolic combination, prevention, intramammary infection, split udder experimental design, clinical mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

Olsson, I.M., S. Jonsson, and A. Oskarsson (2001). Cadmium and zinc in kidney, liver, muscle and mammary tissue from dairy cows in conventional and organic farming. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 3 (5): 531‑538, ISSN: 1464‑0325.
Keywords: cows, kidneys, liver, mammary tissue, organic farming, metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, tissue levels.

Oltenacu, P.A., Hultgren, J., and B. Algers (1998). Associations between use of electric cow-trainers and clinical diseases, reproductive performance and culling in Swedish dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 37(1/4): 77-90, ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: The role of electric cow-trainer technology as a risk factor for several diseases was evaluated. Diseases considered were retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, cystic ovaries, silent heat, milk fever, clinical mastitis, and foot and leg problems. Historical and contemporary controls (with control herds selected to match the experimental herds for size and location) were used. Data consisted of 10 264 Swedish Red and White (SRB) and 5461 Swedish Friesian (SLB) lactation records in 150 herds in Sweden, of which 33 used cow-trainers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of parity and exposure to electric cow-trainers on the risks of diseases and the effects of diseases and exposure to electric cow-trainers on risk of culling. The dominant effects associated with use of electric cow-trainers were an increased risk for silent heat, clinical mastitis, ketosis and culling relative to cows in herds not using cow-trainers. Diseases had negative effects on reproductive performance and the effects were larger for cows in herds using cow-trainers. In herds using electric cow-trainers, the largest increase in the interval from first service to conception (58 days) was caused by the occurrences of silent heat, cystic ovaries and the combination of two or more diseases. Retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries, clinical mastitis and a combination of two or more diseases increased the risk of culling about two times relative to healthy primiparous cows with the increase being greater for cows in herds using cow-trainers. Silent heat did not increase risk of culling in control groups, but was the largest risk factor for culling in the exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to electric cow-trainers increased the incidence risk of silent heat, clinical mastitis, and ketosis and changed silent heat from a neutral disease with respect to culling to a major risk factor. Finally, exposure to cow-trainers increased the general negative effect of diseases on the cows' reproductive performance and risk for culling.
Keywords: cow trainers, electrical equipment, placental retention, puerperal disorders, metabolic disorders, ketosis, lameness,culling, infertility, reproductive disorders, estrus, husbandry, animal welfare, Sweden.

Omer, M.K., E. Skjerve, Z. Woldehiwet, and G. Holstad (2001). A cross‑sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in dairy farms in Asmara, Eritrea. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33(4): 295‑303, ISSN: 0049‑4747.
NAL Call No.: SF601.T7
Keywords: dairy cattle, tuberculosis, dairy farms, disease prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, mathematical models, dairy breeds, risk assessment, livestock numbers, epidemiology, cattle housing.

Owens, W.E., S.C. Nickerson, R.L. Boddie, G.M. Tomita, and C.H. Ray (2001). Prevalence of mastitis in dairy heifers and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (4): 814-817, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: heifers, Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotics, cephapirin, penicillin novobiocin penicillin streptomycin, tilmicosin, cephalonium, dry cow products, not available in the United States.

Owens, W.E., S.C. Nickerson, and C.H. Ray (1999). Efficacy of parenterally or intramammarily administered tilmicosin or ceftiofur against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis during lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 82(3): 645-647, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, Staphylococcus aureus, mastitis, ceftiofur, antibiotics, application methods, efficacy, lactation, evaluation, dosage, duration, drugs, treatment, somatic cell count, bacteria, milk.

Owens, W.E., S.P. Oliver, B.E. Gillespie, C.H. Ray, and S.C. Mickerson (1998). Role of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in dairy heifers. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(9): 1122-1124, ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Keywords: horn flies, mastitis, disease, health, production.

Paulino do L.E., P.A. Vaz, S. Ivanete, de F.V. Pedroso, and do L.L. Alberto (2001). Effect of body condition score at calving on energy metabolism, milk yield and disease occurence in postpartum of dairy cows. [Efeito da Condicao Corporal ao Parto sobre Alguns Parametros do Metabolismo Energetico, Producao de Leite e Incidencia de Doencas no Pos‑Parto de Vacas Leiteiras.] Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 30(5): 1544‑1549.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R45
Keywords: Holstein, calf, cow, body condition score, calving, disease occurrence, energy metabolism, milk production, fat content, blood beta‑hydroxybutirate (BHBA), aspartate‑aminotransferase (AST) glucose, lactation, milk yield, parturition, Portuguese language.

