Environmental Enrichment for Birds

Christine Nicol
Department of Clinical Veterinary Science,
Bristol University, Langford House, Bristol BS18 7DU, UK


"Environmental Enrichment for Birds" is a chapter from: Smith, C.P. and V. Taylor (September 1995). Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. 1-25.

The following links access AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

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Introduction

Birds of many different species from a wide variety of original habitats are housed in research laboratories. Galliformes such as the quail (Coturnix coturnix) and the chicken (Gallus gallus) are used in biomedical research in studies of reproductive, digestive and "biological clock" physiology, and in genetic research. Pigeons (Columba livia) are stalwarts of the psychological laboratory, used primarily for learning and cognitive studies, whilst diverse species such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), starlings (Sturnis vulgaris) and passerine species (e.g., the great tit, Parus major) may also be kept for behavioral research purposes. This diversity makes it difficult to generalize about the specific physical or behavioral needs of laboratory birds, and a preliminary first step should always be to consider the natural behavior of each species in the wild.

Wild quail and jungle fowl (the ancestor of the domestic fowl) live in small social groups, devote much of their day to scratching and foraging for food on the ground, and perform complex sequences of behavior such as dustbathing and pre-laying nesting. In the laboratory they may be housed in aviaries or floor pens, or in cages with varying opportunity to perform these behavioral patterns. The spatial restriction imposed by typical laboratory chicken (50 x 60 x 56cm high) or quail (27 x 36 x 20cm hi gh) cages may restrict even relatively simple movements such as wing-flapping. The pigeon is a more gregarious bird, often found in very large flocks, and capable of flying fast over distances of more than 1000km. In the laboratory pigeons are kept eith er in aviaries, pigeon lofts, or in cages (typically 44 x 44 x 54cm high).

In most laboratories veterinary supervision is good and careful attention is devoted to hygiene, and to the maintenance of strict temperature and lighting regimes. Despite this care, the welfare of many laboratory birds may be prejudiced in barren or restrictive environments. This may be a particular oversight when the birds are subjects of behavioral or psychological research, as there is some evidence that cognitive abilities may be detrimentally affected by barren housing. It is probably not possible to recreate a completely natural environment for all laboratory birds, but much can be achieved by relatively simple environmental enrichment, especially in conjunction with information about behavioral needs and priorities.

More is known about the welfare requirements of the domestic fowl than any other bird, largely because of research generated by the controversy over agricultural battery cages. Caution is required when generalizing across species, but a number of important points have emerged from this research, relating to both physical and mental well-being, that can be applied to the laboratory situation.

Laying hens are alarmingly prone to bone breakage if they fly into solid structures such as cage walls, or poorly positioned perches. The risk of breakage is exacerbated if bones are weak due to insufficient exercise in spatially restricted housing. Most cages for laboratory birds appear to allow sufficient space for wing stretching, if not for flapping or actual flight, but many birds may avoid stretching their limbs too close to solid walls or partitions. The greatest risk of physical injury will occur if birds become frightened and attempt to escape from their cages, either during catching procedures or simply when disturbed by human presence. It is therefore important to allow sufficient space for running and wing flapping to maintain bone strength, and because these are important behaviors in their own right (Nicol 1987). This freedom must be coupled with the provision of a small, safe catching area. Birds can often be enticed into such areas if they are well lit whilst the rest of the roo m is temporarily darkened. Protection from injury can also be facilitated by suspending protective nets just below the cage or aviary roof or by lining the cage or catching area (e.g., with fiberglass) and ensuring there are no rough projections.

If fear levels in laboratory-housed birds are low then panic flights leading to physical injury are less likely, and general welfare is improved. New birds should be gradually exposed to the specific sounds or stimuli that they will encounter in the laboratory so that they can habituate. Research on many species, including chickens and quail, has also shown that baseline fear levels can be reduced by providing an enriched environment. Rearing young birds with access to a variety of stimuli such as colored objects and background music appears to have long-term beneficial effects. But, for adult birds, environmental enrichment must do more than simply provide a more complex general environment. It must also provide opportunities for birds to perform high priority behavior patterns. Increasing evidence suggests that functional behavior performance is crucial to good welfare. Even when birds are provided with ad libitum food and pre-formed nests, they still need to perform foraging and nest -building behavior. Laying hens are even willing to "pay a cost" to obtain their food by foraging in litter, rather than eat readily available food from a dish.


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Recommendations

Some simple suggestions for the environmental enrichment of laboratory birds include:

  1. Allow birds to forage for their food (which should be as varied as possible), either by scattering the food in wood-shavings on the aviary floor, by hiding it amongst shredded paper in a large trough, or by providing it in a form where birds have to work e.g., stuck together in a grain-block. Operant feeders, where a button must be pecked to release food, may occupy solitary birds, but cannot be recommended for group-housed birds as they may not allow birds to feed simultaneously and hence could result in increased competition and risk of feather pecking.
  2. Allow egg-laying birds the opportunity to perform nesting behavior by the provision of suitable nest-boxes and building material. If hen or quail have to be kept in cages consider the possibility of modifying the cage to incorporate a roll-away nest box. This can work successfully for laying hens housed in cages (Sherwin 1994).
  3. Allow sufficient space for running or flying activity, and consider ways of increasing the value of the space available. Perches or roosting shelves can be incorporated cheaply into all housing systems. In small cages perches can be inserted at night to allow roosting but removed during the day to allow unrestricted space.
  4. House birds in suitable stable social groups. If birds must be housed individually arrange the cages so that they have visual contact with others. This may reduce the incidence of stereotypic behavior (Keiper 1970). Since birds seem able to perceive 2-dimensional images the use of mirrors may also reduce the negative effects of social isolation.

