Baumgartner, G. (1999). General regulations for the humane husbandry of livestock. [Rahmenbedingungen fur die tierschutzgerechte Haltung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere.] Zuchtungskunde 71(1): 2-7, ISSN: 0044-5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: animal welfare, legislation, livestock, husbandry, Europe, German language.

Bazeley, K., G. Anderson, and A. Hibbert (2000). Measurement of the quality of stockmanship. Cattle Practice 8(1): 13-14, ISSN: 0969-1251.
NAL Call No.: SF961 C37
Keywords: stockmen, dairy cattle, cows, animal welfare, husbandry, United Kingdom.

Bewley, J., R.W. Palmer, and D.B. Jackson‑Smith (2001). An overview of experiences of Wisconsin dairy farmers who modernized their operations. Journal of Dairy Science 84(3):717‑29.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: farm expansion, modernization, production increase, herd size, milk production, labor efficiency, herd performance, profitability, labor management, financing, loan procurement, construction and cost overruns, feet and leg health.

Brade, W. (2001). Comparison of automatic and conventional milking systems. [Automatische und konventionelle Melksysteme im Vergleich]. Berichte ueber Landwirtschaft 79(2): 275‑292, ISSN: 0005‑9080.
NAL Call No.: 18 G31
Keywords: dairy cows, farmer, automatic milking system, cost effectiveness, milk collection method, milk quality, quality of life, German language.

Brade, W. (2001). Precision farming in animal husbandry. [Precision farming in der tierischen Erzeugung.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (11): 582‑590, ISSN: 0049‑3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy farming, cattle feeding, machine milking, animal recognition, automatic data collection, German language.

Breuer, K., P.H. Hemsworth, J.L. Barnett, L.R. Matthews, and G.J. Coleman (2000). Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66(4): 273-288, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cattle, cows, productivity, attitudes, stockmen, dairy farms, animal behavior, fearfulness, vocalization, stress response, trauma, animal welfare, milk yield, milkers, milk yield, milk protein, milk yield, milk fat.

Buchwalder, T., T. Oswald, and B. Wechsler (1999). Alternatives to the cow trainer: evaluation of cow behaviour when using the Albrecht iron and the aktorik. [Alternativen zum elektrischen Kuhtrainer: Beurteilung des Verhaltens der Kuhe unter dem Albrecht-Bugel und unter der Aktorik.] Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT), Switzerland, No. 535, 8p., ISSN: 1018-502X.
NAL Call No.: S671.B55
Keywords: cows, restraint of animals, housing, animal behavior, animal welfare, movement, electric current, cow trainers, equipment, waste disposal, cattle manure, Switzerland, German language.

Choi, D.Y., H.T. Kim, D.W. Lee, J.D. Han, H.S. Kang, D.J. Kwon, and S.K. Lee (2001). A computer vision system for weighing dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 43 (1): 131-138.
NAL Call No.: SF1.H36
Keywords: Holstein Friesian, breed, dairy cows, body weight, computer vision system, pixel values of images, top and side view of dairy cow, cameras, personal computer, effect of light reflection, dark illumination.

Davis, S.R., V.C. Farr, and K. Stelwagen (1999). Once-daily milking of dairy cows: an appraisal. In: 59th conference, Holy Cross College, Mosgiel, 28 June-1 July 1999, Vol.59, p.36-40, Dairy Science Group, AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre: Hamilton, New Zealand.
Keywords: milking, cows, milk quality, milk yield, milking interval, costs, economics, productivity, milk composition, cow comfort, animal welfare.

Devir, S., J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen, and P.J.M. Huijsmans (1996). Validation of a daily automatic routine for dairy robotic milking and concentrates supply. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 64(1): 49-60, ISSN: 0021-8634.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Keywords: automatic system, diet, concentrate supplementation, Freisian-Holstein, breed.

