Dogs and Dog Housing

Robert Hubrecht
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms
Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QD, UK


"Dogs and Dog Housing" is a chapter from: Smith, C.P. and V. Taylor (September 1995). Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. 49-62.

The following links access AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

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Brief background

The dog is descended from the wolf, possibly the Southern wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). Wolves are social carnivores that can combine into packs, and this trait is still shown by some feral dogs (Feddersen-Petersen 1994). Thousands of years of domestication and artificial selection have produced breeds, with modified social repertoires (Bradshaw and Brown 1990), that are capable of transferring conspecific social behavior to humans. Like most larger mammals, dogs spend a considerable portion of their time inactive (Hubrecht et al. 1992, Adams and Johnson 1993). However, as a diet opportunist, the dog is adapted to seeking a wide variety of foods in unpredictable locations, it is therefore much more likely to be tolerant of novel items and circumstances than a more specialized feeder. Conversely, during its active periods it may be more easily bored by a predictable and limiting environment.


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Physical needs

There are many publications that provide recommendations for the dog's general husbandry (e.g., MacArthur 1987, HMSO 1989, 1995). These are based on experience and provide valuable information but there has been very little research into specific physical requirements apart from diet. In most scientific work a tightly controlled environment is required to reduce unwanted variation, however, the dog is a very adaptable animal and a healthy adult can cope with a range of conditions, particularly if it has access to areas with different micro-climates.

Temperature, humidity, ventilation and lighting

An indoor temperature range of 15-24oC, and humidity of 55 percent ± 10 percent, with 8-12 air changes per hour is suitable. New-born puppies require an ambient temperature of 26-28oC for at least the first 10 days of life. Lighting should be adequate for staff to work, and there may be a case for a low level of nocturnal illumination in totally enclosed facilities.

Diet

Dogs appear to prefer meat to cereal diets (Houpt and Smith 1981). Some breeds have a propensity for obesity (Anderson 1973), however, they will usually adapt well to the many proprietary diets available. Advice, if needed, should be sought from the suppliers.

Noise

Dog housing is often very noisy because of barking, and sound pressures of well over 100 decibels have been recorded (Senn and Lewin 1975). Ottewill (1968) provided recommendations to reduce noise, mainly with the aim of improving conditions for the humans. The dog has a hearing frequency range of up to 55 kHz (Gamble 1982) with the most sensitive frequencies at 500Hz -16kHz. At these frequencies their hearing can be up to four times as acute as that of humans. Prolonged exposure to sound pressures of over 90 decibels is known to damage human hearing, and many sites advise or require hearing protection for the staff. It is not unreasonable to assume that such levels might also damage dog hearing, although there is very little evidence on this subject.


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Social needs

It has been known for a long time that inadequate housing can lead to behavioral problems in dogs (Fuller 1967, Solarz 1970). Normal husbandry for the dog should allow plenty of opportunities for social interactions with humans (Wolfle 1992) and conspecifics (Fox 1986). Group housing of compatible dogs in pairs or larger groups is the preferred housing method, (HMSO 1989, Hubrecht et al. 1992, Hubrecht 1993b) but care is needed to control any fighting. Regular human contact during the puppie s' socialization period (3-14 weeks) is particularly important to produce dogs that are relaxed with humans (Scott and Fuller 1965).


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Environmental enrichment

Many laboratory enclosures are simple structures, with little or no complexity provided by cage furniture or subdivisions, and in some countries it is still legal and common practice to house dogs in what would seem to be very small cages. It is unlikely that such small enclosures can provide for the dogs' psychological needs (Hetts 1991). A good housing system should allow the dog to exercise an element of choice, to manipulate or chew safe objects, and provide opportunities for human and canine socialization (Hubrecht 1993a). Dogs sometimes have to be housed singly for experimental or quarantine reasons, in which case greater thought should be given to providing extra human contact time and an interesting environment.