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References

Keiper, R.R. (1970) Studies of stereotypy function in the canary (Serinus canarius). Animal Behaviour 18:353-357.

Nicol, C.J. (1987) Behavioural responses of laying hens following a period of spatial restriction. Animal Behaviour 35:1709-1719.

Sherwin, C.M. (ed) (1994) Modified cages for laying hens. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Potters Bar.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Recommendations | References | Bird Bibliography

Bird Bibliography

Alvey, D.M. and S.A. Tucker (1994). Cage design and laying hen welfare. In: Modified cages for laying hens. Proceedings of a symposium held at Noble House, London, UK, 18th January 1993 C.M. Sherwin, ed., UFAW: Potters Bar, UK, pp. 55-61.
NAL call number: SF494.5 M63 1994
Descriptors: chickens, laying hens, caging, depopulation, caging material, feather abrasion, cage floors, perches, economic consequences.

Alvey, D.M. and S.A. Tucker (1994). Effect on egg production of incorporating a perch within a battery cage. British Poultry Science 35(1):176-177.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: perch, housing, laying hens, egg production.

Anderson, K.E. and A.W. Adams (1989). Effects of restricted waterer, feeder and floor space per bird on growth and feed consumption of cage reared white leghorn pullets. Poultry Science 68(Supplement 1):3.
NAL call number: 47.8 Am33P
Descriptors: density, hens, water restriction, space, drinking, production.

Anderson, K.E., A.W. Adams, and J.V. Craig (1989). Behavioral adaptation of floor-reared white leghorn pullets to different cage densities and cage shapes during the initial settling-in period. Poultry Science 68(1):70-78.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: pullets, density, comfort, behavior, cage, floor pens.

Anon. (1979). Chickens. In: Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, Washington, D.C.; Animal Welfare Institute, pp. 98-101.
NAL call number: SF91.A5 1979
Descriptors: facilities, cage, housing, laboratories.

Appleby, M.C. (1992). Behaviour-environment interactions in hens: Implications for housing. Animal Production 54(3):470.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: space, pre-laying behavior, dustbathing, housing, behavior, hens.

Appleby, M.C. (1990). Behaviour of laying hens in cages with nest sites. British Poultry Science 31(1):71-80.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: behavior, hens, cage, substrate, rollaway hollow, space.

Appleby, M.C. (October 1984). Factors affecting floor laying by domestic hens: A review. World's Poultry Science Association 40(3):241-249.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: production, floor type, housing, hens, nest sites.

Appleby, M.C. and B.O. Hughes (July 1991). Welfare of laying hens in cages and alternative systems: Environmental, physical and behavioural aspects. World's Poultry Science Journal 47(2):109-128.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: welfare, housing density, crowding, floor space, behavior, group size, cage size, bone strength.

Appleby, M.C. and B.O. Hughes (1990). Cages modified with perches and nests for the improvement of bird welfare. World's Poultry Science Journal 46(1):38-40.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: dustbath box, nest box, group size, bone strength.

Appleby, M.C., B.O. Hughes, and G.S. Hogarth (1989). Behaviour of laying hens in a deep litter house. British Poultry Science 30(3):545-554.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: stocking density, litter, slat floor, foraging, behavior, hens.

Appleby, M.C., S.N. Maguire, and H.E. McRae (1986). Nesting and floor laying by domestic hens in a commercial flock. British Poultry Science 27(1):75-82.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: cage, deep litter pen, nest box, preference, hen, flock.

Appleby, M.C. and S.F. Smith (1991). Design of nest boxes for laying cages. British Poultry Science 32(4):667-678.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: wire floor nest box, rollaway nest box, egg production, nesting behavior, space, cage, nest box, hens.

Appleby, M.C., S.F. Smith, and B.O. Hughes (1992). Individual perching behaviour of laying hens and its effects in cages. British Poultry Science 33(2):227-238.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: perch-type preference, perch space, egg quality, crowding, behavior, perch, hens, cage.

Blokhuis, H.J. (August 1986). Feather-pecking in poultry: Its relation with ground pecking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16(1):63-67.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: housing, floor type, feather pecking.

Blokhuis, H.J., J.W. Van der Haar, and P.G. Koole (1987). Effects of beak trimming and floor type on feed consumption and body weight of pullets during rearing. Poultry Science 66(4):623-625.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: floor, substrate, pullets, debeaking, feeding.

