Behavior / Care / Enrichment / Handling / Training


Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) dust bathe in response to an increase in environmental temperature. Rees, Paul A. Journal of Thermal Biology, Oct. 2002, v. 27 (5), p. 353-358. ISSN: 0306-4565.

            NAL call no: QP82.2.T4J6

            Descriptors: weight, body mass, thermoregulation, social behavior, dust bathing.


Behavioral and endocrine analysis of African and Asian elephant cows in the peripartal period. Szdzuy, K.; Dehnhard, M.; Strauss, G.; Ochs, A.; Eulenberger, K.; Hofer, H. Advances in Ethology, 2002, v. 37, p. 151. ISSN: 0931-4202.

            NAL call no: 410 Z35B

            Descriptors: behavior, endocrine system, enzyme immunological analysis.


Side preferences of trunk movements in wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Martin, F.; Niemitz, C. Zoology, 2002, v. 105 (Suppl. 5):69. ISSN: 0944-2006.

            NAL call no: QL1.Z769

            Descriptors: feeding behavior, trunk, maneuverability, anatomy, movement.


Simple enrichment techniques for bears, bats and elephants - untried and untested. Law, Graham; Kitchner, Andrew. International Zoo News, Jan./Feb. 2002, v. 49 (1), p. 4-12; No. 314. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no:QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, natural enrichment, simple feeding dispenser, elephant.


Cognitive behavior in Asian elephants: Use and modification of branches for fly switching. Hart, B.L.; Hart, L.A.; McCoy, M.; Sarath, C.R. Animal Behavior, 2001, v. 62 (5), p. 839-847. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no:410 B77

            Descriptors: tool use, cognitive ability, Elephas maximus.


Effective care for orphaned baby elephants. Jayewardene, Jayantha. Animal Keepers’ Forum, Jul. 2001, v. 28 (7), p. 289-291. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL c all no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: breeding program, conservation, Sri Lanka, orphaned baby elephants.


The elephants foot: Prevention and care of foot conditions in captive Asian and African elephants. Csuti, B.; Sargent, E.L.; Bechert, U.S. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-viii, 163 p. ISBN: 0813828201.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E4E43 2001

            Descriptors: foot diseases, treatment, disease prevention, elephants.


Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) into an existing group: Behavioral reactions and changes in cortisol levels. Schmid, J.; Heistermann, M.; Ganslosser, U.; Hodges, J.K. Animal Welfare, Nov. 2001, v. 10 (4), p. 357-372. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: social interactions, exploratory behavior, stress, steroid hormones.


The purchase and transport of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Minion, John. Ratel, Apr. 2001, v. 28 (2), p. 38-45. ISSN: 0305-1218.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.R37

            Descriptors: care in captivity, transport from sanctuary, techniques, case report.


How chemical signals integrate Asian elephant society: The known and the unknown. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Krishnamurthy, V. Zoo Biology, 2000, v. 19 (5), p. 405-423. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: communication, chemical communication, elephant society integration.


Molecular genetic and behavioral analysis of social organization in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Fernando, P.; Lande, R. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2000, v. 48 (1), p. 84-91. ref. ISSN: 0340-5443.

            NAL call no: QL751.B4

            Descriptors: mitochondrial DNA, social organization, behavioral genetics.


Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants. Gruber, T.M.; Friend, T.H.; Gardner, J.M.; Packard, J.M.; Beaver, B.; Bushong, D. Zoo Biology, 2000, v. 19 (3), p. 209-221. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: restraint of animals, abnormal behavior, chains, pens, electric fences.


Behavior of picketed circus elephants. Friend, T.H. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Feb. 15, 1999, v. 62 (1), p. 73-88. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: housing, stereotyped behavior, animal welfare, Elephas, Loxodonta.


The effects of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants. Friend, T.H.; Parker, M.L. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1999, v. 64 (3), p. 213-225. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: housing, stereotyped behavior, captivity, circus, Elephas maximus.


Elephants in Thailand: Determinants of health and welfare in working populations. Chatkupt, T.T.; Sollod, A.E.; Sarobol, S. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1999, v. 2 (3), p. 187-203. ISSN: 1088-8705.

            NAL call no: HV4701.J68

            Descriptors: health, welfare, elephants, Thailand.


Evolution of chemical signals in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus: Behavioral and ecological influences. Rasmussen, L.E.L Journal of Biosciences, Jun.1999, v. 24 (2), p. 241-251. ref. ISSN: 0250-5991.

