Housing

Adrighetto, I., F. Gottardo, D. Andreoli, and G. Cozzi. (1999). Effect of type of housing on veal calf growth performance, behaviour and meat quality. Livestock Production Science 57(2): 137-145, ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: veal calves, housing system, behavior, weight gain, meat quality, housing, growth, growth performance, meat quality.

Alban, L. (1996). Assessing and managing welfare in a Danish dairy herd: problems and a proposal. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 262-266, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, animal welfare assessment, health, management, cattle diseases, foot diseases, clinical examinations, Denmark.

Alban, L. and J.F. Agger (1996). Welfare in Danish dairy herds. 2. Housing systems and grazing procedures in 1983 and 1994. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 65-77, ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, health, questionnaires, surveys, descriptive epidemiology, tie stall environments, lameness, feeding, pasture grazing, recommendations, partitions, cubicles, saw dust, resting area, housing systems.

Amon, B., T. Amon, J. Boxberger, and C. Alt (2001). Emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 from dairy cows housed in a farmyard manure tying stall (housing, manure storage, manure spreading). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60 (1/3): 103‑113, ISSN: 1385‑1314.
NAL Call No: S631 F422
Keywords: air pollution, ammonia, composting, cow housing, tie stalls, dairy cows, emission, farmyard manure, fermentation, methane, nitrous oxide, stacking, manure treatment.

Amon, T., J. Boxberger, P. Schatz, and C. Kummernecker (1997). Evaluating the suitability of dairy husbandry systems in terms of animal welfare by means of a comparative analysis of the models TGI 35 L/1995 and TGI 200/1994. [Beurteilung der Tiergerechtheit von Milchviehhaltungssystemen anhand einer vergleichenden Modellanalyse TGI 35 L/1995 und TGI 200/1994.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland, No.45, p. 24-35.
Keywords: cows, husbandry, cattle housing, dairy farming, animal welfare, models, evaluation, quality standards, testing, comparisons, German language.

Aneshansley, D.J., and R.C. Gorewit (1999). Sensitivity of Holsteins to 60 Hz and other waveforms present on dairy farms. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 13 p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3 A54
Keywords: dairy farms, lactating Holstein cows, animal welfare, electricity, electric current, steady state, transient and momentary waveforms.

Barash, H., N. Silanikove, A. Shamay, and E. Ezra (2001). Interrelationships among ambient temperature, day length and milk yield in dairy cows under a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (10): 2314‑2320, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein, breed, calving season, dairy performance, daylight, photoperiod, Mediterranean climate, environmental temperature, temperature patterns, effects on lactation, milk protein yield, milk yield, stress, stress response.

Barrington, S. (1999). Comfort of cows in tethered housing. [Le confort de la vache en stabulation entravee.] Producteur de Lait Quebecois 19(5): 22-26, ISSN: 0228-1686.
Keywords: cow housing, tethered housing, design, animal welfare, rest, feeding, cattle housing, milk yield, French language.

Bergmann, J. and W. Heuwieser (2000). Cow-comfort: optimal performance only possible under optimal conditions. Cubicle design. [Kuh-Komfort: optimale Leistung nur durch optimale Bedingungen. Liegeboxengestaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(2): 68-71, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cows, animal welfare, design, housing, dairy cattle, German language.

Bergmann, J., J. Kluth, and W. Heuwieser (2000). Cow comfort: optimal keeping only possible under optimal conditions. Part 1: behaviour and cattle housing. [Kuh-Komfort: optimale Leistung nur durch optimale Bedingungen. Teil 1: Verhaltungsbiologie und Stallgestaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(1): 14-16, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cows, cattle farming, behavior, cattle housing, animal welfare, German language.

Berry, E.A. (1998). Mastitis incidence in straw yards and cubicles. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 142(19): 517-518, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: dairy cows, cattle housing, cubicles, yards, bovine mastitis, winter, lameness, bulk milk, leukocyte count, dairy herds, animal welfare.

Bewley, J., R.W. Palmer, and D.B. Jackson‑Smith (2001). A comparison of free‑stall barns used by modernized Wisconsin dairies. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (2): 528‑541, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No: 44.8 J822.
Abstract: A primary objective of the Wisconsin Dairy Modernization Survey was to compare features of free‑stall barns available to dairy producers. This study used data from a large random sample of expanding dairy farms to determine whether the theoretical benefit of particular free‑stall configurations bear out under on‑farm conditions. Comparisons were made among herds using free‑stall barns as their primary housing for new versus remodeled facilities, barn design, bedding used, feed‑delivery design, manure removal strategies, animal restraint, maternity areas, overcrowding, and cooling methods. Producers who made the transition from tie‑stall housing to free‑stall housing were satisfied with this decision. New free‑stall barns provided a more desirable environment for the herds than remodeled free‑stall barns, although initial investments were higher. When new free‑stall barns were compared, herds with four‑row barns had higher production, lower somatic cell count, and higher stocking rates than herds with six‑row barns. Respondents were more satisfied with four‑ and six‑row barns than with two‑ and three‑row barns. Respondents felt sand provided some advantages for cow comfort, while satisfaction with bedding cost and manure handling was higher with mattresses. Dairy Herd Improvement data showed no difference in milk production or somatic cell count for producers who chose sand or mattress‑based free stalls. Respondents were more satisfied with the use of drive‑through feeding than other feed‑delivery designs. Most producers chose to use tractor scrapers to remove manure; however, producers who used automated systems were more satisfied with manure management. Few differences were observed when comparing self‑locking head gates to palpation rails. Overcrowding did not have any adverse affect on production or user satisfaction with feed intake or cow comfort. Using supplemental cooling appeared to facilitate higher production.
Keywords: dairy farms, dairy herds, expansion, barns, stalls, cow housing, litter, sand, mats, animal welfare, cattle dung, waste disposal, milk production, stocking density, building, construction, somatic cell count, cattle husbandry, mobile feeders, restraint of animals, calving, pens, cow comfort, new barns, remodeled barns, drive‑through feeding, Wisconsin.

Bickert, W.G. and G.W. Atkeson (1997). Dry cow facilities: early dry, pre-calving and maternity. In: Livestock Environment 5, Volume 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, May 29-31, 1997, No.1, R.W. Bottcher and S.J. Hoff (eds.) American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 1063-1068, ISSN: 0-92-935584-9.
NAL Call No.: SF91 L58 1997.
Keywords: cow housing, cow comfort, barn design, management, dairy farms, stalls.

Blanken, K., and J. van Lent (2001). Reduced ammonium emission with steel grids. [Lagere ammoniakemissie bij stalen roosters.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14(2): 29‑30, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: ammonium, housing, cattle manure, dairy cows, emission, floors, steel grid floor, steel grid floor and top layer covered by sand, steel grid floor and grooved top layer temperature, concrete grid floors, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Blanken, K., H.J. van Dooren, and M. de Haan (2001). New housing for young cattle at the low cost farm. [Nieuwe jongveestal op het lagekostenbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (5): 11‑13, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: calves, calf housing costs, investment, comparison of different types of housing Dutch language, Netherlands

Blanken, K., J. van Lent, and G. Smolders (2001). Claw health on steel grids is also good. [Klauwgezondheid op stalen roosters ook goed.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (2): 1‑3, ISSN: 1386‑8470.
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, health, animal welfare, steel floors, concrete grid floors concrete, feeding behavior, feet, floors, foot diseases.

Bockisch, F.J., T. Jungbluth, and A. Rudovsky (1999). Technical indicators for evaluation of housing systems for cattle, pigs and laying hens relating to animal welfare. Zuechtungskunde 71(1): 38-63, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: cattle, chickens, laying hens, pigs, production, animal welfare, climate control, feed supply, floor design, housing system, evaluation indicators, waste handling, water supply, German language.

Bockisch, F.J. (1996) Aspects of animal-friendly loose housing for dairy cows. [Aspekte zu tierangepassten Laufstall sustemen fur Milchkuhe.] KTBL-Arbeitspapier 233: 149-156, ISSN: 0930-0295.
NAL Call No.: S674.43 G3K8
Keywords: dairy farms, cow housing, automation, loose housing versus stanchion systems, animal welfare, ergonomics, labor, costs, free movement, lying and feeding area, cow size, milk yields, conference paper.

Bodman, G.R. (1994/1995). Designing the Cow Environment for Comfort Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln (65-A): 31-32.
NAL Call No.: 100 N27M
Keywords: cow housing, design, dairy hygiene.

Bolinger, D.J., J.L. Albright, J. MorrowTesch, and S.J. Kenyon, and M.D. Cunningham (1997). The effects of restraint using self-locking stanchions on dairy cows in relation to behavior, feed intake, physiological parameters, health, and milk yield. Journal of Dairy Science 80(10): 2411-2417, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Holstein cows (n = 64) ranging from peak to end lactation were restrained in self-locking stanchions (i.e., head locks) for approximately 4 h/d for four periods in a modified switchback design. Milk yield, milk fat percentage, somatic cell count, and dry matter intake and dry matter intake were unaffected by restraint. Milk protein percentage was significantly lower for cows that were restrained. Plasma cortisol concentrations and the ratio of neutrophils to mononuclear cells were not significantly different between restrained and unrestrained (control) cows. No difference in the incidence of mastitis or other health concerns was noted. Behaviorally, cows that were locked in the stanchions spent significantly more time lying after release from restraint. For cows that were locked up, eating frequency over 24 h was significantly reduced, but dry matter intake was not affected. Total rumination frequency over 24 h was not significantly different for cows that were restraubed; however, cows that were restrained ruminated less during the day following release. Grooming was considered to be a behavioral need and was significantly increased during all times when cows were not locked up. Grooming was also one of the first behaviors performed following release. Acts of aggression were elevated during all periods following restraint, but oral behaviors, such as tongue playing and chewing on objects, drinking behavior, and resting postures were not affected. The use of self-locking stanchions did not appear to affect substantially the overall well-being of the cow.
Keywords: dairy cows, restraint of animals, milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, animal welfare, somatic cell count, feed intake, dry matter, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, blood picture, agonistic behavior, physical activity, pastures, rumination, eating, grooming, drinking, self locking stanchions, tethering, restraint, behavior, grooming, tongue playing, chewing objects, animal welfare, feed intake, milk yield, health, milk composition, milk fat, milk protein, hydrocortisone, plasma cortisol, neutrophils, somatic cell.

Borell, E. von, and S. van den Weghe (1999). Development of criteria for the assessment of housing systems for cattle, pigs and laying hens in relation to animal welfare and environmental impact. [Erarbeitung von messbaren Kriterien fur die Einschatzung von Haltungsverfahren fur Rinder, Schweine und Legehennen bezuglich ihrer Tiergerechtheit und Umweltwirkung.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 8-16, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: housing, poultry, cattle, pig, animal welfare, environmental impact, economics, feeding, manures, waste disposal, German language.

Boxberger, J., T. Amon, and B. Amon (1996). Trends in development of dairy cow housing. [Stallbauliche Entwicklungstendenzen in der Milchviehhaltung.] Praktische Tierarzt 77: 35-40, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, housing, behavior, movement, animal welfare, design, trends, German language.

Brade, W. (1999). Recommendations for appropriate humane housing for dairy cattle. [Empfehlungen zur tiergerechten Milchrinderhaltung.] Tierarztliche Umschau 54(12): 692-698, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, cubicles, tethered, loose housing milking parlors, computers, milking machines, hygiene, automation, animal welfare, German language.

Brunsch, R., J. Trilk, D. May, and O. Kaufmann (2001). Large open‑front dairy cow house with automatic milking system in Gross Kreutz. Landtechnik 56 (4): 262‑263, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: cow housing, dairy farming, design, milking machines, milking robots, design, German language, Germany.

