Chemosignalling of musth by individual wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana): Implications for conservation and management. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Wittemyer, George. Proceeding of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, Apr. 22, 2002, v. 269 (1493), p. 853-860. ISSN: 0962-8452.

            NAL call no: 501 L84B

            Descriptors: urine, scent marking, musth chemosignalling, reproductive behavior.


Africa’s elephant: A biography. Meredith, Martin. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 2001, i-ix, 1-244 p. ISBN: 0340770813.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98 M47 2001

            Descriptors: animals and man, Loxodonta africana, history of relationship.


Analysis of metric and kinematic parameters of the locomotion in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Schwerda, D.; Voges, D.; Witte, H.; Fischer, M.S. Journal of Morphology, Jun. 2001, v. 248 (3), p. 282. ISSN: 0362-2525.

            NAL call no: 444.8 J826

            Descriptors: locomotion, forelimb, hindlimb, kinetics, limb joint, elephant.


Drought mortality of African bush Elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Dudley, J.P.; Craig, G.C.; St. C. Gibson, D.; Haynes, G.; Klimowicz, J. African Journal of Ecology, Jun. 2001, v. 39(2), p. 187-194. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 EA7

            Descriptors: age, mortality, droughts, aridity, climate and weather, population dynamics.


Heat loss in Dumbo: A theoretical approach. Phillips, P.K.; Heath, J.E. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2001, v. 26 (2), p. 117-120. ref. ISSN: 0306-4565.

            NAL call no: QP82.2.T4J6

            Descriptors: heat loss, wind speed, mathematical models, elephant.


Development of the tush and tusk and tusklessness in African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Raubenheimer, E.J. Koedoe, 2000, v. 43 (2), p. 57-64. ISSN: 0075-6458.

            NAL call no: SB484.S6K6

            Descriptors: maxillae, dental and oral system, tush, tusk, tusklessness.


Early development of the tush and the tusk of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Raudenheimer, E.J. Archives of Oral Biology, Nov. 2000, v. 45 (11), p. 983-986. ISSN: 0003-9969.

            NAL call no: RK1.A6989

            Descriptors: development. dental and oral system, mineralization.


First disclosure and preliminary investigation of a liquid released from the ears of African elephants. Riddle, H.S.; Riddle, S.W.; Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Goodwin, T.E. Zoo Biology, New York, N.Y. Wiley-Liss, Inc. 2000, v. 19 (5), p. 475-480. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: ear liquid, African elephant.


A preliminary study of the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment on African elephants. Stoinski, T.S.; Daniel, E.; Maple, T.L. Zoo Biology, 2000, v. 19 (6), p. 485-493. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: feeding enrichment, hay, food, inactivity, nutrition, captivity, energetics.


African elephant database 1998. Barnes, R.F.W.; Craig, G.C.; Dublin, H.T. Overton, G.; Simons, W.; Thouless, C.R. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. 1999, v. 22: i-vi, p. 1-249. ISSN: 1026-4965.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.S63S64 1982

            Descriptors: database, population and geographic information, Loxodonta.


African elephant sesquiterpenes. Goodwin, T.E.; Rasmussen, E.L.; Guinn, A.C.; McKelvey, S.S.; Gunawardena, R.; Riddle, S.W.; Riddle, H.S. Journal of Natural Products, 1999, v. 62 (11), p. 1570-1572. ref. ISSN: 0163-3864.

            NAL call no: 448.8 L77

            Descriptors: extracts, pheromones, secretions, aroma, sesquiterpenoids.


The developing renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems of the African elephant suggest an aquatic ancestry. Gaeth, A.P.; Short, R.V.; Renfree, M.B. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 11, 1999, v. 96 (10), p. 5555-5558. ref. ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL call no: 500 N21P

            Descriptors: kidneys, fetus, reproductive physiology, respiratory system, testes, lung.


Locomotion of kinematics of African elephants. Famini, D.J.; Hutchinson, J.R.; Kram, R. American Zoologist, 1999, v. 39 (5), p. 84A. ISSN: 0003-1569.

            NAL call no: 410 AM3

            Descriptors: movement, support, locomotion kinematics, footfall patterns.


Morphological aspects and composition of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) ivory. Raubenheimer, E.J. Koedoe, 1999, v. 42 (2), p. 57-64. ISSN: 0075-6458.

            NAL call no: SB484.S6K6

            Descriptors: ivory, skeletal system, morphology, calcium, amino acid, cobalt, zinc.


African elephant myoglobin with an unusual autoxidation behavior: Comparison with the H64Q mutant of sperm whale myoglobin. Tada, T.; Watanabe, Y.H.; Matsuoka, A.; Ikeda, Saito M.; Imai, K.; Ni, hei Y.; Shikama, E. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta, Sept. 8, 1998, v. 1387 (1-2), p. 165-176. ISSN: 0006-3002.