Pavlata, L., A. Pechova, and J. Illek (2001). Muscular dystrophy in dairy cows following a change in housing technology. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70 (3): 269‑275, ISSN: 0001‑7213.<
NAL Call No: SF604 B7
Keywords: dairy cows, Bohemian Red Pied, breed, muscle tissue damage, muscular dystrophy, mineral deficiencies, potassium, selenium, stress, downer cows, transport of animals, change in housing, locomotor activity, deaspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase.

Phillips, C.J.C. and S.A. Schofield (1994). The effect of cubicle and straw yard housing on the behaviour, production and hoof health of dairy cows. Animal Welfare 3: 37-44, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: cattle housing, animal welfare, lameness.

Phipps, A.M., L.R. Matthews, and G.A. Verkerk (1995). Tail docked dairy cattle: fly induced behaviour and adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 55: 61-63, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: tail docking, flies, behavior, adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, production.

Platz, S., F. Miller, and J. Unshelm (1999). The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability - the example of tie-in versus loose housing system of dairy cattle. [Auswirkung von haltungsmangeln auf tiergesundheit und wirtschaftlichkeit am beispiel der anbinde- und laufstallhaltung von milchkuhen.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(12): 422-429, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, husbandry, loose housing, tethering, profitability, abnormalities, animal welfare, leukocyte count, checklists, cows, trauma, interviews, milk, milk yield, pregnancy, questionnaires, interviews, economics, qualifications of dairy stockmen, handling of animals, poor management, injury, number of inseminations per pregnancy, age of cow, cell count of milk, milk yield, German language.

Pillai, S.R., E. Kunze, L.M. Sordillo, and B.M. Jayarao (2001). Application of differential inflammatory cell count as a tool to monitor udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1413-1420, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: flow cytometric technique, differential inflammatory cell count, bovine peripheral blood leukocytes, quarter milk samples, mononuclear leukocyte count, polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, udder health status.

Pocknee, B. (1998). Quality milk production: meeting the challenge. In: British Mastitis Conference 1998, Axient Information Services: Crewe, UK, p. 97-98.
Keywords: economics, dairy farming, bovine mastitis, treatment, teat management, milking machines, animal welfare, milk production, milk production costs, quality standards, prevention, farm management, dairy farms, husbandry, udders, cow culling, United Kingdom.

Polk, C. (2001). Cows, ground surface potentials and earth resistivity. Bioelectromagnetics 22(1): 7‑18.
Keywords: dairy farms, cows, stray voltage, step voltage, long term exposure, soil resistivity, health, milk production.

Porfir'ev, I.A. (2001). Metabolism disturbances in high productive milk cows during unsatisfactory conditions of feeding and keeping. Sel'Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: 20-40.
Keywords: cows, high producing, Black and White, Kholmogorskaya, breeds, metabolic diseases, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, phosphorus calcium, vitamin A metabolisms, liver function, reproductive disorders.

Prasad, H., R.K. Roychoudhury, and G. Patgiri (2001). Incidence of subclinical mastitis at drying off. Indian Veterinary Journal 78 (4): 316-318, ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Keywords: subclinical mastitis, per cent cow wise, per cent quarter wise, number of lactations.

Rajan, G.H., C.A. Morris, V.R. Carruthers, R.J. Wilkins, and T.T. Wheeler (December 1996). The relative abundance of a salivary protein, bSP30, is correlated with susceptibility to bloat in cattle herds selected for high or low bloat susceptibility. Animal Genetics 27(6): 407-414, ISSN: 0268-9146.
NAL Call No: QP98 A1A5
Keywords: dairy cattle, pasture bloat, economics, animal welfare, salivary proteins, etiology of bloat, cattle grazed on legumes in New Zealand.

Rankin, M. (1998). An overview of nuisance flies on cattle. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 6(1): 59-62, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: disease vectors, disease transmission, Musca autumnalis, Hydrotaea irritans, Morellia simplex, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans, Haematopota pluvialis, Chrysops, Simulium, Culicoides, biology and behavior of flies.

Rasmussen, M.D, J.Y. Blom, L.A.H. Nielsen, and P. Justesen (2001). Udder health of cows milked automatically. Livestock Production Science 72(1‑2): 147‑156, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: automatic milking, cull somatic cell count, new somatic cell count, old somatic cell count, dairy product, monthly cow cell count, new infections, udder health, Denmark.

Reeves, V.B. (1995). Liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of novobiocin residues in bovine milk: interlaboratory study. Journal of AOAC International 78(1): 55-58, ISSN: 1060-3271.
NAL Call No.: S583 A7
Keywords: treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle, novobiocin residues, tolerance, liquid chromatography.