Buenger, A, V. Ducrocq, and H.H. Swalve (2001). Analysis of survival in dairy cows with supplementary data on type scores and housing systems from a region of northwest Germany. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (6): 1531‑1541, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: In survival analysis, type traits can be included as covariates to evaluate their use as predictors for survival. One problem in such an analysis is the availability of suitable data. Whereas data on the length of productive life (LPL) of individual cows can be retrieved from milk recording data, for type traits, all cows in the population must be scored for type at least once. In the present analysis, a dataset from the Osnabruck region in northwestern Germany, which fulfilled this requirement in recent years, was used. Data consisted of 169,733 cows with information on LPL for calving years 1980 to 1996 (dataset I) and of 39,233 cows with information on LPL and type for calving years 1990 to 1996 (dataset II). A further dataset (III) contained 43,116 cows from calving years 1987 to 1996 and included information on the housing system for each herd. The basic model included stage of lactation, relative production within herd, change of herd size, and year‑season as time dependent effects; age at calving as a time‑independent effect; and herd‑year‑season and sire as random effects. Other effects (information on type, housing system) were included additionally. For dataset II, the scores for 15 linear type traits were also included as corrected phenotypic values, estimated breeding values, and residuals from a previous BLUP analysis. The package Survival Kit 3.0 was used for all analyses. The results indicate a moderate heritability of 0.17 and 0.18 for true and functional LPL (dataset I). Almost all type traits analyzed (dataset II) exceeded a 0.001 level of significance in their effect on survival. The strongest relationships between survival and type were found for udder depth, fore udder attachment, and front teat placement. The main result from the comparison of housing systems (dataset III) was that bedding has a positive effect on survival.
Keywords: dairy cows, survival, housing, prediction, milk yield, calving, livestock numbers, temporal variation, phenotypes, Germany.

Busato, A., P. Trachsel, J.W. Blum (May 2000). Frequency of traumatic cow injuries in relation to housing systems in Swiss organic dairy herds. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A. 47(4): 221-229, ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5
Keywords: dairy herds, dairy cows, housing, trauma, risk factors, risk assessment, organic farming, animal welfare, nutritional state, milk yield, body condition, lesions, husbandry.

Caenegem, L. van, and J.M. Anceau (2001). Cattle houses in mountain areas (Engadin): optimized cold house or warm house. [Rindviehstalle im Berggebiet (Engadin): Kaltstall oder Warmstall optimieren.] FAT‑Berichte, Switzerland (No.572), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland,12p., ISSN: 1018‑502X.
NAL Call No.: S671.B55
Keywords: building materials, carbon dioxide, cattle housing, costs, cows, design, heat, nurse cows, relative humidity, roofs, snow, temperature, bulletin, Switzerland.

Caenegem, L.V. and H.K. Messerli (1997). The Open Yard Attached to Loose Housing for Dairy Cows. Ethological and Construction Aspects. [Der Laufhof Fur Den Milchvieh-Laufstall. Ethologische Und Bauliche Aspekte.] No. 504, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland, 8p.
Keywords: dairy cattle, health, animal welfare, seasonal behavior, housing, stalls, outdoor yards, Switzerland German language.

Calamari, L., M.G. Maianti, V. Cappa, and E. Frazzi (1995). The influence of air speed on yield and milk characteristics in dairy cows during summer. Annali della Facolta di Agraria 35(1/2): 95-107, ISSN: 0540-049X.
NAL Call No.: 16 M582
Keywords: milk composition, milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, lactation, ventilation, housing, summer, heat stress, temperature, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, hydrocortisone, respiration, pH, Italy.

Carlsson, H. (1999). Cubicles for dairy cows in loose housing dimensions and partition design for more comfort and cleaner cows. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet: Institution for lantbruksteknik, Uppsala, Sweden, 47 p., ISSN: 0283-0086.
NAL Call No.: S760.S8 U6 no. 236
Keywords: housing, loose, design, comfort, animal welfare.

Chaplin, S., and L. Munksgaard (2001). Evaluation of simple method for assessment of rising behaviour in tethered dairy cows. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 191‑197, ISSN: 1357‑7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, tethered housing, posture, rest, duration, lactation stage, lactation number, physical activity, animal behavior, animal welfare.

Chaplin, S.J., G. Tierney, C. Stockwell, D.N. Logue, and M. Kelly (2000). An evaluation of mattresses and mats in two dairy units. Russian Journal of Ecology 66(4): 263-272, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: cows, comfort, mats, floors, litter, ethylethene vinyl acetate, loose rubber crumb with a polypropylene cover, body condition, feed intake, body weight, trauma, hock and knee injury, lameness, locomotion, milk composition, milk yield, milk quality, somatic cell count, feeding, ruminating, and lying behavior, animal welfare, United Kingdom.

Chua, B., E. Coenen, J. van Delen, and D. Weary (2002). Effects of pair versus individual housing on the behavior and performance of dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 85(2): 360‑4, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: health, performance, behavior, individually and pair‑housed calves, milk fed, ad libitum, artificial teats, single pen, group pen, pair‑housed calves.

Cielejewski, H. (1997). Experience with cold housing for dairy cows. [Erfahrungen mit Kaltstallen fur Milchvieh.] Landtechnik 52(4): 204-205, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: winter, cold zones, cold resistance, cold tolerance, frost, temperature, snow, cattle housing, cow housing, behavior, animal welfare, non-insulated, frozen ball drinkers, frozen silage, frozen slurries, Germany, German language.

Collins, E.R., J.M. Swisher, T.M. Younos, B.B. Ross, R.F. Shank, and K.G. Wooden (1998). Dairy loafing lot rotational management systems for improving animal well-being and water quality. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 28-30 January 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 336-345, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998.
Keywords: cows, best management practice, cleanliness of cattle, mastitis, grass paddock, earth-surfaced paddock, total dissolved solids, fecal and total coliforms, Escherichia coli, farm management, animal welfare.

Cross, D.E., D.N. Logue, J.E. Offer, L.M. Birnie, and M.A. Lomax (1999). Does separate housing of newly calved heifers influence social behaviour and lessen claw horn lesion development? In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, p. 157-158.
NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23
Keywords: heifers, housing, social behavior, animal welfare, legislation, stress, foot diseases, claws, United Kingdom.

Damasceno, J.C., F. Baccari, and L.A. Targa (1999). Behavior responses of Holstein dairy cows with constant or limited access to shade. [Respostas comportamentais de vacas Holandesas, com acesso a sombra constante ou limitada.] Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34(4): 709-715, ISSN: 0100-204X.
NAL Call No.: S15 P452
Keywords: behavior, limited, shade, feeding behavior, heat stress, housing, thermal comfort, rumination, rest, water intake, language, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Demmers, T.G.M., V.R. Phillips, L.S. Short, L.R. Burgess, R.P. Hoxey, and C.M. Wathes (2001). Validation of ventilation rate measurement models and the ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy and beef buildings in the United Kingdom. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79(1): 107‑116, ISSN: 0021‑8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Abstract: Measurements of ammonia emission, especially from cattle buildings, are needed to assess the environmental impact of ammonia. There are no data available for cattle buildings in the United Kingdom because most buildings are naturally ventilated and methods for long‑term measurement of emission from naturally ventilated buildings have not been developed. Two measurement methods, based on either the release of a tracer gas or on the pressure difference across ventilation openings, were validated in a full‑scale cross‑section of a naturally ventilated livestock building against a known release rate of a gaseous pollutant at high and low wind speeds. A good correlation between the measured and the actual release rates was found for the tracer gas method with an average recovery rate of 108%. The method based on pressure difference failed to estimate the ventilation rate correctly when only measured pressure coefficients were used, because the measurements of mass flow rates in and out through all openings of the building failed to balance. The traditional approach, based on measured values for the external pressure coefficients and an estimate of the internal coefficient balanced the flow through the building by definition, but failed to estimate the actual emission rate correctly. Current knowledge of the discharge coefficient for the opening designs of the building is insufficient for the pressure difference method to be used to estimate the ventilation rate. Using the tracer method, measurements were carried out between February and May 1996 in a straw‑based beef house and a slurry‑based dairy cow house with cubicles and scraped passage ways. The buildings were space boarded and had a covered ridge. The ammonia emission was estimated to be 3.5 and 8.9 kg NH3 per livestock unit per year for the beef and dairy buildings, respectively.
Keywords: ammonia, pollutants, emission, natural ventilation, animal housing, U.K.

Demmers, T.G.M., V.R. Phillips, L.S. Short, L.R. Burgess, R.P. Hoxey, and C.M. Wathes (2001). Validation of ventilation rate measurement methods and the ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy and beef buildings in the United Kingdom. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79 (1): 107‑116, ISSN: 0021‑8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Keywords: air pollution, ammonia, housing, straw-based beef house, slurry‑based dairy cow house with cubicles, emission, mass flow, measurement, methodology, natural ventilation, tracer techniques, United Kingdom.

Dirksen, G. (1996). Faults of housing and management as a cause of claw and leg disease in cattle: I. Faulty rebuilding of a stanchion-barn into a loose housing with cubicles and slatted floor. [Stallbau- und Haltungsfehler als Ursache von Klauen- und Gliedmassenerkrankungen in Rinderbestanden.] Praktische Tierarzt 77(10): 924-932, ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P882
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicles, slatted floors, improper installation, design defects, feet, hooves, animal welfare, foot diseases, diseases, cattle diseases, Germany, German language.

Dobson, T. (1999). Getting the Most From Cubicle Housing Comparisons of Dairy Cow Housing in Eastern Europe and North America. Nuffield Farming Scholarships: Trust (NFST), Uckfield, UK, 19 p., ISBN: 1-90-180181-0.
Keywords: dairy farms, housing, mechanization, animal welfare, management, calf housing, bedding, tethered housing, free stalls, cubicles, labor costs, Europe, North America.

Dooren, H.J. van, and K. Blanken (2001). Walking on closed floors with furrows: less skidding on floors with profile.[Begaanbaarheid van dichte vloeren beter met groeven: minder slippartijen op geprofileerde vloeren. Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14 (6): 13‑15, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: cows, health, animal welfare, cattle housing, walking, skidding, dairy farming, floors, Netherlands.

Dumelow, J. (Winter 1995). Testing cubicle mats for dairy cows. The Agricultural Engineer 50(4): 17-21, ISSN: 0308-5732.
NAL Call No.: 58.9 In7
Keywords: dairy cows, cubicles, mats, design, materials, hardness, durability, abrasion resistance, animal welfare, physical properties, hygiene.

Egan, J., N. Leonard, J. Griffin, A. Hanlon, and D. Poole (2001). A survey of some factors relevant to animal welfare on 249 dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. Part 1: Data on housing, calving and calf husbandry. Irish Veterinary Journal 54(8): 388‑392, ISSN: 0368‑0762.
NAL Call No: 41.8 IR4
Keywords: farmer questionnaire, calving assistance, housing, cubicles, nutrition, animal welfare.

Ekelund, K., A. Herlin, P. Michanek, and M. Ventorp (1998). Simplified Floor Constructions in Cubicles for Cattle. [Forenklade Golv-Konstruktioner I Liggbas For Notkreatur I Losdrift.] Report No.230, Institutionen for Jordbrukets Biosystem och Teknologi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet: Lund, Sweden, 46p.
Keywords: housing, lying behavior, floors, cubicles, sand, litter/bedding, sand/sawdust mixture on compacted tarmac, sawdust on a soft rubber, concrete, lying behaviour, hygiene of lying area, contamination of soil, costs, comfort, health, animal behavior, animal welfare, comparison between countries, Sweden, USA, Swedish language.

Ferrante, V., E. Canali, M.Verga, S. Mattiello, F. Monti, and F. Gottardo (1999). Veal calves rearing: behavioural, physiological and pathological indicators. In: Recent Progress in Animal Production Science. 1. Proceedings of the A.S.P.A. XIII Congress, Piacenza, Italy, 21-24 June, 1999, G. Piva, G. Bertoni, F. Masoero, P. Bani, and L. Calamari (eds.), FrancoAngeli srl.: Milano, Italy, p. 575-577, ISBN: 88-464-1535-3.
NAL Call No.: SF5 R432 1999
Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, abnormal behavior, veal calves, cattle housing, animal husbandry.

