Bergeron, R., and N. Lewis (1999). Farm animal transportation, health and welfare. [Transport, sante et bien-etre des animaux de ferme.] Cahiers Agricultures 8(6): 437-444, ISSN: 1166-7699.
NAL Call No.: S5 C34
Keywords: animal welfare, health, transport, livestock, French language.

Eicher, S.D. (2001). Transportation of cattle in the dairy industry: current research and future directions. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Elect. Supplement): E19‑E23, ISSN: 0022‑0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Keywords: dairy cattle, calves, heifers animal welfare, transport, stress, stress factors, stress response, increased heart rate, cortisol concentrations, enzymatic changes, immunological effects, transport of animals, footing, driver, driving conditions, stocking density, postsecondary mortality.

Ferrari, A. (1999). Stress and the welfare of transported cattle. [Stress e benessere nel trasporto dei bovini.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 20(6): 43-46, ISSN: 0392-1913.
Keywords: road transport, animal welfare, stress, losses, Italian language.

Fisher, A. D., P.V. Pearce, and L.R. Matthews (1999). The effects of long haul transport on pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 47(5): 161-166, ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Keywords: dairy cows, breed, Jersey, pregnancy, long-haul transport, creatine kinase, supplementary feeding, body weight, transport of animals, rest, blood serum, blood chemistry, magnesium, mineral supplements, feed supplements.

Kolacz, R.(1999). European regulations affecting welfare of animals during transport. [Europejskie regulacje prawne dotyczace dobrostanu zwierzat gospodarskich podczas transportu.] Zycie Weterynaryjne 74(10): 491-497, ISSN: 0137-6810.
NAL Call No.: SF604 Z9
Keywords: cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, body weight, feeding, rest, transport of animals, animal welfare, Poland, Polish language.

Kreuzer, M., W. Langhans, F. Sutter, R.E. Christen, H. Leuenberger, and P.L. Kunz (1998). Metabolic response of early-lactating cows exposed to transport and high altitude grazing conditions. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 67(2): 237-248, ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Keywords: dairy cows, high altitude, transport of animals, adaptation, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, blood sugar, blood lipids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, lacticacid, urea, mountain grasslands, grazing, heat production, environmental temperature, duration.

Pearce, P. (1998). Effects of long distance travel on dairy cows. Surveillance (Wellington) 25(3): 8-9, ISSN: 0112-4927.
NAL Call No.: SF604.63 N45S87
Keywords: animal welfare, cows, dairy cows, transport of animals, health, New Zealand.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2001). Transport stress in dairy calves. Effects of rearing conditions on acid‑base balance, haematological variables, blood gas content and heart rate. [Transportbelastung bei Milchrindkalbern. Effekte von Aufzuchtbedingungen auf Saure‑Basen‑Status, hamatologische Variablen, Blutgasgehalte und Herzfrequenz.] Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere 29 (1): 8‑16, ISSN: 1434‑1220.
NAL Call No.: SF603.V43
Keywords: calves, housing, single box, blood sampling, blood chemistry, hematology, stress, transport of animals, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2000). Response of dairy calves to transport stress at 60 days of age. Effects of rearing conditions and development on selected physiological variables. [Reaktionen von Milchrindkalbern im Alter von 60 Lebenstagen auf Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen: Effekte durch Haltungsvarianten und Entwicklungsqualitat der Kalber auf physiologische Variablen und deren Anderungen.] DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 107(2): 59-65, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: stress, albumins, blood sampling, creatinine, heart rate, urea, blood chemistry, transport of animals, young animals, calves, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (2000). Transport stress in dairy calves. Effects of rearing conditions on metabolic and hormonal variables. [Transportbelastung bei Milchrindern: Effekte von Aufzuchtbedingungen auf metabolische und hormonelle Variablen.] Tierarztliche Umschau 55(1): 22-28, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: stress, physiological parameters, albumins, body temperature, body weight, creatinine, hormones, road transport, saliva cortisol, thyroid gland, thyroid hormones, urea, calves, transport of animals, blood chemistry, Germany, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H. Thielscher (1999). Maturity of suckler calves and dairy calves at 2- and 3-weeks-of-age and reactions to road transport. [Entwicklungsqualitat von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung und von Trankkalbern in der zweiten und dritten Lebenswoche sowie Reaktionen der Tiere auf den Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(2): 70-89, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: calves, transport stress, epinephrine, albumins, venous blood sampling, body temperature, cortisol, norepinephrine, heart rate, haemoglobin, hormones, metabolites, minerals, norepinephrine, thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, dairy cattle, suckler herds, blood chemistry, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Observations on acid-base balance, metabolic, hormonal variables and heart rate in dairy calves from the end of automatic milk feeding to transport by road. [Reaktionen von am Trankeautomaten aufgezogenen Milchrindkalbern am Ende der Milchernahrungsperiode auf Transportbelastung Saure-Basen-Status, metabolische und hormonelle Variablen und Herzschlagfrequenz.] Tierarztliche Umschau 54(11): 610-617, ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Keywords: calves, heart rate, milk production, transport of animals, albumins, body temperature, hydrocortisone, saliva cortisol, stress, urea, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, proteins, blood sampling, blood sugar, lactic acid, blood chemistry, acid base equilibrium, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1999). Response of animals to familiar and unfamiliar situations. Transport and temporary separation of suckled calves from the herd at different ages during rearing. Effect of playing recordings of maternal vocalization on hormones, heart rate and vocal responses. [Reaktionsmuster von Tieren auf gewohnte und ungewohnte Ereignisse. Transport und temporare Separation von Saugkalbern aus der Mutterkuhhaltung in verschiedenen Altersperioden wahrend der fruhen Aufzuchtperiode sowie Effekte der Prasentation von Muttertierrufen auf hormonelle Variablen, Herzfrequenz und Lautausserungen der Tiere.] Landbauforschung Volkenrode 49(3): 153-166, ISSN: 0458-6859.
NAL Call No.: 18 L2353
Keywords: cows, dams, heart, heart rate, young animals, vocalization, animal welfare, calves, body temperature, hydrocortisone, stress, German language.