Rothbauer, D.L. (1994). The relationship between production, stress, and the health of dairy cows. Veterinary Medicine 89(12): 1164-1168.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 M69
Keywords: stress, nutrition, management, health, production, housing, handling.

Ruegg, P.L. and L. Sekito (2004). Test characteristics and comparison of methods used to detect subclinical mastitis. Annual Meeting National Mastitis Council. 2004(43): 361-362, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: dairy cows; bovine mastitis; disease detection; diagnostic techniques, asymptomatic infections, bulk milk; California mastitis test, mandatory screening, milk testing, somatic cell count.

Rufenacht, J., P. Schaller, L. Audige, B. Knutti, U. Kupfer, and E. Peterhans (2001). The effect of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on the fertility of Swiss dairy cattle. Theriogenology 56 (2): 199-210, ISSN: 0093‑691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea virus, cattle pathogen, worldwide distribution, protective immunity, immunotolerance, viral invasion of fetuses, epidemiology, viral shedding, infection sources, increased rate of return to estrus, abortion, birth of calves with malformations, fetal deaths, gestation failures, management practices, Switzerland.

Schreiner, D.A.and P.L Ruegg (2002). Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (10): 2503-2511, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail docking, somatic cell count, milk, hygiene, udders, legs, bovine mastitis, pathogens, contagious pathogens, environmental pathogens, stalls, Wisconsin.

Schreiner, D.A. and P.L. Ruegg (2003). Relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores and subclinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 86(11): 3460-3465, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: bovine mastitis, dairy cattle, dairy herds, hygiene, legs, milk, somatic cell count, subclinical mastitis, etiology, prevention and control, husbandry, udders, standards, milk.

Schrick, F.N., M.E. Hockett, A.M. Saxton, M.J. Lewis, H.H. Dowlen, and S.P. Oliver (2001). Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1407-1412, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: cows, Jersey, breed, mastitis, subclinical, clinical, early lactation, reproductive performance, quarter foremilk samples, microbiological examination, services per conception, days open, days to first service, reproductive performance.

Schultz, C.E. (1999). Detection of antibiotic residues in cull dairy cows at slaughter. In: Proceedings One Hundred and Third Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, San Diego, California, USA, October 7-14, 1999, p. 277-293, United States Animal Health Association: Richmond, USA.
Keywords: antibiotics, cows, dairy cows, drug residues, antibiotic residues, meat inspection, meat hygiene.

Scott, P.R. (1996). Lameness in dairy cattle. The British Veterinary Journal 152(1): 11-12, ISSN: 0007-1935.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V643
Keywords: dairy cattle, lameness, cattle husbandry, animal welfare.

Seimiya, Y.M., F. Kikuchi, N. Yamaguchi, K. Sugawara, and Y. Nakashima (2001). Effective control of periparturient diseases in dairy cows owing to preparturient feed management practices. Animal Science Journal 72(10): J587‑J593, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, heifer, Holstein, breed, periparturient disease, prevention and control, reproductive system disease, preparturient feed management practices, high energy feeds, gestation, Japanese language.

Simon, K.H. (1997). Health and fertility of dairy cows and veterinary service contracts for herd health care. [Gesundheit und Fruchtbarkeit von Milchkuhen, Service-Vertrag zur Bestandsuberwachung und Gesundheitsvorsorge.] Zuchtungskunde 69(6): 464-470, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: veterinary practice, veterinary medicine, veterinary services dairy, herd medicine, fertility, health, animal welfare, farm management, herds, quality controls, dairy industry, dairy farms, contracts, quality standards, Germany, German language.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, J.W. Hughes, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows in a straw yard in relation to lameness. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 135(11): 251-253, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: housing, straw, lameness, behavior, handling, farmyards, rumination, diurnal variation, cattle housing.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1993). Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(9): 204-208, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: behavior, housing, cubicles, straw, lameness, health, behavior, housing, cubicles.

Singh, S.S., R.D. Murray, and W.R. Ward (1992). Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis. Journal of Comparative Pathology 107(3): 319-328, ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Keywords: histopathology, outer hind claws, overgrown sole, wall epidermis, lameness in diary cattle versus beef cattle.

Sischo, W.M., E.R. Atwill, L.E. Lanyon, and J. George (2000). Cryptosporidia on dairy farms and the role these farms may have in contaminating surface water supplies in the northeastern United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 43(4): 253-267.
NAL Call No.: SF601 P7
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, dairy farms, water contamination, risk factors, surface waters, manure-management practices, on-farm water, stream samples, cryptosporidia shedding.