Flaba, J. (1995). Improving the comfort of fettering in stalls [for cows]. [L'amelioration du confort des stabulations entravees.] Agricontact 275: 27-29, ISSN: 0770-285X.
Keywords: cow housing, tethering, stalls, Belgium, French language.

Fleming, M.W. (1998). Experimental inoculations with Ostertagia ostertagi or exposure to artificial illumination alter peripheral cortisol in dairy calves (Bos taurus). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 119A(1): 315-319.
NAL Call No.: QP1 C6
Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted on dairy calves (Bos taurus) to assess, by way of circulating cortisol, the impact of a parasitic infection as a systemic stressor. The first study was designed to assess the effects of chronic stress on dairy calves resulting from a large bolus inoculation of the nematode parasite, Ostertagia ostertagi. Peripheral cortisol concentrations and adrenal cortical competency to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge were utilized as indicators of chronic stress for 5 weeks. Calves were cleared of nematodes by anthelminthic treatment after the third week of infection. Calves were challenged with ACTH on weeks 0 and 2, and blood samples were obtained at a 12 x 10-min bleeding schedule. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the infected calves than in the uninfected calves. The maximal response level to the ACTH challenge was also higher while the calves were infected. Two additional experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of experimental procedures that became evident during Experiment 1. Firstly, calves that had previously been fitted with jugular cannulae were sampled from 3 hr predawn until 5 hr after dawn under red-or white-light incandescent illumination. Calves under red lights had lower initial cortisol concentrations but increased to the concentrations in calves under white lights, indicating a compounding effect of lighting with the procedures of blood-sample acquisition. Secondly, 12 calves were inoculated with 10,000, 100,000, or 200,000 third-stage, infective larvae of O. ostertagi. Blood samples were obtained similarly to the regimen in Experiment 1. Cortisol concentrations were elevated only in the 200,000-dose.
Keywords: cortisol, dairy calves, experimental infections, parasite, nematode, stress, adrenal glands, lighting, well-being.

Forshell, K.P. (1999). Hoof diseases: a hidden problem. [Klauvsjukdommer: et skjult problem!] Buskap 51(3): 20-21.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: foot diseases, health, productivity, hooves, floors, animal welfare, dairy cattle, cows, Norwegian language, Sweden, Norway.

Frazzi, E. (2001). Protection against extreme heat on dairy farms. [Le difese contro il caldo estremo nell'allevamento bovino da latte.] Informatore Agrario 57(21): 50‑56, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy farming, housing, heat, temperature, cooling systems, design, water sprayers, location, ventilation, ventilators, water, Italian language.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, and F. Calegari, and L. Stefanini (2000). Behavior of dairy cows in response to different barn cooling systems. Transactions of the ASAE 43(2): 387-394, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Keywords: cooling, heat stress, climate, feeding, milk yield, relative humidity, summer, cow housing, behavior, milk quality, environmental temperature, Italy.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, and F. Calegari (1998). Dairy cows heat stress index including air speed parameter. Rivista di Ingegneria Agraria 29(2): 91-96, ISSN: 0304-0593.
NAL Call No.: S671 R5
Keywords: ventilation, sprinklers, dairy cows, heat stress, airflow, cattle housing, Italy.

Frazzi, E., L. Calamari, F. Calegari, M.G. Maianti, and V. Cappa (1997). The aeration, with and without misting: effects on heat stress in dairy cows. In: Livestock Environment 5, Volume 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, May 29-31, 1997, No.1, R.W. Bottcher and S.J. Hoff (eds.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 907-914,ISSN: 0-92-935584-9.
NAL Call No.: SF91 L58 1997
Keywords: environmental control, dairy farms, cow housing, milk production, milk yield, milk composition, rectal temperature, respiration rate, animal welfare, mists, sprinklers, ventilation, Italy.

Fregonesi, J.A., and L.D. Leaver (2001). Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 205‑216, ISSN: 0343-0200.
NAL Call No.: SF761 Z4
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, performance, health, animal welfare, housing, straw, milk yield, indicators, loose housing, hygiene, somatic cell count, locomotion, feed intake, rumination, hooves, lameness, lying.

Fritzsche, S. and W. Hartmann (1996). The 1995/1996 German competition: exemplary cow houses for large dairy herds. [Bundeswettbewerb 1995/96: beispielhafte Milchviehstalle fur grossere Bestande.] Landtechnik 51(6): 344-345, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: cow housing, dairy cattle, design, German competition, best cow houses for large dairy herds, cost, animal welfare, Germany, German language.

Gaudin, V., P. Billon, and O. Sauvee (1998). What kind of milking parlour for efficient and comfortable working conditions? [Choisir une salle de traite efficace et confortable.] Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 5: 321-326.
NAL Call No.: SF191.2 R46
Keywords: milking parlors, milking, animal welfare, size, dimensions, husbandry, economics, labor requirements, efficiency, reviews, milking machines, French language.

Gerighausen, G. (1997). From straw to water beds. Comfortable lying areas in cattle housing. [Vom Stroh bis zum Wasserbett. Liegekomfort in Kuhstallen.] Milchpraxis 35(2): 78-81, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: floor covering evaluation, straw, sawdust, mats, cows, costs, dairy cattle housing, udders, hygiene, dairy hygiene, service life, labor, maintenance, wood chips, wood shavings, floors, litter, characteristics, durability, Germany, German language.

Glaszczka, A. and W. Wardal (1998). Tests of open stalls in chosen family farms. [Badania obor wolnostanowiskowych w wybranych gospodarstwach rodzinnych.] In: Problemy intensyfikacji produkcji zwierzecej przy uwzglednieniu ograniczen ochrony srodowiska. Materialy: IV Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa, Warszawa, 29-30 Wrzesnia 1998, Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnicywa, Komitet Techniki Rolniczej PAN, Polskie Towarzystwo Inzynierii Polniczej: Warsaw, Poland, p. 97-102, ISBN: 8-38-626453-5.
Keywords: dairy cattle, animal welfare, milk quality, management, milk production, cows.

Goodger, W.J., G.G. Frank, K.V. Nordlund, B. Hilbelink, and C. Eisele (1996). Financial assessment of results of intervention to correct a housing-system problem on a dairy farm. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(8): 1406-1410, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cows, somatic cell count, mastitis, performance, milk production, lameness, health, economics, cow housing, bovine mastitis, milk production, milk prices, costs, investment, returns, cattle diseases, USA, Wisconsin farm, case study.

Halachmi, I. and J.A.P. Heesterbeek (1999). Computer simulation and a stochastic model for optimal facility allocation in a robotic milking barn. ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 18-21, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, ASAE Paper No. 994011, 4p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3.A54
Keywords: milking, animal welfare, dairy cattle, design, computer simulation, Queuing/Markov model, computer software, milking parlors, milking robots, economics.

Haley, D.B, A. M. de Passille, J. Rushen (2001). Assessing cow comfort: effects of two floor types and two tie stall designs on the behaviour of lactating dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 105-117, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behaviour, animal welfare, cow housing, floors, stalls.

Haley, D.B., J. Rushen, J., and A.M. De Passille (2000). Behavioural indicators of cow comfort: activity and resting behaviour of dairy cows in two types of housing. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80 (2): 257-263.ISSN: 0008-3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: We explored which aspects of dairy cow behaviour provide measures of cow comfort and how housing affects resting time. Following a crossover design, we observed the behaviour of eight lactating Holstein cows kept for three weeks in stalls believed to represent a contrast in comfort. Cows individually housed in large pens with a mattress flooring lay down 4.2 h d-1 longer than cows housed in tie-stalls on a concrete floor, while cows in tie-stalls stood idle (without eating) for longer. Cows stood up and lay down more often in the large pens and the duration of individual standing bouts was longer in tie-stalls. We found no differences in eating time and few differences in body, head or leg positions cows assumed while lying. There was little evidence of diurnal rhythm in activity. A lower frequency of standing and lying and an increase in the duration of lying bouts suggests that in tie-stalls cows are more reluctant to change position from lying to standing. The type of pen or stall in which cows are housed can have a substantial impact on resting time. The duration and frequency of lying behaviour and the time spent standing without eating appear to be probable behavioural indicators of cow comfort.
Keywords: housing, pens stalls, animal behavior, rest, behavior patterns, diurnal activity, animal welfare.

Hansen, K. and C.N. Pallesen (1998). Dairy cow pressure on self-locking feed barriers. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, January 28-30, 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 312-319, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998
Keywords: non-lactating cows, feeding systems, sloping and vertical self-locking feed barriers, pressure exerted by cows on barrier, narrow and wide feed mangers, automatic feed dispensers, animal welfare.

Harada, H. (1997). Yearly changes of freestall housing and the facilities on dairy management in Aichi Pref. One way towards modern dairy management. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center 29: 275-281, ISSN: 0388-7995.
Keywords: cattle husbandry, dairy farming, dairy cattle, stalls, loose housing, litter, crowding, cattle farming, cattle housing, farm workers, farm dairies, farm buildings, farm equipment, agricultural economics, Japan, Japanese language.

Havrevoll, O. (1999). Feeding and housing of calves. [Foring og oppstalling af kalv.] Buskap 51(3): 12-14.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, feeding, animal welfare, stalls, meat animals, dairy cattle.

Herlin, A.H. (1997). Comparison of lying area surfaces for dairy cows by preference, hygiene and lying down behaviour. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 27(4): 189-196, ISSN: 0049-2701.
NAL Call No.: S3 S8
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, husbandry, concrete flooring, conventional rubber matting, soft rubber matting, tie-down stalls, concrete surfaced cubicles, milk leakage, comfort, hygiene, animal behavior.

Hindhede, J., L. Mogensen, and J.T Sorensen (1999). Effect of group composition and feeding system on behaviour, production and health of dairy heifers in deep bedding systems. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(4): 211-220, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: housing, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, feed intake, liveweight gain, feeding, cattle feeding, nutrition programs, heifers, concentrates, dairy herds, group size, housing, litter, productivity, aggression, stress, groups.

Horning, B. (2001). The assessment of housing conditions of dairy cows in littered loose housing systems using three scoring methods. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51(Supplementum 30): 42‑47, ISSN: 0906‑4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing systems, straw‑based, organic farms, conventional farms, costs, comparison of housing systems, Germany.

Horning, B., C. Zeitlmann, and J. Tost (2001). Differences in the behaviour of dairy cows in the lying area of 40 loose houses.[Unterschiede im Verhalten von Milchkuhen im Liegebereich verschiedener Laufstallsysteme.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 153‑162.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, housing, cubicles, lying time, straw yards, bedded slope floors, German language.

Horning, B. (1997). Evaluating the suitability of loose housing with straw litter for dairy cattle using an evaluation index. [Bewertung der Tiergerechtheit von eingestreuten Milchviehlaufstallen anhand eines Punkteschemas.] Schriftenreihe: Institut fur Organischen Landbau 4: 431-437, ISBN: 3-89-574225-2.
NAL Call No.: 59 V42
Keywords: comparison of dairy farms, conventional farming methods versus organic farming methods, types of housing, deep-litter loose housing, single-section, multi-section, deep litter loose housing, sloping floor, cubicle, loose housing with litter, animal behavior, lying down, feeding, walking, feeding troughs, waterers, space requirements, animal welfare, Germany, German language.

Horning, B. and C. Gaio (1997). Investigations of loose housing with straw litter for dairy cattle with respect to amounts of straw used, dirtiness of animals and process technology. [Erhebungen zu Strohverbrauch, Tierverschmutzung und Verfahrenstechnik in eingestreuten Milchviehlaufstallen.] In: Contributions to the 4th Scientific Meeting on Ecological Agriculture, held on 3-4 March 1997, at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, Vol.4, Institut fur Organischen Landbau: Bonn, Germany, p. 480-487, ISBN: 3-89-574225-2.
NAL Call No.: 59 V42
Keywords: comparison of dairy farms, conventional farming methods versus organic farming methods, cattle housing, loose housing, numbers of straw bales used for litter, cow body soiling index, hygiene, manure removal, costs of using straw, animal welfare, health, Germany, German language.