Eicher, S.D., J.L. Morrow-Tesch, J.L. Albright, J.W. Dailey, C.R. Young, and L.H. Stanker (2000). Tail-docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83(7): 1456-1462, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Behavioral and physiological changes were measured following tail-docking in primiparous heifers. One month before projected first parturition, 21 heifers were assigned to control (nondocked), docked, or docked with lidocaine groups. Heifers were banded to initiate taildocking and the necrotic tail was removed after 144 h. Physiological, immunological, and behavioral measures were taken for 240 h following banding. Cortisol was not different for control and treated heifers. Haptoglobin increased for docked heifers by 168 h postbanding (24 h postdocking). alpha1-Acid glycoprotein decreased as haptoglobin increased, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein increased until 240 h postbanding. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased only with lidocaine and did not show an effect of docking by 240 h postbanding. Lymphocyte phenotyping demonstrated increased CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells for docked plus lidocaine heifers and gammadelta+ cells of those heifers tended to be reduced compared with docked heifers. Eating was the only maintenance behavior affected by banding in both docked groups (increased with banding and decreased with docking). The initial banding procedure did not alter heifer physiology and altered only eating behavior, but the cutting of the tail (docking) increased haptoglobin in response to the tissue damage and turned eating behavior to baseline. The use of lidocaine to anesthetize the tail before banding affected lymphocyte henotypes and TNF-alpha (banding alone did not alter these parameters).
Keywords: heifers, animal behavior, docking, feeding behavior, haptoglobins, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, lymphocytes, stress, tail, tumor necrosis factor.

Fossing, C., M. Vaarst, C.M. Christensen, S.M. Thamsborg, E.M. Vestergaard, C.L. Ingvartsen, T.W. Bennedsgaard (2001). Improving welfare in organic dairy cattle. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol, eds., p.151, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal welfare, coccidiosis, parasites, dairy cattle, homeopathy, organic farming.

Frazzi, E. (2001). How to adapt the stable to the milking robot. [Come adattare la stalla al robot di mungitura.] Informatore Agrario 57(18): 58‑62, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: dairy cows, animal welfare, dairy farming, machine milking, milking machines, milking robots, comfort, design, milking parlors, movement of cows, Italian language, Netherlands.

Fuchs, C. (2001). Economic efficiency of intensive and extensive animal husbandry. [Okonomischer Nutzen von extensiver und intensiver Tierproduktion.] Praktische Tierarzt 82(8): 578-585, ISSN: 0032‑681X.
NAL Call No: 41.8 P882
Keywords: agricultural economics, animal welfare, beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, climate, grazing, intensive husbandry, housing, straw handling, labor costs, research, German language.

Gobbel, T. (1998). Opportunities only for big farms with best performance: milk production in Wisconsin. [Chance nur fur grosse Betriebe mit Hochstleistungen: Milchproduktion in Wisconsin.] Milchpraxis 36(4): 196-199, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farms, milk production, milking techniques, nutrition, animal welfare, cattle feeding, machine milking, milk prices, cows, German language.

Fuhrmann, T. (2001). Dairy heifer replacements: Caring for the future. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1387‑1388, ISSN: 0003‑1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: National Animal Health Monitoring System; animal welfare, herd size, ethics.

Giovannini, G., and A. Zecconi (2001). Tools of production and health management: autocontrol in dairy cattle rearing. [Come strumento di produzione e di gestione sanitaria: l'autocontrollo negli allevamenti bovini.] Informatore Agrario 57(19): 67‑69, ISSN: 0020‑0689.
NAL Call No.: 281.8 IN32
Keywords: health, dairy cattle, dairy industry, farm management, guidelines, livestock, mastitis, milk products, sanitary risks, monitoring, productivity, quality controls, Italian language.

Graham, M.H.(2001). Voltage compensation circuit and method for reducing electric shocks to teats of an animal during its milking. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1246(4): Pagination May 22, 2001, Patent Number: US 6234108, ISSN: 0098‑1133.
NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Keywords: dairy cow, equipment, milk pipeline, milk stream, method for reducing electric shocks to cows during milking.

Hamann, J. (2001). Actual aspects on automatic milking systems. [Aktuelle aspekte zum einsatz automatischer melkverfahren.] DTW Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrif 108 (3): 110-112.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: dairy cows, automatic milking systems, working conditions, quality of life of the dairy farmer, performance status of the cow, milk quality, milk hygiene regulations, udder health, German language.

Hamann, J., V. Bronzo, P. Moroni, A. Casula, and A. Zecconi (2001). Conventional and positive pressure pulsation effects on bovine teats and on immunological components of different milk fractions. Milchwissenschaft 56 (8): 423-427.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: physical forces, mechanical milking, changes in the teat tissue, blood circulation, cell population, teat tissue immune status, positive pressure milking system, conventional milking unit, relationship between machine milking and changes in differential cell counts.

