Growth in the sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and age estimation based on dung diameter. Reilly, Joanne. Journal of Zoology, Oct. 2002, v. 258 (2), p. 205-213. ISSN: 0952-8369.

            NAL call no: QL1.J68

            Descriptors: age estimation, biomass, dung diameter, age structure.


Survival rates of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE). Mar, K.U. Advances in Ethology, 2002, v. 37, p. 184. ISSN: 0931-4202.

            NAL call no: 410 Z35B

            Descriptors: captivity, longevity, survival rate, working load.


Characterization of interdigital glands in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Lamps, L.W.; Smoller, B.R.; Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Slade, B.E.; Fritsch, G.; Goodwin, T.E. Research in Veterinary Science, Dec. 2001, v. 71 (3), p. 197-200. ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R312

            Descriptors: integumentary system, interdigital glands, immunohistochemistry.


Oxygen radical production by Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) heterophils and Holstein cattle (Bos taurus) neutrophils. Tell, Lisa; Kabbur, Mahendra, B.; Smith, Wayne; Gage, Laurie; Cullor, James S. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Sept. 1999, v. 30 (3), p. 402-407. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: animal care, blood and lymphatics.


Physiological correlates of musth: Lipid metabolites and chemical composition of exudates. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Perrin, T.E. Physiology and Behavior, 1999, v.67 (4), p. 539-549. ref. ISSN: 0031-9384.

            NAL call no: QP1.P4

            Descriptors: chemical composition, metabolites, aggressive behavior, hormones.


Thermoregulatory behavior (selecting the shade and bathing) of the Asiatic elephant, Elephas maximus, in captivity. Terada, Mitsuhiro; Itano, Shiro; Kawaguchi, Yukio. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums. Oct. 1999, v. 40 (4), p. 117-132. ISSN: 0386-7498.

            Language: Japanese.

            NAL call no: QL77.5 D63

            Descriptors: thermoregulation, bathing, seeking shade, behavior.


The Asian elephant: A natural history. Daniel, J.C. Natraj, Dehra Dun, 1998, p. 1-306. ISBN: 8185019738.

            Descriptors: general morphology, tusks, reproductive behavior, locomotion.


Remarks on body growth and phenotypes in Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Kurt, Fred.; Kumarasinghe, Janak C. Acta Theriologica, 1998, v. 0 (Suppl. 5), p. 135-153. ISSN: 1509-4537.

            NAL call no: 410 AC88

            Descriptors: body growth, phenotypes, sexual dimorphism.


Sensitivity of the trunk of Asian elephants for texture differences of actively touched objects. Dehnhardt, G.; Friese, Christina; Sachser, N. Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde, 1997, v. 62 (Suppl. 2), p. 37-39. ISSN: 0044-3468.

            NAL call no: QL700.Z4

            Descriptors: trunk, tactile receptors, sensitivity to texture differences.


Age-related changes in the brain of an Indian elephant. Soltysiak, Z. Zycie Weterynarjne, 1996, v. 71 (9), p. 309-311. ref.

            NAL call no: SF604.Z9

            Descriptors: postmortem examinations, histopathology, brain, aging, elephants.


Body size, weight and weight estimation of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in menschlicher Obhut. Kurt, F.; Purcher, Herwig. Elephant and Man. Workshop on Management of Captive Elephants, Sept. 7-9, 1996, i-iii, 1-78 p. Chapter pagination: 13-20.

            Language: German.

            Descriptors: diet, locomotion, size, shoulder height, weight, Elephas maximus.


Distribution of selected heavy metals in blood of Asian elephant. Jayasekera, S.; Kuruwita, V.Y. Gajah, Jan. 1996, v. 15, p. 29-31. ISSN: 1391-1996.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98G34

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, metal pollution, blood, heavy metal levels.


Evidence of nitric oxide in the exhaled gas of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Lewandowski, K.; Busch, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Keske, U.; Gerlach, H.; Falke, K.J. Respiration Physiology, Oct. 1996, v. 106 (1), p. 91-98. ISSN: 0034-5687.

            NAL call no: QP121.A1R4

            Descriptors: elephants physiology, pulmonary ventilation physiology, nitric oxide.


The sensorineural specialization of the trunk tip (finger) of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Munger, B.L. Anatomical Record, Sept. 1996, v. 246 (1), p. 127-134. ISSN: 0003-276X.

            NAL call no: 447.8 AN1

            Descriptors: tactile perception, skin, innervation, sensory neurons, trunk-tip-finger.


Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in captivity - a challenge for zoo biological research. Kurt, Fred; Hartl, Gunther B. Research and Captive Propagation, Ganslosser, Udo; Hodges, J. Keith; Kaumanns, Werner (Eds.). 1995, 1-338 p. Chapter pagination: 310-326.

            NAL call no: SF408.R47 1995

            Descriptors: conservation, techniques, reproduction, behavior, biological research.


The Asian elephant: Ecology and management. Sukumar, R. Camb. Stud. Appl. Ecol. Resour. Manage. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 255 pp. ISBN: 052143758X.