Horning, B., C. Gaio, and D.W. Folsch (1997). How loose dairy cattle housing systems with straw function in practice. [Eingestreute Milchviehlaufstalle in der Praxis.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland, No. 45, p. 198-206.
Keywords: cows, cattle housing, animal husbandry, animal welfare, hygiene, dairy farming, evaluation, loose housing, deep litter housing, litter, characteristics, design, utilization, costs, investment, Germany, German language.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(3): 167‑177, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: behavior, resting behavior, slipping behavior, cow housing, tethered housing, tie stalls, solid floors, slatted floors, mats, litter, wood shavings, straw, animal welfare.

Hultgren, J., and C. Bergsten (2001). Effects of a rubber‑slatted flooring system on cleanliness and foot health in tied dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 52 (1): 75‑89, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Keywords: dairy cows, hygiene, floors, cattle housing, feet, foot diseases, feces, urine, hooves, disease prevalence, Sweden.

Hultgren, J. (2001). Observational and experimental studies of the influence of housing factors on the behaviour and health of dairy cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae: Veterinaria (No. 104), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden, 25 p., ISSN: 1401‑6257.
NAL Call No.: SF615.A28
Keywords: dairy cows, animal behavior, health, animal welfare, bovine mastitis, diseases, housing, cow trainers, culling, hygiene, floor type, foot diseases, ketosis, litter, loose housing, mastitis, mats, reproductive performance, slatted floors, tethered housing, Sweden.

Hultgren, J., T. Ekman, J. Malgeryd, J. Svedberg, and K. Sallvik (1998). Don't get caught in the centimetre trap! State directive on minimum stall dimensions for housed cattle. [Fastna inte i centimeterfallan!] Svensk Veterinartidning 50(7): 323-325, ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 SV23
Keywords: legislation, dairy cattle, cows, animal welfare, tethered housing, cattle housing, Sweden, Swedish language.

Igono, M.O., H.D. Johnson, B.J. Steevens, G.F. Krause, and M.D. Shanklin (1987). Physiological, productive, and economic benefits of shade, spray, and fan system versus shade for Holstein cows during summer heat. Journal of Dairy Science 70(5): 1069-1079, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: spray, fan, freestall areas, feeding areas, milk yield, plasma growth hormone, prolactin, freestall utilization, Holstein cows, weekly milk and rectal temperatures, diurnal patterns, plasma growth hormone, assessment of heat stress using milk temperature, cow comfort.

Ipema, A.H. (1997). Integration of robotic milking in dairy housing systems. Review of cow traffic and milking capacity aspects. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 17(1): 79-94, ISSN: 0168-1699.
NAL Call No.: S494.5 D3C652
Keywords: milking, housing systems, review, cow integration.

Jacobsen, K.L. (1996). The well-being of dairy cows in hot and humid climates. Part I. Housing and effects of heat stress. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian18 (Supplement 4): S137-S143.
NAL Call No.: SF601 C66
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, heat, humidity, housing, husbandry, milk production, cost benefit analysis, ventilation, heat stress, nutritional disorders, animal welfare, cooling systems.

Jadhav, K.L., S. Brahma, and M.M. Kale (1995). Comfort zone for maximum milk production in crossbred cattle at Leh (Ladakh). Indian Journal of Dairy Science 48(5): 336-338, ISSN: 0019-5146.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 IN28
Keywords: Holstein x Sahiwal crossbreds, animal welfare, cows, crossbreeding, milk yield, high altitude, environmental temperature, mountain areas, seasonal variation in milk yield, India.

Jensen, M.B. (2001). A note on the effect of isolation during testing and length of previous confinement on locomotor behaviour during open-field test in dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 309-315, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: calves, dairy cattle, housing, isolation, physical activity, social animal behavior.

Jensen, M.B. and R. Kyhn (2000). Play behaviour in group-housed dairy calves, the effect of space allowance. Russian Journal of Ecology 67(1/2): 35-46, ISSN: 1067-4136.
NAL Call No.: QH540 E32
Keywords: dairy cattle, Danish Holstein Friesian calves, locomotor play, open-field test, animal behavior, calf housing, pens, animal welfare, Denmark.

Jensen, M.B., L. Munksgaard, L. Mogensen, and C.C. Krohn (1999). Effects of housing in different social environments on open-field and social responses of female dairy calves. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(2): 113-120, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: effects, housing, social environment, open field responses, group housing, individual housing, loose housing, tethered housing, social behavior, social tests.

Jensen, M.B., K.S. Vestergaard, and C.C. Krohn, and L. Munksgaard (1997). Effect of single versus group housing and space allowance on responses of calves during open-field tests. [Erratum: Dec 28, 1998, v. 61 (2), p. 185.] Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2/3): 109-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, animal behavior, fearfulness, heart rate, behavior patterns, animal welfare.

Johannesson, T., J.T. Sorensen, and L. Munksgaard (1996). Production environment as a component in a welfare assessment system in dairy cattle herds. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands p. 251-255, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: cows, animal welfare assessment, herds, animal behavior, injuries.

Kaczor, A. and J. Szyndler (1997). Resting comfort and body weight gains of calves housed in pens with sloping beds. [Komfort wypoczynku i przyrosty masy ciala cielat w kojcach z pochylymi legowiskami.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 263-272, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, heifers, bulls, type of bed, inclination angles of bed, conventional horizontal bed, animal behavior, weight gain, Poland, Polish.

Kain, M.L., S.L. Kochevar, J.N. Sofos, K.E. Belk, C. Rossiter, J.O. Reagon, and G.C. Smith (2001). Relationships of live animal scores for ambulatory status, body condition, hide cleanliness, and fecal matter consistency to microbiological contamination of dairy cow carcasses. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation 21(12): 990‑998.
NAL Call No.: SF221 D342
Keywords: dairy cows, carcass quality, slaughter, microbial contamination, plate count, lameness, hygiene.

Kant, P. and Jv. Lent (1998). Much attention to climate and animal well being in high-tech enterprises. [Veel aandacht voor klimaat en welzijn dier in het high-techbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 11(4): 5-6.
Keywords: cow housing, cattle housing, cubicles, dairy cows, milking machines, robots, ventilation, floor space, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Karrer, M. and R. Nitsche (1997). Investigations into uninsulated housing for dairy cattle. [Erfahrungen mit Aussenklimastallen fur Milchvieh.] In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik, R. Weber (ed.), No.45, p. 166-172, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik: Tanikon, Switzerland.
Keywords: cows, dairy farming, husbandry, animal welfare, cattle housing, temperature, environmental control, insulation, design, characteristics, evaluation, cold zones, Germany, German language.

Kaufmann, R., M. Keck, and R. Hauser (1998). Indications for the design of loose housing in cubicles. [Indications pour la configuration de stabulations libres a logettes.] Technique Agricole 60(5): 9-24.
Keywords: cubicles, dairy farms, building construction, cattle housing, animal welfare, Switzerland, French language.

Kavolelis, B. (2001). The climatic conditions in uninsulated cowshed. In: [Problemy intensyfikacji produkcji zwierzecej z uwzglednieniem ochrony srodowiska i przepisow UE. VII Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa, Warszawa, Polska, 25‑26 wrzesnia 2001] E. Bien (ed.), Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnictwa: Warsaw, Poland, ISBN: 83‑86264‑71‑3.
Keywords: housing, dairy cows, insulation, microclimate, cold loose housing, cubicle housing, straw bedding, deep litter, tie stalls, air quality, ammonia, dust, Lithuania.

Kavolelis, B., and R. Bleizgys (2001). Uninsulated cowshed. In: [Aktualni Zadaci Mehanizacije Poljoprivrede. Zbornik Radova 29. Medunarodnog Simpozija Iz Podrucja Mehanizacije Poljoprivrede, Opatija, 06. ‑ 09. Veljace], Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Lithuanian Institute of Agricultural Engineering: Kaunas, Lithuania, p. 307‑314, ISBN: 953‑6135‑32‑9.
Keywords: dairy cows, loose housing, cubicle housing system, straw bedding, microclimate conditions, ammonia emission, health, mathematical model, moisture balance, condensation heat transmission coefficient, daily outside air temperature, air quality.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., A.H. Ipema, E.N.J. van Ouwerkerk, M.M. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, J.P. Noordhuizen, and W.G. Schouten (1999). Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows: Milking frequency and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64(2): 91-109, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, breed, Holstein-Friesian, cow, automatic milking system, farm equipment, voluntary automatic milking method, robots, grazing, feeding behavior, resting behavior, pastures, milking, frequency.

Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C., M.M.W.B. Hendriks, J.H.M. Metz, and W.G.P. Schouten (1998). Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56(1): 13-28.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: cow traffic, automatic milking, milking parlors, milking interval, environment, selection system, simulation, animal behavior.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Management of calving in Norwegian cubicle‑housed dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 131‑137, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal housing, calves, calving, cows, dairy cows, management, location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence, assisted births, suckling, time after birth when cow and calf were separated, cubicles, pasture, calving pens, tethered cows, calf injuries, sheds, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Cubicle refusal and rearing accommodation as possible mastitis risk factors in cubicle‑housed dairy heifers. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 123‑130, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy cows, heifers, housing, cubicle refusal, sheds, animal wastes, bovine mastitis, calving, epidemiology, mastitis, pregnancy, regression analysis, risk factors, disease incidence, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Cubicle refusal in Norwegian dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 181‑187, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy herds, heifers, behavior, housing, cubicles, litter, slatted floor pens, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Kjaestad, H.P., and H.J. Myren (2001). Failure to use cubicles and concentrate dispenser by heifers after transfer from rearing accommodation to milking herd. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42(1): 171‑180, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: dairy heifers, age, animal behavior, housing, cubicles, feed dispensers, livestock numbers, surveys, Norway.

Klungel, G.H. (1996). Comfort of mats defines differences. [Comfort stalmatten bepaalt verschillen.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 9(6): 10-11.
Keywords: dairy cattle, effects of different types of mats, milk production, hygiene, udders, tits, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Kraszewski, J., S. Wawrzynczak, A. Mandecki, and J. Szyndler(1998). Comparison of heifer rearing performance in lying-box and deep-litter systems. [Porownanie efektywnonsci wychowu jalowic utrzymywanych systemem boksowo-legowiskowym i na glebokiej sciolce.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 25(3): 153-165, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cows, heifers, liveweight gain, housing, bedding, deep litter, performance, animal welfare, milk yield, animal behavior, Polish language.

Kraszewski, J., J. Szyndler, and S. Wawryznczak (1996). Effect of tethered and loose housing on milk yield, milk composition and hygienic quality, and cow behaviour. [Wplyw utrzymania uwieziowego i wolnostanowiskowego krow na ich wydajnosc, sklad i jakosc higieniczna, mleka oraz zachowanie.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 23(1): 223-234, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cows, cow housing, loose housing, tethered housing, animal behavior, milk yield, milk composition, mastitis, milk quality, milk hygiene, Poland, Polish language.

Krohn, C.C. (1994). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. III. Grooming, exploration and abnormal behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42(2): 73-86.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: environment, grooming, loose housing, tethered housing, exercise, exploration, abnormal behavior, extensive livestock farming.

Krohn, C.C. and L. Munksgaard (1993). Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. II. Lying and lying-down behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(1): 1-16, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Keywords: intensive environments, lying behavior, stalls, animal behavior, activity, auditory system, parental behavior.

Kromann, H. (1999). Cattle housing for calves or young cattle. [Stalde til kalve og ungkvaeg.] Landbonyt, Erhvervsjordbruget 6(9): 21-26.
Keywords: cattle housing, calves, legislation, ventilation, management, construction, litter, stalls, animal welfare, Danish language.

Le Neindre, P. (1993). Evaluating housing systems for veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 71(5): 1345-1354, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: literature review, veal calves, animal behavior, animal welfare, environment, housing systems, diet, slaughter weight, age, France.