Dog pens should be subdivided into separate sleeping and exercise areas which provide complexity, choice and allows the dog to defecate/urinate away from its sleeping area (Fox 1986). Solid partitions between pens provide privacy and help to prevent injuries, but can isolate the dog from its surroundings. A good pen design should allow the occupants to satisfy their natural curiosity about what is happening outside the enclosure. One solution is to provide platforms at a height that allows the dog to see over the partitions whilst lying down (Hubrecht 1993a). Such devices have the additional advantage of increasing the useable space available to dogs.

There have been a number of studies on the effects of exercise, and pen size (e.g., Campbell et al. 1988, Hughes et al. 1989, Bebak and Beck 1993, Hetts et al. 1992). There is no evidence that providing extra exercise per se improves welfare (Clark et al. 1991), although walks outside the enclosure are undoubtedly enjoyed.

Olfaction is an important canid sense. We know little about how to enrich an environment through odors but Hubrecht et al. (1992) found that dogs housed in groups spend more of their time sniffing and investigating the floor of their enclosure. Dogs will also make extensive use of chews, particularly if they taste of food and are presented properly (DeLuca and Kranda 1992, Hubrecht 1993a).

Breed differences and husbandry requirements should be kept in mind when considering enrichment options. It is also important to remember that dogs vary in temperament (Cattell and Korth 1973) and perhaps also in their housing requirements and ability to cope with a particular kennelling system.


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References

Adams, G. J. and K.G. Johnson (1993). Sleep wake cycles and other night-time behaviours of the domestic dog Canis familiaris. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36: 233-248.

Anderson, R.S. (1973). Obesity in the dog and cat. Veterinary Annals 14:182-186.

Bebak, J. and A. M. Beck (1993). The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles. Laboratory Animal Science 43:457-459.

Bradshaw, J.W.S. and S. Brown (1990). Behavioural adaptations of dogs to domestication. Waltham Symposium 20:18-24.

Campbell, S.A., H.C. Hughes, H.E. Griffin, M.S. Landi and F.M. Mallon (1988). Some effects of limited exercise on purpose-bred Beagles. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49:1298-1301.

Cattell, R.B. and B. Korth ( 1973). The isolation of temperament dimensions in dogs. Behavioral Biology 9:15-30.

Clark, J.D., J.P. Calpin and R.B. Armstrong (1991). Influence of type of enclosure on exercise fitness of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52:1024-1028.

DeLuca, A.M. and K.C. Kranda (1992). Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility. Lab Animal 21:38-44.

Feddersen-Petersen, D. (1994). Comparative studies of behavioural development of wolves (Canis lupus l) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus f fam) - domestication traits and selective breeding. Tierärztliche Umschau 49:527-531.

Fox, M.W. (1986). Laboratory Animal Husbandry: Ethology, Welfare and Experimental Variables. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY.

Fuller, J.L. (1967). Experiential deprivation and later behaviour. Science 158:1645-1652.

Gamble, M.R. (1982). Sound and its significance for laboratory animals. Bio. Rev. 57: 395-421.

Hetts, S. (1991). Psychologic well-being: conceptual issues, behavioral measures and implications for dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 21:369-87.

Hetts, S., J.D. Clark, J.P. Calpin, C.E. Arnold and J.M. Mateo (1992). Influence of housing conditions on beagle behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34:137-155.

HMSO (1989). Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures. HMSO: London.

HMSO (1995). Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals in Designated Breeding and Supplying Establishments. HMSO: London.

Houpt K.A. and Smith S.L. (1981). Taste preferences and their relation to obesity in dogs and cats. Canadian Veterinary Journal 22: 77-81.

Hubrecht, R.C. (1993a). A comparison of social and environmental enrichment methods for laboratory housed dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37: 345-361.

Hubrecht, R.C. (1993). Dog Housing and Welfare UFAW Animal Research Report No 6, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW): Potters Bar, Herts, UK, 13p.

Hubrecht, R.C., J.A. Serpell and T.B. Poole (1992). Correlates of pen size and housing conditions on the behaviour of kennelled dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34:365-383.