            NAL call no: QH1.J63

            Descriptors: ecology, males, pheromones, sex pheromones, social structure.


Influences on the feeding behavior of three mammals in the Maruyama Zoo: Bears, elephants and chimpanzees. Morimura, N.; Ueno, Y. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1999, v. 2 (3), p. 169-186. ref. ISSN: 1088-8705.

            NAL call no: HV4701.J68

            Descriptors: zoo animals, feeding behavior, enrichment, abnormal behavior.


Signal-receiver interplay in the communication of male condition by Asian elephants. Schulte, B.A.; Rasmussen, L.E.L. Animal Behavior, 1999, v. 57 (6), p. 1265-1274. ref. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: urine, sexual behavior, oestrus cycle, females, communication.


Elephant management at Disney’s Animal Kingdom. Turning challenges into success. Upchurch, Bruce. Proceedings of a Joint Conference AAZK, EMA, AZH, Indianapolis, 1998. 1998. 1-286 p. Chapter pagination: 164-168.

            NAL call no: QL82.A28 1998

            Descriptors: care in captivity, management program, techniques, elephants.


Food hiding and enrichment in captive Asian elephants. Weidenmayer, C. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Feb.1998, v. 56 (1), p. 77-82. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: foraging behavior, enrichment, environmental effects, Elephas maximus


Olfactory enrichment for Asian elephants: Is it as effective as it smells? Leach, Matt; Young, Rob; Waran, Natalie. International Zoo News, Jul./Aug. 1998, v. 54 (5), p. 285-290. no. 286. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, chemoreception, chemical factors, Elephas maximus.


Study on the courtship-mating behavior of Asian elephant. Sai, Dac Jian; Chen, Zhao Bo; Zhang, Ji Zhong; et. al. Chinese Journal of Zoology, Dec. 20, 1998, v. 33 (6), p. 28-31. ISSN: 0250-3263.

            Language: Chinese.

            NAL call no: QL1.T8

            Descriptors: elephant, courtship, mating, Elephas maximus, reproductive behavior.


Activity time budget of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus L.) In Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, South India. Vinod, T.R.; Cheeran, Jacob V. Indian Forester, Oct. 1997, v. 123 (10), p. 948-951. ISSN: 0019-4816.

            NAL call no: 99.8 IN2

            Descriptors: activity time budget, drinking, feeding, grazing, seasonality.


Debarking behavior or elephants, Elephas maximus indicus, in Vazhacal Forest Division, Kerala South India. Animon, M.M.; Jacob, Y Cheeran; Nagara, B.N. Journal of the Bombay Natural Historical Society, Aug. 1997, v. 94 (2), p. 392-393. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: elephant, tree, plants, behavior.


Gone astray: The care and management of the Asian elephant in domesticity. Lair, Richard C. RAP publication, 1997, no.16. Bangkok, Thailand. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1997, xvi, 300 p. co. ill. ref. FAO Accession No. XF98:379729.

            NAL call no: SF401.E3L35 1997

            Descriptors: Asiatic elephants, behavior, care, management.


Managing of Asian elephants through voluntary contact at the Bronx Zoo. Doherty, James G. Zoologische Garten, Feb.1997, v. 67 (1-2), p. 16-20. ISSN: 0044-5169.

            NAL call no: 410 Z724

            Descriptors: animal care, Asian elephant, animal management, voluntary contact.


Medical management of a herd of Asian elephants at the Houston Zoological Gardens. Abadie, Margaret. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 1997, p. 5-8.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: techniques, care in captivity, medical management procedures.


Modern housing facilities for breeding of elephants, in Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Triupati, Andhra Pradesh. Kumar, S,V.; Raghazaiah, P.S. Indian Forester, 1997, v. 123 (10), p. 924-928. ISSN: 0019-4816.

            NAL call no: 99.8 IN2

            Descriptors: housing, breeding, nutrition, chemoprophylaxis, elephant.


Neuroendocrine-associated behavioral patterns in the male Asian elephant. Dickerman, R.D.; Zachariah, N.Y.; Fouraker, M.; Mcconathy, W.J. Physiology and Behavior, May 1997, v. 61 (5), p. 771-773. ref. ISSN: 0031-9384.

            NAL call no: QP1.P4

            Descriptors: aggressive behavior, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, musth.


