Enrichment for Farm Animals

Michael C. Appleby
Institute of Ecology and Resource Management
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, United Kingdom


"Enrichment for Farm Animals" is a chapter from: Smith, C.P. and V. Taylor (September 1995). Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. 69-112.

The following links access AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

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There has been relatively little published on environmental enrichment for the mammalian farm animals used in "laboratory" studies. This may be partly because most such studies are carried out either in normal farm conditions, or in conditions regarded as similar to these (for example, growing pigs housed singly, similar to normal housing for sows) or on animals removed only temporarily from such conditions. There may, however, be welfare problems in normal farm conditions and the considerable work which has now been done on improvement of these is relevant here. In addition, the special treatment necessary for experimental work may cause further problems and also cast doubt on the results of the research, not least when imposed temporarily. In this brief commentary, three aspects of such treatment will be considered which act separately and in combination: human contact, social conditions and physical conditions.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

Human contact

Animals react to human contact behaviorally and physiologically in ways which may interfere with the topic under study. This is particularly likely if restraint is involved; for example, to obtain blood samples. A common approach to minimize such effects is to use remote sampling methods such as filming behavior, strapping on or implanting heart rate meters (Porges 1985), and automatically withdrawing blood samples from a catheter (Mayes et al. 1988). Other non-invasive techniques are also being developed, such as measurement of hormones in saliva, urine and faeces. Less attention has been given to the possibility of accustoming animals to human contact including handling, which may considerably reduce such effects (Pearce et al. 1989), despite the fact that more is known about this for farm animals than for other species (Gonyou 1991). A particularly promising finding is that pigs and sheep can be trained to enter a restraining device for procedures including blood withdrawal voluntarily and repeatedly (Grandin 1986, 1989). Another important aspect of human contact is predictability (Carlstead 1986). Thus if feeding times are to be manipulated experimentally, animals can be trained in advance not to expect food at the same time each day (Reid and Mills 1962). As a general rule it is better to accustom animals to disturbance than to attempt to avoid disturbing them; if there is little disturbance for long periods then any disruption which does occur may be very stressful. This is probably the main basis of the idea which is sometimes expressed that animals should be subjected to "adequate levels of stress".


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Social conditions

Many experiments involve isolation of animals. This can have very strong effects: heart rate of sheep when first isolated is greatly elevated (Baldock and Sibly 1986) and sheep on restricted diets behave more abnormally in isolation than in groups (Done-Currie et al. 1984). There is some indication that the chance of conception by dairy cows is lower if they have been kept in isolation prior to artificial insemination (cf. Moberg 1991). Effects are usually reduced if animals can see each other and it should be possible to arrange this even in restrictive housing such as metabolism crates. More consideration should also be given to methods for housing animals in groups while making individual measurements; for example, using film (Pajor et al. 1991) or electronic devices (Lambert et al. 1983) for recording individual food intake. When animals are housed in groups, though, care must be taken to minimize harmful social behavior such as aggression, as in any husbandry system. Precautions should include careful consideration of physical conditions.


