Behavior / Care / Enrichment / Training / Handling / Transport

 

Behavioral and endocrine analysis of African and Asian elephant cows in the peripartal period. Szdzuy, K.; Denhard, M.; Strauss, G.; Ochs, A.; Eulenberger, K.; Hofer, H. Advances in Ethology, 2002, v. 37, p. 151. ISSN: 0931-4202.

            NAL call no: 410 Z35B

            Descriptors: stillbirth, reproductive system, disease, female.

 

Chemosignalling of musth by individual wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana): Implications for conservation and management. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Wittemyer, George. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, Apr. 22, 2002, v. 269 (1493), p. 853-860. ISSN: 0962-8542.

            NAL call no: 501 L84B

            Descriptors: communication, olfaction, musth, biophysics, elephant.

 

Simple enrichment techniques for bears, bats and elephants-untried and untested. Law, Graham; Kitchner, Andrew. International Zoo News, Jan./Feb. 2002, v. 49 (1), p. 4-12; No. 314. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, natural enrichment, simple feeding dispensers.

 

Visual displays of wild African elephants during musth. Kahl, M. Philip; Armstrong, Billie D. Mammalia, 2002, v. 66 (2), p. 159-171. ISSN: 0025-1416.

            NAL call no: 410 M31

            Descriptors: behavior, communication, reproduction, terrestrial ecology.

 

Behavioral ecology. Elephant matriarchs tell friend from foe. Pennisi, E. Science, Apr. 2001, v. 292 (5516), p. 417-419. ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL call no: 470 SCI2

            Descriptors: behavior, elephant physiology, discrimination, psychology.

 

A close call: Salient points of a serious elephant keeper injury by an adult African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Shellabarger, Wynona; Reichard, Timothy A. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference, Sept. 18-23, 2001, i-xx, p. 1-411. Chapter pagination: 273-274.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: handling and management policy, keeper injury, handling techniques.

 

DNA evidence for elephant social behavior breakdown in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Nyakaana, Silvester; Abe, Eve L.; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R. Animal Conservation, Aug. 2001, v. 4 (3), p. 231-237. ISSN: 1367-9530.

            NAL call no: QH75.A1A54

            Descriptors: behavior, elephants, social behavior, mitochondrial-nucleotide sequences.

 

The elephant’s foot: Prevention and care of foot conditions in captive Asian and African elephants. Csuti, B.; Sargent, E.L.; Bechert, U.S. 2001, i-vii, 163 p. ISBN: 0813828201.

            NAL call no: F997.5.E4E43 2001

            Descriptors: foot diseases, treatment, disease prevention.

 

Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants. McComb, E.; Moss, C.; Durant, S.M.; Baker, L.; Sayialel, S. Science, Apr. 20, 2001, v. 292 (5516), p. 491-494. ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL call no: 470 SC12

            Descriptors: age composition, memory, social interactions, breeding success.

 

Noninvasive stress and reproductive measures of social and ecological pressures in free-ranging African elephants. Foley, C.A.; Papageorge, S.; Wasser, S.K. Conservation Biology, Aug. 2001, v. 15 (4), p. 1134-1142. ISSN: 0888-8892.

            NAL call no: QH75.A2C5

            Descriptors: reproductive status, stress, social organization, feces.

 

Selective habitat utilization and impact on vegitation by African elephant within a heterogenous landscape. Steyn, A.; Stalmans, M. Koedo, 2001, v. 44 (1), p. 95-103. ISSN: 0075-6458.

            NAL call no: SB484.S6K6

            Descriptors: wildlife management, ecology, environment, impact, elephants.

 

African elephants and humans in conflict: The outlook for co-existence. Hoare, Richard. Oryx, Jan. 2000, v. 34 (1), p. 34-38. ISSN: 0030-6053.

            NAL call no: 410 OR9

            Descriptors: agriculture, animal-human conflict, land use, coexistance.

 

Older bull elephants control young males. Slotow, R.; Van Dyk, G.; Poole, J.; Page, B.; Klocke, A. Nature, Nov. 23, 2000, v. 408 (6811), p. 425-426. ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL call no: 472 N21

            Descriptors: elephants, physiology, behavior, sex, testosterone.

 

A preliminary study of the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment on African elephants. Stoinski, T.S.; Daniel, E.; Maple, T.L. Zoo Biology, New York, N.Y. Wiley-Liss, Inc. 2000, v. 19 (6), p. 485-493. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

Descriptors: animal feeding, animal behavior, physical activity, enrichment.