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, management, population ecology, books.


A bibliography on elephants. Part 3: Indo-Malayan & Indo-Chinese realms. Saravanamuttu, Shantha; Santiapillai, Charles. Gajah, Jun. 1995, v. 14, p. 49-62. ISSN: 1391-1996.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98G34

            Descriptors: Elephas maximus, bibliographies.


Clinical biology and care of the elephant. Atapattu, S. Elephants in Logging Operations in Sri Lanka. Jayasekera, P.; Atapattu, S. F.A.O., Rome, Italy. FAO, 1995, p. 27-36. Forest Harvesting Case Study no. 5. FAO Accession No.: XF96:362035. ISSN: 1014-9945.

            Descriptors: ecology, diseases, parasitoses, behavior, elephants.


A bibliography on elephants. Part 1: Sri Lanka. Saravanamuttu, Shantha; Santiapillia, Charles. Gajah, Jun. 1994, v. 12, p. 58-84. ISSN: 1391-1996.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98G34

            Descriptors: bibliographies, Sri Lanka, Elephas maximus, 1682-1994.


A bibliography on elephants. Part 2: India, Nepal, Shutan & Bangladesh. Saravanamuttu, Shantha; Santiapillai, Charles. Gajah, Dec. 1994, v. 13, p. 40-56. ISSN: 1391-1996.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98G34

            Descriptors: bibliographies, Elephas maximus.


Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme measurements in the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) during Nonmusth and musth. Dickerman, Robby D.; Pernikoff, Doug; Zachariah, N.Y.; McConathy, W.J.; Gracy, R.W.; Raven, P.B. Clinical Chemistry, 1994, v. 40 (6), p. 989. ISSN: 0009-9147.

            NAL call no: 396.8 C61

            Descriptors: blood sampling, enzymology, urinary system, reproductive system.


Energy value of elephant labour. Gajaseni, Jiragorn. Indian Forester, 1993, v. 119 (10), p. 804-806. ISSN: 0019-4816.

            NAL call no: 99.8 IN2

            Descriptors: metabolism, energetics, elephant.


Preliminary observations of the morphology of the vomeronasal organ of a newborn Asian elephant. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Johnson, E.W.; Jafke, B.W. Chemical Senses, 1993, v. 18 (5), p. 618. ISSN: 0379-864X.

            NAL call no: QP456.C5

            Descriptors: development, sense organs, sensory reception, elephant.


Structure-dynamics-function relationships in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) myoglobin: An optical spectroscopy and flash photolysis study on functionally important motions. Cupane, Antonio; Leone, Maurizio; Vitrano, Eugenio; Lorenzo, Cordone; Hiltpold, Urs R.; Winterhalter, Kaspar H.; Yu, Weiming; Di Iorio, Ernesto E. Biophysical Journal, 1993, v. 65 (6), p. 2461-2472. ISSN: 0006-3495.

            NAL call no: 442.8 B5238

            Descriptors: molecular biophysics, movement and support, elephant.


Estrogen metabolism in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Czekala, N.M.; Roocroft, A.; Bates, M.; Allen, J.; Lasley, B.L. Zoo Biology, 1992, v. 11 (2), p. 75-80. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: urine, feces, estradiol, 17-Beta estrone, conjugated estradiol.


Rectal temperature of Sri Lankan elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). Ratnasooriya, W.D. Premakumara, G.A.S.; Fernando, S.B.U. Medical Science Research, 1992, v. 20 (13), p.499-500. ISSN: 0269-8951.

            Descriptors: physical activity, behavior, temperature, general biology.


Altered androstenedione to testosterone ratios and LH concentrations during musth in the captive male Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Niemuller, C.A.; Liptrap, R.M. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1991, v. 91 (1), p. 139-146. ISSN: 0022-4251.

            NAL call no: 442.8 J8222

            Descriptors: temporal gland secretion, sexual behavior, aggressive behavior.


The Asian elephant. Lair, R. South East Asia Wildlife, Bernard, H.U.; Brooke, M. (Eds.). 1991, 1-430 p. Chapter pagination: 122-125. APA Publications, Ltd, UK.

            Descriptors: distribution and biology, Elephas maximus, South East Asia.


Asian elephants. Eisenberg, J.F.; McKay, G.M.; Seidensticher, J. Friends of the National Zoo & National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1990, 271 p. Contains 3 reprints separately paginated i-iv, 1-113, i-v, 1-118, i-ii, 1-19.

            Descriptors: collected reprints, publications, Elephas maximus, biology, conservation.


Chemical analysis of temporal gland secretions collected from an Asian bull elephant during a four-month musth episode. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Hess, D.L.; Haight, J.D. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1990, v. 16 (7), p. 2167-2182. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call no: QD415.A1J6

            Descriptors: androgen, testosterone, metabolism, musth, radioimmunoassay.