Plasma cortisol concentrations and behavioral traits of two female Asian elephants. Bettinger, Tammie; Larry, Martha; Goldstein, Mark; Laudenslager, Mark. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 1997, p. 88-90.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: housing techniques, stress monitoring, plasma cortisol level monitoring.


Social behavior and breeding physiology of a group of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, at the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage, Sri Lanka. Poole, T.B.; Taylor, V.J.; Fernando, S.B.U.; Ratnasooriya, W.G.; Ratnayeke, A.; Lincoln, G.; McNeilly, A.; Manatunga, A.M.V.R. International Zoo Year Book, 1997, v. 35 (0), p. 297-310. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: behavior, reproduction, breeding estrus cycle, social behavior.


About Dillenia aurea and feeding behavior of elephants. Datye, Hemant S. Journal of the Bombay Natural Historical Society, 1996, v. 93 (2), p. 289-290. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: behavior, nutrition, feeding behavior, vascular plants, spermatophytes.


The Bronx Zoo’s protected contact program with Asian elephants. Doherty, J.G.; Kalk, P.; Thomas, P. Annual Conference of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 1996, p. 96-100.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: elephants, zoo animals, animal husbandry.


Husbandry alert (elephant browse). Ball, Ray (Elephant Management Team). Animal Keepers’ Forum, Aug. 1996, v. 23 (8), p. 447. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, food plants, toxic effects, browse items.


Stereotypic behavior in circus elephants and the effect of “anticipation” of feeding, watering and performing. Proceeding of the 30th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Aug. 14-17, 1996. Col. K.L. Campbell Centre for the Study of Animal Welfare, c 1996, p. 30. ISBN: 0889554528.

            NAL call no: SF756.7.I57 1996

            Descriptors: elephants, circus, abnormal behavior, behavior patterns.


Testosterone secretion, musth behavior and social dominance in captive male Asian elephants living near the equator. Lincoln, G.A.; Ratnasooriya, W.D. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1996, v. 108 (1), p. 107-113. ISSN: 0022-4251.

            NAL call no: 442.8 J8222

            Descriptors: behavior, endocrine system, secretion, musth behavior, dominance.


Facility renovations for protected-contact elephant management program at the Houston Zoological Gardens. Abadie, Margaret; Schanberger, Anita. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1995, p. 4-8. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: care in captivity, protected contact management, exhibit redevelopment.


History of elephants in captivity in India and their use: An overview. Lahiri Choudhury, Dhriti K. Gajah, Jun.14, 1995, p. 28-31. ISSN: 1391-1996.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98G34

            Descriptors: animals and man, India, history in captivity, use by man.


Keeping circus elephants temporarily in paddocks: The effect on their behavior. Schmid, J. Animal Welfare, May 1995, v. 4 (2), p. 87-101. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: behavior, ecology, elephants, ethics.


A top-side down view of enrichment: The elephant model. Leach, Ellen. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995, p. 339-345.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: care in captivity, environmental enrichment, needs, new ideas.


Untethered housing of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, at Zurich Zoo. Wiedenmayer, Christoph; Tanner, Ruedi. International Zoo Year Book, 1995, v. 34 (0), p. 200-205. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: behavior, free contact, protected contact, veterinary medicine.


The Asian elephants –driver partnership: The drivers’ perspective. Hart, L.A. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Jun. 1994, v. 40 (3-4), p. 297-312. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: training of animals, relationships, interactions, animal behavior.


Chemosensory responses of female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to cyclohexanone. Perrin, Thomas E.; Rasmussen, L.E.L. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Nov. 1994, v. 20 (11), p. 2857-2866. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call no: QD415.A1J6

            Descriptors: behavior, biochemistry, communication, temporal gland secretion.


Choices for elephant programs in North American zoos. Sheng, Y. Sherry; Haight, Jay; Schmidt, Michael. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 1994, p. 376-379.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: techniques, conservation, reproduction techniques, breeding.


The establishment of paddocks as to keeping elephants in the circus. Schmid, J.; Zeeb, K. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift, 1994, v. 101 (2), p. 50-52. ill. graphs, ref. ISSN: 0341-6593.

            Language: German with an English summary.

            NAL call no: 41.8 D482 

            Descriptors: performing animals, husbandry, behavior, free-range husbandry.


Fly switching by Asian elephants: Tool use to control parasites. Hart, B.L.; Hart, L.A. Animal Behavior, Jul. 1994, v. 48 (1), p. 35-45. ref. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call no: 410 B77

            Descriptors: insect control, animal behavior, diptera, efficacy, branches, elephants.