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Physical conditions

The space provided in experimental conditions is usually less constrained than that in commercial conditions with one major exception: the metabolism crate. This is commonly used to keep the animal in a fixed position for collection of urine and faeces, but more use could be made of bags fixed to the animal for this purpose; in pigs, it should also be possible to make use of their habitual urination and defecation sites as has been done for cats (Carlstead et al. 1993). Reactions of animals to close confinement may be extreme especially if it is combined with food restriction (Appleby et al. 1987). In experiments which do not use such crates, problems such as harmful social behavior and frustration of various behavior patterns are more likely to be associated with barrenness of the environment than with lack of space. Common causes for barrenness are cleanliness and avoidance of unwanted edible material (such as straw). Yet cleanliness is not always strictly necessary, and an acceptable degree of cleanliness may be achieved even with substrates such as woodchips (Chamove et al. 1982). The environment can be made more complex quite easily, for example by fitting barriers (Waran and Broom 1993) and providing manipulable objects. Many techniques which have been developed for other species such as primates could also be used for farm animals; these include, for example, increasing the animals' control over their physical environment (Baldwin 1979). Among other advantages, provision of "toys" makes handling of pigs easier (Grandin et al. 1987). It should be pointed out, however, that the effects of environmental enrichment need to be assessed rather than just assumed; there may be deleterious effects such as increased aggression (McGregor and Ayling 1990). Food can also be provided in ways which are more stimulating than a trough, such as operant devices. As with several of the other factors already mentioned, this will be particularly valuable if food is restricted. Without such measures, food restriction can have severe effects on behavior (Willard et al. 1977, Appleby and Lawrence 1987) with implications for physiological effects on the measurements being made (Marsden and Wood-Gush 1986). Such effects include extreme variability: one nutritional study of sheep which kept them without food for a period to obtain baseline measurements found that some reacted violently, with high metabolic rate, while others were somnolent with low metabolism (Blaxter and Wainman 1961).

Environmental enrichment for farm animals in experiments is important both for the validity of the experiments and for the animals themselves.


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References

Appleby, M.C. and A.B. Lawrence (1987). Food restriction as a cause of stereotypic behaviour in tethered gilts. Animal Production 45:103-110.

Baldock, N.M. and R.M. Sibly (1986). Effects of management procedures on heart rate in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15:191.

Baldwin, B.A. (1979). Operant studies on the behaviour of pigs and sheep in relation to the physical environment. Journal of Animal Science 49: 1125-1134.

Blaxter, K.L. and F.W. Wainman (1961). The utilization of food by sheep and cattle. Journal of Agricultural Science 57:419-425.

Carlstead, K. (1986). Predictability of feeding: Its effects on agonistic behaviour in grower pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16:25-38.

Carlstead, K., J.L. Brown, and W. Strawn (1993). Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38:143-158.

Chamove, A.S., J.R. Anderson, S.C. Morgan-Jones, and S.P. Jones (1982). Deep woodchip litter: Hygiene, feeding, and behavioral enhancement in eight primate species. International Journal for Study of Animal Problems 3: 308-31 8.

Done-Currie, J.R., J.F. Hecker, and M. Wodzicka-Tomaszewka (1984). Behaviour of sheep transferred from pasture to an animal house. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 12:121-130.

Gonyou, H.G. (1991). The interaction of humans with food animals: Making husbandry a science. In: Applied Animal Behaviour: Past, Present and Future Appleby, M.C., R.I. Horrell, J.C. Petherick, and S.M. Rutter, eds., Unive rsities Federation for Animal Welfare: Potters Bar, UK, pp. 31-33.

Grandin, T. (1986). Minimizing stress in pig handling. Lab Animal 15:1-5.

Grandin, T. (1989). Voluntary acceptance of restraint by sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23:257-261.

Grandin, T, S.E. Curtis, and I.A. Taylor (1987). Toys, mingling and driving reduce excitability in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 65(Supplement 1):230.

Lambert, R. J., M. Ellis, P. Rowlinson, and C.A. Saville (1983). An alternative system of sow housing and feeding based upon a sow activated feeder. Animal Production 36:532.

Marsden, D. and D.G.M. Wood-Gush (1986). A note on the behaviour of individually-penned sheep regarding their use for research purposes. Animal Production 42:157-159.

Mayes, R.W., C.S. Lamb, and P.M. Colgrove (1988). Equipment for estimating carbon dioxide turnover rate in undisturbed grazing sheep. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47:136a.

McGregor, P.K. and S.J. Ayling (1990). Varied cages result in more aggression in male CFLP mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26:277-281.

Moberg, G.P. (1991). How behavioral stress disrupts the endocrine control of reproduction in domestic animals. Journal of Dairy Science 74:304-311.

Pajor, E.A, D. Fraser, and D.L. Kramer (1991). Consumption of solid food by suckling pigs: Individual variation and relation to weight gain. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32:139-155.