            NAL call no: 381 B522

            Descriptors: elephant, myoglobin chemistry, whales, myoglobin genetics.


Geographic variations in the composition of ivory of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Raubenheimer, E.J.; Brown, J.M.M.; Rama, D.B.K.; Dreyer, M.J.; Smith, P.D.; Dauth, J. Archives of Oral Biology, Aug. 1998, v. 43 (8), p. 641-647. ISSN: 0003-9969.

            NAL call no: RK1.A6989

            Descriptors: dental and oral system, ivory composition, geographical variations.


Histogenesis of the chequered pattern of ivory of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Raubenheimer, E.J.; Bosman, M.C.; Vorster, R.; Noffke, C.E. Archives of Oral Biology, Dec. 1998, v. 43 (12), p. 969-977. ISSN: 0003-9969.

            NAL call no: RK1.A6989

            Descriptors: dental and oral system, morphology, formation, odontoblast.


Short-term gland secretion in the African elephant: Tourist disturbance or social interactions as source for secretion? Weibull, A.C.; Eriksson, H. African Journal of Ecology, 1998, v. 36 (4), p. 360-367. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: QL337.E25E3

            Descriptors: glands, secretions, social interactions, disturbance.


The African elephant. Poole, Joyce. Studying Elephants. African Wildlife Foundation, Nairobi. 1996: i-v, p. 1-178. Chapter pagination: 1-8. ISBN: 9966991506.

            Descriptors: Loxodonta, behavior, reproduction, ecology, review.


Chemical profiles of male African elephants, Loxodonta africana: Physiological and ecological implications. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Hall-Martin, Anthony J.; Hess, David L. Journal of Mammalogy, May 1996, v. 77 (2), p. 422-239. ISSN: 0022-2372.

            NAL call no: 410 J823

            Descriptors: whole animal physiology, blood, circulatory system, plasma, serum.


African elephant database 1995. Said, M.Y.; Chunge, R.N.; Craig, G.C.; Thouless, C.R.; Barnes, R.F.W.; Dublin, H.T. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, 1995, 11: i-v, p.1-225. ISSN: 1026-4965.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.S63S64

            Descriptors: population census, population size, Loxodonta, distribution.


The domestication of the African elephant. Iversen, Eve. Pachyderm, 1995, v. 20, p. 65-68. ISSN: 1026-2881.

            Descriptors: domestication, history, status, Loxodonta africana.


Morphology of the deciduous tusk (tush) of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Rubenheimer, E.J.; van Heerden, W.F.P.; van Niekerk, P.J.; de Vos, V.; Urner, M.J. Archives of Oral Biology, Jun. 1995, v. 40 (6), p. 571-576. ISSN: 0003-9969.

            NAL call no: RK1.A6989

            Descriptors: dentition, teeth, deciduous tusk, tusk formation, morphology.


Moving cheaply: Energetics of walking in the African elephant. Langman, V.A.; Roberts, T.J.; Black, J.; Maloiy, G.M.; Heglund, N.C.; Weber, J.M.; Kram, R.; Taylor, C.R. The Journal of Experimental Biology, Mar. 1995, v. 198 (3), p. 629-632. ISSN: 0022-0949.

            NAL call no: 442.8 B77

            Descriptors: elephant physiology, energy metabolism, walking physiology.


The neuromuscular junction in the African elephant Loxodonta africana and African buffalo Syncerus caffer. Kramer, Beberley; Hattingh, J.; Teixeira, Maria; Wolf, D.; Raath, J.P. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, Mar. 1995, v. 25 (1), p. 14-16. ISSN: 0379-4369.

            NAL call no: SK575.S6S6

            Descriptors: nervous system, neuromuscular junction, synapses, ultrastructure.


Statural growth in known-age elephants (Loxodonta africana). Lee, P.C.; Moss, C.J. Journal of Zoology, May 1995, v. 236 (1), p. 29-41. ISSN: 0952-8369.

            NAL call no: QL1.J68

            Descriptors: size, height, foot length, morphological sex differences.  


Urinary cortisol analysis for monitoring adrenal activity in elephants. Brown, J.L.; Wemmer, C.M.; Lehnhardt, J. Zoo Biology, 1995, v. 14 (6), p. 533-542. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: adrenal glands, urinary cortisol, activity, monitoring, elephants.


The puzzle of the pygmy elephant. Cousins, Don. International Zoo News, Jul./Aug. 1993, v. 40 (5), p. 18-24, no. 246. ISSN; 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: size, size variation, dwarf race, taxonomic significance,


Heat exchange by the pinna of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Phillips, P.K.; Heath, J.E. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Comparative Physiology. 1992, v. 101 (4), p. 693-699. ISSN: 0300-9629.

            NAL call no: QP1.C6

            Descriptors: thermal regulation, ears, ambient temperature, physiologic functions.


Chemical profiles of temporal gland secretions from captive Asian bull elephants during musth and from African bull elephants living in wild but crowded conditions. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Hess, Martin A. Chemical Senses, 1990, v. 15 (5), p. 628. ISSN: 0379-864X.