Heissenhuber, A., and H. Hoffmann (2001). Intensive or extensive milk production? [Intensive oder extensive Milcherzeugung?] Zuechtungskunde 73(6): 422‑429, ISSN: 0044‑5401.
NAL Call No.: 49 Z8
Keywords: agricultural intensity, building costs, environmental incentives, extensive milk production, farm management, farming efficiency, feed costs, forage costs, intensive milk production, location quality, organizational intensity, price‑cost ratio, German language, Germany.

Hill, J. (2001). Dairy research in New Zealand. Milchwissenschaft 56(9): 484‑487, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: animal health, welfare, dairy foods, dairy product, dairy research, food ingredients, food processing, genetics, research and development, literature review.

Hogeveen, H., W. Ouweltjes, C.J.A.M de Koning, and K. Stelwagen (2001). Milking interval, milk production and milk flow‑rate in an automatic milking system. Livestock Production Science 72(1‑2): 157‑167, ISSN: 0301‑6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: milking robot, automatic milking, voluntary visits by cow, milk flow rate, milking interval, milk production, variation, udder health.

Hopster, H., J.T.N. van der. Werf, J.H.F. Erkens, H.J. Blokhuis (March 1999). Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 77(3): 708-714, ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract: In three experiments, the effects of venipuncture on plasma cortisol concentrations were studied in loose-housed dairy cows. In Exp. 1, two blood samples were collected 18 min apart on three alternate days from 20 dairy cows for studying their adrenocortical response to a single venipuncture. To further evaluate the effect of cows anticipating venipuncture, in Exp. 2, 15 dairy cows were sequentially venipunctured once daily on 12 successive days in a randomized order in groups of five, starting 15 min apart. In Exp. 3, 10 primiparous cows were used on three alternate days to study habituation to serial sampling (i.e., collection of first blood samples by venipuncture, 15min apart). In cows accustomed to handling, jugular puncture did not affect cortisol concentrations in plasma collected 18 min later. Average daily cortisol concentrations varied between 2.07 +/- .38 and 3.81 +/- .56 ng/mL in the first (t = 0) and between 1.43 +/- .15 and 2.61 +/- .72 ng/mL in the second (t = 18) blood samples. Likewise, when cows were sampled sequentially once a day, the order of sampling between and within groups did not influence (P > .05) plasma cortisol concentrations. In contrast, primiparous dairy cows that were less used to being handled showed an average increase in cortisol concentrations when five samples were collected by venipuncture 15 min apart. During successive sampling sessions, however, the cows did not decrease of increase plasma cortisol concentrations in response to repeated serial sampling at the group level (P > .05). Between individuals, the maximum effect of repeated venipuncture on cortisol concentrations (4.5 to 22.6 ng/mL), the time at which the effect reached its maximum (30 to 60 min), and the consistency of the response pattern over successive series varied largely. The results of this study show that in cows that were accustomed to the handling and to being restrained, baseline cortisol concentrations can be measured in single blood samples that are collected by jugular puncture within 1 min after first approaching the cow. When successive blood samples need to be collected within 15 to 20 min, jugular puncture may induce an increase in cortisol concentration, which seems to depend on the handling experience of the animals and on individual differences.
Keywords: dairy cows, blood chemistry, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress, jugular vein, acclimatization, animal welfare.

Ipema, A.H. (1997). Integration of robotic milking in dairy housing systems. Review of cow traffic and milking capacity aspects. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 17(1): 79-94, ISSN: 0168-1699.
NAL Call No.: S494.5 D3C652
Keywords: milking, housing systems, review, cow integration.

Jago, J.G., C.C. Krohn, and L.R. Matthews (Feb. 15, 1999). The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3): 137-151, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750
Keywords: calves, artificial rearing, feeding, handling, approach behavior, group size, liveweight gain.

Kashiwamura, F., J. Suda, K. Furumura, S. Hidaka, T. Seo, and T. Iketaki (2001). Habituation training for dairy cattle to milking boxes of new installed automatic milking system. Animal Science Journal 72 (8): J266-J273, ISSN: 1344‑3941.
NAL Call No.: SF1 A542
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, training of cows to enter milking boxes, automatic milking system, conventional stanchion stall barn, free stall barn, entrance gate, alley, three tandem milking boxes, parameters observed, duration of passing through the entrance gate, duration from passing the gate to entering into a milking box, score of training difficulty, number of trainings required for the cows to enter the milking box without difficulty.