Pearce, G.P., A.N. Pearce, and A.M. Paterson (1989). The influence of pleasant and unpleasant handling and the provision of toys on the growth and behaviour of male pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23:27-37.

Porges, S.W. (1985). Spontaneous oscillations in heart rate: Potential index of stress. In: Animal Stress G.P. Moberg, ed., American Physiological Society: Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 97-111.

Reid, R.L. and S.C. Mills (1962). Studies on the carbohydrate metabolism of sheep: The adrenal response to psychological stress. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 13:282-295.

Waran, N.K. and D.M. Broom (1993). The influence of a barrier on the behaviour and growth of early-weaned piglets. Animal Production 56:115-119.

Willard, J.G, J.C. Willard, S.A. Wolfram, and J.P. Baker (1977). Effect of diet on cecal pH and feeding behavior of horses. Journal of Animal Science 45:87-93.


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Farm Animal Bibliography

General

Berry, D.J. (1994). Transport and Handling of Livestock and Poultry: January 1984 - January 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 62p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 94-32
Descriptors: bibliography, livestock, poultry, handling, husbandry, transport, care.

Cregier, S.E. (1989). Farm Animal Ethology: A Source Book. Captus Press: Ontario, Canada, 213p.
NAL call number: SF81 C73
Descriptors: directory, information, journals, funding sources, academia, audio-visuals, conferences, books, reviews.

DeLuca, A.M. and C. Kranda (1992). Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility. Lab Animal 21(1):38-44.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: canine, swine, feline, welfare, exercise, toys, play, balls, runs, comparisons.

Ewbank, R. (1985). The behavioural needs of farm and laboratory animals. In: Animal Experimentation: Improvements and Alternatives N. Marsh and S. Heywood, eds., FRAME: Nottingham, UK, pp. 31-35.
NAL call number: QL55 A5
Descriptors: behavioral needs, comfort, shelter, flooring, legislation.

Fox, M.W. (1965). Environmental factors influencing stereotyped and allelomimatic behavior in animals. Laboratory Animal Care 15(5):363-370.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: boredom, crowding, space, noise, photoperiod.

Grandin, T. (April 1993). The effect of previous experiences on livestock behavior during handling. Agri-Practice 14(4):15-20.
NAL call number: SF601.B6
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, handling, restraint, behavior.

Grandin, T. (November 1990). Design of loading facilities and holding pens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28(1/2):187-201.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cattle, pigs, sheep, floor, lighting, chutes, pens, transport.

Grandin, T. (July 1987). Animal handling. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 3(2):323-338.
NAL call number: SF601.V535
Descriptors: livestock, handling, stress, movement, behavior, facilities.

Grandin, T. (June 1984). Reduce stress of handling to improve productivity of livestock. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 79(6):827-831.
NAL call number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: cattle, physiology, stress, behavior.

Hart, L.A. (February 1994). Opportunities for environmental enrichment in the laboratory. Lab Animal 23(2):24-27.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: zoo, farm, laboratory, outdoor housing, noise.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and G.J. Coleman (1993). The human-animal relationship in agriculture and its consequences for the animal. Animal Welfare 2(1):33-51.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: stock people, human-animal bond, fear, handling.

Hemsworth, P.H. and J.L. Barnett (1987). Human-animal interactions. In: Farm Animal Behaviour. The Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 3(2):339-356.
NAL call number: SF601 V535
Descriptors: fear, handling, noise, husbandry, housing.

Hughes, B.O. and I.J.H. Duncan (1988). The notion of ethological "need," models of motivation and animal welfare. Animal Behaviour 36:1696-1707.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: behavioral elasticity, motivation, appetitive and consummatory behavior.

Kilgour, R., T.M. Foster, W. Temple, L.R. Matthews, and K.J. Bremner (April 1991). Operant technology applied to solving farm animal problems. An assessment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1/2):141-166.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cattle, goats, horses, sheep, pigs, feed preferences, conditioning.