Sixt, A., C. Stanek and E. Mostl (1997). Effect of different ways of trimming the claws of cows on plasma cortisol concentration. [Der Einfluss verschiedener Methoden der Klauenkorrektur auf den Plasmakortisolspiegel bei der Milchkuh.] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 84(7): 181-188, ISSN: 0043-535X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, stress, restraint, hydrocortisone, claw trimming, German language.

Smith, B.P. (1997). Down cows: causes and treatments. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (31): 43-45.
NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle diseases, paresis, prevention.

Spranger, J. (1998). [Guidelines for prevention and therapy in ecological animal farms as in the example of bovine mastitis]. DTW: Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift 105(8): 321-323, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: dairy cattle, mastitis, forbidden prophylactic use of antibiotics, restricted therapy antibiosis, systematic homeopathic prophylaxis, sanitation measures, false homeopathic medications, German language.

Stefanowska, J., D. Swierstra, C.R. Braam, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2001). Cow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into account. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 87‑103, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, floor type, slatted floors, animal behavior, time, movement, claws, trauma, animal health, animal welfare, cattle dung, farm equipment, time budgets, floor walkability, manure scrapers.

Stehr, W., B. Twele, and L. Rosales (2001). Use of recombinant somatotropin in dairy cows. [Uso de somatotrofina recombinante en vacas lecheras.] Archivos de Zootecnia 50(191): 419‑422, ISSN: 0004‑0592.
NAL Call No.: 49 AR22
Keywords: lactose, recombinant somatotropin, total protein, milk fat, milk production.

Steinhardt, M. And H.H. Thielscher (2001). Heart rate and diurnal rhythmicity in dairy calves at different ages.[Herzfrequenz und Tagesperiodik bei Milchrindkaelbern waehrend der Aufzucht am Traenkeautomaten.] Tieraerztliche Umschau 56(8): 413‑423, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cattle, German Holstein Friesian, German Red Pied, breed, calf age, 5, 15, 40 and 60 days of age, diurnal rhythmicity, heart rate, circadian rhythms, German language.

Stelwagen, K., D.C. van Espen, G.A. Verkerk, H.A. McFadden, and V.C. Farr (1998). Elevated plasma cortisol reduces permeability of mammary tight junctions in the lactating bovine mammary epithelium. Journal of Endocrinology 159: 173-178. ISSN: 0022-0795.
NAL Call No.: 448.8 J8293
Keywords: plasma cortisol, mammary tight junctions, lactation, milking.

Stelwagen, K., G.A. Verkerk, A.H. Phipps, and L.R. Matthews (1997). Effect of cortisol on mammary tight junction (TJ) permeability in lactating dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 50(1): 39-40, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: cortisol, permeability, mammary tight junction.

Stockdale, C.R.(2001). Body condition at calving and the performance of dairy cows in early lactation under Australian conditions: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41(6): 823‑839, ISSN: 0816‑1089.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au792
Keywords: dairy cows, body condition, calving, performance, lactation, stress, nutritional state, pastures, grazing, energy intake, dietary protein, fiber, starch, feed supplements, crude protein, rumen digestion, protein digestibility, reproductive performance, milk composition, milk yield, literature reviews.

Stull, C.L., Payne, M.A., Berry, S.L., and P.J Hullinger (2002). Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (9): 1298-1303, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, tail docking, pain, animal welfare, regulations, methodology, physiological functions, animal behavior, insect control, animal health, public health, literature reviews.

Thilsing, H.T., and R.J. Jorgensen (2001). Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite a administration in the dry period. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (3): 691-693, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dry cows, zeolite feed supplement, parturient calcium status, milk fever, calcium carbonate, drench, blood samples, serum calcium, subclinical hypocalcemia.

Thompson, R.C., R.M. Hopkins, and W.L. Homan (2000). Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitology Today 16(5): 210-213, ISSN: 0169-4758.
NAL Call No.: QL757 P374
Keywords: enteric parasite, zoonotic diseases, humans, dogs, dairy cattle, diarrhea in child-care centers, molecular characterization, morphologically of isolates, taxonomy.

Tucker, C.B., D. Fraser, and D.M. Weary (2001). Tail docking dairy cattle: effects on cow cleanliness and udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (1): 84‑87, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: To determine whether tail docking would influence cow cleanliness and udder health in a free‑stall system, we monitored milking cows after half the animals in a herd were docked. A sample of 223 docked and 190 undocked cows (reducing to 169 and 105 over the study as cows were dried off) were monitored for 8 wk. Cow cleanliness was scored in two areas: along the spine, and the rump adjacent to the tail at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 wk after docking. Cleanliness was evaluated by counting squares that were soiled (0 to 14 on a 5‑ x 17.5‑cm grid) and judging soiling severity on a scale from 0 (clean) to 3 (thickly caked). Udder cleanliness was scored with the same scale (0 to 3) and by counting the number of teats with debris on them. Udder health was assessed by measuring SCC of two milk samples and the number of animals diagnosed as mastitic by the on‑farm veterinarian. No treatment differences were found in four measures of cow cleanliness, two measures of udder cleanliness, or udder health. However, cow cleanliness did differ over time, and analysis of a subsample of cows illustrated individual differences in cleanliness.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail, docking, cow housing, stalls, hygiene, udders, somatic cell count, individual characteristics, machine milking, milkers, animal welfare.

