Antibiotic therapy in elephants. Olsen, John H. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy. 4th ed. Fowler, Murray E.; Miller, R. Eric. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. i-xxiii, p. 1-747. Chapter pagination: 533-541. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1999

            Descriptors: treatment techniques, antibiotic therapy in captivity, review.


Body size and record measurements of African and Asian elephants. Free living and working elephants in Asia, zoos and circuses. Anon. (Elephant documentation 1999). European Elephant Group. 1999. P. 1-160. Chapter pagination: 19-34.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: size, weight, field and captive data evaluation.


Browsing and grazing in elephants: the isotope record of modern and fossil proboscideans. Cerling, Thure E.; Harris, John M.; Leakey, Meave, G. Oecologia Berlin, Aug. 1999, v. 120 (3), p. 364-374.

            Descriptors: grass, plants, nutrition browsing diet.


Comments on “elephant hearing”. O’Connell, C.; Hart, L.A.; Arnason, B.T. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Mar. 1999, v. 105 (3), p. 2051-2052. ISSN: 0001-4966.

            NAL call no: QC221.A27

            Descriptors: elephant physiology, hearing physiology, sensory reception.


Developments in elephant breeding in Europe. Stock taking and future perspectives. Asian elephants and African elephants. Anon. (Elephant documentation 1999) European Elephant Group. 1999, p. 1-160: Chapter pagination: 93-112.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, breeding developments, reproductive techniques.


Death of elephants in zoos and circuses. Europe 1988-1999. The problem of bull care. Technique rather than space. Anon. (Elephant documentation 1999). European Elephant Group. 1999, p. 1-160. Chapter pagination: 75-92.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: population dynamics, care in captivity, bull care problems, solutions.


Diseases of the elephant: A review. Mikota, Susan L. Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 1999, v. 39, p. 1-15. ISSN: 0138-5003.

            NAL call no: SF996.I5

            Descriptors: diseases, signs and symptoms, parasites, review, elephants.


Dystocia in the elephant. Foerner, Joseph J. Zoo and wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 4th edition. Fowler, Murray E and Miller, R. Eric (Eds). W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1999. i-xxiii, p. 10747. Chapter pagination: 522-525. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1999

            Descriptors: diagnostic techniques, treatment techniques, dystocia, diagnosis, treatment.


Early sexual maturity and breeding ages of Asian and African elephants. Field Asian working camps and zoos. Anon. (Elephant documentation 1999) European Elephant Group. 1999, p. 1-160. Chapter pagination: 63-74.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: sexual maturation, maturity and breeding age, age.


Elephant dental pulp tissue: Where are the nerves? Fagen, D.A.; Benirschke, K.; Simon, J.H.; Roocroft, A. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Dec. 1999, v. 16 (4), p. 169-172. ISSN: 0898-7564.

            NAL call no: SF867.V47

            Descriptors: dental pulp innervation, anatomy, histology, blood supply.


Elephant herpes virus - a problem for breeding and housing of elephants. Burkhardt, Sabine; Hentschke, J.; Weiler, H.; Ehlers, B.; Ochs, A.; Walter, J.; Wittstatt, U.; Goltenboth, R. Berliner und Muenchener Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift, Jun. 1999, v. 112 (5), p. 174-179. ISSN: 0005-9366.

            Language: German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 B45

            Descriptors: care in captivity, herpes virus, diagnostic techniques, husbandry, breeding.


The elephant louse Haematomyzus elephantis in African and Asian elephants of the Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Tscherner, W.; Strauss, G. Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 1999, v. 39, p. 81-87. ISSN: 0138-5003.

            Language: German.

            NAL call no: SF996.I5

            Descriptors: parasite taxonomy, biology, infection pathology, management in captivity.


Elephants in Thailand: Determinants of health and welfare in working populations. Chatkupt, T.T.; Sollod, A.E.; Sarobol, S. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, Mahwah, N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 1999, v. 2 (3), p. 187-203. ref. ISSN: 1088-8705.

            NAL call no: HV4701.J68

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, animal welfare, animal husbandry, body condition.


Evaluation of carbohydrates of the dog, cat, and elephant zona pellucida using lectins. Barber, M.R.; Merkle, R.K.; Fayrer, Hosken R.A. Theriogenology, Jan. 1, 1999, v. 51 (1), p. 278. ISSN: 0093-691X.

            NAL call no: QP251.A1T5

            Descriptors: reproductive system, oocytes, zona pellucida, lectins.


Evolution of the motor system: Why the elephant’s trunk works like a human’s hand. Onodera, Satoru; Hicks, T. Philip. Neuroscientist, Jul. 1999, v. 5 (4), p. 217-226. ISSN: 1073-8584.