Bolhuis, J.J. and W.J. Trooster (June 1988). Reversibility revisited: Stimulus-dependent stability of filial preference in the chick. Animal Behaviour 36(3):669-674.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: filial preference, behavior, stimuli.

Bonner, J. (March 1991). Battery cages are "better for hens." New Scientist 129(1759):17.
NAL call number: 472 N42
Descriptors: battery cage, percheries, confinement, exercise, disease.

Brake, J. (1993). Influence on nest pad color on nest preference floor eggs and egg production. Poultry Science 72(Supplement 1):156.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: laying hens, nest pad, preference, egg production.

Chidananda, B.L., K.S. Prathapkumar, P.V. Sreenivasaiah, G.R. Lokanath, and B.S. Ramappa (Sept. 1985). Comparative performance of Japanese quail on cage and deep litter. 1. Body weight, feed efficiency and mortality. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 20(3):162-164.
NAL call number: SF481.I5
Descriptors: quail, cage, litter, mortality, feed efficiency, mortality.

Chidananda, B.L., K.S. Prathapkumar, P.V. Sreenivasaiah, B.S. Ramappa, and G.R. Lokanath (June 1986). Comparative performance of Japanese quail on cage and deep litter. 2. Egg production and reproduction traits. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 21(2):91-96.
NAL call number: SF481.I5
Descriptors: quail, cage, litter, production, reproduction.

Church, J.S., T. Tennessen, and A.B. Webster (1992). Environmental enrichment influences on body weight, feathering, foot condition and behaviour of caged white leghorn hens. Journal of Animal Science 70(Supplement 1):175.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: fear, stress, battery cages, cage enrichment, cage, hens, body weight, behavior.

Church, J.S., T. Tennessen, and A.B. Webster (1991). Effects of environmental enrichment and genetic strain on the behaviour of white leghorn pullets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 71(4):1274.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: battery cages, breeds, production, cage, pullets, genetics, behavior.

Craig, J.V. and J.A. Craig (May 1985). Corticosteroid levels in White Leghorn hens as affected by handling, laying house environment, and genetic stock. Poultry Science 64(5):809-816.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: handling, housing, genetics, hens.

Craig, J.V. and G.A. Milliken (Jan. 1989). Further studies of density and group size effects in caged hens of stocks differing in fearful behavior: Productivity and behavior. Poultry Science 68(1):9-16.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: density, hens, fear, egg production, behavior.

Craig, J.V. and J.C. Swanson (1994). Review: Welfare perspectives on hens kept for egg production. Poultry Science 73(7):921-938.
NAL call number: 47.8 Am33P
Descriptors: chickens, hens, alternative production systems, economic consequences.

Craig, J.V. and S.M. Muir (1986). Fear and feather loss of hens in 3-bird cages: Associations with other traits. Poultry Science 65(Supplement 1):28.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: tonic immobility, avoidance behavior, production, hen, 3-bird cage.

Craig, J.V., N.A. Okpokho, and G.A. Milliken (1988). Floor and cage-rearing effects on pullets' initial adaptation to multiple-hen cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 20(3-4):319-334.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: feeding, feather-pecking, pullet, cage, floor pen, density.

Craig, J.V. and N.C. Ramos (August 1986). Competitive feeding behavior and social status in multiple-hen cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16(1):69-76.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: competitive, feeding, aggression, dominance, submission, social, cage.

Craig, J.V., J. Vargas Vargas, and G.A. Milliken (December 1986). Fearful and associated responses of white leghorn hens: Effects of cage environments and genetic stocks. Poultry Science 65(12):2199-2207.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: cage, hens, genetics, tonic immobility, density, corticosteroids, production, mortality.

Cunningham, D.L. and G. Gvaryahu (October 1987). Effects on productivity and aggressive behavior of laying hens of solid versus wire cage partitions and bird density. Poultry Science 66(10):1583-1586.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: cage partitions, aggression, hens, density.

Cunningham, D.L., A. Van Tienhoven, and F. de Goeijen (April 1987). Dominance rank and cage density effects on performance traits, feeding activity and plasma corticosterone levels of laying hens (Gallus domesticus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 17(1/2):139-154.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: hens, dominance, feeding behavior, density.

Davis, D.S. and H.A. Allen, Jr. (1989). An improved waterfowl enclosure: Considering animal welfare as a research priority. Journal of Field Ornithology 60(2):162-167.
NAL call number: 413.8 B534
Descriptors: care, housing, design, captivity, waterfowl, welfare.

Dawkins, M. (1977). Do hens suffer in battery cages? Environmental preferences and welfare. Animal Behaviour 25(4):1034-1046.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: battery cage, habitat preference, hen-run, pen, indicators of suffering, previous environmental experience, latency period.

Duncan, I.J.H. (1992). The effects of the researcher on the behavior of poultry. In: The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions H. Davis and D. Balfour, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England, pp. 285-294.
NAL call number: QL55.I44
Descriptors: human contact, fear, observer effect, habituation.

El-Homosany, Y.M., J.A. Mench, M.F. Ali (1994). Effects of group size and floor space on the well-being of female Japanese quail. Poultry Science 73(Supplement 1):57.
NAL call number: 47.8 Am33P
Descriptors: Japanese quail, housing, social groups, density, egg production.