 

Seed dispersal by African elephants in semiarid woodland habitats of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Dudley, J.P. Biotropica, Sept. 2000, v. 32(3), p. 556-561. ISSN: 0006-3606.

            NAL call no: QH301.B52

            Descriptors: food plants, seed dispersal, role of importance in climate.

 

Transition and development of protected contact elephant program at the Dallas Zoo. Schanberger, Anita. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 2000, p. 165-166. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: care in captivity, protected contact management, Loxodonta africana.

 

Unusually extensive networks of vocal recognition in African elephants. McComb, Karen; Moss, Cynthia; Sayialel, Soila; Baker, Lucy. Animal Behavior, Jun. 2000, v. 59 (6), p. 1103-1109. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: communication, infrasonic contact call, vocal recognition.

 

What if? When protected contact elephant management isn’t. Kinzley, Colleen. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 2000, p. 157-160. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: care in captivity, protected contact management, Loxodonta africana.

 

Nocturnal behavior in a group of unchained female African elephants. Brockett, R.C.; Stoinski, T.S.; Black, J.; Markowitz, T.; Maple, T.L. Zoo Biology, New York, N.Y. Wiley-Liss, Inc. 1999, v. 18 (2), p. 101-109. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: restraint of animals, chains, nocturnal activity, animal behavior.

 

Painting as enrichment for Cheyenne Mountain Zoo’s 0.1 protected contact African elephant. Landucci, Gina; Dobrzelecki, Laura; Keefe, Kirk. Animal Keepers’ Forum, Oct. 1999, v. 26 (10), p. 400-404. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: painting as enrichment, behavioral enrichment, enrichment in captivity.

 

Relocation of African elephants. Raath, J.P.; Fowler, M.E. (Ed.); Miller, R.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4, 1999, Ed. 4, p. 525-533. ref. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1999

            Descriptors: transport of animals, immobilization, crates, anaesthesia.

 

Seed dispersal of Acacia erioloba by African bush elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Dudley, J.P. African Journal of Ecology, Dec. 1999, v. 37(4), p. 375-385. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 EA7

            Descriptors: seed digestibility, dung content, dry season, climate and weather, seed dispersal, role of importance.

 

The social context for learning and behavioral development among wild African elephants. Lee, Phyllis; Moss, Cynthia J. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London; Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Perspectives. 1999, v. 72, p. 102-125. ISSN: 0084-5612.

            NAL call no: QP301.V47

             Descriptors: behavioral development, learning, mother-infant relationships.

 

Elephant emotion. Sheldrick, Daphne. Elephant Care for the Wild International. Jordan, W.J.; Poole, Joyce; Sheldrick, Daphne; Gillson, Lindsey. Rusper, West Sussex. 1998, p. 1-127. Chapter pagination: 53-64.

            Descriptors: rearing techniques, hand rearing, rehabilitation, behavior, emotion.

 

Short-term gland secretion in the African elephant: Tourist disturbance or social interactions as source of secretion. Weibull, Ann Christin; Eriksson, Helena. African Journal of Ecology, Dec. 1998, v. 36 (4), p. 360-367. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: tourist disturbance, integumentary glands, reproductive behavior.

 

Aimed object-throwing by a wild African elephant in an interspecific encounter. Wickler, Wolfgang; Seibt, Uta. Ethology, May 1997, v. 103 (5), p. 365-368. ISSN: 0179-1613.

            NAL call no: QL750.E74

            Descriptors: aimed object throwing, agonistic behavior, tool-using.

 

Management of African elephant populations by immunocontraception. Fayrer, Hosken Richard; Brooks, Paula; Bertschinger, Henk J.; Kirkpatrick, Jay F.; Turner, John W.; Liu, Irwin K.M. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 1997, v. 25 (1), p. 18-21. ISSN: 0091-7648.

            NAL call no: SK357.A1W5

            Descriptors: contraception regulation, contraceptive drug, elephants, management.

 

About Dillenia aurea and feeding behavior of elephants. Datye, Hemant, S. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1996, v. 93 (2), p. 289-290. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: Dilleniaceae, plants, feeding behavior, nutrition.

 

Husbandry alert (elephant browse). Ball, Ray. Animal Keepers’ Forum, 1996, v. 23 (8), p. 447. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: care in captivity, nutrition, diet, parasites, diseases, toxic effects.