Kjaestad, H.P., and E. Simensen (2001). Management of calving in Norwegian cubicle‑housed dairy herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 42 (1): 131‑137, ISSN: 0044‑605X.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC87
Keywords: animal housing, calves, calving, cows, dairy cows, management, location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence, assisted births, suckling, time after birth when cow and calf were separated, cubicles, pasture, calving pens, tethered cows, calf injuries, sheds, surveys, Norway.

Kotting, C., H. Seufert, H.P. Schwarz, and J. Hesse (1999). Milking and milking technique in the USA. [Melkverfahren und Melktechnik in den USA.] Milchpraxis 37(1): 26-28, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farms, cows, milking, milking machines, udders, cleaning, movement, human behavior, animal behavior, milking parlors, automation, milkers, techniques, German language.

Krohn, C.C. (2001). Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (3): 271-280, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, calves, different suckling systems, industrial countries, milk production, udder health, reproduction, behavior, gain, health, suckling systems, long term suckling, short term suckling, colostrum period, restricted versus free suckling systems, suckling decreases the risk of mastitis, post partum interval.

Lawson, T.J., and A.D. Kennedy ( 2001). Inhibition of nighttime melatonin secretion in cattle: threshold light intensity for dairy heifers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 153-156.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163
Keywords: heifers, Holstein, breed, melatonin secretion, lower light intensities, plasma melatonin concentrations.

Ledin, I. and A. Lema (1996). An eye for the animals: a necessary competence in Swedish milk production? In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 106-113, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy farming, cows, husbandry, animal welfare, milk production, farmers' attitudes, farmer interviews, Sweden.

Lewis, N.J. and J.F. Hurnik (1998). The effect of some common management practices on the ease of handling of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58(3): 213-230, ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: management, temperament, animal behavior, handling, human-animal interactions.

Masoero, G., G. Bergoglio, C.F. Cereti, and L. Cialie Rosso (1996). Stocking rate on pasture and productive response of Valdostana Red Pied and Piedmont cattle for veal or milk production. [Intensita di carico al pascolo e risposte produttive da bovine Valdostane p.r. e Piemontesi munte o allattanti.] Rivista di Agronomia 31(Supplement 1): 337-340, ISSN: 0035-6034.
NAL Call No.: S9.R58
Keywords: dairy cows, nursing cows, Red Pied and Piedmont, breed, stocking rate, high, low, milk, milk yield, veal, pastures, Italy, Piedmont, Italian language.

Mauries, M., G. Allard, J.C. Emile, D. Parent, D. Pellerin, and F. Sarrazin (1998). Producing organic milk: making the transition successfully. [Produire du lait biologique: reussir la transition.] Editions France Agricole: Paris, France, 192p., ISBN: 2-85-557039-5.
Keywords: organic farming, farm management, dairy farms, monitoring, ecosystems, soil, fertilizers, grasslands, grassland management, soil amendments, rotations, regulations, farmers' associations, cost analysis, conflict, animal welfare, book, French language, France, Quebec, Canada.

Mayntz, M., R. Sederstrom, and G. Sender (2001). Quantitative effect of after milking stimulation on milk yield and fat composition in dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (2): 107-113, ISSN: 0906-4702.
NAL Call No.: S3 A27
Keywords: cows, Swedish Red and White, breed, milking stimulation, pushes towards the teat base, hand milking bouts, milk yield, blood serum, fat content, fatty acids,

Morita, S., K. Uetake, S. Shimizu, K. Yayou, S. Kume, T. Tanaka, and S. Hoshiba (2001). Evaluation of routine rearing work for human animal interactions in commercial dairy farm. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University Natural Science 25 (2): 263-269.
NAL Call No.: QH7 J68
Keywords: stockperson's working position, human animal relationship, contact with cows, flight distance.