Hughes, H.C., S. Campbell and C. Kenney (1989). The effects of cage size and pair housing on exercise of beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 39:302-305.

MacArthur, J.A. (1987). The Dog. In: The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals: 6th ed., T. Poole, ed., Longman Group: Harlow, England, pp. 456-475.

Ottewill, D. (1968). Planning and design of accommodation for experimental dogs and cats. Laboratory Animal Symposium 1:97-112.

Scott, J.P. and J.L. Fuller (1965). Genetics and the Social Behaviour of the Dog. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois.

Senn, C.L. and J.D. Lewin (1975). Barking dogs as an environmental problem. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 166:1065-1068.

Solarz, A.K . (1970). Behavior. In: The Beagle as an Experimental Dog. A.C. Andersen, and L.S. Good, eds., Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 453-468.

Wolfle, T.L. (1992) Socialization of dogs. In: Implementation Strategies for Research Animal Well-being: Institutional Compliance with Regulations, L. Krulisch, ed., Conference Proceedings, SCAW: Bethesda, MD, pp. 15-21.


To: Top of Document | Brief Background | Physical Needs | Social Needs | Environmental Enrichment | References | Dog Bibliography

Dog Bibliography

Agrawal, H.C., M.W. Fox, and W.A. Himwich (1967). Neurochemical and behavioral effects of isolation rearing in dogs. Life Sciences 6:71-78 (1967).
NAL call number: 442.8 L62
Descriptors: social interaction, environment, electrophysiology, electroencephalography, chemical analysis.

Althaus, T. (1989). The evaluation of dog raising conditions. [Die beurteilung von hundehaltungen.] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 131(7):423-431.
NAL call number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, dogs, housing.

Anderson, A.C. and M. Goldman (1960). An evaluation of an outdoor kennel for dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 137:129-135.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: housing, economics, design, welfare.

Animal Welfare Institute (1979). Dogs. In: Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals. Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, D.C., pp. 52-57.
NAL call number: SF91.A5 1979
Descriptors: resting boards, social housing, human interaction, bedding.

Bebak, J. and A.M. Beck (1993). The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles. Laboratory Animal Science 43(5):457-459.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: welfare, exercise, cage size, cage design.

Besch, E.L. (1990). Environmental variables and animal care. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L.Krulisch, eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, pp. 53-57.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: dogs, animal housing, environment, laboratory animals.

Borchelt, P.L. and V.L. Voith (1982). Diagnosis and treatment of separation-related behavior problems in dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 12(4):625-635.
NAL call number: SF601 V523
Descriptors: separation, behavior, animal care.

Bradshaw, J.W. and S.M. Wickens (April 1992). Social behaviour of the domestic dog. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskude 117(Supplement 1):50S-51S
NAL call number: SF601 N4
Descriptors: feral, dingo, bonding, social behavior.

Breazile, J.E. (1987). Physiologic basis and consequences of distress in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 191:1212-1215.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: stress, eustress, feeding behavior, reproduction, ACTH, glucocorticoids, sympathetic nervous system, responses.

Britz, W.E. Jr. (1990). Caging systems for dogs under the new standards of the animal welfare act. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare:Greenbelt, MD, pp. 48-52.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: dogs, cages, animal welfare, legislation.

Campbell, S.A., H.C. Hughes, H.E. Griffin, M.S. Landi, and F.M. Mallon (August 1988). Some effects of limited exercise on purpose-bred Beagles. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49(8):1298-1301.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: dogs, exercise, stress, lymphocyte transformation, cortisol, animal welfare.

Canadian Council on Animal Care (1993). Social and behavioral requirements of experimental animals. In: Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, E.D. Olfert, B.M. Cross and A.A. McWilliam, eds., Vol. 1, 2nd Edition, pp. 51-90.
NAL call number: SF406 G85 1993
Descriptors: welfare, well-being, environmental enrichment, social behavior, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, primates.