 

Husbandry and hand rearing of a newborn African elephant calf. Parrott, Joel J. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 706-712. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: rearing techniques, hand rearing, Loxodonta, case report.

 

Management of musth in a male African elephant by chemical sedatives in the Assam Stat Zoo, Guwahati. Thakuria, D.B.; Barthakur, T. Indian Veterinary Journal, 1996, v. 73 (3), p. 339-340. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IN2

            Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, diazepam, efficacy, tranquilizer drugs.

 

Social organization in translocated juvenile African elephants: The dominance hierarchy. Garai, Marion E. Elephant and Man. Workshop on Management of Captive Elephants, 7-9 Sept. 1996, i-iii, p. 1-78. Chapter pagination: 21-25. Munster All Weather Zoo, Munster.

Descriptors: agonistic behavior, aggressive and submissive behavior, social organization, translocated groups.

 

Studying the behavior of elephants. Lee, P.C. Studying Elephants, Kangwana, Kadzo (Ed.) African Wildlife Foundation, Nairobi, 1996, i-iv. p. 1-178; chapter pagination: 98-110. ISBN: 9966991506.

            Descriptors: behavioral techniques, study methods, behavior, elephants.

 

Studying elephants. Kangwana, Kadzo. African Wildlife Foundation, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi, Kenya. 1996, i-iv, 1-178. ISBN: 9966991506.

            Descriptors: Loxodonta, techniques, study methods.

 

Behavioral ecology of ‘hand reared’ African elephants (Loxodonta africana) (Blumenbach) in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. McKnight, B.L. African Journal of Ecology, 1995, v. 33 (3), p. 242-256. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: activity patterns, animal behavior, social behavior, reintroduction.

 

The domestication of the African elephant. Iversen, Eve. Pachyderm, 1995, v. 20, p. 65-68. ISSN: 1026-2881.

            Descriptors: domestication, history, current status, future prospects.

 

Isotropic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in African elephants. Koch, Paul L.; Heisinger, Jennifer; Moss, Cynthia.; Carlson, Richard W.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Behrensmeyer, Anna K. Science,1995, v. 267 (5202), p. 1340-1343. ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL c all no: 470 SCI2

            Descriptors: behavior, diet shift, nitrogen, ecology, nutrition, carbon.

 

A top-side down view of enrichment: The elephant model. Leach, Ellen. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference, 1995, p. 339-345.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: Elaphus, Loxodonta, care in captivity, enrichment needs.

 

The transition from “hands-off” to “hands-on” elephant management at the San Francisco Zoo. Kinzley, Colleen. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1995, p. 508-509. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: handling techniques, conditioning, captive management, Loxodonta.

 

Behavioral and dietary similarities of elephants and apes in the Lope Reserve, Gabon: should forest elephants be re-classified as apes? White, L.J.T.; Tutin, C.E.G.; Fernandez, M. Current Primatology, Vol.1: Ecology and evolution, 1994, i-x, 1-398: Chapter pagination: 19-27. Thierry, B.; Anderson, J.R.; Roeder, J.J.; Herrenschmidt, N. (Eds.).

            Descriptors: nutrition, behavior, agonistic behavior, competition, diet, gorilla.

 

Managing elephants: An introduction to their training and management. Roocroft, Alan; Atwell-Zoll, Donald. Fever Tree Press, Ramona, CA. 1994, i-xii, 1-198.

            NAL call no: SF401.E3R66 1994

            Descriptors: captive management, training relationships, behavior, techniques.

 

A nocturnal behavioral study of three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Zoo Atlanta. Black, James; Brockett, Robin C.; Markowitz, Timothy. Proceedings of the 20th National Conference of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. 1994. i-iii, 1-127. Chapter pagination: 10-11.

            NAL call no: QL76.A46 1993

            Descriptors: nocturnal activity, nocturnal behavior study, elephant, Zoo Atlanta.

 

Performance of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) on a two-choice object discrimination task. Savage, A.; Rice, J.M.; Brangan, J.M.; Martini, D.P.; Pugh, J.A.; Miller, C.D. Zoo Biology, New York, N.Y. Wiley-Liss, Inc., 1994, v. 13 (1), p. 69-75. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: learning ability, vision, evolution.

 

Sex differences in the behavior of African elephants. Poole, Joyce H. The Differences Between the Sexes. Short, R.V.; Balaban, E. (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, N.Y., 1994, i-xvi, 1-479. Chapter pagination: 331-346.