Munksgaard, L., A.Md. Passille, J. Rushen, K. Thodberg, and M.B. Jensen (1997). Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal of Dairy Science 80(6): 1106-1112, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: This study examined whether dairy cows could distinguish among people based on the treatment received, whether cows used color as a cue to make this discrimination, and whether cows generalized their discrimination to other locations. Twelve cows were each repeatedly treated in a special treatment stall by two people wearing red or yellow overalls. One person always treated the cows aversively, and the other always treated them gently. The distance between each person and each cow in the home stall and in the treatment stall was scored during tests. Before treatment, the distances that cows maintained from the two people were uncorrelated, and the distances that they maintained in the treatment stall were uncorrelated with those in the home stall. Before and after treatments, the cows stood further from the handlers in the treatment stall than in the home stall, regardless of color of the overalls. Defecation and urination were more frequent during aversive treatments. After treatment, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler in both stalls, and distance from the aversive handler was positively correlated with distance from the gentle handler. The cows did not discriminate when the aversive and gentle handlers wore blue overalls (as worn by the usual barn handlers), when two unfamiliar people wore the same color overalls as the handlers, or when the cows were shown photographic slides of the two handlers. In conclusion, the cows learned to discriminate among the handlers, partially based on the color of the clothes worn. This discrimination was generalized to another location.
Keywords: cows, breed, Friesian, husbandry, animal welfare, stress, animal behavior, stockmen, color of clothes worn, descrimination, rough versus gentle handling, Denmark.

Norman, H.D., J.L. Edwards, J.R. Wright (2001). Accuracy of recorded birth and calving dates of dairy cattle in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 84(9): 2089‑2096, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: husbandry, record keeping, birth recording, accuracy, calving dates, cow age, herd size, standardized yield, fitness records, genetic evaluations, USA.

Ordolff, D. (2001). Introduction of electronics into milking technology. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 30 (1-3): 125-149.
NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
Keywords: machine milking, milk flow, application of electricity, electronic components, sensors, control units, teat cups, automatic checks of udder condition, milk quality, on line milk analysis, dairy farmer, technology, former German Democratic Republic,

Paranhos da Costa, M.J.R. and D.M. Broom. (2001). Consistency of side choice in the milking parlour by Holstein‑Friesian cows and its relationship with their reactivity and milk yield. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 177‑186, ISSN: 0168‑1591.
NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, behavior, temperament, milking, milking parlors, milk yield, animal welfare, milking side preferences.

Ruegg, P.L. (2004). Tail docking and animal welfare. Bovine Practitioner 38(1): 24-29.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5 A1B6
Abstract: Tail docking is a common practice on many dairy farms, and is perceived by many farmers to improve cleanliness and enhance milking parlour efficiency. It is a controversial practice attracting increasing scrutiny by the animal welfare community. Scientific studies have been performed to evaluate physiological and behavioural responses to tail docking in preweaned calves and preparturient heifers. The effect of tail docking on animal behaviour, indicators of pain, fly avoidance behaviours, immune responses and circulating plasma cortisol have been reported. Additional studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of tail docking on cleanliness and udder health in lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this paper is to review current research related to tail docking in dairy cattle.
Keywords: animal behavior, husbandry, animal welfare, blood chemistry, calves, dairy cows, heifers, hygiene, docking, hydrocortisone, immune response, pain, surgery, tail, udders.

Reubold, H. (1999). Automatic water dispensers tested by the DLG. [DLG-geprufte Selbsttranken.] Milchpraxis 37(3): 148-153, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: livestock, drinkers, design, installation, water troughs, bowl drinkers, dispensers, testing, characteristics, evaluation, Germany, German language.

Rossing, W, E. Aurik, and W. Smit (1998). Robot milking systems and the integration in the dairy farm: Automatic Milking. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, January 28-30, 1998, J.P. Chastain (ed.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, p. 61-70, ISSN: 0-92-935589-X.
NAL Call No.: SF506 I58 1998
Keywords: dairy cows, automatic milking system design, social aspects, animal welfare, milk yield, milk quality, milking interval, individual cow management.

Rossing, W., P.H. Hogewerf, A.H. Ipema, C.C. KetelaarDeLauwere, and C.J.A.Md. Koning (1997). Robotic milking in dairy farming. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 45(1): 15-31, ISSN: 0028-2928.
Keywords: cows, milk yield, animal welfare, labor, dairy farming, robots, automation, machine milking, milking parlors, dairy farms, reviews, Netherlands.

Sandoe, P., L. Munksgaard, N.P. Badsgard, and K.H. Jensen (1996). How to manage the management factor: assessing animal welfare at the farm level. In: Livestock Farming Systems: More than Food Production. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Foulum, Denmark, August 22-23, 1996, J.T. Sorensen (ed.), Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 221-230, ISSN: 9-07-413449-1.
NAL Call No.: 49.9 Eu7 no.89
Keywords: dairy cattle, dairy farms, animal welfare assessment, effects of management, reviews.