Carroll, T., D.A. Valerio, and G. Pucak (January 1990). Socialization and management of purpose-bred dogs. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, p. 37.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: dogs, animal husbandry, animal housing, animal breeding, animal welfare, socialization.

Case, D.B. (October 1985). Puppy socialization. Veterinary Technician 6(9):456-457.
NAL call number: SF406.A5
Descriptors: dogs, pups, social behavior, deviant behavior, behavior modification, animal housing.

Clark, J.D., J.P. Calpin, and R.B. Armstrong (July 1991). Influence of type of enclosure on exercise fitness of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52(7):1024-1028.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: animal welfare, animals, dogs, housing, physical fitness, hydrocortisone.

Clark, J.D. (1990). Research studies in exercise and behavior of dogs. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, pp. 61-65.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: confinement systems, housing, experimental design, EKG, muscle enzyme, behavior.

Corbett, L.K. (July 1988). Social dynamics of a captive dingo pack: Population regulation by dominant female infanticide. Ethology 78(3):177-198.
NAL call number: QL750.E74
Descriptors: animal dominance, animal social behavior, animal environments, infanticide, dogs, social density, dominance hierarchy.

DeLuca, A.M. and K.C. Kranda (January 1992). Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility. Lab Animal 21(1):38-44.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: dogs, cats, swine, gumadisc, nylabone frisbee, plastic chain, decoys, gumabone tug, catnip, sheepskin mice, balls, bells, cotton tugs, scented apples.

Falt, L. and E. Wilsson (1979). The effect of maternal deprivation between 6 and 10 weeks of age upon the behaviour of Alsatian puppies. Applied Animal Ethology 5(3):299.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: service dogs, training methods, early experience.

Feddersen, D.P. (January 1991). Behavior disorders in dogs, study of their classification. [Verhaltensstorungen bei hunden, versuch ihrer klassifizierung.] DTW Deutsche Teirarztliche Wochenschrift 98(1):15-19.
NAL call number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: behavior, bonding, human isolation, dogs.

Feldhaus, R.A. (1980). A resting platform for dog pens. Laboratory Animal Science 30(4):714-715.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: dogs, resting area, housing.

Fox, M.W. (1990). Canine behavior. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, pp. 21-31.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: ethology, socialization, exercise, housing, environment, psychological well-being.

Fox, M.W. (1986). Laboratory Animal Husbandry: Ethology, Welfare, and Experimental Variables. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY., pp. 1-98.
NAL call number: SF406 F69
Descriptors: dogs, primates, rodents, cats, confinement effects, physical activity, stereotypies, cage size, brain development.

Fox, M.W. (1971). Effects of rearing conditions on the behavior of laboratory animals. M.W. In: Defining the Laboratory Animal National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC, pp. 294-312.
NAL call number: SF406 I52
Descriptors: selective breeding, genotype, handling, socialization, temperament, isolation, exercise.

Fox, M.W. (1969). Behavioral effects of rearing dogs with cats during the critical period of socialization. Behaviour 35(3-4):273-280.
NAL call number: 410 B393
Descriptors: intra-species socialization, intra-species, identification, avoidance, recognition, bonding.

Fox, M.W. (1965). Environmental factors influencing stereotyped and allelomimetic behavior in animals. Laboratory Animal Care 15(5):363-370.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: review, dogs, rodents, poultry, behavior, social isolation, social stimulation, crowding.

Frank, H. and M.G. Frank (1982). On the effects of domestication on canine social development and behavior. Applied Animal Ethology 8(6):507-525.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: social behavior, social organization, domestication, Canis lupus, lycaon, effects on dogs.

Garnier, F., E. Benoit, M. Virat, R. Ochoa, and P. Delatour (January 1990). Adrenal cortical response in clinically normal dogs before and after adaptation to a housing environment. Laboratory Animals 24(1):40-43.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: dogs, sex differences, hydrocortisone, blood serum, stress, adaptation, environmental factors, susceptibility.