Leblanc, R. (1997). Comfortable housing for increasing [milk] yield. [Des logettes confortables pour augmenter la production.] Producteur de Lait Quebecois 17(9): 19-22.
Keywords: stress, milk yield, cow housing, stalls, dimensions, feeding, rest, design, reduction, cows, floors, litter, French language.

Lensink, B.J, I. Veissier, and L. Florand (2001). The farmers' influence on calves' behaviour, health and production of a veal unit. Animal Science: An International Journalof Fundamental and Applied Research 72(1): 105-116.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A56
Abstract: Although veal production is a highly standardized system, there still remains considerable variability in productivity between units. This variability might be due to the farmers working on these units, through differences in stockmanship, work attitudes or behaviour, which in turn may affect animals' fear responses, productivity and health. A survey was conducted on 50 commercial farms affiliated to the same veal company. All units had calves housed in individual crates, a similar number of crates, and the same diets and management advice. Data were collected on: building and general farm characteristics, farmers' backgrounds and their attitudes towards their work and calves, farmers' behaviour food efficiency and mortality) were used to classify veal units as 'high producing' (no. = 24) v. "moderate producing" (no. = 26). Calves were less reactive to people in units where the farmer behaved sympathetically and where there were several stockpersons working. The disease level was lower in units where the farmer had a positive attitude towards the sensitivity of the calves to contact and towards the importance of cleaning. Productivity of the veal unit was associated with the health of the calves but not with their reactivity to people. It is suggested that the farmer can have an influence on the success of the veal unit mainly through his/her ability to control the health of the calves and that a positive attitude towards animals and towards work (specifically cleaning actions) can improve the accuracy of surveillance and care of the animals. Moreover, through his/her behaviour with the calves and his/her ability to control their health, the farmer can play an important role in assuring calves' welfare.
Keywords: veal calves, calf production, calf diseases, animal health, farmers' attitudes, fearfulness, calf housing, hygiene, stockmen, liveweight gain, feed conversion, mortality, animal welfare, human animal interactions. France.

Lensink, B.J., X. Fernandez, G. Cozzi, L. Florand, and I. Veissier (2001). The influence of farmers' behavior on calves' reactions to transport and quality of veal meat. Journal of Animal Science 79 (3): 642-652.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The relationships between farmers' behavior toward veal calves, calves' responses to handling and transport, and veal meat quality were assessed. Two groups of 10 veal units were selected based on previous observed farmers' behavior toward the calves: one group consisted of farmers who had shown predominantly "positive" behavior toward the calves, and the other group of farmers had shown predominantly "negative" behavior. Calves were observed for their reactions to people at the unit, and 20 calves per veal unit were transported either directly to the slaughterhouse or subjected to additional transport consisting of a supplementary 20-min transport with additional unloading and loading. The effort needed to load the calves onto the truck and their behavior during loading was observed. During loading and unloading, and during lairage at the slaughterhouse, potentially traumatic incidents (falling down, hits against structures, slips) were recorded, and heart rate and cortisol measurements were taken. Carcasses were evaluated on their weight, color, conformation, pH, and bruise level. A meat sample was taken from the longissimus thoracis muscle for physical, chemical, and sensory analysis. Calves originating from "positive behavior" units showed fewer fear responses to people at the veal unit, needed less effort to be loaded to the truck, had lower heart rates during loading and unloading, and had fewer incidents at the slaughterhouse than calves from "negative behavior" units (P < 0.05). Carcasses from calves from "positive behavior" units were paler, and analyses of the meat sample revealed lower pH, moisture level, and redness compared to carcasses from calves from "negative behavior" units (P < 0.05). Additional transport led to a lower cortisol level after transport and to higher carcass pH values at slaughter compared to direct transport (P < 0.05) but did not affect meat quality. We concluded that farmers' positive behavior toward veal calves during rearing is likely to reduce the emotional responses of calves to handling and transport and to lead to fewer incidents, compared to negative behavior. This reduction of calves' emotional responses seems to be the reason for improved veal meat color.
Keywords: veal calves, transport of animals, cattle husbandry, animal husbandry, animal behavior, stress, hydrocortisone, heart rate, carcass quality, carcass weight, meat quality, color, pH, conformation, bruises, heme, cooking losses, shear strength, moisture content, sensory evaluation, tenderness, flavor, veal, farmers, behavior patterns, animal handling.

Lensink, B.J., X. Boivin, P. Pradel, P. Le Neindre, and I. Veissier (2000). Reducing veal calves' reactivity to people by providing additional human contact. Journal of Animal Science 78(5): 1213-1218, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: We studied the importance of the stock-person's behavior on veal calf behavior using 22 veal calves housed in individual crates. Eleven calves received minimal contact from the stockperson, and the other 11 calves were stroked and allowed to suck the stockperson's fingers after each meal during the entire fattening period (21 wk). The effects of this additional contact with the stockperson on the calves' responses to people was studied, when in their home environment (crate) or outside their home environment (singly in a novel arena). When tested in their home environment, the calves receiving additional contact withdrew less from the approach of humans (familiar or unfamiliar) (P < .05) compared with control calves. When tested outside the home environment with a human (familiar or unfamiliar) standing motionless, calves that had received additional contact interacted more frequently and for a longer time with the humans and defecated less often compared with control calves (P < .05). In conclusion, being stroked and sucking the stockperson's fingers seemed to be experienced as positive by the calf, because they reduced withdrawal from and increased approaches to familiar and unfamiliar humans in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Such a lower reactivity to people could improve ease of handling, animal performance, and animal welfare.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, veal calves, fearfulness, escape responses, handling, human-animal interactions.

Lensink, B.J., X. Fernandez, X. Boivin, P. Pradel, P. Le Neindre, and I. Veissier (2000). The impact of gentle contacts on ease of handling, welfare, and growth of calves on quality of veal meat. Journal of Animal Science 78(5): 1219-1226, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: It has been demonstrated previously that regularly stroking and letting calves suck fingers leads to less avoidance and more approach behavior of the calves toward people. To examine whether these positive contacts affect the welfare and productivity of calves and the quality of veal meat we used 22 veal calves housed in individual crates. Half of them received minimal contact with the stockperson (controls), and the other half were given additional gentle contacts around meals, by stroking the calves and allowing them to suck the stockperson's fingers, during the entire fattening period (21 wk). Welfare was assessed through behavioral reactivity (reactions to handling, to surprise stimuli, and to novelty), neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol in response to an ACTH challenge, catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes), and health (number of medical treatments, abomasal lesions). Calf productivity was assessed through growth rates and meat quality through glycolytic potential (an estimator of resting glycogen level in muscle), pH, and color. Calves that received gentle contacts were less agitated (P < .01) and tended to defecate less (P = .08) when handled in a cart on wheels than the control calves, but no treatment effects were found in reactivity to novelty and surprise stimuli, responses to ACTH, and catecholamine synthetic potential. Calves given gentle contacts had fewer abomasal lesions than controls (0/11 vs 4/11, P = .05). The glycolytic potential of the semimembranosus muscle was higher in calves that received gentle contacts than in controls (172.6 vs 154.1 micromol/g, P < .05), but no treatment effects were observed on meat pH, meat color, or growth rates. It is concluded that gentling veal calves reduces their reactions to handling. Gentle contacts reduce the reaction to transport shown by differences in glycolytic potential. In addition, the reduction in reactions to handling and the decreased incidence of abomasal lesions can contribute to an improvement of the calves' welfare.
Keywords: animal behavior, calves, handling, meat quality, veal, human-animal interactions.

Lent, Jv. and A. Pieters (1998). Building for a high-tech farm. [Bouwen voor een high-techbedrijf.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 11(5): 6-8.
Keywords: cattle housing, dairy farms, slatted floors, ventilation, animal welfare, cattle feeding, lying cubicles, design, cow housing, Netherlands, Dutch language.

Leonard, F.C. and J.M. Oconnell (1997). Cubicle housing conditions and cow comfort. Irish Veterinary Journal 50(11): 675-682, ISSN: 0368-0762.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4.
Keywords: cattle housing, animal behavior.

Lischer, C.J., A. Dietrich‑Hunkeler, H. Geyer, J. Schulze, and P. Ossent (2001). Healing process of uncomplicated sole ulcers in dairy cows kept in tie stalls: clinical description and biochemical investigations. [Heilungsverlauf von unkomplizierten Sohlengeschwuren bei Milchkuhen in Anbindehaltung: Klinische Beschreibung und blutchemische Untersuchungen.] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 143( 3 ):125‑133, ISSN: 0036‑7281.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 SCH9
Keywords: dairy cows, hoof health, lameness, scoring system, biotin, glucose, hematology, nutritional status, healing, horns, retinol, ulcers, German language.

Manninen, E., A. M. de Passille, J. Rushen, M. Norring, and H. Saloniemi (2002). Preferences of dairy cows kept in unheated buildings for different kind of cubicle flooring. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75(4): 281‑292, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Friesian, breed, flooring, cubicles, deep straw, soft rubber mats, sand bedding, preference testing, paired choice procedure, summer, winter.

Marten, F. and J. Wolf (1999). Effect of different mats on resting time of dairy cows. [Einfluss verschiedener Bodenbelage auf die Liegedauer von Milchkuhen.] Milchpraxis 37(2): 90-94, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: cattle housing, dairy farms, mats, floors, costs, cleaning, installing, labor requirements, resting behavior, German language, European Union countries.

Matias, J.M. (1998). Behavior of grazing purebred and crossbred dairy cows under tropical conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(1/3): 235-243, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, crossbreds, Holstein-Friesian, Sahiwal, physical activity, grazing, respiration rate, air temperature, imported breeds, relative humidity, wind speed, rain, animal behavior.

Mayer, D.G., T.M. Davison, M.R. McGowan, B.A. Young, A.L. Matschoss, A.B. Hall, P.J. Goodwin, N.N. Jonsson, and J.B. Gaughan (1999). Extent and economic effect of heat loads on dairy cattle production in Australia dairy cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 77(12): 804-808, ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Keywords: heat loads, temperature, humidity, mapping, milk production, economics, thermoregulation.

McFarland, D.F. and M.J. Gamroth (1994). Freestall designs with cow comfort in mind. Annual Meeting 270-285, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: dairy cows, cubicles, structural design, space requirements, dimensions,animal welfare.

Metz, J.H.M. (1999). Future perspectives for the integration of the requirements of animal welfare and environmental compatibility in animal housing systems. [Zukunftsperspektiven fur eine tiergerechte und umweltschonende Tierhaltung.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 89-98, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare requirements, dairy cows, milking parlors, cattle housing, pig housing, slatted floors, poultry housing, broilers, deep litter housing, waste gases, ammonia, ventilation, environmental impact, German language.

Meyer, W., and H. Georg (2001). Influence of floor design on the claw health of dairy cows.[Einfluss der Laufflachengestaltung auf die Klauengesundheit von Milchkuhen.] Landtechnik 56(4): 258‑259, ISSN: 0023‑8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, slatted, mats, chopped straw, unclean surfaces, claws, foot diseases, hooves, infection, German language.

Millar, K.M. (2000). Respect for animal autonomy in bioethical analysis: the case of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12(1): 41-50, ISSN: 0893-4282.
NAL Call No.: BJ52.5 J68
Keywords: milking, cows, ethics, robots, animal welfare, behavioral freedom, motivation, automation, milking machines.

Mogensen, L., C.C. Krohn, and J. Foldager (1999). Long-term effect of housing method during the first three months of life on human-animal relationship in female dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 49(3): 163-171, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, calves, cows, handling, lactation, milk, milk production, milking, pens, cattle housing, animal welfare, human-animal relationship.

Mogensen, L., Krohn, C.C., Sorensen, J.T., Hindhede, J., and L.H. Nielsen (1997). Association between resting behaviour and live weight gain in dairy heifers housed in pens with different space allowance and floor type. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(1/2): 11-19, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, heifers, rest, behavior patterns, liveweight gain, cattle housing, floor pens, space requirements, floor space, floor type, slatted floors, litter, welfare.

