Anesthesia / Analgesia / Sedation / Capture


Oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ketoprofen enantiomers after oral and intravenous administration in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Hunter, Robert P.; Isaza, Ramiro; Koch, David E. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Jan. 2003, v. 64 (1), p. 109-114. ISSN: 0002-9645.            

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: ketoprofen, dosage, IV administration, oral administration, safety.


Medetomidine: A novel immobilizing agent for the elephant (Elephas maximis). Sarma, B.; Pathak, S.C.; Sarma, K.K. Research in Veterinary Science, 2002, v. 73 (3), p. 315-317. ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R312

            Descriptors: medetomidine, adverse effects, dosage, sedative, IM administration.


Cardio vascular response to xylaxine and Hellabrunn mixture with yohimbine as reversal agent in Asian elephants. Sarma, K.K.; Pathak, S.C. Indian Veterinary Journal, 2001, v. 78 (5), p. 400-402. ref. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IN2

            Descriptors: anaesthesia, drug combinations, heart rate, ketamine, yohimbine.


Facilitation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) standing immobilization and anesthesia with a sling. Fowler, Murray E.; Steffey, Eugene P.; Galuppo, Larry; Pascoe, John R. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Mar. 2000, v. 31 (1), p. 118-123. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, physical restraining techniques, standing immobilization, sling.


Bizarre behavior of an elephant during xylazine anaesthesia. Sarma, K.K. Indian Veterinary Journal, Nov.1999, v. 76 (11), p. 1018-1019. ref. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IN2

            Descriptors: anaesthesia, xylazine, adverse effects, abnormal behavior, elephant.


Immobilization of wild elephant (tusker). Navin, Kumar M. Zoo’s Print Journal, Apr. 1999, v. 14 (4), p. 6. ISSN: 0971-6378.

            Descriptors: immobilization, Elephas maximus, conservation measures.


Azaperone for standing sedation in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Schmitt, Dennis L.; Bradford, John P.; Hardy, Doug A. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 48-51.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: sedation, standing sedation, azaperone use, Elephas maximus.


Chemical capture of a problem elephant in Bolangir, Orissa. Singh, L.A.K.; Nayak, B.N.; Acharjya, S.K. Indian Forester, 1996, v. 122 (10), p. 955-960. ISSN: 0019-4816.

            NAL call no: 99.8 IN2

            Descriptors: darting equipment, tranquilization techniques, wildlife management.


Chemical immobilization and treatment of a wild elephant. Manna, S. Indian Veterinary Journal, 1996, v. 73 (12), p. 1260-1261. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IN2

            Descriptors: chemical immobilization, tranquilizer drug, wildlife management.


Excitement in an elephant after intravenous administration of atropine. Gross, M.E.; Clifford, C.A.; Hardy, D.A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Nov. 15, 1994, v. 205 (10), p. 1437-1438. ref. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: atropine, injection, side effects, elephant, caesarean section.  


Use of immobilization for capture and translocation of elephants in the Province of Lanpung, Sumatra. Santiapillai, C. Tigerpaper: (FAO). Apr./Jun. 1994, v. 21 (2), p. 1-4. ISSN: 1014-2789. FAO Accession No. XF95:348777 (Microfiche).

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: elephants, capture, immobilization, translocation, Indonesia.


Current immobilization procedures used in elephants. Kock, Richard; Morkel, Peter; Kock, Michael D. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 3rd. Fowler, Murray E. (ED.). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. 1993, i-xxv, p. 1-617. Chapter pagination: 536-441.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66 1993

            Descriptors: Elephas, Loxodonta, sedation, anaesthetics, immobilization procedures.


Elephant restraint: The next generation. Ricketts, Tod A. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1993, p. 283-288. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, physical restraining procedures, restraint design.


Etorphine and acepromazine combination for immobilizing wild Indian elephants (Elephas maximus). Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Joshua, J.; Ravi, Chellam; Ashraf, N.V.K.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Khati, D.V.S.; Chellam, R. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1993, v. 90 (1), p. 45-49. ref. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: acepromazine, anaesthetics, immobilization, drug combinations.


Prolonged isoflurane anesthesia of an adult elephant on two occasions. Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Cambre, R.C.; Kenney, D. Veterinary Surgery, 1988, v. 17 (3), p. 167-168. ref. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: adverse effects, inhaled anaesthetics, elephants, anaesthesia.


Pulse oximetry and end-tidal CO2 monitoring of an adult Asian elephant. Mihm, F.G.; Machado, C.; Snyder, R. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1988, v. 19 (3), p. 106-109. ref. ISSN: 0093-4526.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: monitoring, anaesthesia, etorphine, haemoglobin, oxygen, Elephas.


Anatomical basis for epidural anaesthesia in the Indian elephant. Wissdorf, H.; Bach, F.; Leopold, Keighley, B.; Kristinsson, G. Verhandlungebericht des International Symposium uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 1987, v. 29, p. 157-165. fig. ref.

            Language: German.

            NAL call no: SF996.I5

            Descriptors: amputation, tail, local anaesthesia, surgical operation, elephant.


Drug immobilization of Indian elephant. Sale, J.B.; Rishi, V.; Singh, K.N.; Verma, V.K. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1986, v. 83 (1), p. 49-56. ref. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: restraint of animals, elephants, etorphine, immobilization.


Repeated general anaesthesia in a male Indian elephant. Lateur, N.; Stolk, P. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1986, p. 128-131.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: etorphine, halothane, diprenorphine, anaesthesia, elephants.


Immobilization techniques and complications associated with a bull Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) during musth. Kock, M.; Kock, N.; Arif, A.; Wahid, M.N.S.A. Abstracts or Papers of the Annual Meeting, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Louisville, KY. 1984, p. 68-72, 74. ref. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: etorphine, promazine, xylazine, drug combinations, elephants.


Antagonism of xylazine sedation by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in and adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Schmidt, M.J. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1983, v. 14 (3), p. 94-97. ref. ISSN: 0093-4526.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: anaesthesia, restraint of animals, xylazine, antagonism, elephants.


Immobilization of Indian elephants with nicotine. Cheeran, J.V.; Chandrasetharan, K.; Radhakrishnan, K. Cheiron, 1981, v. 10 (6), p. 268-274. ISSN: 0379-542X.

            NAL call no: SF604.C56

            Descriptors: immobilization, nicotine utilization, nicotine darting, Elephas maximus.


Use of halothane-oxygen anesthesia in elephants (Elephas maximus). Jarofke, D. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1981, v. 12 (3), p. 93-95. ISSN: 0093-4526.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: anaesthesia, halothane-oxygen anaesthesia, evaluation, technique.


Use of xylazine for the transport of elephants by air. Bongso, T.A. Veterinary Record, 1980, v. 107 (21), p. 492. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: transportation of live animals, sedation with xylazine, air transport.


General anaesthesia in an elephant (Elephas maximus) - a clinical case report. Muraleedharan, Nair, K.N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Cheeran, J.V.; Radhakishnan. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science, 1979, v.10 (2), p. 197-200. ISSN: 0374-8774.

            NAL call no: SF604.K2

            Descriptors: anaesthesia, Elephas maximus, Flaxedil and intraval sodium use.


Sedation of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with xylazine. Bongso, T.A. Veterinary Record, 1979, v. 105 (19), p. 442-443. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: sedation, xylazine, effectiveness, Elephas maximus.


The use of etorphine hydrochloride for restraint of a domesticated elephant (Elephas maximus). Jainudeen, m.R. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Sept. 1, 1970, v. 157 (5), p. 624-626. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: etorphine hydrochloride, restraint, elephant.

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