UK, Agriculture Committee, House of Commons (1996). The UK Dairy Industry and the CAP Dairy Regime. Volume 2: Minutes of Evidence and Appendices HMSO Publications Centre: London, UK, 431 p., ISSN: 0-10-550236-7.
Keywords: milk production, milk marketing, quotas, farm income, dairy farms, milk processing, milk hygiene, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, animal welfare, somatotropin, tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

UK, Institute of Food Science and Technology (1998). Bovine Somatotropin (BST). Food Science and Technology Today 12(3): 169-176, ISSN: 0950-9623.
NAL Call No.: TX341 F664
Keywords: cows, somatotropin, somatic cell count milk quality, safety, risk, health, mastitis, somatic cell count, legislation, GATT, labelling, health, antibiotic residues, public health, food safety, milk production, United Kingdom, USA, Europe.

Vaarst, M. and C. Enevoldsen (1996). Claw disorders among dairy cows in organic and in deep bedded pack barn systems in Denmark. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a meeting held at the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK, March 27-29, 1996, M.V. Thrusfield and E.A. Goodall (eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine: Roslin, UK, p.185-194, ISSN: 0-94-807324-1.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, floors, litter, hooves, epidemiology, lameness, foot diseases, animal welfare, Denmark.

van Klink, E.G., W.G. de Ruyter, C.D. Sijpkens, P.W. van Ham (March 1995). [Veterinary medicine and organic animal husbandry. III. Animal health in organic dairy farms]. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 120(5): 144-146, ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: organic farms versus conventional farms, stockmen, relationship with animals, disease prevention, selective medicine use, regulations, disease incidence, Dutch language.

van Schaik, G., M. Nielen, and A.A. Dijkhuizen (2001). Biosecurity on dairy farms: the economic benefits. In: Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands March 28‑30, 2001, F.D. Menzies and S.W. J. Reid (eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings, Coventry, UK, p. 175‑185, ISSN: 0956‑7496 ISBN: 0‑948073‑49‑7.
NAL Call No.: SF780.9.S63
Keywords: infectious disease, biosecurity, dairy farms, economic benefits, book chapter.

van Schaik, G. (2001). Risk and economics of disease introduction to dairy farms. [Risico en economie van insleep van ziekten op melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 126(12):414‑8, ISSN: 0040‑7453.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: closed farming system, disease eradication, transmission, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), direct animal contacts, sales, shows, economic model, Dutch languge.

van der Lende, T., F.A. de Loos, and T. Jorna (January 2000). Postnatal health and welfare of offspring conceived in vitro: a case for epidemiological studies. Theriogenology 53(2): 549-554, ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Keywords: in vitro fertilization, humans, livestock, long-term effects on health and welfare of offspring, in vitro culture, blastocyst, epidemiological studies in humans, animal experiments, livestock industry.

Vandenberg, A. (August 14, 2001). Dairy feeding stanchion having flipper locking design. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1249 (2): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098‑1133.
NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Keywords: stanchions, housing, milking, feeding, vertically spaced upper and lower horizontal members, swing pipes, spaced positions, free access, economically feasible manner.

Veissier, I., J. Rushen, D. Colwell, and A.Md. Passille (2000). A laser-based method for measuring thermal nociception of cattle. Russian Journal of Ecology 66(4): 289-304, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: Holstein calves, methodology, thermography, lasers, measurement, temperature, pain, leg lift, tail flick, response latency, animal welfare, health, management.

Ventura, P.G. (1997). Ways of increasing the well-being of high-yielding dairy cows. [Soluzioni per aumentare il benessere delle bovine da latte ad alta produzione.] Informatore Agrario 53(35): 77-79.
Keywords: cow housing, barn roof design, ventilation, drinking water, cubicles, bedding, flooring, skin and foot care, Italy, Italian language.

Verkerk, G.A., A.D. Fisher, C.J. Morrow, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The effects of stressors on milk composition in dairy cows. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 59: 192-194, ISSN: 0370-2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: breed, Jersey, stress, feed restriction, bodyweight, lying, milk composition, protein.