Steinhardt, M., and H.H. Thielscher (1998). Effects of age and type of husbandry on the the response of dairy calves and suckled calves to transport by road.[Reaktionen junger Milchrindkalber und junger Saugkalber der Mutterkuhhaltung auf Transport mit Strassenfahrzeugen, Effekte durch Alter und Haltungsbedingungen.] DTW: Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 105(1): 17-24, ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Keywords: calves, road transport, stress response, heart rate, rectal temperature, age differences, bucket-fed versus suckled calves, German language.

Wilson, L.L., J.L. Smith, D.L. Smith, D.L. Swanson, T.R. Drake, D.R. Wolfgang, and E.F. Wheeler (April 2000). Characteristics of veal calves upon arrival, at 28 and 84 days, and at end of the production cycle. Journal of Dairy Science 83(4): 843-854, ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Holstein bull calves arriving at five special-fed veal farms (eight production groups) were scored for various physical condition traits and blood-sampled within 2 h after arrival and at 28 d, 84 d, and 1 wk prior to slaughter at 116 to 143 d. Of 1179 total calves in the production groups, 758 calves were scored and evaluated. Blood cell analyses (red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume) were conducted at all four sampling times, total serum protein concentration was obtained at 0 and 28 d. The study was initiated in autumn and ended the following autumn. Mean initial and final body weights were 46.3 +/- 0.17 and 209.7 +/- 0.77 kg, mean mortality was 2.5%. Average daily gain of the eight groups ranged from 1.23 to 1.70 kg/d. Subjective scores of 5 = excellent to 1 = very poor condition were used to evaluate 16 different physical condition characteristics. With the exception of leg joint, hoof, and foot scores, most of the physical condition scores exhibited improvement during the first 28 d. Foot and leg impairments did not appear to hinder the ambulatory ability of the calves during the production period. Physical condition scores at d 0 and 28 were generally not related to numbers or types of medical treatments (enteric, respiratory, other, or total) or to average daily gain during the production period. Means for most erythrocytic and leukocytic traits upon arrival (d 0) were within normal ranges, although 27.4% of the calves were clinically or marginally anemic. Final mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume were 8.53 g/dl and 26.1%. Forty-three percent of the calves at d 0 were colostral deficient, assuming that total serum protein concentrations of <5.5 g/dl indicate colostral deficiency. No blood trait was consistently correlated with body weight gain when gain during the production period was divided into quartiles and the blood traits were averaged by gain quartile. Calves in the lowest serum total protein quartile (mean 4.58 g/dl) had more respiratory and total medical treatments than quartiles with higher total protein means. Dairy bull calves arriving at veal production units after transporting from the dairy farm to the auction market (or other collection facility) have several physical impairments. However, most of these physical impairments are improved early in the veal feeding period and are not generally related to subsequent growth rate or medical treatment.
Keywords: veal calves, Holstein-Friesian, breed, milk substitutes, body weight, liveweight gain, body condition, animal health, mortality, respiratory diseases, hair, hooves, dehydration (physiological), joint diseases, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hemoglobin value, hematocrit, blood protein, anemia, medical treatment, colostral immunity, IGG.

Wilson, L.L., P.A. Nordstrom, M.J. Richards, D.L.Smith, and K.J. Vandergrift (March 1999). Dairy and veal producer assessment of changes in care, handling, and transportation factors. The Professional Animal Scientists 15(1): 24-33, ISSN: 1080-7446.
NAL Call No.: SF51.P76
Keywords: dairy cows, veal calves, calf production, milk production, cattle husbandry, artificial rearing, livestock numbers, transport of animals, stress management, loss prevention, health, animal welfare, ventilation.

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January 17, 2003