Mogensen, L., L.H. Nielsen, J. Hindhede, J.T. Soorensen, and C.C. Krohn (1997). Effect of space allowance in deep bedding systems on resting behaviour, production, and health of dairy heifers. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 47(3): 178-186, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: Danish commercial dairy farms, Danish Friesian, breed, dairy cows, heifers, resting behavior, daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, heel horn erosion, animal welfare, health, production, Denmark.

Moore, R.P. (1998). Perception and reality welfare in farm animals. In: Ethics, Welfare, Law and Market Forces: The Veterinary Interface: Proceedings of a Symposium Organised on Behalf of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare and Held at the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 14th-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank (eds.), UFAW: Wheathampstead, England, p. 67-70, ISBN: 0900767995.
NAL Call No.: HV4704.E84 1998.
Keywords: livestock, animal welfare, housing, cattle, dairy cows, husbandry.

Morita, S., M. Komiya, K. Izumi, K. Oikawa, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Changes of the utilization of trough, stall and automatic milking machine after the transfer cows to automatic milking system. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 26 (1): 57‑61, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, diurnal variation, automatic milking machines, housing, tie-stalls, free-stall, automatic milking trough use, Japanese language.

Morita, S., S. Nishino, S. Hoshiba, A.H. Ipema, and J.H.M. Metz (1996). Choice of feeding position of dairy cows in free-stall barn. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University, Natural Science 21(1): 115-122, ISSN: 0388‑001X.
NAL Call No.: QH2.J68
Keywords: choice, feeding, free stall.

Mudron, P., G. Kovac, P. Bartko, J. Choma, and I. Zezula (1996). Effect of vitamin E on the cortisol and lactate levels and the acid base equilibrium of calves subjected to transport stress.[Vplyv vitaminu E na hladinu kortizolu, laktatu a acidobazicku rovnovahu u teliat vystavenych transportnej zatazi.] Veterinarni Medicina 41(3): 71-76, ISSN: 0375-8427.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Keywords: blood chemistry, lactates, hydrocortisone, transport of animals, calves, vitamin E, stress, language, Slovakian.

Mudron,P., G. Kovac, V. Bajova, J. Pistl, J. Choma, P. Bartko,and H. Scholz (1994). Effect of vitamin E on some leukocytic parameters and functions in transported calves. DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101(2): 47-49, ISSN: 0012-0847.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: stress, calf diseases, road transport, leukocytes, immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, vitamin E, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hydrocortisone.

Muller, C.J.C., J.A. Botha, and W.A. Smith (1996). Effect of confinement area on production, physiological parameters and behaviour of Friesian cows during winter in a temperate climate. South African Journal of Animal Science 26(1): 1-5, ISSN: 0375-1589.
NAL Call No.: SF1 S6
Keywords: feed-intake, earthen mound, dry lots, camp size.

Munksgaard, L. and H.B. Simonsen (1995). Behavioural and pituitary-adrenal axis responses of tethered cows or cows kept in pens with slatted floors. Acta Agriculture Scandinavica Section A, Animal Science 45(2): 132-138, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: dairy cows, ACTH, animal behavior, cortisol, floor-type.

Nardone, A., N. Lacetera, U. Bernabucci, and B. Ronchi (1997). Composition of colostrum from dairy heifers exposed to high air temperatures during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Journal of Dairy Science 80(5): 838-844, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal comfort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the other group was exposed to high air temperatures (temperature-humidity index = 82 from 0900 to 2000 h and temperature-humidity index = 76 from 2100 to 0800 h). Heifers under heat stress had higher rectal temperatures and respiratory rates; lower plasma triiodothyronine and glucose; higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate; lower intakes of dry matter, net energy for lactation, and crude protein; higher water intakes; and lower body condition scores. The decline of plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) over the final 2 wk of pregnancy was less pronounced for heifers under heat stress. For the first four milkings, colostrum of cows exposed to high air temperatures had lower mean concentrations of IgG and IgA; lower mean percentages of total protein, casein, lactalbumin, fat, and lactose; lower contents (grams per liter) of short- and medium-chain fatty acids; lower energy; lower titratable acidity; and higher pH. Thus, high air temperatures during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period markedly affected the composition of colostrum from primiparous dairy cows.
Keywords: heifers, cow colostrum, heat stress, pregnancy, dry period, postpartum period, dairy cows, lactation number, body temperature, environmental temperature, blood sugar, blood plasma, fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, respiration rate, triiodothyronine, feed intake, dry matter, water intake, energy intake, protein intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, lactose, pH, IGG, IGM, IGA, casein, lactalbumin, lactoglobulins,pregnancy, heat stress, air temperature, humidity, feed intake, dry matter, energy requirements, immunoglobulins, immunity, blood, milk protein, lactose, lactalbumin, medium chain fatty acids, titratable acidity, triiodothyronine, water intake, IgA, IgG, pH, milking, colostrum, composition, environmental temperature, heifers.

Nicoletti, J.L.M. de, F.A.A. de Souza, A. Thomassian, C.A. Hussni, and A.LG. Alves (2001). Feet lesions and lameness prevalence in dairy cows kept in permanent confinement (free‑stall and tie‑stall). [Prevalencia de lesoes podais e graus de claudicacao em vacas leiteiras mantidas em confinamento permanente ("free‑stall" e "tie‑stall").] Revista de Educacao Continuada do CRMV‑SP 4 (2): 24‑32, ISSN: 1516‑3326.
Keywords: dairy cows, age differences, number of parturitions, housing, tie‑stall, free stall, disease prevalence, foot diseases, lameness, lesions, sole bleeding, white line disease, heel erosion, double sole, interdigital dermatitis, hoof cracks,

Nielsen, L.H., L. Mogensen, C. Krohn, J. Hindhede, and J.T. Sorensen (1997). Resting and social behaviour of dairy heifers housed in slatted floor pens with different sized bedded lying areas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(4): 307-316, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: social behavior, slatted floor, pens, area, resting.

Nita, O. (2001). Application of slaked lime in the byre and dairy and its results. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 54 (3): 191‑194, ISSN: 0447‑0192.
Keywords: cow housing, buildings, calcium hydroxide, ceilings, dairies, paints, slaked lime, walls, Japanese language.

Nosal, D.and E. Bilgery (2002). Milking without stress. [Larm und Vibrationen in Melkanlagen.] Agrarforschung 9(1): 4‑7, ISSN: 1022‑663X.
NAL Call No: S469 S9A37
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, stress, noise, airborne, structure‑borne sound (vibration).

Pavlata, L., A. Pechova, and J. Illek (2001). Muscular dystrophy in dairy cows following a change in housing technology. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70 (3): 269‑275, ISSN: 0001‑7213.
NAL Call No: SF604 B7
Keywords: dairy cows, Bohemian Red Pied, breed, muscle tissue damage, muscular dystrophy, mineral deficiencies, potassium, selenium, stress, downer cows, transport of animals, change in housing, locomotor activity, deaspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase.

Perrey, A., G. Rehkamper, C.W. Werner, and A. Gorlach (2001). Influence of housing‑systems in arousal behaviour by cattle bulls towards a human. [Der Einfluss der Haltungsform auf das Erregungsverhalten von erwachsenen Milchrinderbullen gegenuber dem Menschen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 71‑80.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: bulls, Holstein Friesian, Red Holstein, breed, behavior, human animal interaction, aggressive behaviors, presenting body; pulling mouth to a bow, pawing with forelegs, rubbing head on the ground, snorting, bellowing, poking tongue, housing, German language.

Phillips, C. J. C. and I.D. Morris (2002). The ability of cattle to distinguish between, and their preference for, floors with different levels of friction, and their avoidance of floors contaminated with excreta. Animal Welfare 11(1): 21‑29, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, behavior, training, food reward, flooring type, discrimination, preferences, smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregates, floors covered in excreta, static friction, walking.

Phillips, C.J., and I.D. Morris (2001). The locomotion of dairy cows on floor surfaces with different frictional properties. Journal of Dairy Science 84(3):623‑8, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cows, locomotion, floors, with a smooth epoxy resin surface, surface‑applied bauxite aggregate, static friction, walking, food reward.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2001). A novel operant conditioning test to determime whether dairy cows dislike passageways that are dark or covered with excreta. Animal Welfare 10(1): 65‑72, ISSN: 0962‑7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: dairy cows, conditioning, stimuli, molasses, learning ability, cattle slurry, floors, lighting, animal welfare, preferences.

Phillips, C.J.C. and I.D. Morris (2000). The locomotion of dairy cows on concrete floors that are dry, wet, or covered with a slurry of excreta. Journal of Dairy Science 83(8): 1767-1772, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call number: 44.8 J822
Keywords: locomotion, floor type, concrete, cattle slurry, depth, slip, velocity, joints, legs, gait.

Phillips, C.J.C., I.D. Morris, C.A. Lomas, and S.J. Lockwood (2000). The locomotion of dairy cows in passageways with different light intensities. Animal Welfare 9(4): 421-431, ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Keywords: gait, legs, joints, light intensity, velocity, animal welfare.

Platz, S., F. Miller and J. Unshelm (1999). The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability - the example of tie-in versus loose housing system of dairy cattle. [Auswirkung von haltungsmangeln auf tiergesundheit und wirtschaftlichkeit am beispiel der anbinde- und laufstallhaltung von milchkuhen.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(12): 422-429, ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Keywords: dairy cattle, housing, husbandry, loose housing, tethering, profitability, abnormalities, animal welfare, leukocyte count, checklists, cows, trauma, interviews, milk, milk yield, pregnancy, questionnaires, interviews, economics, qualifications of dairy stockmen, handling of animals, poor management, injury, number of inseminations per pregnancy, age of cow, cell count of milk, milk yield, German language.

Purushottam, S. and S. Kiran (2002). Shelter seeking behaviour of dairy cattle in various types of housing systems. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72(1): 91‑95, ISSN: 0367‑8318.
Keywords: crossbred, lactating cows, shelter system, shelter seeking behavior, loose housing, loose housing with central shed, closed housing, tree‑shade, summer, rainy season, winter season.

Rabaud, N.E., T.A. James, L.L. Ashbaugh, and R.G. Flocchini (2001). A passive sampler for the determination of airborne ammonia concentrations near large‑scale animal facilities. Environmental Science and Technology 35 (6): 1190‑1196, ISSN: 0013‑936X.
NAL Call No.: TD420.A1E5
Keywords: dairies, cow housing, dairy cattle, pollution.

Redbo, I., A. Ehrlemark, and P. Redbo‑Torstensson (2001). Behavioural responses to climate demands of dairy heifers housed outdoors. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 9‑15, ISSN: 0008‑3984.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the behavioural responses to different climatic demands of growing dairy heifers, during winter at a latitude of 60 degrees N. Two groups (n = 11, 12) of yearling dairy heifers were housed in two similar 3‑ha enclosures, characterised by deciduous forest, ley and pasture. Each enclosure also contained a lying area, a heated water source and a feed bunk from which the heifers had free access to grass silage. The behaviour and location of each heifer were recorded by instant interval observations every 5 min between 0600 h and 2000 h during 23 observation days spread over the entire winter period. Outdoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation were measured continuously. The climatic energy demand (CED, W m‑2) was measured with a heated animal model. The climate had significant effects on all the main activities and on the location of the heifers. Higher CED values corresponded to a greater number of observations of heifers in the lying area, and a greater incidence of lying and of ruminating, but to a decreased incidence of eating and grazing. Increased migration to the forested areas instead of to open areas reflected increasing CED values. The results from the present study show that dairy heifers adapt their behavioural activity and choice of location to the climatic conditions, to reduce energy expenditure. Thus, dairy heifers can be sustained in a cold climate if they are provided with wind breaks and dry lying places.
Keywords: heifers, dairy cattle, winter, cold, animal behavior, environmental temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, energy expenditure, Sweden.