Gartner, K., W. Kupper, and J. Maess (1976). Type-specific locomotive requirements of laboratory animals (mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, cat). [Zum artgemassen bewegungsbedurfnis der versuchstiere (maus, ratte, meerschwe inchen, kaninchen, hund, katze).] Fortschritte der Veterinarmedizin (No.25):130-137.
NAL call number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, cat, legislation, behavior, stress, exercise, laboratory animals, animal welfare, cages, housing.

Garvey, M.S. (1985). Keeping your dog healthy. In: The Complete Book of Dog Health W.J. Kay and E. Randolph, eds., Macmillan Publishing Company: New York, NY, pp. 52-53.
Descriptors: dog owner's book, toys, games, exercise.

Goddard, M.E. and R.G. Beilharz (November 1985). Individual variation in agonistic behaviour in dogs. Animal Behaviour 33(4):1338-1342.
NAL call number: 410.B77
Descriptors: dogs, stimuli, animal behavior, social behavior, aggression, fear.

Goodfellow, K.G. (April 1992). Care and welfare of pre-weaning beagle puppies in a commercial breeding colony. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 43(1):49-55.
NAL call number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: puppies, laboratory rearing, breeding colony, husbandry, animal welfare.

Gross, W.B. (1980). The benefits of tender loving care. International Journal of the Study of Animal Problems 1(3):147-148.
Descriptors: socialization, human-animal bond, canines.

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1985). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, MD; NIH Publication No. 86-23, pp. 11-31.
NAL call number: SF406 N32 1985
Descriptors: guidelines, policy, husbandry, facilities, laboratory management.

Hetts, S., J.D. Clark, J.P. Calpin, C.E. Arnold, and J.M. Mateo. (July 1992) Influence of housing conditions on beagle behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 4(1/2):137-155.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, pens, cages, animal housing, animal behavior, social interaction, isolation, space requirements, animal welfare.

Hetts, S. (March 1991). Psychologic well-being: Conceptual issues, behavioral measures, and implications for dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 21(2):369-387.
NAL call number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: Animal Welfare Act, regulations, history, physical and psychic well-being, measures, indicators, abnormal behavior, normal behavior, preference testing, caging, socialization.

Hite, M., H. M. Hanson, N. R. Bohidar, P. A. Conti, and P. A. Mattis (1977). Effect of cage size on patterns of activity and health of beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 27(1):60-64.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: weight gain, activity patterns, standing, lying, sitting, sleeping, electrocardiograph, examinations, ophthalmic, hematologic, biochemical measurements.

Houpt, K.A. (1983). Applied canine and feline ethology. Applied Animal Ethology 10(1/2):1-157.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: aggression, mating behavior, young animals, animal behavior, cat, dog, differential rearing.

Hubrecht, R.C. (February 1995). Enrichment in puppyhood and its effects on later behavior of dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 45(1):70-75.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: early socialization, human contact, toys, chews, plastic pipe.

Hubrecht, R.C. (1993). A comparison of social and environmental enrichment methods for laboratory housed dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(4):345-361.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: activity pattern, toys, psychological well-being, socialization session.

Hubrecht, R.C. (1993). Dog Housing and Welfare: UFAW Animal Research Report No. 6, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW): Potters Bar, Herts, UK, 13p.
Descriptors: welfare, behavior, socialization, stereotypies, enrichment, toys.

Hubrecht, R.C., J.A. Serpell, and T.B. Poole (September 1992). Correlates of pen size and housing conditions on the behaviour of kennelled dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34(4):365-383.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, kennels, cage size, animal behavior, shelters, laboratories, social behavior, animal housing, animal welfare.

Hughes, H.C., S. Campbell, and C. Kenney (July 1989). The effects of cage size and pair housing on exercise of beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 39(4):302-305.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: dogs, animal housing, cage size, cage density, exercise, animal welfare, regulations.

Hughes, H.C. and S. Campbell (1990). Effects of primary enclosure size and human contact. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds., Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, pp. 66-75.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: dogs, laboratory animals, animal housing, socialization, animal welfare.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (1994). Husbandry. In: Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs Committee on Dogs, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy Press: Wash ington, D.C., pp. 11-34.
Descriptors: Animal Welfare Act, exercise, environmental enrichment, space recommendations, feeding, water, enclosures.