            Descriptors: sex differences, behavior, communication, acoustic signals, review.

 

Accommodation of the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Du Toit, J.G.; Bengis, R. The Capture and Care Manual: Capture, Care, Accommodation and Transportation of Wild African Animals. McKenzie, Andrew A. (Ed.). 1993, i-xxviii, 1-729. Chapter pagination: 498-505. ISBN: 0620176083.

            NAL call no: SK571.C36 1993

            Descriptors: housing techniques, pen design, review, elephant.

 

The capture and care manual: Capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. McKenzie, Andrew A. Pretoria. Wildlife Decision Support Services, South African Veterinary Foundation, 1993. Xxvvii, 729 p. 16 plates, ill. ISBN: 0620176083.

            NAL call no: SK571.C36 1993

            Descriptors: wildlife management, animal immobilization, Africa.

 

Care of the African elephant Loxodonta africana in captivity. Bengis, R. The Capture and Care Manual: Capture, Care, Accommodation and Transportation of Wild African Animals. 1993, i-xxviii, 1-729. Chapter pagination: 506-511. ISBN: 0620176083.

            NAL call no: SK571.C63 1993

            Descriptors: care in captivity, feeding and clinical problems, diseases, parasites.

 

A nocturnal behavioral study of three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Zoo Atlanta. Black, J.; Brockett, R.C.; Makowitz, T. Proceedings of the 20th National Conference of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. 1993, p. 10-11.

            NAL call no: QL76.A46 1993

            Descriptors: animal behavior, nocturnal activity.

 

Transportation of the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Raath, J.P. The Capture and Care Manual: Capture, Care, Accommodation and Transportation of Wild African Animals. McKenzie, Andrew A. (Ed.). 1993, i-xxviii, 1-729. Chapter pagination: 493-498. ISBN: 0620176083.

            NAL call no: SK571.C63 1993

            Descriptors: care in captivity, techniques, transportation, procedures, elephant.

 

Electric fences for elephant management. Robson, Evan. Proceeding of a Symposium on the African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal: Berg en Dal, Kruger National Park, Apr. 20-30, 1993. 1-146. Chapter pagination: 64-69.

            Descriptors: electric fences, management, evaluation, elephant.

 

Select bibliography on the management of the African elephant. Anon. Elephant Management in Zimbabwe, Martin, R.B.; Craig, G.C.; Booth, V.E. (Eds.). Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management, Harare. 1992: i-x, p.1-124. Chapter pagination: 93-124.

            Descriptors: Loxodonta, wildlife management, bibliographies, conservation.

 

Elephants and habitats. Viljoen, P.J. Proceedings of a Symposium on the African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal: Berg en Dal, Kruger National Park. Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association, Onderstepoort, April 20-30, 1991. 1-146. Chapter pagination: 26-34.

            Descriptors: habitat utilization, terrestrial habitat, habitat requirements, Loxodonta.

 

Experiences with the short term management and care of newly captured juvenile African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kruger National Park. Bengis, R.G.; Keet, D.F.; Raath, J.; De Vos, V. Proceedings of a Symposium on the African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal, Berg en Dal, Kruger National Park, Apr. 29-30, 1991, p. 1-146. Chapter pagination: 75-84.

            Descriptors: newly captured, short term management, care in captivity, juveniles.

 

Are elephants in zoos and circuses distressed? Kiley, Worthington, M. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1990, v. 26 (3), p. 299. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: stress, animal behavior, elephants, circus animals, zoo animals.

 

Raising baby orphaned elephants. Sheldrick, D. Swara, 1990, v. 13 (4), p. 13-17. ISSN: 1018-6174.

            NAL call no: QL337.E25S9

            Descriptors: hand rearing orphans, care in captivity, rearing techniques, Loxodonta.

 

Raising baby orphaned elephants: Part 2. Sheldrick, D. Swara, 1990, v. 13 (5), p. 23-27. ISSN: 1018-6174.

            NAL call no: QL337.E25S9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, techniques, rearing orphans, Loxodonta.

 

Announcing intent: The aggressive state of musth in African elephants. Poole, J.H. Animal Behavior, 1989, v. 37 (1), p. 140-152. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: musth, behavior, aggression.