Reinemann, D.J., L.E. Stetson, J.P Reilly and N.K. Laughlin (1999). Dairy cow sensitivity to short duration electrical currents. Transactions of the ASAE 42(1): 215-222, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Abstract: The results of 299 tests to determine the behavioral response threshold of dairy cows to a variety of short-duration or "transient" electrical current waveforms via the muzzle to 4-hoof pathway are reported. The phase duration of stimuli tested ranged from 10 micros to 8.3 ms. Phase duration is defined as the time between two consecutive zero crossing points of the waveform (e.g., 1/2 cycle of a sinusoidal waveform). The amplitude of the electrical currents, at a given phase duration, were increased in an ascending series. The lowest threshold current at which an observer could detect a behavioral change was determined for individual cows. Various behaviors were quantified. Facial activity was the most sensitive behavioral response followed by front hoof lifting. Human observers measurements of hoof lifting agreed well with automated recording of animal motion. Tail motion showed no statistically significant response to the current stimulus. Cows were less sensitive (e.g., more current was required to elicit a response) to shorter duration or higher frequency waveforms. The strength-duration relationship observed for cows agreed well with neuro-electrical models previously verified by human response.
Keywords: sensitivity, duration, electrical, current, stray voltage, stray current, transient voltage, electrical stimulation duration, electric fences, animal behavior.

Ronchi, B., G. Stradaioli, A.V. Supplizi, U. Bernabucci, N. Lacetera, P.A. Accorsi, A. Nardone, and E. Seren (2001). Influence of heat stress or feed restriction on plasma progesterone, oestradiol‑17beta, LH, FSH, prolactin and cortisol in holstein heifers. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 231‑242, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Keywords: heifers, dairy cows, heat stress, food restriction, blood chemistry, progesterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, prolactin, hydrocortisone, hormone secretion, feed rations, air temperature.

Rossi, P., and A. Gastaldo (2001). The milking parlour: a difficult choice for the breeder of dairy cows. [Sala mungitura: una scelta difficile per gli allevatori di vacche da latte.] Informatore Agrario 57 (8): 85‑90, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, dairy farming, animal welfare, design, herringbone parlors, auto‑tandem arrangement, investment, labor requirements, milk production, milk quality, milking machines, milking parlors, Italian language.

Rossi, P. and A. Gastaldo (1999). Innovative solutions for free stables organized in cubicles. [Soluzioni innovative per la stalla libera a cuccette.] Informatore Agrario 55(21): 35-41.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cattle housing, cow housing, dairy cows, mats, cubicles, stalls, floor coverings, Italian language, European Union countries.

Ruud, L.E.(1999). Stalls that permit lying down: cows' beds. [Liggebasen: kuas seng.] Buskap 51(3): 28-29.
NAL Call No.: 49 B96
Keywords: dairy cattle, cow housing, loose housing, floor coverings, hay, mattresses, stall dimensions, cleaning, drainage, welfare, farm buildings, animal behavior, Norway, Norwegian language.

Saharia, J., S. Saikia, and G.N. Dutta (1998). Effect of flooring type on foot and leg abnormalities in dairy cows. Indian Veterinary Journal 75(6): 579-580, ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, concrete flooring, wooden flooring, bursitis, bruises, hooves, foot diseases, hoof elongation, hock injuries, animal welfare.

Schaub, J., K. Friedli and B. Wechsler (1999). Soft floor mats for loose box housing of dairy cattle. Straw mats and six makes of soft floor mats are compared. [Weiche Liegematten fur Milchvieh-Boxenlaufstalle. Strohmatratzen und sechs Fabrikate von Weichen Liegematten im Vergleich.] Bundesamt fur Veterinarwesen (BVET), c/o Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT), CH-8356 Tanikon, Switzerland, No.537, Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT): Tanikon, Switzerland, 8p.
Keywords: cows, housing, animal behavior, resting, standing, litter, types of floor mats, Mouflex, Cow Comfort, Kraiburg Typ KSK, Pasture, Comfy Cushion, Agriprom, joint damage, injuries, animal welfare, hygiene, German language.

Schon, H., L. Rittel, G. Wendl, M. Karrer, and H. Pirkelmann (1998). Cattle housing solutions for the use of automatic milking systems. [Stallbaulosungen fur den Einsatz automatischer Melksysteme.] Landtechnik 53(4): 262-263, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: automation, milking, cattle housing, dairies, animal welfare, design, German language.

Seufert, H. (1997). Dairy cattle housing which takes into account cost-effectiveness, animal physiology and animal welfare. [Tier- und leistungsgerechte Haltungssysteme fur Milchkuhe unter Beachtung der Kostenminimierung.] Zuchtungskunde 69(6): 421-434, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: overview of housing for dairy cows in Germany, profitability, farmers, dairy technology, animal welfare, production, husbandry, cost analysis, manure removal, floor types, litter, milking parlors, milking robots, udders, milk production, labor, farm management, financial planning, Germany, German language.

Sevegnani, K.B., I.J.Od. Silva, and H.G. Filho (1994). Thermal comfort of dairy cattle. [Conforto termico en bovinos leiteiros.] Ecossistema 19: 169-176, ISSN: 0100-4107.
NAL Call No.: S542 B7E3
Keywords: cows, heat stress, climate, housing, European breeds, Brazil, Portuguese language.

Shearer, J.K., D.K. Beede, D.R. Bray, and R.A. Bucklin (1999). Managing during heat stress. Proceedings of the Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference 99-111.
NAL Call No.: SF203.T75
Keywords: dairy cattle, heat stress, performance, health, environmental management, cooling systems, shade, acidosis, acid base equilibrium, lameness, body heat loss.

Singh, S.S., W.R. Ward, K. Lautenbach, and R.D. Murray (1993). Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 133(9): 204-208, ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Keywords: animal behavior, housing, cubicles, straw, lameness, health, animal behavior, housing, cubicles.

Sonck, B., J. Daelemans, and J. Langenakens (1999). Preference test for free stall surface material for dairy cows. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 18-21, 1999, ASAE Paper No. 994011, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 10 p.
NAL Call No.: S671.3.A54
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, housing, preference tests, Kraiburg rubber mat, Supercomfort cow mattress, Pasture Mat, Blister Mattress, Kraiburg Soft Bed System, Enkamat K2000, Comfy Cushion, Alfa Laval Comfort Mat, Alanta Waterbed, Agritarp Mattress, concrete littered with sawdust, comfort, animal welfare, rest, animal behavior, claw and leg lameness.

Stale, F. (1998). Two convincing buildings in Jura. [Deux constructions convaincantes en pays jurassien.] Technique Agricole 60(6): 5-7.
Keywords: legislation, pig housing, cattle housing, cow housing, steers, dairy cows, animal welfare, Switzerland, French language.

Stefanowska, J., D. Swierstra, C.R. Braam, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2001). Cow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into account. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71(2): 87‑103, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, cow housing, floors, floor type, slatted floors, animal behavior, time, movement, claws, trauma, animal health, animal welfare, cattle dung, farm equipment, time budgets, floor walkability, manure scrapers.

Stefanowska, J., M. Plavsic, A.H. Ipema, and M.M.W.B. Hendriks (2000). The effect of omitted milking on the behaviour of cows in the context of cluster attachment failure during automatic milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(4): 277-291, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, milking interval, milking parlors, automatic control, failure, clusters, animal behavior, posture, eating, resting, drinking, urination, defecation, milk yield, lactation number, social dominance, animal welfare.

Stefanowska, J. and H. Hogeveen (1997). Time study on dairy cows in an automatic milking system with a selection unit and one-way cow traffic. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 39(3): 221-229, ISSN: 0045-432X.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 C164
Keywords: selection, time, automatic system, cow traffic.

Steinhardt, M. and H.H. Thielscher (March 1997). Hemoglobin derivatives in blood of cattle during during winter housing. Effect of age as well as developmental and functional conditions. DTW: DeutscheTierärztliche Wochenschrift 104(3): 99-103, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: peripheral venous blood samples, lactating dairy cattle, calves, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, oxygen saturation, oxygen capacity, oxygen content, hemoglobin derivatives, differences between age groups and breeds, German language.

Sunesson, A.L., J. Gullberg, and G. Blomquist (2001). Airborne chemical compounds on dairy farms. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 3(2): 210‑6.
Keywords: dairy farms, housing, cow sheds, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, ammonia, carbon dioxide, p‑cresol, 2‑butanone, ethyl acetate, alpha‑pinene and delta 3‑carene, occupational exposure level.

Swierstra, D., C.R. Braam, and M.C. Smits (2001). Grooved floor system for cattle housing: ammonia emission reduction and good slip resistance. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 17(1): 85‑90, ISSN: 0883‑8542.
NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Abstract: To improve the slip resistance of solid floors in dairy cow houses and to achieve the ammonia emission reduction prescribed by the Dutch government, precast concrete floors with grooves and a dung scraper were investigated. The grooves parallel to the alley had 160 mm center‑to‑center spacing and were 35 mm wide and 30 mm deep. The urine could drain along the grooves. Perforations in the grooves were spaced 1.1 m apart and could be open or closed. When the perforations were open, urine could be drained directly into a slurry pit below. In case of closed perforations, draining of urine was only possible at one alley end. The feces were dragged to one end of the alley using a scraper, provided with facilities, that also cleaned the grooves. The floor system was constructed in a compartment of a mechanically ventilated experimental cow house. In another compartment a traditional slotted floor served as a reference. Ammonia emissions from both compartments were recorded continuously. The effects on ammonia emission and the performance of the perforations in the floor were determined. The floor system was also implemented into various practical farms and some practical experiences were gathered. Ammonia emission from the compartment with the grooved solid floor operating with open perforations was reduced by 46% compared with the reference compartment. Closing of the perforations resulted in an ammonia emission reduction of 35% compared to the reference compartment.
Keywords: cattle housing, floors, cattle dung, urine, removal, equipment, ammonia, emission, grooved concrete floors, dung scrapers.

Szyndler, J. and A. Kaczor (1997). Behaviour of dairy cows in litter and litter-free tie-in stalls of different size. [Zachowanie sie krow mlecznych na wiazanych stanowiskach sciolowych i bezsciolowych o roznych wymiarach.] Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 24(4): 249-262, ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call No.: SF1 R6
Keywords: cattle housing, litter, litter-free tie-in stalls, stall dimensions, on the, cleanliness, skin injuries and abrasions, legs, udder, health, animal behavior, lying, standing, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Takahashi, K., H. Takenaka, and I. Inano (1998). Improvement of cow comfort by using rubber filled cow mattresses. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural, Agricultural Experiment Stations 75:89-94, ISSN: 0441-0807.
NAL Call No.: S304 H6E22
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, cow housing, cattle housing, litter, rubber, Japan.

Terosky, T.L., L.L. Wilson, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1997). Effects of individual housing design and size on special-fed Holstein veal calf growth performance, hematology, and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 75(7): 1697-1703, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Keywords: veal, calves, carcass quality, housing, design, size, Holstein, growth, performance, width, blood, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, meat, color, carcass weight, dressing percentage, stalls, pens, management.

Uetake, K., J.F. Hurnik, and L. Johnson (1997). Behavioral pattern of dairy cows milked in a two-stall automatic milking system with a holding area. Journal of Animal Science 75(4): 954-958, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: Behavioral pattern was investigated in dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system (AMS) in contrast to cows milked in a conventional milking parlor. Forty-eight Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of 24 animals. The two groups were housed in adjacent free stall pens. Both groups were milked twice a day at 0500 and at 1500 for 30 d before commencement of the experiment, one in a two-stall AMS (AMS Group), the other in a 16-stall herringbone parlor (Parlor Group). The respective holding areas were used to encourage cows to enter the milking compartments. All cows consumed total mixed rations ad libitum, provided once a day between 0500 and 0600 in indoor feed bunks. Cows in both groups were allowed daily access to two adjacent outdoor paddocks from 1030 to 1230. Behavioral observations were carried out in the free stall barn from 0400 to 0900 and from 1250 to 1900 for 30d. The number of cows lying down, standing in the stalls, standing in the passageway, and eating was recorded every 10 min. Analyses of variance were used to compare time serial changes in behavioral states between groups. Although the time serial changes in the behavioral states were not different between groups after returning from paddocks, they became significantly different between groups for all four recorded behavioral states after the onset of milking. Ethograms during the 11-h observation period showed that cows in the AMS group spent less time eating at the feed bunk and standing in the stalls to compensate for the longer time standing in the holding area. The results indicate that AMS milking with a holding area affects social synchronization of cows eating and resting and reduces time spent eating.
Keywords: automation, milking machines, milking parlors, behavior, milk yield, lactation stage, age, posture, eating, duration, activity sampling.