Korhonen, H., and M. Harri (1988). Social influences on productive performance in farmed raccoon dogs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 38(4):433-440.
NAL call number: 11 AC82
Descriptors: cage size, body weight, feed intake, tameness score, fur quality.

Korhonen, H., M. Harri, and L. Nurminen (Autumn 1986). Effects of social competition for feed on growth of farmed raccoon dogs. Growth 50(3):340-350.
Descriptors: dogs, competitive behavior, physiology, feeding.

Korhonen, H. (1988). Activity and behavior of farmed raccoon dogs. Scientifur 12(1):27-37.
NAL call number: SF402 S3
Descriptors: circadian activity, behavioral patterns, rhythms, eating, elimination, aggression, environmental conditions.

Kuhn, G. and W. Hardegg (1988). Effects of indoor and outdoor maintenance of dogs upon food intake, body weight, and different blood parameters. Zeitschrift für Versuchstierkunde 31(5):205-214.
NAL call number: 410 Z36
Descriptors: environment, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, plasma enzymes, substrates, minerals.

LaBarge, L. (1977). The pet house book: How to build housing, accessories, and playthings for your dogs, cats, birds, lizards, hamsters, and other pets. Butterick Pub.: New York, NY, 200p.
NAL call number: SF414.2.L32
Descriptors: pets, housing, design and construction, pet supplies, building, amateurs' manuals, handicraft.

Lore, R.K. and F.B. Eisenburg (June 1986). Avoidance reactions of domestic dogs to unfamiliar male and female humans in a kennel setting. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(3):261-266.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: human sex differences, animal sex, familiarity.

Luescher, U.A. (March 1991). Stereotypic and obsessive-compulsive disorders in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 21(2):401-413.
NAL call number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: excessive grooming, stone chewing, wool sucking, polydipsia, barking, tail or foot biting, aggression, environmental enrichment.

MacDonald, K.B. and B.E. Ginsburg (October 1981). Induction of normal prepubertal behavior in wolves with restricted rearing. Behavioral and Neural Biology 33(2):133-162.
NAL call number: QH301 C63
Descriptors: wolves, animal social behavior, social isolation, handling, infants (animal).

Mahut, H. (1958). Breed differences in the dog's emotional behaviour. Canadian Journal of Psychology 12(1):35-44.
Descriptors: genetics, behavior, breed differences, exercise.

Markwell, P.J. and C.J. Thorne (November 1987). Early behavioural development of dogs. The Journal of Small Animal Practice 28(11):984-991.
NAL call number: 41.8 J8292
Descriptors: socialization period, responses to environment, sensory isolation, play.

Milnes, S. (February 1992). Danger from toys? Veterinary Record 130(8):168.
NAL call number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dog, tongue injury, playthings, case report.

Netto, W.J., J.A. van der Borg, and J.F. Slegers (April 1992). The establishment of dominance relationships in a dog pack and its relevance for the man-dog relationship. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskude 117(Supplement 1):51S-52S.
NAL call number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: bonding, posture, behavior, social dominance.

Nakano, L. (October 1979). The effects of spatial restriction on the behavior of random-source dogs. Dissertation Abstracts International 40(4,B):1932.
NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53
Descriptors: dogs, animal environments, environmental stress, animal ethology.

Neamand, J., W.T. Sweeney, A.A. Creamer, and P.A. Conti. (1975) Cage activity in the laboratory beagle: A preliminary study to evaluate a method of comparing cage size to physical activity. Laboratory Animal Science 25:180-183.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: physical activity, specific activity measurements, body weight, blood chemical and urine values.

Newton, W.M. (1972). An evaluation of the effects of various degrees of long-term confinement on adult beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 22(6):860-864.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: exercise, dog, cage confinement, musculoskeletal system, dogs kept in cages, muscle, enzymes.