Faure, J.M. (1986). Operant determination of the cage and feeder size preferences of the laying hen. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(4):325-336.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cage, hens, feeder, apparatus, motivation, production.

Faure, J.M. (1985). Space need for domestic hens in cage. Biology of Behaviour 10(4):343-351.
NAL call number: QL750 B52
Descriptors: operant conditioning, feeder size, demand elasticity, behavior, space, hen, cage.

Gernat, A.G. and A.W. Adams (1990). Effect of number and location of nipple waterers and cage shape on the performance of caged layers. Poultry Science 69(12):2086-2091.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: dome water, trigger cup water, deep cage, shallow cage, mortality, egg production, water, cage, hens.

Gibson, S.W., B.O. Hughes, S. Harvey, and P. Dun (1986). Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and thyroid hormones in laying fowls from different housing systems. British Poultry Science 27(4):621-628.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: cage, range, straw yard, stress, housing, hens, hormones.

Gill, E.L. (August 1994). Environmental enrichment for captive starlings. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 45(2):89-93.
NAL call number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: sturnus vulgaris, animal welfare, foraging, cocoa husks, calliphora vomitoria, laboratory rearing.

Gill, J.L. (1989). Statistical aspects of design and analysis of experiments with animals in pens. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 106(5):321-334.
NAL call number: 442.8 Z35
Descriptors: statistical design, animal number, blocking, experimental units, split-plot design.

Gordon, S.H. (1992). The effect of broiler stocking density on bird welfare and performance. British Poultry Science 33(5):1120-1121.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: housing, substrate, flock management, production, broilers, welfare.

Granza, A.F. (1970). Vocal mimicry in captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 27(8):971-983.
NAL call number: 410 Z35
Descriptors: learning, acoustic enrichment, play behavior, toys, budgerigars.

Gross, W.B. (1983). Chicken-environment interactions. In: Ethics and Animals, H.B. Miller and W.H. Williams (eds.), Clifton, N.J.; Humana Press pp. 329-337.
NAL call number: HV4711.E87
Descriptors: rearing environment, lumination, handler influence, social groups.

Gschwindt-Ensinger, B. (1986). The effect of different housing systems on several stress relevant physiological parameters. Archiv für Gefluegelkunde 50(1):13-19.
NAL call number: 47.8 AR2
Descriptors: floor pen, cage, body weight, antibody titers, blood lipids, carbohydrates, stress, physiological, hen, housing.

Gvaryahu, G., D.L. Cunningham, and A. Van Tienhoven (1989). Filial imprinting, environmental enrichment and music application: Effects on behaviour and performance of meat strain chicks. Poultry Science 68(2):211-217.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: broiler chicks, fear, feeding, approach, Classical music.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and R.B. Jones (1993). Situational factors that influence the level of fear of humans by laying hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(2-3):197-210.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: tier housing system, battery cage, cage, hens, productivity, fear.

Huber, L. (1994). Amelioration of laboratory conditions for pigeons (Columba livia). Animal Welfare 3:321-324.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, conditioning, learning tests, housing, Skinner box.

Huber, H.U., D.W. Folsch, and U. Stahli (1985). Influence of various nesting materials on nest site selection of the domestic hen. British Poultry Science 26(3):367-374.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: deep litter system, cage, nest material, preferences, nest site, hen.

Hughes, B.O., I.J.H. Duncan, and M.F. Brown (1989). The performance of nest building by domestic hens: Is it more important than the construction of a nest? Animal Behaviour 37(2):210-214.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: hens, behavior performance, motivation, nest building.

Hulet, R.M., D.M. Denbow, and R.W. Manley (1991). Effect of bird density on growth performance of cage-brooded male and female turkeys. Poultry Science 70(Supplement 1):54.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: group size, body weight, industry, turkeys, cage.

Hurnik, J.F. and N.J. Lewis (February 1991). Body surface area, a reference for space allowance in confinement Poultry Science 70(2):412-415.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: resting behavior, comfort, space, surface area.

Hypes, W.A., R.A. Peterson, G.H. Carpenter, and W.T. Jones (1992). Environmental stress evaluation of floor and high density cage brooded broiler chicks. Poultry Science 71(Supplement 1):127.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: crowding, immunosuppression, heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, housing, chicks, cage.

Ishimoto, Y., T. Yamazaki, K. Kondo, and C. Yamashita (October 1982). Effect of cage shapes and colony size on layer performance. II. Chicken housing. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-Ken Agricultural Research Center [Aichi-ken Nogyo Sogo Shikenjo kenkyu hokoku] 14:421-425.
NAL call number: S19 R42
Descriptors: cage, shape, colony size, performance.

Jin, L. and J.V. Craig (October 1988). Some effects of cage and floor rearing on commercial White Leghorn pullets during growth and the first year of egg production. Poultry Science 67(10):1400-1406.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: growth, genetics, behavior, cage, production.