Verkerk, G.A., A.M. Phipps, J.F. Carragher, L.R. Matthews, and K. Stelwagen (1998). Characterization of milk cortisol concentrations as measure of short-term stress responses in lactating dairy cows. Animal Welfare 7(1): 77-86, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, lactation, corticotropin, transport, hydrocortisone, concentration, milk, blood plasma, stress, animal welfare.

Vokey F.J., C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and D.M. Galton (2001). Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free‑stall barn. Journal of Dairy Science 84(12): 2686‑99, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy herd, housing, alley surfaces, grooved concrete, rubber mats, free stall beds, deep sand, rubber mattresses, concrete, sawdust, hind claws, hocks, lesions, dorsal wall length, heel depth, toe angle, digital dermatitis, scoring.

Vollebregt, R.J., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and H. van der Wal (2001). From dairy herd health and production management to veterinary consultancy. [Van veterinaire begeleiding naar veterinaire advisering van melkveebedrijven.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (13): 448-454.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: herd health, production management, programs, veterinary practices, professionally oriented veterinary consultancy, profit gains.

Vos, P. (1999). "The repeat breeder cow," aetiopathogenesis and possible therapies. Cattle Practice 7(1): 93-95, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: ovarian cysts, ovarian diseases, female infertility, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, cows, economics, reproductive disorders, embryo mortality, estrus, fertilization, calving interval, milk production, animal housing, nutrition, calving, animal health, animal welfare, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness, endometritis.

Waage, S., S.A. Odegaard, A. Lund, S. Brattgjerd and T. Rothe (2001). Case control study of risk factors for clinical mastitis in postpartum dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 392-399ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: heifers, risk factors, clinical mastitis, postpartum, blood in the milk, udder edema, teat edema, milk leakage, significant risk factors, Staphylococcus aureus.

WagtendonkdeLeeuw, A.Mv., E. Mullaart, A.P.Wd. Roos, et al. (2000). Effects of different reproduction techniques: AI, MOET or IVP, on health and welfare of bovine offspring. In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Maastricht, The Netherlands, January 9-11, 2000, Vol.53, No.1, S.J. Dieleman (ed.), p. 575-597.
Keywords: MOET, reproduction, birth weight, bulls, calving, culture techniques, congenital abnormalities, embryos, estrus, heart rate, heifers, in vitro culture, malformations, perinatal mortality, semen production, culture, embryo transfer, culture media.

Waiblinger, S., U. Knierim, and C. Winckler,(2001). The development of an epidemiologically based on‑farm welfare assessment system for use with dairy cows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 114‑117, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: animal welfare, assessment, dairy cows, epidemiology, multivariate analysis.

Ward, W. R. (1999). Lameness in dairy cattle, an overview. Cattle Practice: Journal of the British Cattle Veterinary Association 7(4): 333-340, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: dairy cattle, reviews, lameness, lesions, foot diseases, dermatitis, animal welfare, pain, economics, risk factors, physiology, locomotion, animal behavior, cattle housing.

Ward, J.L. and W.C. Rebhun (1992). Chronic frontal sinusitis in dairy cattle: 12 cases (1978-1989). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201(2): 326-328, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dehorning, respiratory tract, Actinomyces pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida, infection, clinical signs, anorexia, lethargy, fever, frontal bone distortion, exophthalmos, abnormal posture, nasal discharge, neurologic abnormalities, treatment, drainage and lavage of the sinus cavity, antibiotics, analgesics.

Warnick, L.D., D. Janssen, C.L. Guard, and Y.T. Grohn (2001). The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (9):1988‑1997, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: foot abscess, foot rot, foot ulcer, lameness, milk production, treatment, New York, USA.

Warnick, L.D., L.M. Crofton, K.D. Pelzer, and M.J. Hawkins (2001). Risk factors for clinical salmonellosis in Virginia, USA cattle herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (3 4): 259-275ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: clinical salmonellosis, fecal samples, water samples, feed samples, Salmonella Typhimurium, significant factors, number of mature cows in herd, calves born in a buildings, poultry manure spread on bordering property, rodents infestation, wild geese.

Weber, M.F., and J. Verhoeff (2001). Integrated disease control in dairy herds: A case study from the veterinarians' viewpoint. [Integrale dierziektebestrijding op melkveebedrijven: visie van rundveedierenartsen op een casus.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126 (10): 340-345.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: disease control, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella Dublin, economic benefits, culling, Netherlands.

Weber, M.F., and J. Verhoeff (2001). Prevalence of chronic wasting in Dutch dairy herds with a history of chronic health problems. [Prevalentie van slijtend rundvee op nederlandse melkveebedrijven met een historie van chronische gezondheidsproblemen.] Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 126(6): 180-183.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Keywords: Dutch dairy farms, chronic wasting, health problems, cull rates, mortality.