Schon, H. and G. Wendl (2000). Precision animal husbandry. [Rechnergestutzte Tierhaltung.] Landtechnik 55(3): 238-239, ISSN: 0023-8082.
NAL Call No.: 58.8 L235
Keywords: animal welfare, intensive husbandry, precision agriculture, data records, computer-aided methods, individual electronic animal identification, feeding, resting, milking, costs, dairy farms, husbandry, German language.

Schreiner, D.A.and P.L Ruegg (2002). Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (10): 2503-2511, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking.
Keywords: dairy cows, tail docking, somatic cell count, milk, hygiene, udders, legs, bovine mastitis, pathogens, contagious pathogens, environmental pathogens, stalls, Wisconsin.

Schreiner, D.A. and P.L. Ruegg (2002). Responses to tail docking in calves and heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (12): 3287-3296, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42 d of age. Preparturient heifers (n = 24) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) tails were cleaned and handled; 2) tails were cleaned, handled, and an elastrator band was applied to the tail; 3) an epidural was administered 15 min before cleaning and handling; and 4) an epidural was administered 15 min before application of an elastrator band. Behavioral observations and physiological responses were collected for 6 wk. Additionally, behavioral responses to tail banding were recorded for 10 d on Holstein heifer calves that were 1 to 6 wk of age (n = 40). No significant differences in behavior were observed among treatment groups of preparturient heifers at any time during the 6-wk observation period. Preweaned calves that were 21 to 42 d of age demonstrated significantly more restlessness after application of tail bands compared to younger calves or control calves of the same age. Plasma cortisol values of preparturient heifers remained within limits previously described for nonstressed animals and no significant differences were detected among groups. Hematological values remained within the reference values for cattle, and there were no significant differences between groups except for relatively more eosinophils in the heifers that received epidurals. No significant differences in heart rate or body temperature were detected among groups.
Keywords: calves, heifers, tail docking, tail banding, behavior, posture, pain, conduction anesthesia, age differences, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, blood picture, heart rate, body temperature, animal welfare.

Seabrook, M.F. (1994). Psychological interaction between the milker and the dairy cow. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting 163-174, ISSN: 0271-9967.
NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Keywords: psychology, human animal interactions, man, perception, animal welfare.

Smolders, G. (2001). Animal management on organic dairy farms.[Diermanagement op biologische melkveebedrijven.] Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee 14(4): 31‑36, ISSN: 1569‑805X.
Keywords: dairy cows, age at first calving, age at first insemination, health, body condition, breeds, housing, dairy farming, farm management, fertility, milk, milk production, organic farming, somatic cell count, Dutch language, Netherlands.

Sorensen, A., D.D. Muir, and C.H. Knight (2001). Thrice‑daily milking throughout lactation maintains epithelial integrity and thereby improves milk protein quality. The Journal of Dairy Research 68 (1): 15‑253, ISSN: 0022‑0299.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: Cows managed for extended lactations of 16 months duration were milked on a half‑udder basis twice or thrice daily, commencing in lactation week 9.Mammary epithelial integrity (assessed by milk sodium:potassium ratio) was greater in the half‑udder which was milked thrice daily. This difference was evident throughout the lactation but became greater after week 41. Milk protein composition was assessed during late lactation (52+/‑3 weeks). Casein number (casein as a proportion of total protein) was significantly higher in half‑udders milked thrice daily, as were the relative amounts of alpha‑ and beta‑caseins, whilst those of kappa‑ and gamma‑caseins were reduced. Two days of inverted milking frequency (i.e. thrice‑milked udder halves now milked twice, and vice versa) only partly reversed these difference. We concluded that thrice‑daily milking will help to prevent or ameliorate the usual decline in milk processing quality associated with late lactation. Part of this effect is due simply to reduced exposure to proteolytic enzymes as a result of decreased storage time in the udder, but part is due to a better maintenance of epithelial tight junction integrity as lactation advances, which restricts leakage of proteolytic enzymes from serum into milk.
Keywords: dairy cows, milking, lactation, frequency, epithelium, milk protein, protein quality, milk composition, animal husbandry, sodium, potassium, ratios, mammary glands, protein composition, alpha‑casein, beta‑casein, gamma‑casein, kappa‑casein, processing quality, temporal variation.