O'Farrell, V. (1991). Behavioural problems in companion animals. In: Managing the Behaviour of Animals P. Monaghan, D. Wood-Gush, eds., Chapman and Hall: London and New York, pp. 233-252.
NAL call number: QL751 M218 1990
Descriptors: pets, behavior, management, reviews.

O'Farrell, V. (1990). Behaviour problems in the dog: Aggression towards people. Veterinary Annual 30:196-199.
NAL call number: 41.8 V6456
Descriptors: exercise, aggression, human-animal bond.

Pettijohn T.F., T.W Wong, P.D Ebert, and J.P. Scott (1977). Alleviation of separation distress in three breeds of young dogs. Developmental Psychobiology 10:(4):373-381
NAL call number: QP351.D4
Descriptors: Shetland sheepdogs, telomians, beagles, food, toys, human contact, canine contact, distress vocalizations, isolation.

Pettijohn, T.F., K.L. Davis and J.P. Scott (1980). Influence of living area space on agonistic interaction in Telomian dogs. Behavioral and Neural Biology 28(3):343-349.
NAL call number: QH301 C63
Descriptors: aggression, crowding, dominance, eating, spatial behavior.

Pgurski J.C., K. Davis, and J.P. Scott (1980). Interaction of separation discomfort with contact comfort and discomfort in the dog. Developmental Psychobiology 13(5):463-467.
NAL call number: QP351.D4
Descriptors: social attachment, beagles, Telomians, separation distress.

Porschen, H. (1975). Keeping dogs, shortcomings observed and proposals for improvement. [Die hundehaltung, beobachtete mangel und verbesserungsvorschlage.] Praktische Tierarzt 56(12):752, 754-755.
NAL call number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: housing, husbandry, animal welfare, dog, pets.

Samuels, W.M. (April 1991). Animal welfare regulations for exercising dogs, psychological wellbeing of primates assailed. Physiologist 34(2):42-43.
NAL call number: 447.8 P564
Descriptors: legislation, physical conditioning, dogs, housing, primates.

Schilder, M.B. (April 1992). Stress and welfare and its parameters in dogs. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 117(Supplement 1):53S-54S.
NAL call number: SF601 N4
Descriptors: definitions, measurement, parameters, coping, adaptation, stress psychology.

Scott, J.P., J.H. Shepard, and J. Werboff (1967). Inhibitory training of dog: Effects of age at training in basenjis and shetland sheepdogs. Journal of Psychology 66(2):237-252.
Descriptors: dogs, education, socialization with humans, age differences.

Siefert, J. (1976). Humane housing of dogs in cages and boxes. [Untersuchungen zur tierschutzgerechten haltung von hunden in kafigen und boxen.] Tierärztliche Hochschule, Inaugural Dissertation, Hannover. 1976. 69pp.
NAL call number: 41.2 H198 [1976 No. 72]
Descriptors: dissertation, animal housing, animal welfare, cage, dog.

Sigg, H. and I. Tobler (1986). Motor activity of mongrel dogs under three different housing conditions. [Motorische aktivitat von bastardhunden in 3 verschiedenen laborhaltungen.] Zeitschrift für Versuchstierkunde 28(4):157-165.
NAL call number: 410 Z36
Descriptors: dogs, animal housing, movements, dark, light, kinetic energy.

Slabbert, J.M. and O.A.E. Rasa (March 1993). The effect of early separation from the mother on pups in bonding to humans and pup health. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 64(1):4-8.
NAL call number: 41.8 So8
Descriptors: disease susceptibility, separation stress, mortality, weight gain.

Smith, C.P. (1994). The Dog: January 1985-January 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 93p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.94-24
Descriptors: bibliography, behavior, welfare, stress, nutrition, exercise.

Swanson, J.C. (October 1991). Exercise for Dogs. Special Reference Briefs 92-02 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 24p.
NAL call number: aS21.D27S64 no.92-02
Descriptors: bibliography, regulatory issues, physiology, behavior, husbandry, standard values.