Jones, R.B. (June 1989). Development and alleviation of fear in poultry. The Proceedings of the Third European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, Tours, France: 11-14th June 1989, J-M. Faure and A.D. Mills, eds., The French Branch of the World's Poultry Science Association with European Federation of the World's Poultry Science Association's Working Group 9 on Poultry Welfare.
NAL call number: HD9437 E9 1989
Descriptors: fear alleviation, ontogeny, welfare, performance, behavior.

Jones, R.B. (November 1989). Fear in poultry. The Proceedings of the BVA Animal Welfare Foundations's Eighth Symposium: The Detection and Control of Fear in Animals, 9 November 1989, T.E. Gibson, ed., BVA Animal Welfare Foundation.
NAL call number: HV4704 A54 1989
Descriptors: fear, poultry, consequences, alleviate, behavior, adapt, novel, tonic immobility, handling, cage, cannibalism, socialization, artificial selection, welfare, performance, environmental enrichment.

Jones, R.B. (1986). Responses of domestic chicks to novel food as a function of sex, strain and previous experience. Behavioural Processes 12:261-271.
NAL call number: QL750 B4
Descriptors: food neophobia, novel, chicks, environmental enrichment, fear, genetic factors, strain, sex, experiential factors, dietary diversity.

Jones, R.B. (February1986). The tonic immobility reaction of the domestic fowl: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal 42(1):82-96.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: tonic immobility, handling, dominance, genetics, age, stress, fowl.

Jones, R.B. (1985). Fearfulness and adaptability in the domestic fowl. IRCS (International Research Communications System) Medical Science 13(9):797-800.
NAL call number: R5 J6
Descriptors: tonic immobility, handling, genetics, environmental enrichment, fowl, fear, performance, welfare, egg production, cage, adapt.

Jones, R.B. (1985). Fearfulness of hens caged individually or in groups in different tiers of a battery and the effects of translocation between tiers. British Poultry Science 26(3):399-408.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: tonic immobility, tier system, avoidance, novel objects, hen, cage, translocation.

Jones, R.B. (1982). Effects of early environmental enrichment upon open-field behavior and timidity in the domestic chick. Developmental Psychobiology 15(2):105-111.
NAL call number: QP351 D4
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, fear, novel, behavior, open field, timidity, emergence latency.

Jones, R.B., S. Harvey, B.O. Hughes, and A. Chadwick (1980). Growth and the plasma concentrations of growth hormone and prolactin in chicks: Effects of "environmental enrichment," sex and strain. British Poultry Science 21:457-462.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: novel objects, environmental enrichment, plasma growth hormone, prolactin, chicks, sex, strain, weight gain, gain-to-food ratio.

Jones, R.B., A.D. Mills, and J-M. Faure (1991). Genetic and experimental manipulation of fear-related behavior in Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Comparative Psychology 105(1):15-24.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: tonic immobility, handling, environmental enrichment, activity, vocalizations, quail, genetics, fear.

Jones, R.B., A.D. Mills, and J-M. Faure (1990). Genetic selection, environmental enrichment, and regular handling can alleviate fear in Japanese quail. Poultry Science 69(Supplement 1):70.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: handling, fear, quail, tonic immobility, genetics, behavior, breeding.

Jones, R.B. and D. Waddington (June 1992). Modification of fear in domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, via regular handling and early environmental enrichment. Animal Behaviour 43(6):1021-1033.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: novel object, bird-human interaction, behavior, habituation, tonic immobility, chicks, fear, welfare, performance, handling.

Kaytasov, G., T. Stojanchev, and G. Boychev (1987). A study of productivity of broilers reared in battery cages and on deep litter. Zhivotnovudni Nauki 24(3):39-43.
Descriptors: body weight, broilers, cages, feed efficiency, breast blisters, production.

Keeling, L.J. and I.J.H. Duncan (1988). Relationship between inter-bird distances and available space in laying hens. British Poultry Science 29(4):874.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: behavior, hens, density, housing, dominance, space.

Keeling, L.J. and J.F. Hurnik (1993). Chickens show socially facilitated feeding behaviour in response to a video image of a conspecific. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(2-3):223-231.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: feed consumption, pecks, social behavior, stimulus, behavior.

Keiper, R.R. (1969). Causal factors of stereotypies in caged birds. Animal Behaviour 17(1):114-119.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: stereotypies, cage size, hand-rearing, wild, social environments, food access, perch, behavior.

Keymer, I.F. (1987). The canary and other passerine cage birds. The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, 6th ed, T.B. Poole (ed.), Longman, London. pp. 687-700.
NAL call number: QL55.U5 1987
Descriptors: laboratory methods, disease control, canary.

King, C.E. (1993). Environmental enrichment: Is it for the birds? Zoo Biology 12(6):509-512.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: comparison, birds, mammals, primates, environmental enrichment.

King, C.E. (1992). Parrot wellbeing. Does it deserve more attention? Psitta Scene 4(2):7-8.
Descriptors: care, housing, welfare, psychology, parrot, wellbeing.

Koelkebeck, K.W., J.R. Cain, and M.S. Amos, Jr. (1986). Corticosterone sampling of laying hens in different management systems. Poultry Science 65(1):183-185.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: stress, battery cage, floor pen, endocrinology, corticosterone, hen, management.