Mench, J.A. (February 1994). Environmental enrichment and exploration. Lab Animal 23(2):38-41.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: exploratory behavior, appetitive behavior, genetics, experience.

Mench, J.A., S.J. Mayer, and L. Krulisch, eds. (1992). The Well-being of Agricultural Animals in Biomedical and Agricultural Research Scientists Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt, MD, 111p.
NAL call number: HV4704.W38
Descriptors: handling, transport, management, care, behavior, regulations.

Purdue University (1993). Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Domestic Livestock Used for Research. Department of Animal Science: West Lafayette, Indiana, videorecording, 41 minutes.
NAL call number: videocassette no. 1542
Descriptors: farm animals, pointless behavior, physiology, genetics, parasites, nutritional deficiencies.

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (1990). Environmental Enrichment Advancing Animal Care. UFAW: Potters Bar, Herts, England, videorecording, 37 minutes.
NAL call number: videocassette no. 1327
Descriptors: zoo animals, housing, guidelines, captivity

Wood-Gush, D.G.M. and K. Vestergaard (1991). The seeking of novelty and its relation to play. Animal Behaviour 42:599-606.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: novel objects, exploration, learning.

Wood-Gush, D.G.M. and K. Vestergaard (1989). Exploratory behavior and the welfare of intensively kept animals. Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2:161-169.
NAL call number: BJ52.5 J68
Descriptors: pigs, exploration, learning, social behavior, housing.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

Cattle

Albright, J.L., T.H. Blosser, and S.E. Curtis (1987). Dairy animal welfare: Current and needed research. Journal of Dairy Science 70(12):2711-2731.
NAL call number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: cows, welfare, review, housing, environment, behavior, environmental factors.

Berry, D.J. (1995). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Beef Cattle: January 1985- March 1995. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 92p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 95-16
Descriptors: bibliography, handling, husbandry, facilities, care, welfare, well-being, behavior, stress, humane.

Berry, D.J. (1995). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Dairy Cattle: January 1985 - March 1995. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 92p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 95-15
Descriptors: bibliography, handling, husbandry, facilities, care, welfare.

Berry, D.J. (1992). Veal Calves: January 1979 - August 1992. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 49p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 92-67
Descriptors: bibliography, handling, husbandry, facilities, care, welfare, behavior, stress, humane.

Boandl, K.E., J.E. Wohlt, and R.V. Carsia (August 1989). Effects of handling, administration of a local anesthetic, and electrical dehorning on plasma cortisol in Holstein calves. Journal of Dairy Science 72(8):2193-2197.
NAL call number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: calves, handling, anesthesia, polling, cortisol, stress.

Brunner, C.J. (1989). Reducing handling stress aids immune function in calves. Agricultural Experiment Station 367(2):p.10.
NAL call number: 100 AL1H
Descriptors: calves, steers, cattle, stress management, stress response, adrenal cortex hormones, immune response, transport of animals.

de Wilt, J.G. (September 1987). Behavior and welfare of veal calves in individual crates and in group pens. [Gedrag en welzijn van vleeskalveren in individuele boxen en in groepshuisvesting.] Tijdschrift voor Dier geneeskunde 112(17):994-1000.
NAL call number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: society critique, group vs. isolated housing, preputial sucking.

Eldridge, G.A., C.G. Winfield, and D.J. Cahill (1988). Responses of cattle to different space allowances, pen sizes and road conditions during transport. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 28(2):155-159.
NAL call number: 23 AU792
Descriptors: cattle, stress response, space requirements, pens, size, behavior, welfare, heart rate, surveys, injuries, weight loss.

Gebremedhin, K.G., C.O. Cramer, and H.J. Larsen (September 1985). Preference of dairy cattle for stall options in free stall housing. Agricultural Engineers 28(5):1637-1640.
NAL call number: 290.9 AM32T
Descriptors: cattle, dairy, stalls, housing, behavior.