Tellington-Jones, L. (1994). T-touch for Dogs. Thane Marketing International: La Quinta, CA, VHS, 84 minutes.
NAL call number: Videocassette no. 2040
Descriptors: stress, handling, relaxation, training, behavior, body awareness.

Thimm, H. J. and M. Potokar (1976). A new compound kennel construction with unlimited circuit for keeping laboratory dogs. [Ein neues konzept zur tierschutzgerechten haltung von versuchschunden:Die verbundkafiganlage mit unbegrenztem Lauf.] Kleintier Praxis 21(6):226-232.
NAL call number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: cages, animal welfare, zootechny, dog, animal housing, laboratory animals.

Thomas, K.J., O.D. Murphee and J.E. Newton. Effect of person and environment on heart rates in two strains of pointer dogs. Conditional Reflex 7(2):74-81.
Descriptors: petting, human presence, bradycardia, genetics.

Tipton, C.M., R.A. Carey, W.C. Eastin, H.H. Erickson (1974). A submaximal test for dog: Elevation of effects of training, detraining, and cage confinement. Journal of Applied Physiology 37(2):271-275.
NAL call number: 447.8 J825
Descriptors: dog, training, heart rate, blood circulation, exercise, heart, atropine.

Unshelm, J. (1993). Keeping dogs and cats in conditions which comply with animal welfare with the support of behavioral advice and therapy. DTW Deutsche Teirärztliche Wochenschrift 100(2):65-69.
NAL call number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: housing, behavior, companion animals.

Unshelm, J. (February 1993). Raising dogs and cats in compliance with animal welfare using advice on behavior therapy. [Tiergerechte haltung von hunden und katzen durch erhaltensberatungen und verhaltenstherapie.] DTW Deutsche Teirärztliche Wochenschrift 100(2):65-69.
NAL call number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: animal welfare, behavior, cats, dogs, housing.

Vanderlip, S.L., J.E. Vanderlip, and S. Myles (1985). A socializing program for laboratory-raised canines. Part 2: The puppy socialization schedule. Lab Animal 14(2):27-32.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: puppies, socialization, human-animal bond, toys.

Vanderlip, S.L., J.E. Vanderlip, and S. Myles (March 1985). A socializing program for laboratory-raised canines. Lab Animal 14(1):33-36
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: behavior, temperament testing, toys, knotted towel, plastic bottles, food rewards.

Wolfle, T.L. (November 1989). Dog socialization. In: Animal Care and Use: Policy Issues in the 1990's. NIH, OPRR, OACU Conference: Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 43-45.
NAL call number: HV4704 A46 1989
Descriptors: exercise, stress, bonding, human interaction.

Wolfle, T.L. (1990). Policy, program and people: The three P's to wellbeing. In: Canine Research Environment J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch (eds.), Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, pp. 41-47.
NAL call number: QL737.C22C36
Descriptors: psychological well-being, exercise, socialization, management, performance vs. engineering standards.

Wright, J.C. (1980). The development of social structure during the primary socialization period in German shepherds. Developmental Psychobiology 13(1):17-24.
NAL call number: QP351 D4
Descriptors: social organization, exploratory behavior, ontogeny, dominance, dogs.

Wright, J.C. (1983). The effects of differential rearing on exploratory behavior in puppies. Applied Animal Ethology 10(1-2):27-34.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: hand-rearing, litter-rearing, stimulus, exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, novel objects, reactivity, social environment, rearing, exploratory behavior, dogs.

Wubs, W. and H. Rozemond (October 15, 1987). Experimental dog: A need for improvement in housing. [Proefhonden: Noodzaak tot verbetering van de huisvesting.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 112(20):1182-1190.
NAL call number: SF601 N4
Descriptors: animal welfare, laboratory animals, physiology, dogs, housing, standards, quality control.


To: Top of Document | Brief Background | Physical Needs | Social Needs | Environmental Enrichment | References | Dog Bibliography

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August 11, 1998
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