Koelkebeck, K.W., J.R. Cain, and M.S. Amos, Jr. (October 1986). Use of adrenocorticotropin challenges to indicate chronic stress responses of laying hens in several housing alternatives. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 3(4):301-305.
NAL call number: QL868.D6
Descriptors: hens, stress, housing, corticosterone, corticotropin.

Kovach, J.K. (September 1983). Constitutional biases in early perceptual learning. I. Preferences between colors, patterns, and composite stimuli of colors and patterns in genetically manipulated and imprinted quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Comparative Psychology 97(3):226-239.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: perception, preference, color, pattern, stimuli, imprint.

Kreger, M.D. (1995). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Poultry: January 1992-January 1995. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 67p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 95-05
Descriptors: husbandry, bibliography, housing, behavior, physiology.

Kreger, M.D. (1994). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot): December 1980-December 1993. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 30p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.94-26
Descriptors: husbandry, bibliography, housing, behavior, physiology.

Lee, H-Y. and J.V. Craig (February1991). Beak trimming effects on behavior patterns, fearfulness, feathering and mortality among three stocks of white leghorn pullets in cages or floor pens. Poultry Science 70(2):211-221.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: crowding, cannibalism, tonic immobility, pecking, weight gain, pullets, fear.

Leighton, A.T. Jr., D.M. Denbow, and R.M. Hulet (1985). Behavior and growth parameters of large white turkeys as affected by floor space and beak trimming. Poultry Science 64(3):440-446.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: age, feed consumption, feed efficiency, feather scores, mortality, aggression, social behavior, turkey, floor space, beak trimming.

Martin, S.G., J.R. Millam (May 1995). Nest box selection by floor laying and reproductively naive captive cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 43(2):95-109.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cockatiels, preference testing, nest box, reproduction, behavior

Meijsser, F.M. and B.O. Hughes (December 1989). Comparative analysis of pre-laying behaviour in battery cages and in three alternative systems. British Poultry Science 30(4):747-760.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: perchery, deep litter, covered straw yard, battery cage, nesting, cage, hens, behavior.

Mench, J. (1994). Environmental enrichment and exploration. Lab Animal 23(4):38-41.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: laboratory animals, chickens, behavior, exploratory behavior, devices, age, sex, social context, genetics, experience.

Mench, J. (1986). Cage design for layers. Poultry Digest 45(533):273.
NAL call number: 47.8 N219
Descriptors: feed consumption, egg quality, stress, drinking, plumage condition, cage, layers, design.

Mou, L.J. and N. Kolstad (1990). Effects of different environments and selection for persistency in laying hens. I. Effects of two different rearing systems on growth rate, feed conversion, mortality and age at sexual maturity in chickens. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(3):195-204.
NAL call number: S3 N672
Descriptors: battery cage, floor pen, weight gain, heritability, cage.

Murphy, L.B. (1994). Examples of species-specific considerations in the design of an environment- domestic fowl. In: Improving the Well-being of Animals in the Research Environment: Proceedings of the conference held at the Marriott Hotel, Sydney, October, 1993 R.M. Baker, G. Jenkin, and D.J. Mellor, eds., ANZCCART, PO Box 19, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia, pp. 119-121.
Descriptors: laying hens, broilers, substrate, mesh size, pecking targets, perches.

Nagarajan, S., D. Naraharp, and I.A. Jayaprasad (1990). Laying performance of Japanese quail hens under different stocking densities. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 60(12):1467-1470.
NAL call number: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: cage space, egg production, feed efficiency, mortality, quail, cage.

Na-Lampang, P. and J.V. Craig (June 1990). Cage- and floor-rearing effects on productivity, nervousness, feather condition, and livability of White Leghorn layers. Poultry Science 69(6):902-909.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: mortality, productivity, hens, feather condition, cages, floor pen.

Na-Lampang, P. and J.V. Craig (October 1990). Cage-rearing and floor-rearing effects on subsequent behavior of white leghorn layers in multiple-bird cages. Poultry Science 69(10)1652-1658.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: preening, feeding, pecking, genetics, cage, hens.

Na-Lampang, P. and J.V. Craig (1989). Rearing environment effects on behavior of white leghorn layers in multiple-hen cages. Poultry Science 68(Supplement 1):102.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: density, genetics, hens, industry.

Nicol, C.J. (June 1992). Effects of environmental enrichment and gentle handling on behaviour and fear responses of transported broilers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33(4):367-380.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: tonic immobility, handling, transport, activity, fear, behavior, broilers.

Nicol, C. (March 1990). Behaviour requirements within a cage environment. World's Poultry Science Journal 46(1):31-33.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: nesting, laying, feeding, hens, behavior.

Nicol, C.J. (1987). Behavioural responses of laying hens following a period of spatial restriction. Animal Behaviour 35(6):1709-1719.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: space, spatial allowance, behavior, single housing, activity rebound, welfare.