            Descriptors: evolution, adaptation, nervous system, motor system.


Growth and captively conditioned growth delay. African and Asian elephants. A comparison: Working elephants in Asia, imported elephants in zoos and circuses and elephants born in zoos. Anon. (Elephant Documentation 1999). European Elephant Group. 1999, p. 1-160. Chapter pagination: 35-62.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: biometrics, growth, natural and captive data evaluation.


Lactose-derived oligosaccharides in the milk of elephants: Comparison with human milk. Kunz, C.; Rudloff, S.; Schad, W.; Braun, D. British Journal of Nutrition, 1999, v. 82 (5), p. 391-399. ref. ISSN: 0007-1145.

            NAL call no: 389.8 B773

            Descriptors: human milk, oligosaccharides, milk composition, immunity.


Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. Richman, L.K.; Montali, R.J.; Garber, R.L.; Kennedy, M.A.; Lehnhardt, J.; Hildebrandt, T.; Schmitt, D.; Hardy, D.; Alcendor, D.J.; Hayward, G.S. Science, Washington, DC, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Feb. 19 1999, v. 283 (5405), p. 1171-1176. ref. ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL call no: 470 Sci2

            Descriptors: herpesviridae, fatal infections, zoo animals, polymerase chain reaction.


Nuclear insertion sequences of mitochondrial DNA predominate in hair but not in blood of elephants. Greenwood, A.D.; Paabo, S. Molecular Ecology, 1999, v. 8 (1), p. 133-137. ref. ISSN: 0962-1083.

            NAL call no: QH540.M64

            Descriptors: hair, blood, mitochondrial DNA, genetic variation, biotechnology.


Oral and nasal diseases of elephants. Kuntze, A.; Fowler, M.E. (Ed.); Miller, R.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4, 1999 ed. 4, p. 544-546. ref. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1999

            Descriptors: diseases, mouth, mouth diseases, trauma, nose, tooth diseases.


Physiological correlates of Musth: Lipid metabolites and chemical composition of exudates. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Perrin, T.E. Physiology and Behavior, 1999, v. 67 (4), p. 539-549. ISSN: 0031-9384.

            NAL call no: QP1.P4

Descriptors: sexual behavior, chemical communication, testosterone, chemical composition.


Polymorphism, homoplasy and evolutionary patterns in the Elephantidae. Todd, Nancy E. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Sept. 14, 1999, v. 19 (Suppl. 3), p. 80A-81A. ISSN: 0272-4634.

            Descriptors: evolution, adaptation, elephant.


Poxvirus infections in elephants. Kuntze, A.; Fowler, M.E. (Ed.); Miller, R.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4, 1999, Ed. 4, p. 547-550, ref. ISBN: 0721696648.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1999

            Descriptors: diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment.


Problems with ovarian dysfunction in elephants. Brown, J.L. Biology of Reproduction, 1999, v. 60 (Suppl. 1), p. 236. ISSN: 0006-3363.

            NAL call no: QL876.B5

            Descriptors: reproductive system, elephant, ovarian dysfunction.


Proboscidea. Lambert, W. David; Shoshani, Jeheskel. Evolution of Tertiary mammals of north America. Volume 1: terrestrial carnivores, ungulates, and ungulatelike mammals. Janis, Christine M.; Scott, Kathleen M.; Jacobs, Louis L. [Eds]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, New York & Melbourne. 1998: i-xii, 1-691. Chapter pagination: 606-621. ISBN: 0521355192

            Descriptors: elephants, mammals, Artiodactyla.


Standard guidelines for elephant management. Elephant Managers Association. Zoos’ Print Journal. Dec. 1999, v. 1-14 (3-12), p. 9-10. ISSN: 0971-6378.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, standard guidelines, Elephantidae.


A throbbing in the air: The discovery of infrasonic communication among elephants has given researchers a whole new way of hearing things. Ben-Ari, Elia T. Bioscience, May, 1999, v. 49 (5), p. 353-358. ISSN: 0006-3568.

            NAL call no: 500 AM322A

            Descriptors: communication, elephants, infrasonic, atmospheric effects.


Using novel phylogenetic methods to evaluate mammalian mtDNA, including amino acid-invariant sites-LogDet plus site stripping, to detect internal conflicts in the data, with special references to the position of hedgehog, armadillo, and elephant. Waddell, Peter J.; Cao, Ying; Hauf, Joerg; Hasegawa, Masami. Systematic Biology, Mar. 1999, v. 48 (1), p. 31-53. ISSN: 1063-5157.

            NAL call no: QH83.S9

            Descriptors: mitochondria, nucleic acids, molecular genetics, mtDNA, phylogeny.


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