Srairi, M.T., and M. El Khattabi (2001). Economical and technical performance of an intensive dairy cattle barn in a semi‑arid zone in Morocco. [Evaluation economique et technique de la production laitiere intensive en zone semi aride au Maroc.] Cahiers Agricultures 10 (1): 51-55.
NAL Call No.: S5 C34
Keywords: cows, Holstein, breed, economic profitability, intensive dairy cattle barn, breeding practices, seasonally dependent, weather changes, rainfall, drought, semi arid zone, availability of forage, milk yields, concentrates, artificial insemination, natural mating, calf mortality rate, production costs, feed costs, Morocco.

Stonehouse, D.P., E.A. Clark, and Y.A. Ogini (2001). Organic and conventional dairy farm comparisons in Ontario, Canada. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 19 (2): 115‑125, ISSN: 0144‑8765.
NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Keywords: husbandry, dairy cows, dairy farms, economic analysis, intensive livestock farming versus, organic farming, milk yield, costs, crop production, feed costs, replacement livestock. profits, Canada.

Stull, C., E. DePeters, and G. Beall (1993). Dairy Care Practices. Dairy Workgroup: University of California, Cooperative Extension, 48 p.
NAL Call No.: SF196 U6D35 1993
Keywords: calf care, heifer care, lactating cow care, dry cow care, care of dairy bulls, handling, slaughter, euthanasia, dairy industry in California.

Stull, C.L., Payne, M.A., Berry, S.L., and P.J Hullinger (2002). Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (9): 1298-1303, ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No: 41.8 Am3
Keywords: dairy cattle, tail docking, pain, animal welfare, regulations, methodology, physiological functions, animal behavior, insect control, animal health, public health, literature reviews.

Tozer, P.R., and A.J. Heinrichs (2001). What affects the costs of raising replacement dairy heifers: a multiple component analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (8): 1836-1844, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy replacement herd, model, herd variables, cost of rearing, age at first calving, calving interval, cull rate, preweaned calf deaths, Pennsylvania, United States.

Turki, H. and S. Winnicki (2001). Effect of premilking procedures of cows on milk flow duration and machine‑on time. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Zootechnica (42): 157‑162, ISSN: 1506‑1698.
NAL Call No.: 20.5 St4
Keywords: dairy cows, Holstein‑Friesian, breed, manually cleaning and drying the teats, machine milking, milk flow, milking, milking time, udder quarters.

Vargas, B., M. Herrero, and J.A.M. van Arendonk (2001). Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds. Livestock Production Science 69 (1): 17-31.
NAL Call No.: SF1 L5
Keywords: performance model, cull rate, artificial insemination, estimates, feed intake, milk yield body weight change, availability and quality of feed, interactions between nutrition, reproduction, breeding at the animal and herd level, Costa Rican herds.

Waiblinger, S., T. Baars, and C. Menke (2001). Understanding the cow: the central role of human animal relationship in keeping horned dairy cows in loose housing. In: Human Animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont‑ferrand, France, 21‑24 October 2000, M. Hovi and M. Bouilhol (eds.), p. 64-78, Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, ISBN: 0‑7049‑1094‑2.
Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, cattle housing, cows, dairy cows, loose housing, organic farming, stockmen.

Wendl, G, and K. Klindtworth (2000). Computer-supported production management in dairy farming. [Rechnergestutztes Produktionsmanagement in der Milchviehhaltung.] Milchpraxis 38(1): 9-13, ISSN: 0026-3753.
NAL Call No.: SF221 M5
Keywords: dairy farming, cows, computer monitored feeding, milk quality, milking machines, animal welfare, German language.

Wenzel, C. (2001). Initial ethological improvements for the management of cows milked by an automatic milking system.[Erste ethologische Empfehlungen zum Management von Milchrindern beim Melken in einem automatischen Melksystem.] Tierarztliche Umschau 56 (1): 21‑24, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: dairy cows, automation, milking, robots, management, milking parlors, stress, adaptation, animal welfare, milkers, milking robots, human animal relationships, German language.

Worstorff, H., and D. Weiss (2001). Performance of single teat cups in simulated automatic routines compared to conventional cluster milking of cows. Milchwissenschaft 56 (7): 363-366, ISSN: 0026‑3788.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Keywords: routines, automatic milking systems, teat cleaning, quarter milk flow, milking performance, twice daily milking, tandem boxes,, standard cluster, robot teat cups, milk flow, peak flow.

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January 2005