Webster, A.J.F. (2001). Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 56‑65, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: This paper describes a systematic study of the development of lesions of the claw horn (CHL, sole and white line) in heifers calving for the first time, housed either in cubicles or a straw yard and fed either a low‑ or high‑dry‑matter forage diet. The feet of all animals were inspected on five occasions, at approximately four weeks before and four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks post calving. Haemorrhagic lesions of the sole and white line were described according to a geometric lesion score for severity and a cumulative lesion score based on the product of (severity x area) for each lesion. Geometric and cumulative lesion scores increased in all groups of cattle in the first eight weeks after calving. However, the severity and persistence of the lesions were significantly greater in cattle housed in cubicle yards. Wet feeding increased the severity of CHL in the cubicle yard only. There were no associations between lesion scores and body weight, body condition or foot conformation. The heels of the cattle in straw yards tended to be thick but many showed pitting erosions. In cubicles the heels were smooth but thin. This may have contributed to CHL by increasing concussive forces within the hoof. There was a highly significant (but relatively low) correlation between scores for sole lesions and lameness in individual animals. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that systemic events associated with calving and the onset of lactation may set in motion the chain of events that lead to the lesions of CHL; the extent and severity of these lesions being then determined by the externally imposed conditions of housing and feeding.
Keywords: heifers, calving, lactation, cow housing, cubicles,straw yards, forage, dry matter, cattle feeding, moisture, interactions, claws, lesions, body weight, body condition, risk factors, hemorrhage, conformation, feet, lameness, etiology.

Webster, A.J.F. (1997). The role of the bovine practitioner in cattle welfare. Presented at the XIX World Buiatrics Congress, Edinburgh, UK, July 8-12, 1996, Vol.32, No.31.2, p.10-15.
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, lameness, metabolic disorders, bovine mastitis, milk production.

Weller, R.F. and P.J. Bowling (2000). Health status of dairy herds in organic farming dairy cows. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 46(3): 80-81, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: organic farming, farm management, dairy herds, health, organic farming, diseases, bovine mastitis, Streptococcus uberis, bulk milk, somatic cell count, incidence, cubicles, straw yards.

Wells, S.J., S.L. Ott, and A.H. Seitzinger (November 1998). Key health issues for dairy cattle: new and old. Journal of Dairy Science 81(11): 3029-3035, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to use available information to evaluate the relative importance of various health issues affecting dairy cattle. In addition to traditional ranking using evaluation methods based on impacts to animal productivity, this paper considers zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns. Traditional production costs rank mastitis, reproductive problems, and lameness as the top dairy cattle diseases. When the other areas of importance are included, the top-ranked diseases change to include salmonella, Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhea-associated disease, and mastitis. Researchers in the dairy industry may want to reevaluate their criteria for setting research priorities to include zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns.
Keywords: dairy cows, health, milk production, health issues affecting dairy cattle, zoonotic risks, international trade implications, animal welfare concerns, mastitis, reproductive problems, lameness, dairy cattle diseases, salmonella, Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhea, review, bovine mastitis, production costs, bovine diarrhea virus, paratuberculosis, zoonoses, cryptosporidiosis, foodborne diseases, international trade, decision making, research projects, dairy research.

Westwood, C.T., and L.J. Lean (2001). Nutrition and lameness in pasture‑fed dairy cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61: 128‑134, ISSN: 0370‑2731.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 N483
Keywords: hoof, health, rumen, digestive system, diseases, chronic ruminal acidosis, digestive system disease, metabolic disease, lameness, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention and control, laminitis, bone disease, connective tissue disease, joint disease, endotoxins, histamine, lactic acid, nutrient detergent fiber, protein, degradation, serotonin, trace elements, inadequate uptake, nutrition, pH, fiber content, moisture content, New Zealand.

Whay, H.R., A.E., A.E. Waterman, A.J.F. Webster, and J.K. O'Brien (1998). The influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Journal 156: 23-29, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Keywords: health, lameness, claw lesions, hyperalgsia, nociceptive threshold, milking.