Isolation of potential musth-altering signals from temporal gland secretions of male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), a new method. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Perrin, T.E.; Gunawardena, R. Chemical Senses, 1994, v. 19 (5), p. 540. ISSN: 0379-864X.

            NAL call no: QP456.C5

            Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, sense organs, sensory reception.


Managing elephants: An introduction to their training and management. Roocroft, Alan; Atwell Zoll, Donald. Fever Tree Press, Ramona, CA. 1994, i-xii. 1-198 p.

            NAL call no: SF401.E3R66 1994

            Descriptors: care in captivity, training, behavior, captive management.


Preliminary results of protected-contact management system for mixed social group of Asian elephants. Schanberger, Anita. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1994, p. 53-56. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: care in captivity, protected contact management, preliminary evaluation.


Preservation of Indian elephant in human care - a comparison between different husbandry systems in South Asia and Europe. Kurt, F. Zeitschrift des Koelner Zoo, 1994, v. 37 (3), p. 91-113. ill. tables, ref. ISSN: 0375-5290.

            Language: German with an English summary. 

            NAL call no: QL76.Z4

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, elephant, Asia, Europe, performing animals.


Utilizing multiple elephant management systems at the Dickerson Park Zoo. Glazier, Jeff. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 1994, p. 350-352.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: management systems, elephants, techniques, North America.


Hand rearing an Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, at the Nooder Zoo, Emmen. Rieterk, F.E.; Hiddingh, H.; Van Dijk, S. International Zoo Year Book, 1993, v. 32 (0), p. 244-252. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: social behavior, development, nutrition, veterinary medicine.


Management of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, at Houston Zoological Gardens. Ruhter, David; Olsen, Tammery. International Zoo Year Book, 1993, v. 32 (0), p. 253-257. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: behavior, training, general life studies, wildlife management.


Behavioral sleep in the Asian elephant in captivity. Tobler, I. Sleep, Feb. 1992, v. 15 (1), p. 1-12. ISSN: 0161-8105.

            Descriptors: sleep stages, social environment, circadian rhythm, physiology.


Preliminary observations on the training of Burmese elephants using xylazine. Aik, S.S. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 1992, v. 40 (2), p. 81-84. ref.

            NAL call no: 41.8 N483

            Descriptors: elephants, behavior, training, xylazine.


Special relationships between female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in zoological gardens. Garai, M.E. Ethology, 1992, v. 90 (3), p. 187-205. ISSN: 0179-1613.

            NAL call no: QL750.E74

            Descriptors: females, social interaction, Elephas maximus.


Enrichment techniques for elephants at the Phoenix Zoo. Schanberger, Anita. AAZ PA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1991, p. 277-283. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: behavioral techniques, environmental enrichment in captivity.


Management of elephant camps and elephant care. Saxena, A. Indian Forester, 1991, v. 117 (10), p. 926-934. ISSN: 0019-4816.

            NAL call no: 99.8 IN2

            Descriptors: elephant management, endangered species, conservation.


Management of elephants in the Xishuangbanna Nature reserve, P.R. china. A case study. Santiapillai, C. Tigerpaper (FAO). Apr./Jun. 1991, v. 18 (2), p. 1-5. FAO Accession No: XF92:312115. ISSN: 1014-2789.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: elephants, nature, conservation, Asia, East Asia, China.


Are elephants in zoos and circuses distressed? Kiley, Worhtington M. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1990, v. 26 (3), p. 299. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: stress, animal behavior, animal welfare, elephants, circus animals.


Care and treatment of orphaned baby elephants. Santha, B.K. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual General Meeting of the Sri Lanka Veterinary Association. Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal, 1990, v. 37 (1-2), p. p.33.

            NAL call no: 41.8 C33

            Descriptors: newborn animals, young animals, elephants.


The design and construction of an elephant squeeze. Raboy, David; Doyle, Charles. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings, 1990, p. 176-184. ISSN: 0731-0390.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: housing techniques, elephant squeeze design, construction.


Elephant training and management in Nepal. Sanat, Dhungel, Brawner C.; Yoder, J. Tigerpaper (FAO). Oct./Dec. 1990, v. 17 (4), p. 1-6. FAO Accession No. XF91:305749. ISSN: 1014-2789.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: Indian elephant, training, breeding, feeding, husbandry.