Vaarst, M., J. Hindhede, and C. Enevoldsen (1998). Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems. Journal of Dairy Research 65(2): 175-186, ISSN: 0022-0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Keywords: dairy herds, housing, lameness, handling, feet, lesions, hemorrhage, lactation stage, breed differences, Friesian, body weight, lameness, deep litter housing, stalls, hooves, organic farming, slatted floors, straw, litter, calving season, Denmark., AG AB.

Valtorta, S.E., P.E. Leva, and M.R. Gallardo (1997). Evaluation of different shades to improve dairy cattle well-being in Argentina. International Journal of Biometeorology 41(2): 65-67, ISSN: 0020-7128.
NAL Call No.: 340.8 In8
Keywords: tree shades, artificial shade structure, black woven polypropylene cloth, black globe temperatures, effectiveness in reducing heat load, floor temperatures, holding pens, pasture-based system, animal well-being.

Valtorta, S.E., M.R. Gallardo, H.C. Castro, and M.E. Castelli (1996). Artificial shade and supplementation effects on grazing dairy cows in Argentina. Transactions of the ASAE 39(1): 233-236, ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Keywords: cows, mid-laactation, heat stress, summer, grazing, parity, somatic cell count, milk quality, blood composition, milk protein, sodium, potassium, urea, body temperature, milk yield, milk composition, milk protein yield.

van Schaik, G., M. Nielen, and A.A. Dijkhuizen (2001). An economic model for on‑farm decision support of management to prevent infectious disease introduction into dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51(3‑4): 289‑305, ISSN: 0167‑5877.
NAL Call No: SF601 P7
Keywords: closed farming system, disease control, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), models. sanitary barrier, protective clothing.

Veissier, I., A.R. Ramirez, and P. Pradel (1998). Nonnutritive oral activities and stress responses of veal calves in relation to feeding and housing conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57(1-2): 35-49, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750 A6
Abstract: This study assessed the extent to which eating solid foods and social contacts influence nibbling objects and improve the welfare of veal calves. Animals were fed milk replacer only vs. supplemented with solid foods and were housed in individual stalls vs. together in pens. Time budget, reactions to handling in a weighing machine, growth, health (length of medical treatments) and abomasal lesions were assessed. In addition, chronic activation of the hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenocortical axis was evaluated after ACTH and CRF challenges, and that of the sympathetic nervous system, through activities of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes. The provision of solid foods reduced time spent nibbling objects and being inactive in proportion to and at the time of the increase in time spent eating and chewing. The calves housed together in pens had higher basal cortisol levels and they reacted to weighing. Health and physiological indices of chronic stress did not vary with feeding or housing conditions. It is concluded that nibbling in veal calves derives at least in part from a lack of development of feeding behaviour appropriate to ruminants. There was no clear evidence of poorer welfare due to feeding on milk replacer only or individual housing, but calves reared in groups seemed more stressed by handling than calves reared in individual stalls.
Keywords: oral activities, food, chewing, feeding behavior, milk replacer, social contacts, individual housing, group housing, stalls, pens, time budget, handling, growth, health, medical, treatments, lesions, sympathetic nervous system, stress response, enzymes, basal, cortisol, chronic stress conditions, development.

Veissier, I., P. Chazal, P. Pradel, and P. Le Neindre (1997). Providing social contacts and objects for nibbling moderates reactivity and oral behaviors in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 75(2): 356-365, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the role of social and physical enrichment in the adaptation of veal calves totheir environment. We compared calves housed in individual stalls that varied in the extent of contacts they allowed between neighbors (16 calves: open partitions; 16 calves: solid partitions; 32 calves: solid and extended partitions preventing all contact). All but 16 out of the 32 isolated calves were provided with a piece of tire and a chain, objects they could easily nibble. We assessed time budget, behavioral reactions to a water throw, neuroendocrine responses to stress (ACTH challenge and catecholamine synthesis), health, and growth. Calves kept in isolation displayed more startled reactions (16 isolated calves vs 5 non-isolated calves were startled by the throw, P < .05). Calves without objects spent more time nibbling at the feeding grille (5 vs 3% time, P < .01), licking their lips and tongue-rolling (7 vs 4% time, P <.05). Social contacts and the provision of objects had no incidence on neuroendocrine measurements and growth. Contacts with neighbors resulted in a slight but nonsignificant rise in disease. Depriving calves of social contacts increases behavioral reactivity, probably because there are no peer animals through which reactions can be moderated, and the lack of adequate objects to nibble promotes self-directed activities.
Keywords: calves, animal behavior, neurohormones, stress, veal, calf housing, stalls, group size, animal welfare, partitions, enrichment, toys, grooming, fright, rest, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress response, breed differences, Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliard, health, lesions, stomach ulcers, scars, nibbling, sniffing, lip-licking, tongue-rolling.

Veissier, I., V. Gesmier, P. Le Neindre, J.Y. Gautier, and G. Bertrand (1994). The effects of rearing in individual crates on subsequent social behaviour of veal calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(3/4): 199-210, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: veal calves, social behavior, housing, isolation rearing, crates.

Ventura, P.G. (1999). European cow-sheds ever more economic in 2000. [Sempre piu economica la stalla europea del 2000.] Informatore Agrario 55(25): 38-41.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cattle housing, design, costs, waste management, construction materials, netting walls, European Union Countries, Italian language.

Ventura, P.G. (1997). Ways of increasing the well-being of high-yielding dairy cows. [Soluzioni per aumentare il benessere delle bovine da latte ad alta produzione.] Informatore Agrario 53(35): 77-79.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: cow housing, barn roof design, ventilation, drinking water, cubicles, bedding, flooring, skin and foot care, Italy, Italian language.

Vokey F.J., C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and D.M. Galton (2001). Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free‑stall barn. Journal of Dairy Science 84(12): 2686‑99, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy herd, housing, alley surfaces, grooved concrete, rubber mats, free stall beds, deep sand, rubber mattresses, concrete, sawdust, hind claws, hocks, lesions, dorsal wall length, heel depth, toe angle, digital dermatitis, scoring.

Wandel, H. and T. Jungbluth (1997). Assessing new design of lying boxes for cows. [Bewertung neuer Liegeboxenkonstruktionen.] Landtechnik 52(5): 266-267, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, design, construction, costs, cubicles, boxes, husbandry, mats, floors, German language.

Webster, A.J.F. (2001). Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactation. The Veterinary Journal 162 (1): 56‑65, ISSN: 1090‑0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: This paper describes a systematic study of the development of lesions of the claw horn (CHL, sole and white line) in heifers calving for the first time, housed either in cubicles or a straw yard and fed either a low‑ or high‑dry‑matter forage diet. The feet of all animals were inspected on five occasions, at approximately four weeks before and four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks post calving. Haemorrhagic lesions of the sole and white line were described according to a geometric lesion score for severity and a cumulative lesion score based on the product of (severity x area) for each lesion. Geometric and cumulative lesion scores increased in all groups of cattle in the first eight weeks after calving. However, the severity and persistence of the lesions were significantly greater in cattle housed in cubicle yards. Wet feeding increased the severity of CHL in the cubicle yard only. There were no associations between lesion scores and body weight, body condition or foot conformation. The heels of the cattle in straw yards tended to be thick but many showed pitting erosions. In cubicles the heels were smooth but thin. This may have contributed to CHL by increasing concussive forces within the hoof. There was a highly significant (but relatively low) correlation between scores for sole lesions and lameness in individual animals. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that systemic events associated with calving and the onset of lactation may set in motion the chain of events that lead to the lesions of CHL; the extent and severity of these lesions being then determined by the externally imposed conditions of housing and feeding.
Keywords: heifers, calving, lactation, cow housing, cubicles,straw yards, forage, dry matter, cattle feeding, moisture, interactions, claws, lesions, body weight, body condition, risk factors, hemorrhage, conformation, feet, lameness, etiology.

Wiederkehr, T.U., K. Friedli, and B. Wechsler (2001). Influence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systems. [Einfluss von regelmassigem Auslauf auf das Vorkommen und den Schweregrad von Sprunggelenksschaden bei Milchvieh im Anbindestall.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 163‑170.
Keywords: dairy cows, disease prevention, exercise, joint diseases, hock lesions, lameness, exercise, lying area, litter, German language.

Wilson, L.L., T.L. Terosky, C.L. Stull, and W.R. Stricklin (1999). Effects of individual housing design and size on behavior and stress indicators of special-fed Holstein veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 77(6): 1341-1347, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine effects of housing design (calves tethered in open stalls vs untethered in individual pens) and widths of 56, 66, and 76 cm (2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments) on indicators of stress and behavior in special-fed veal calves. Three production cycles (groups) were used, each with 36 Holstein bull calves. Calves (n = 108) were randomly allotted to treatments upon arrival at the facility. Blood samples were collected four times (wk 4, 9, 13, and 18) during the 18-wk production cycle. Blood serum values for cortisol and (alpha1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) exhibited few treatment differences. Blood leukocyte differential counts at 4 and 18 wk (segmented neutrophils [N], banded neutrophils, lymphocytes [L], basophils, and the N:L ratio) were not different (P > .05) among housing designs or widths. However, there were differences (P < .05) in monocytes and eosinophils during the 28-d period after arrival; calves in stalls 76 cm wide had the greatest percentage of both leukocytes, and calves in the 66-cm stalls had the lowest monocyte percentage. Calves were recorded on videotape during wk 4, 13.5, and 18 to determine frequencies and durations of postures and behaviors (e.g., lying, standing, chewing, tongue playing, grooming, and investigative activities). There were no consistent differences (P > .05) in postures or behaviors among calves in different housing designs or widths. Calves spent approximately 71 and 31% in lying and standing positions, with no preference for the right or left side while recumbent. There was a tendency for calves in wider stalls or pens at wk 9 and 18 to exhibit more self-grooming activities. Tongue playing and investigative and chewing activities were exhibited in all teatments, but no differences (P > .05) were observed. However, calves housed in the 56-cm pens displayed difficulty in changing from lying to a standing position and were unable to extend one or more legs while recumbent. Even though there were few differences in behavioral, physiological, growth, or anatomical traits in this study, further increases in age and (or) weight of finished calves will require a reassessment of the appropriateness of individual veal calf housing design and dimensions.
Keywords: calves, young animals, Holstein, stress, veal calves, basophils, blood serum, hydrocortisone, eosinophils, glycoproteins, grooming, leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, tethered housing, cattle housing, animal welfare, animal experiments, hematology, blood chemistry, calf housing, stalls, pens, cubicles.

Yamamoto, S., B.A. Young, B.P. Purwanto, F. Nakamasu, and T. Matsumoto (1994). Effect of solar radiation on the heat load of dairy heifers solar-radiation. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 45(8): 1741-1749.
NAL Call No.: 23 Au783
Keywords: dairy heifers, respiration rate, mean body temperature, effective temperature, heat load, solar radiation, thermoregulation, respiration rate, heat production, heart rate, shading, summer, autumn, equations.

Zahner, M., M. Keck, W. Langhans, B. Wechsler, and R. Hauser (2001). Influence of weather protection in winter on ethological and physiological parameters in dairy cows. [Einfluss von Witterungsschutz im Winter auf ethologische und physiologische Parameter bei Milchkuhen.] KTBL‑Schrift 403: 28‑36.
NAL Call No.: 18 K96
Keywords: dairy cows, housing, cubicles, winter weather, cold, stress, body temperature, heart rate, milk cortisol.


Return to
Table of Contents
January 17, 2003