Whay, H.R., A.E. Waterman and A.J.F. Webster (1997). Associations between locomotion, claw lesions and nociceptive threshold in dairy heifers during the peri-partum period. The Veterinary Journal 154 (2): 155-161, ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Abstract: The locomotion of 15 heifers was examined at fortnightly intervals over a 4 month peri-partum period. Measurements were made of the development of gait abnormalities, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds, and severity and size of sole lesions observed in the hind claws. All heifers developed lesions at, or shortly after, parturition, and in seven animals this induced marked lameness. Abnormalities of gait were related more to the severity, than to the size of the lesion. Lameness was associated with a significant increase in sensitivity to mechanical noxious stimuli applied to the lame leg but not to a thermal stimulus applied to the ear. This study demonstrated interactions between lameness, claw lesions and the development of hyperalgesia in heifers during the post-partum period.
Keywords: heifers, gait, claws, lesions, pain, prepartum period, postpartum interval, lameness, predisposition.

Whitaker, D.A., J.M. Kelly, and S. Smith (2000). Disposal and disease rates in 340 British dairy herds. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 146(13): 363-367, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: disposal rates, disease rates, health.

White, L.J., Y.H., Schukken, T.J.G.M. Lam, G. F. Medley, and M.J. Chappell (2001). A multispecies model for the transmission and control of mastitis in dairy cows. Epidemiology and Infection 127 (3): 567‑576, ISSN: 0950‑2688.
NAL Call No: RA651 A1E74
Keywords: bovine mastitis, cows, dairy cows, disease control, disease transmission, mastitis,

Wiederkehr, T.U., K. Friedli, and B. Wechsler (2001). Influence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systems. [Einfluss von regelmassigem Auslauf auf das Vorkommen und den Schweregrad von Sprunggelenksschaden bei Milchvieh im Anbindestall.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 163‑170.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, disease prevention, exercise, joint diseases, hock lesions, lameness, exercise, lying area, litter, German language.

Wilson, J.H. (July 1992) The art of physical diagnosis. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice 8(2): 169-176, ISSN: 0749-0720.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V535
Keywords: dairy cattle, sick animals, physical examination of food animals, physical and rectal, sample recording form.

Winckler, C., and S. Willen (2001). The reliability and repeatability of a lameness scoring system for use as an indicator of welfare in dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 103‑107, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, lameness, scoring system, inter‑observer repeatability, lesions, sole disorders, locomotion, methodology.

Wolf,V., H. Hamann, H. Scholz, and O. Distl (2001). Systematic effects on the occurrence of abomasal displacements in German Holstein cows. [Systematische einfluesse auf das auftreten von labmagenverlagerungen bei Deutschen Holstein Kuehen.] Zuechtungskunde 73 (4): 257-265, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cows, German Holstein,breed, risk factors, abomasal displacement, genetic disposition, percent left abomasal displacement, percent right abomasal displacement, influence of calving month, the lactation number, age at calving, calving performance, duration of pregnancy, inbreeding coefficient, did not explain a significant part of the variation of the frequency of the abomasal displacement.

Wolferstan, F. (2001). A preliminary report on a study of BSE in cattle in relation to farm husbandry: its possible relevance to vCJD and infertility problems in humans. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 11 (3): 205‑216, ISSN: 1359‑0847.
NAL Call No.: RM214 J68
Keywords: farm survery, questionnaire, agricultural chemicals, organophosphorus compounds, breeding, husbandry, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, calves, copper, dams (mothers), suckler herds, trace element deficiencies, etiology vCJD, human infertility problems, United Kingdom.

Woolhouse, M.E., D.T. Haydon, A. Pearson, and R.P. Kitching (1996). Failure of vaccination to prevent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease. Epidemiology and Infection 116(3): 363-371, ISSN: 0950-2688.
NAL Call No.: RA651 A1E74
Keywords: dairy cattle, vaccine trials, antibody responses following vaccination, mathematical model, Saudi Arabia.

Zadnik, T. (1998). Herd health management and dairy production strategies in Slovenia in the 21st century. Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana 36(1): 129-141, ISSN: 0353-8044.
NAL Call No.: SF604 L51
Keywords: cows, dairy herds, dairy farms, health, production, animal welfare, biotechnology, breeding programs, milk composition, consumer preferences, data collection, feeding, feed formulation, milk, lactose, metabolic disorders, milk production, disease prevention, udders, milk fat, milk protein, environment, pollutants, intensive farming, genetic engineering, computers, information technology, data processing, trends, Slovenia.

Yamada, A. (2001). The potential pathway of dioxins in grassland husbandry. Grassland Science 47 (1): 72-79.
NAL Call No.: 60.9 J27
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, produced during combustion processes, by products of the manufacture of chlorinated compounds, environmental contaminants, cow's milk, beef, animal fat, forage sampling, field investigation.

Young, F., D. Platt, D. Logue, H. Ternent, and J. Fitzpatrick (2001). Bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis: Strain recognition and dynamics of infection. Journal of Dairy Research 68(3): 377‑388, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, pathogen, strain variation, mastitis, bacterial disease.


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Updated January 2005