 

Environmental enrichment - the elephant. Green, C. Ratel, 1989, v. 16 (3), p. 73-75. ISSN: 0305-1218.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.R37

            Descriptors: care in captivity, environmental enrichment, techniques, elephant.

 

Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants. Poole, J.H. Animal Behavior, 1989, v. 37 (5), p. 842-849. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: biometrics, reproduction, behavior, Loxodonta, mate guarding.

 

Elephant mate searching: Group dynamics and vocal and olfactory communication. Poole, J.H.; Moss, C.J. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 1989, p. 111-125, no. 61. ISSN: 0084-5612

            NAL call no: QP301.V47

            Descriptors: reproduction, behavior, communication, acoustic signals, Loxodonta.

 

Allomothering among African elephants. Lee, P.C. Animal Behavior, 1987, v. 35 (1), p. 278-291. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: maternal behavior, Loxodonta africana.

 

Developmental behavior of three African elephant calves (Loxodonta africana) in captivity. Berg, J.K. Zoologische Garten, 1987, v. 57 (2-3), p. 171-196. ISSN: 0044-5169.

            NAL call no: 410 Z724

            Descriptors: feeding behavior, behavior in captivity, social behavior.

 

Elephants in musth, lust. Poole, J.H. Natural History, 1987, v. 961 (1), p. 46-53. ISSN: 0028-0712.

            NAL call no: 500 N483J

            Descriptors: temporal gland activity, chemoreception, behavior, communication.

 

Rutting behavior in African elephants: the phenomenon of musth. Poole, J.H. Behavior, 1987, v. 102 (3-4), p. 283-316. ISSN: 0005-7959.

            NAL call no: 410 B393

            Descriptors: reproductive behavior, aggressive behavior, male signals.

 

Early maternal investment in male and female African elephant calves. Lee, P.C.; Moss, C.J. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1986, v. 18 (5), p. 353-361. ISSN: 0340-5443.

            NAL call no: QL751.B4

            Descriptors: suckling behavior, sex differences, food intake, survival.

 

Early social development among African elephant calves. Lee, P.C. National Geographic Research, 1986, v. 2 (3), p. 388-401.

            NAL call no: G3.N3

Descriptors: mother-offspring interactions, sex differences, social behavior, development.

 

Hydraulic squeeze for African bull elephants. Simmons, L. G.; Vires, C. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1986, p. 60-65.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: elephants, restraint of animals, zoo animals.

 

Cooperation and reproductive competition among female African elephants. Dublin, H.T. Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates. Wasser, S.K. (Ed.). Academic Press, N.Y. 1983, p. 1-399. Chapter pagination: 291-313.

            Descriptors: care of young, allomothering, female group cooperation, behavior.

 

Elephant behavior in a semi-arid environment (Ruaha National Park, Tanzania). Barnes, R.F.W. African Journal of Ecology, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Sept. 1983, v. 21 (3), p. 185-196. ref. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 EA7

            Descriptors: elephant behavior, semi-arid environment.

 

Vocalizations and associated behaviors of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) in captivity. Berg, J.K. Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie. 1983, v. 63 (1), p. 63-79.

            Language: German, English.

            NAL call no: 410 Z35

            Descriptors: vocalization-behavior, activity patterns.

 

Elephants and their habitats: How do they tolerate each other. Crose, H.; Hillman, A.K.K.; Lang, E.M. Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. Fowler, C.W.; Smith, T.D. (Eds.). John Wiley and sons, N.Y. 1981, i-xviii. 1-477. Chapter pagination: 297-316.

            NAL call no: QL700.D96

            Descriptors: wildlife management, population dynamics, habitat interactions.

 

Behavior of female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in captivity. Adams, J.; Berg, J.E. Applied Animal Ethology, Jul. 1980, v. 6 (3), p. 257-276. ref.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: female African elephant, behavior, captivity.

 

Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). Alexander, R.M.; Maloiy, G.M.O.; Hunter, B.; Jayes, A.S.; Nturibi, J. Journal of Zoology, London, Academic Press. Oct. 1979, v. 189 (Pt.2), p. 135-144. ill. ref. ISSN: 0022-5460.

            NAL call no: 410.9 L84P

            Descriptors: mechanical stress, locomotion, elephant, buffalo.

 

Among the elephants. Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Douglas-Hamilton, Oria. New York: Viking Press, 1975, 284 p. 54 p of plates. ill. maps. ISBN: 0670122084.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98D68

            Descriptors: African elephant behavior.


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