The Asian elephant: Ecology and management. Sukumar, R. Cambridge Universit y Press, Cambridge, N.Y. 1989, xvii, 251 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 0521360803.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98S95

            Descriptors: Asiatic elephant, ecology, wildlife management, Asia.


Development of nonsocial behavior in the Asiatic elephant. Nair, P.V. Ethology, 1989, v. 82 (4), p. 46-60. ISSN: 0179-1613.

            NAL call no: QL750.E74 

            Descriptors: feeding behavior, drinking behavior, grooming, play, locomotion.


Environmental enrichment - the elephant. Green, C. Ratel, 1989, v. 16 (3), p. 73-75. ISSN: 0305-1218.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.R37

            Descriptors: care in captivity, environmental enrichment, Elephantidae.


Failure to find self-recognition in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in contrast to their use of mirror cues to discover hidden food. Povinelli, D.J. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1989, v. 103 (2), p. 122-131. ISSN: 0735-7036.

            NAL call no: BF671.J6

            Descriptors: elephant, foraging, mirror cues use, species recognition.


Training a baby Asian elephant, reasons and techniques. Swanson, Mark AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1989, p. 723-725. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A47

            Descriptors: handling techniques, methods and rational, zoo born juvenile.


Management of elephants in Thailand. Santiapillai, C.; Soekarno, M.; Sukohadi, W. Tigerpaper (FAO-RAPA), Jan./Mar. 1987, v. 14 (2), p. 7-15. ISSN: 1014-2789. FAO Accession No. XF8769083.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: Thailand, elephants, working animals, training, wild animals.


Some observations regarding allomaternal caretaking among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Rapaport, L.; Haight, J. Journal of Mammalogy, 1987, v. 68 (2), p. 438-442. ISSN: 0022-2372.

            NAL call no: 410 J823

            Descriptors: maternal behavior, Elephas maximus.


Evaluation and monitoring of Asian elephant habitat: Problems and some potential solutions. Salter, R.E. Tigerpaper (FAO-RAPA), 1986, v. 13 (4), p. 5-9. ISSN: 1014-2789. FAO Accession No. XF8765047.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: elephants, habitats, ecology, population, distribution.


Keeping of circus elephants and their minimum nutritional requirements. Schulze, W. Praktische Tierarzt, 1986, v. 67 (8), p. 809-811. ref. ISSN: 0032-681X.

            Language: German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 P882

            Descriptors: nutritional requirements, elephants, feeding, circus animals.


Problems in keeping circus animals. Wiesner, H. Tierarztliche Umschau, 1986, v. 41 (10), p. 753-755. ref.

            Language: German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 T445

            Descriptors: animals welfare, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, elephants.


Tool use by elephants. Reid, J.B. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1985, 82 (2), p. 402-403. ISSN: 0006-6982.

            NAL call no: 513 B63

            Descriptors: tool using, review of uses, comfort behavior, Elephas maximus,


Behavior of a neonate elephant (Elephas maximus). Sharma, R.; Krishnamurthy, K.V. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1984, c. 13 (1-2), p. 157-161. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: development. social interactions, Elephas maximus.


An exercise in elephant management. Ratnam, L. Biotrop (Special publication) , 1984, p. 129-139, no. 21. ISSN: 0125-975X.

            NAL call no: QK474.5.B6

            Descriptors: wildlife management, methods, Malaysia, Elephas maximus.


LSD-induced effects in elephants: Comparisons with musth behavior. Siegel, R.K. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1984, v. 22 (1), p. 53-56. ISSN: 0090-5054.

            Descriptors: integumentary glands, temporal glands, musth, aggressive behavior.


Domestication of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in India. Gogoi, P. C. Tigerpaper (FAO - RAPA), 1983, v. 10 (4), p. 21-26. ISSN: 1014-2789. FAO Accession No. XF8440021.

            NAL call no: QL84.5.A1T53

            Descriptors: animal production, elephants, India.


Observations on the social behavior of free ranging groups of tame Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus Linn.). Gadgil, M. Nair, P.V. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Science, 1983, v. 93 (3), p. 225-233. ISSN: 0253-4118.

            NAL call no: QL1.I48

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, social behavior.


Training and husbandry of work elephants in Thailand. Fischer, H. Tierarztl Umsch, Jun. 1, 1974, v. 29 (6), p. 346-351. ref.

            Language: German with English summary.

            NAL call no: 41.8.T445

            Descriptors: elephant, training, husbandry, Thailand.

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