Nicol, C.J. (1987). Effect of cage height and area on the behavior of hens housed in battery cages. British Poultry Science 28(2):327-336.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: cage, hens, behavior, pecking, motivation, comfort, feeding.

Nicol, C.J. (1986). Non-exclusive spatial preference in the laying hen. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(4):337-350.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: motivation, cage, floor area, time, hens, space.

Nicol, C.J. and T. Guilford (1990). Exploratory activity as a measure of motivation in deprived hens. Animal Behaviour 41(2):333-341.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: motivation, exploratory activity, deprivation, behavior, activity, tunnel behavior.

Nicol, C.J. and S.J. Pope (1993). A comparison of the behaviour of solitary and group housed budgerigars. Animal Welfare 2:269-277.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: budgerigars, behavior, social isolation, group housing, cage, aviary, novel chamber, neophobia, handling.

Norgaard-Nielsen, G. (March 1990). Bone strength of laying hens kept in an alternative system, compared with hens in cages and on deep-litter. British Poultry Science 31(1):81-89.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: housing, bone strength, cage, deep litter, welfare.

Norgaard-Nielsen, G., K. Vestergaard, and H.B. Simonsen (1993). Effects of rearing experience and stimulus enrichment on feather damage in laying hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38(3-4):345-352.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dustbath, substrate, plumage, hens, Hans Kier System, feather pecking.

Okamoto, S., S. Nagata, S. Kobayashi, and T. Matsuo (1989). Effects of photoperiod and cage density on growth and feed conversion in large and small quail lines selected for body weight. Japanese Poultry Science 26(3):150-156.
NAL call number: 47.8 N57
Descriptors: illumination, photoperiod, cage, density, quail.

O'Keefe, T.R., H.B. Graves, and H.S.Siegel (1986). The effect of changing housing density on the social organization and agonistic behavior of the domestic fowl Gallus domesticus. Poultry Science 65(Supplement 1):185.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: dominance, stress, aggressive behavior, housing, density, social, agonistic, fowl.

Okpokho, N.A. and J.V. Craig (1987). Fear-related behavior of hens in cages: Effects of rearing environment, age, and habituation. Poultry Science 66(2):376-377.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: tonic immobility, stress, floor pen, cage, hens, avoidance behavior.

Parrish, J.W. and D.K. Saunders (1989). Simplified cage modification to reduce self-inflicted injury in confined birds. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17(1):80-81.
NAL call number: SK357.A1W5
Descriptors: wildlife, field methods, wild birds, fiberglass screen.

Prayitno, D., C.J.C. Phillips, and H. Omed (1993). The initial and long-term preference of broilers for red, blue, or green light after being reared in red, blue, green, or white light. Animal Production 56(3):438.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: rearing environment, lighting, broilers, embryology.

Preston, A.P. (December 1987). Location in the cage and diurnal distribution of feather pecking by caged layers. British Poultry Science 28(4):653-658.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: cage, motivation, hens, feather pecking, environmental stimulation, behavior.

Rajecki, D.W., S.J. Suomi, E.A. Scott, and B. Campbell (1977). Effects of social isolation and social separation in domestic chicks. Developmental Psychology 13(2):143-155.
NAL call number: BF712 P7
Descriptors: social behavior, group housing, isolation.

Ramos, N.C., K.E. Anderson, and A.W. Adams (November 1986). Effects of type of cage partition, cage shape, and bird density on productivity and well-being of layers. Poultry Science 65(11):2023-2028.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: housing, cages, density, shape, size, partitions, production.

Ramos, N.C. and J.V. Craig (1985). Social dominance and pre-laying behaviour of hens in 4-bird cages. Poultry Science 64(Supplement 1):166.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: aggression, genetics, production, social dominance, hen, pre-laying behavior.

Reed, H.J. and C.J. Nicol (1992). Effects of nest linings, pecking strips and partitioning on nest use and behaviour in modified battery cages. British Poultry Science 33(4):719-727.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: housing, nest lining, cage partitions, nest disturbance, cage, behavior.

Reed, H.J., L.J. Wilkins, S.D. Austin, and N.G. Gregory (1993). The effect of environmental enrichment during rearing on fear reactions and depopulation trauma in adult caged hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(1):39-46.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: handling, fear, housing, injury, humans, hens.

Roush, W.B. and T.L. Cravener (September 1990). Evaluation of colony size and cage space for laying hens (Gallus domesticus) using fuzzy decision analysis. Poultry Science 69(9):1480-1484.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: cage size, density, space, hens, egg production, mortality.

Rowley, I., E. Russell, and M. Palmer (1989). The food preference of cockatoos: An aviary experiment. Australian Wildlife Research 16(1):19-32.
NAL call number: S960 W5
Descriptors: seed preferences, seed size, Psittaciformes, cockatoo.

Savory, C.J., E. Seawright, and A. Watson (1992). Stereotyped behaviour in broiler breeders in relation to husbandry and opioid receptor blockade. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32(4):349-360.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: feed restriction, stress, group housing, battery cage, cage, broilers, behavior.