Chemical profiles of temporal gland secretions from captive Asian bull elephants during musth and from African bull elephants living in wild but crowded conditions. Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Hess, D.L.; Hall, Martin A. Chemical Senses, 1990, v. 15 (5), p. 628. ISSN: 0379-864X.

            NAL call no: QP456.C5

            Descriptors: endocrine system, gonads, placenta, behavioral biology.


Estimation of the total surface area in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Sreekumar, K.P.; Nirmalan, G. Veterinary Research Communications, 1990, v. 14 (1), p. 5-17. ill. ref. ISSN: 0165-7380.

            NAL call no: SF601.V38

            Descriptors: elephants, biometry, body surface area, estimation.


The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Sukumar, R. Cambridge University Press, N.Y., 1989, i-xiv, 1-249 p.

            NAL call no: QL737.P98S95

            Descriptors: diet and feeding behavior, drinking, food plants, attacks on man.


Estimation of body weight in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Sreekumar, K.P.; Nirmalan, G. Veterinary Research Communications, 1989, v. 13 (1), p. 3-9. ref. ISSN: 0165-7380.

            NAL call no: SF601.V38

            Descriptors: Indian elephant, weight, body measurements.


Estrogen metabolism in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Czekala, N.M.; Roocroft, A.; Bates, M. Biology of Reproduction, 1989, v. 40 (Suppl. 1), p. 119. ISSN: 0006-3363.

            NAL call no: QL876.B5

            Descriptors: progesterone, urine, feces, pregnancy, radioimmunoassay.


Mineral composition of elephant tusk. Sreekumar, K.P.; Nirmalan, G. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 1989, v. 59 (12), p. 1561-1562. ISSN: 0367-8318.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IN22

            Descriptors: biochemistry, elephants, teeth.


Dental identification and age determination in Elephas maximus. Roth, V.L.; Shoshani, J. Journal of Zoology, 1988, v. 214 (4), p. 567-588. ISSN: 0952-8369.

            NAL call no: QL1.J68

            Descriptors: dentition, aging methods, Elephas maximus.


Development of the elephant molar and the evolution of its enamel structure. Kozawa, Y.; Mishima, H.; Sakae, T. Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle Series C Sciences de la Terre, 1988, v. 53, p. 125-131. ISSN: 0246-1196.

            Descriptors: teeth, skeleton, molar tooth, enamel structure, molar development.


Growth in the Asian elephant. Sukumar, R.; Joshi, N.V.; Krishnamurthy, V. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences, 1988, v. 97 (6), p. 561-571. ref. ISSN: 0370-0097.

            NAL call no: QL1.I48

            Descriptors: growth, elephants, body weight, tropics.


Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Hile, M.E.; Hintz, H.F.; Erb, H.N. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1987, v. 28 (4), p. 424-427. ref. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: heart girth, body weight, body measurements, prediction.


Surface sculpturing and water retention of elephant skin. Lillywhite, H.B.; Stein, B.R. Journal of Zoology, 1987, v. 211 (4), p. 727-734.

            NAL call no: QL1.J68

            Descriptors: water relations, skin surface, structure and retention properties.


Rotation of the leg segments of three fast-running cursors and an elephant. Hildebrand, M. Journal of Mammalogy, 1984, v. 65 (4), p. 718-720. ISSN: 0022-2372.

            NAL call no: 410 J823

            Descriptors: forelimbs, hindlimbs, locomotion, rotation of joints, running.


Hearing in the elephant (Elephas maximus): Absolute sensitivity, frequency discrimination, and sound localization. Heffner, R.S.; Heffner, H.E. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, Dec. 1982, v. 96 (6), p. 926-944. ISSN: 0021-9940.

            NAL call no: 410 J822

            Descriptors: auditory perception, threshold, sound localization, hearing.


Estimation of shoulder height from fore-foot circumference in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) (Sri Lanka). Bongso, T.A.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Motha, M.X.J.; Ross-Parker, H.M. Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences, Apr. 1981, v. 14 (1-2), p. 79-82. ISSN: 0069-2379.

            NAL call no: 475 C33

            Descriptors: Asian elephant, shoulder height estimation, fore-foot circumference.


Hearing in the elephant (Elephas maximus). Heffner, R.; Heffer, H. Science, May 1980, v. 208 (4443), P. 518-520. ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL call no: 470 SCI2

            Descriptors: hearing physiology, sound localization physiology, anatomy, histology.


Recent research on the biology of the Asiatic elephant (Elephas m. maximus) on Sri Lanka. Eisenberg, J.F. Spolia Zeylanica, 1980, v. 35, p. 213-218. ISSN: 0081-3745.

            NAL call no: 410.9 SP6

            Descriptors: feeding behavior, reproductive behavior, biology, Elephas maximus.


Some weight and body measure estimates of Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus) Thailand. Tumwasorn, S.; Udsanakornkul, S.; Leenanuruksa D.; Kaeophrommarn, C. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, Jul. 1980, v. 13 (3), p. 179-185. ISSN: 0049-3589.

            NAL call no: S3.T48

            Descriptors: weight, body measure, estimates, Asiatic elephant.

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