Grandin, T. (1991). Cattle behavior during handling and corral design for beef cow herds. Extension Bulletin Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University: East Lansing, Michigan, 10p.
NAL call number: 275.29 M58B
Descriptors: cows, cattle, fencing, behavior, vision, movement.

Grandin, T. (1987). Using cattle psychology to aid handling. Agri-Practice 8(5):32-36.
NAL call number: SF601.B6
Descriptors: cattle, handling, behavior, perception, stress, guidelines.

Heerens, S.E. (August 1989). Confinement rearing of calves. [Letter] Journal of the American Veterinary Association 195(4):423.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: housing, husbandry, pathogen transmission.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, A.J. Tilbrook, and C. Hansen (1989). The effects of handling by humans at calving and during milking on the behaviour and milk cortisol concentrations of primiparous dairy cows. Applied Animal Behavi our Science 22(3/4):313-326.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cattle, cows, milking interval, calving interval, handling, stress, cortisol, behavior.

Hinch, G.N. (1994). The behavioural and physiological assessment of well-being, pain and distress in sheep and cattle. In: Improving the Well-being of Animals in the Research Environment: Proceedings of the conference held at the Marriott Hotel, Sydney, October, 1993 R.M. Baker, G. Jenkin, and D.J. Mellor, eds., ANZCCART, P.O. Box 19, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia, pp. 35-40.
Descriptors: stress, pain, social behavior, physiology, stereotypies.

Johnson, D.D., N.W. Bradley, J.A. Boling, and R.M. Stone (September 1983). Effects of space and bedding on steer performance. Progress Report - Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 272:17-18.
NAL call number: 100 K41PR
Descriptors: cattle, steers, housing, pens, bedding, space requirements.

Kerr, S.G.C. and D.G.M. Wood-Gush (1987). A comparison of the early behaviour of intensively and extensively reared calves. Animal Production 45(pt.2):181-190.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: calves, animal behavior, intensive livestock farming, extensive livestock farming, housing, welfare.

Lehenbauer, T., T. Jones, and L. Collar (1994). The impact of free-stall housing on somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk. In: Dairy Systems for the 21st century. Proceedings of the third international dairy housing conference hel d in Orlando, Florida, February 2-5, 1994. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, pp.128-137.
Descriptors: dry-lot housing, economic impact, milk production, housing, microclimate, milk quality, mastitis, design, loose housing, cattle diseases.

Martsching, S.L. (October 1989). More on confinement rearing of calves. [Letter] Journal of the American Veterinary Association 195(8):1055.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: housing, husbandry, pathogen transmission.

Mench, J.A., J.C. Swanson, and W.R. Stricklin (1990). Social stress and dominance among group members after mixing beef cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 70(2):345-354.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: cattle, cortisol, socialization.

O'Connell, J., P.S. Giller, and W. Meaney (1989). A comparison of dairy cattle behavioral patterns at pasture and during confinement. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research 28(1):65-72.
NAL call number: S539.5.174
Descriptors: ethograms, feeding, social behavior, resting behavior.

Pagano, A., R. Holt, R. Schwart, W. Boggess, and M. DeLorenzo (1994). Investments in free stall dairy housing: Estimated costs, returns and risk. Balanced Dairying Economics 14(1):11pp.
Descriptors: cows, housing, construction, design, cost benefit analysis, dairy, loose housing, management.

Rodenburg, J., H.K. House, and N.G. Anderson (1994). Free stall base and bedding materials: Effect on cow comfort. Annual Meeting: National Mastitis Council (U.S.)
NAL call number: SF967.M3N32
Descriptors: dairy herds, cubicles, litter, welfare, hygiene, housing.

Rynk, R.F. (1988). Performance of alternative veal housing systems. In: Livestock Environment III: Proceedings of the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium St. American Society of Agricultural Engineers: Joseph, Michigan, pp. 409-416.
NAL call number: SF91.I5
Descriptors: calf housing, loose housing, husbandry, behavior, literature review.

