Anatomy / Histology


Morphological characteristics of the vomernasal organ of the newborn Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Johnson, Edward W.; Rasmussen, Lei. The Anatomical Record, Jul. 1, 2002, v. 267 (3), p. 252-259. ISSN: 0003-276X

            NAL call no: 447.8 AN1

            Descriptors: vomernasal organ morphological characteristics, newborn.


The renal structure in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Endo, H.; Akihisa, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Arishima, K. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, Oct. 2002, v. 31 (5), p. 269-272. ISSN: 0340-2096.

            NAL call no: SF761.Z4

            Descriptors: Bowman’s capsule, excretory system, urinary tubules.


Anatomy of the elephant foot. Ramsay, Edward C.; Henry Robert W. The Elephant’s Foot: Prevention and Care of Foot Conditions in Captive Asian and African Elephants. Csuti, Blair; Sargent, Eva L.; Bechert, Ursula S. (Eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-viii. 1-163 p. Chapter pagination: 9-12. ISBN: 0813828201.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E4E43 2001

            Descriptors: limbs, feet, anatomy, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana.


Characterization of interdigital glands in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Lamps, L.W.; Smoller, B.R.; Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Slade, B.E.; Fritsch, G.; Goodwin, T.E. Research in Veterinary Science, Dec. 2001, v. 71 (3), p. 197-200. ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R312

            Descriptors: limbs, biochemistry, integumentary glands, interdigital sweat glands.


Muscle architecture of the elongated nose in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Endo, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Komiya, T.; Narushima, E.; Sasaki, M. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, May, 2001, v. 63 (5), p. 533-537. ref. ISSN: 0916-7250.

            NAL call no: SF604.J342

            Descriptors: animal anatomy, innervation, muscles, nose.


Biometry of the cerebral ventricles of elephant. Malik, M.R.; Srivastava, A.B.; Jain, N.K.; Rakhi, Vaish; Vaish, R. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 110-112. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937

            Descriptors: biometry, brain, elephant.


Elephant tusks: Where are the nerves? Crossley, D.A. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Mar. 2000, v. 17 (1), p. 37. discussion p. 38. ISSN: 0898-7564.

            NAL call no: SF867.V47

            Descriptors: dental pulp innervation, nerve tissue, elephant anatomy and histology.


Lobar pattern of kidneys of elephant. Malik, M.E.; Shrivastava, A.B.; Jain, N.K.; Rakhi, Vaish; Vaish, R. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 18-22. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

            Descriptors: anatomy, kidneys, elephant.


Morphometry of kidney in elephant. Malik, M.R.; Shirvastav, A.B.; Jain, N.K.; Rakhi, Vaish; Vaish, R. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 101-102. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

            Descriptors: kidneys, zoo animals, elephant.


A note on encephalometry of Asian elephant. Malik, M.R.; Shrivastava, A.B.; Jain, N.K.; Rakhi, Vaish; Vaish, R. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 103-104. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

            Descriptors: brain, cerebellum, elephant.


The sensorineural specialization of the trunk tip (finger) of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Rasmussen, L.E.; Munger B.L. The Anatomical Record, Sept. 1996, v. 246 (1), p. 127-134. ISSN: 0003-276X.

            NAL call no: 447.8 AN1

            Descriptors: lip anatomy and innervation, nerve endings, sensation physiology.


Kidney of elephants. Maluf, N.S. The Anatomical Record, Aug. 1995, v. 242 (4), p. 491-514. ISSN: 0003-276X.

            NAL call no: 447.8 AN1

            Descriptors: kidney anatomy and histology, blood supply, radiography.


Physiological optics and ocular anatomy of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Kern, T.J.; Murphy, C.J.; Howland, H.C. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Saint Louis, Oct. 10-15, 1993, p.406.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: refraction, measurement, eyes, elephant.


On disassembling an elephant: Anatomical observations bearing on Paleoindian exploitation of Proboscidea. Laub, Richard. Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Fox, John W.; Smith, Calvin b.; Wilkins, Kenneth T. Markham Press Fund of Baylor University Press, Waco. 1992, i-viii, p.1-232. Chapter pagination: 99-109.

            Descriptors: Elephas, dissection, difficulties, problems, implications.


Refractive state, corneal curvature, accommodative range and ocular anatomy of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Murphy, C.J.; Kern, T.J.; Howland, H.C. Vision Research, Nov. 1992, v. 32 (11), p. 2013-2021. ISSN: 0042-6989.

            NAL call no: QP474.I5

            Descriptors: iris anatomy and histology, uvea anatomy and histology.


Gross and microscopic anatomy of the vermonasal organ in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Hultgren, B. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 1990, v. 5, p. 154-161.

            NAL call no: QL750.C48

            Descriptors: vermonasal organ, anatomy, ultrastructure, chemoreception, Elephas.


Presentation of the Vena caudalis centralis, a further important anatomical structure for venipuncture in Asian elephant situated dorsally in the tail. Wissdorf, H.; Poulsen, Naatrup C.; Naatrup, C.P. Anatomia Histologica Embryologia, 1989, v. 13 (3), p. 279-280. ISSN: 0340-2096.

            NAL call no: SF761.Z4

            Descriptors: blood vessels, anatomy, veins, tail, elephants, blood specimen collection.


Anatomical aspects of blood sampling from the caudal central vein, dorsal on the tail of the Indian elephant. Wissdorf, H.; Bach, F. Effem Forschung fur heimtiernahrung Report, 1988, no. 26, 4 p. ref.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: tail, veins, blood specimen collection, elephants.


Comparative surgical anatomy of the Indian and African elephants, based on a review of the literature. Gussgen, B. Thesis. Tierarztliche Hochschule, Hannover, GFR, 1988, 276 p. ref.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: anatomy, elephants.


Ligament of the head of the femur in the orangutan and Indian elephant. Crelin, E.S. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 1988, v. 61 (5), p. 383-388. ref.

            NAL call no: 44.8 Y1

            Descriptors: limb bones, anatomy, ligaments, femur, elephants, Pongidae.


Anatomy and Histology of the Indian Elephant. Mariappa, D. Indira Publishing House, Oak Park, MI. 1986. i-xv. p. 1-209.

            Descriptors: Elaphus, anatomy and histology, skeleton, joints anatomy, muscle. 


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