Sherwin, C.M. (1995). Environmental enrichment for laying hens: Spherical objects in the feed trough. Animal Welfare 4(1): 41-51.
NAL call number: HV 4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging, feeding behavior, leather balls, rubber balls, tennis balls.

Sherwin, C.M. (ed) (1994) Modified cages for laying hens. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts., UK, 102 p.
NAL call number: SF494.5 M63 1994
Descriptors: housing, caging, welfare.

Sherwin, C.M. (1993). Pecking behaviour of laying hens provided with a simple motorized environmental enrichment device. British Poultry Science 34(2):235-240.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: motivation, choice, water provision, environmental control, behavior, hens, cage, peck.

Sherwin, C.M. (1992). Design of cages for laying hens and the influences on behaviour and welfare. Journal of Animal Science 70(Supplement 1):172.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: feed trough, nest, feeding activity, hens, behavior, welfare, bar cage.

Sherwin, C.M. and C.J. Nicol (1993). A descriptive account of the pre-laying behaviour of hens housed individually in modified cages with nests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38:49-60.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: hen, pre-laying behavior, cage, nest, housing, welfare, egg-laying behavior.

Sherwin, C.M. and C.J. Nicol (1993). Factors influencing floor-laying by hens in modified cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(2-3):211-222.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: battery cage, litter-reared, nests, social interactions, cage, hens.

Sherwin, C.M. and C.J. Nicol (1992). Behaviour and production of laying hens in three prototypes of cages incorporating nests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35:41-54.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: hen, cage, nest, behavior, production, welfare.

Slaugh, B.T., N.P. Johnston, J.T. Flinders, and R.K. Bramwell (August 1990). Effect of light regime on welfare and growth of pheasants. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 41(2):103-114.
NAL call number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: photoperiod, feed conversion, feathering, ring-necked pheasant.

Smith, C.P. (1992). Animal Models in Biomedical Research: Poultry. Special Reference Brief 92-17 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 80p.
NAL call number: aS21 D27S64
Descriptors: husbandry, bibliographies, biomedical research use.

Struwe, F.J., E.W. Gleaves, J.H. Douglas, and P.L. Bond, Jr. (January 1992). Effect of rearing floor type and ten-day beak trimming on stress and performance of caged layers. Poultry Science 71(1):70-75.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: debeaking, litter floor, wire floor, pullet, corticosterone.

Sullivan, J.P., K.A. Grasman, and P.F. Scanlon (1992). Effects of handling and pair management on reproduction in Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. Theriogenology 37(4):877-883.
NAL call number: QP251.A1TS
Descriptors: pairing intervals, mating opportunity, intercage transport, egg number, quail, handling.

Tanaka, T. and J.F. Hurnik (February 1992). Comparison of behavior and performance of laying hens housed in battery cages and an aviary. Poultry Science 71(2):235-243.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: battery cage, aviary, behavior, production, activity, environment.

Tanaka, T. and J.F. Hurnik (March 1991). Behavioral responses of hens to simulated dawn and dusk periods. Poultry Science 70(3):483-488.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: sudden illumination, gradual illumination, comfort, battery cage, activity, behavior, hens.

Tanaka, T. and J.F. Hurnik (February1991). Research note: The behavior of young layers during the first two weeks in aviary and battery cages. Poultry Science 70(2):404-407.
NAL call number: 47.8 AM33P
Descriptors: housing density, feather-pecking, space, feeding, drinking, hens, behavior, cage.

Tauson, R. (1985). Mortality in laying hens caused by differences in cage design. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 35(2):165-174.
Descriptors: cage, engineering-related trauma, neck, head, toe, claw.

van Liere, D.W. (1992). The significance of fowls' bathing in dust. Animal Welfare 1:187-202.
NAL call number: HV470 A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, dustbath, feather, lipid, litter, sand, peat.

Vestergaard, K. (1992). The development of feather pecking in the fowl: Its association with dustbathing. Journal of Animal Science 70(Supplement 1):176.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: behavior, poultry, enrichment, displacement, feather pecking, dustbathing.

Wathes, C.M., D.R. Charles, and J.A. Clark (1985). Group size and plumage damage in laying hens. British Poultry Science 26(4):459-464.
NAL call number: 47.8 B77
Descriptors: floor space, age, density, battery cage, hen, plumage, group.

Wegner, R-M. (1990). Experience with the get-away cage system. World's Poultry Science Journal 46(1):41-47.
NAL call number: 47.8 W89
Descriptors: hens, nest box, perch, behavior.

Wiepkema, P.R. (1985). Abnormal behaviours in farm animals: Ethological implications. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 35(1-2):279-299.
NAL call number: 410 AR27
Descriptors: animal awareness, feelings, environmental control, behavior, farm, ethological.

Wineland, M.J. (1987). Nesting stimuli affects egg quality and numbers. Poultry Digest 46(542):162-164.
NAL call number: 47.8 N219
Descriptors: color, illumination, breeding, management, nesting, egg.

Zocchi, D.C. and S.E. Brauth (1991). An experimental study of mate directed behaviour in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Bird Behaviour 9(1-2):49-57.
Descriptors: budgerigar, social proximity, social cues, breeding, familiarity.


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