            NAL call no: QP456.C5

            Descriptors: behavioral biology, biochemical studies, animal communication.


The elephant book. Redmond, L. Overlook Press, Woodstock, N.J., 1990. p. 1-48.

            Descriptors: Loxodonta africana, biological notes.


The African elephant. Clarke, R.; Bertin, I. Unep Gems Environmental Library, 1989, p. 1-40, no. 3. ISSN: 1012-7852.

            Descriptors: Loxodonta, overview, trade in animals, conservation, legislation.


Estimating age in African elephants a revision of laws’ molar evaluation technique. Jachmann, H. African Journal of Ecology, 1988, v. 26 (1), p. 51-56. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: dental and oral biology, elephants, methods and materials.


Maximum rate of increase in the African elephant. Calef, G.W. African Journal of Ecology, 1988, v. 26 (4), p. 323-328. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: calf frequency, general biology, population growth, elephant.


Observations on the structure and composition of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) ivory. Van Niekerk, J.P.; Els, H.J.; Raubenheimer, E.J.; Dauth, J.; Dreyer, M.J. Elektronmikroskopieverniging van Suidelike Afrika Verrigtings, 1988, v. 18, p. 91-92. ISSN: 0250-0418.

            Descriptors: inorganic substances, composition in tusk ivory, ultrstructure.


Estimating age in African elephants Loxodonta africana. Jachmann, H. African Journal of Ecology, 1985, v. 23 (3), p. 199-202. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: molar progression stage, shoulder height, death, dental anatomy.


A comparison between techniques for estimating the ages of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Lark, R.M. African Journal of Ecology, 1984, v. 22 (1), p. 69-71. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: tooth eruption and wear, age determination, tooth replacement,


Do elephants need to sweat? Wright, P.G.; Luck, C.P. South African Journal of Zoology, 1984, v. 19 (4), p. 270-274. ISSN: 0254-1858.

            NAL call no: QL336.Z6

            Descriptors: thermoregulation, skin, evaporative water loss, physiology.


Why do elephants flap their ears? Wright, P.G. South African Journal of Zoology, 1984, v. 19 (4), p. 266-269. ISSN: 0254-1858.

            NAL call no: QL336.Z6

            Descriptors: thermoregulation, haemodynamics, blood flow in ear, ear flapping.


Constituents of temporal gland secretions of the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Wheeler, J.W.; Rasmussen, L.E.; Ayorinde, F.; Buss, I.O.; Smuts, G.L. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1982, v. 8 (5), p. 821-835. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call no: QD415.A2J6

            Descriptors: chemical composition, scent glands, temporal gland secretions.


Musth in the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Poole, J.H.; Moss, C.J. Nature, 1981, v. 292 no. 5826, p. 830-831. ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL call no: 472 N21

            Descriptors: temporal gland, enlargement, secretion, urine, behavior.


Age determination in African elephants. Fatti, L.P.; Smuts, G.L.; Starfield, A.M.; Spurdle, A.A. Journal of Mammalogy, 1980, v. 61 (3), p. 547-551. ISSN: 0022-2372.

            NAL call no: 410 J823

            Descriptors: age determination, age class distribution, Loxodonta africana.


Observations on growth and molar change in the African elephant. Lang, E.M. African Journal of Ecology, 1980, v. 18 (2-3), p. 217-234. ISSN: 0141-6707.

            NAL call no: 409.6 Ea7

            Descriptors: size, weight, molar change, tooth replacement.


Application of stereo photogrammetric technique for measuring African elephants. Hall, Martin A.J.; Ruther, H. Koedoe, 1979, v. 22, p. 187-198. ISSN: 0075-6458.

            NAL call no: SB484.S6K6

            Descriptors: biometrical techniques, stereo photogrammetric techniques.


Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). Alexander, R.M.; Maloiy, G.M.O.; Hunter, B.; Jayes, A.S.; Nturibi, J. Journal of Zoology, 1979, v. 182 (2), p. 135-144.

            NAL call no: QL1.J68

            Descriptors: biomechanics, skeletal musculature, running, stress in fast locomotion.


The African elephant. Some interesting facts and figures. Young, E. Fauna and Flora, 1978, v. 32, p. 10-13. ISSN: 0046-3388.

            NAL call no: 410 F276

            Descriptors: Life history, popular account, life cycle, Loxodonta africana.


Neutral lipids from the temporal gland of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Cmelik, S.H.W.; Ley, H. Lipids, 1978, v. 13 (3), p. 195-198. ISSN: 0024-4201.

            NAL call no: QP751.L5

            Descriptors: lipid and fatty acid content, integumentary glands.


The African elephant. Nasimovich, A.A. Nauka, Moscow. 1975, p. 1-56.

            Language: Russian.

            Descriptors: behavior, ecology, conservation, population dynamics, herd movements.

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