Sato, S., K. Tarumizu, and K. Hatae (December 1993). The influence of social factors on allogrooming in cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38(3/4):235-244.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dairy cows, beef cows, grooming, kinship, social structure, spatial distribution, social interaction, altruism.

Schlichting, M., D. Smidt, and C. Muller (November 1990). Studies of the effects of group housing of calves on their welfare. Tierärztliche Umschau 45(11):785-791.
NAL call number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: group housing, slat floors, litter, social behavior, calves.

Seabrook, M.F. (1984). The psychological interaction between the stockman and his animals and its influence on performance of pigs and dairy cows. Veterinary Record 115:84-87.
NAL call number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: human-animal bond, fear, handling, behavior.

Smidt, D. (1990). Animal welfare in cattle housing and pig housing and management. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 40(2):138-156.
NAL call number: 18 L2353
Descriptors: alternative housing, species-specific feeding, economics, production.

Stricklin, W.R. (1976). Theory and model for overcrowding effects on social animals. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 56(4):849.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: social behavior, aggression, housing, husbandry.

Tilbrook, A.J., P.H. Hemsworth, J.L. Barnett, and A. Skinner (1989). An investigation of the social behavior and response to humans of young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23(1-2):107-116.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: bulls, steer, behavioral response, interaction, effects, husbandry/management practices.

Tsuji, O., Y. Matsuda, F. Tsuchiya, T. Suzuki, N. Abe, K. Oosaki, and K. Ooboshi (1994). Study on drainage of cattle paddock: The improvement of cattle paddock environment with underdrainage. Research Bulletin of Obihiro Universit y Natural Science 19(1):23-29.
NAL call number: 513 Ob3
Descriptors: paddock drainage, footing, management, housing, environmental enrichment.

van Niekerk, A., A.W. Lishman, and S.F. Lesch (December 1986). The reproductive responses of two breeds of beef cows and the performance of their progeny in two contrasting environments. South African Journal of Animal Science [Su id Afrikaanse tydskrif vir veekunde] 16(4):209:214.
NAL call number: SF1.S6
Descriptors: beef cattle, simmental, calving, stress, environment.

Verga, M., M Pavesi, and F. Cerutti (1985). Behaviour and performance of veal calves under different stabling conditions. Annales de Zootechnie 34(3):247-256.
NAL call number: 49 F84
Descriptors: calves, behavior, housing, stables, slatted floors, pens, microclimate.

Voyt, J. (June 1984). Good cattle handling facilities, less stress on man and beast alike. Georgia Cattleman 12(6):12.
NAL call number: SF191.G4
Descriptors: corrals, chutes, headgates, enclosures, stress, behavior.

Webster, A.J., C. Saville, B.M. Church, A. Gnanasakthy, and R. Moss (May-June 1985). The effect of different rearing systems on the development of calf behaviour. British Veterinary Journal 141(3):249-264.
NAL call number: 41.8 V643
Descriptors: social behavior, age, housing.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

Horses

Barrey, E. (March 1989). Comparative study of the comfort quality of different tracks for equestrian sports [Etude comparative des qualities de comfort de differents sols equestres.] Journee de la Recherche Chevaline Cereeopa Publishers: Paris, France, pp.134-144.
Descriptors: welfare, racehorses, safety, preference, substrates.

Blackshaw, J.K., D. Kirk, and S.E. Cregier (April/June 1983). A different approach to horse handling, based on the Jeffery method. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems 4(2):117-123.
NAL call number: HV4701.I49
Descriptors: behavior, flight distance principle, human-animal bond, mutual confidence.

Crowell-Davis, S.L. (1992). The effect of the researcher on the behavior of horses. In: The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions H. Davis and D. Balfour, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, Englan d, pp. 316-333.
NAL call number: QL55 I44
Descriptors: flight distance, avoidance, feral horses, domestic horses, psychobiology, researcher personality.

Crowell-Davis, S.L, K.A. Houpt, and C.M. Carini (May 1986). Mutual grooming and nearest-neighbor relationships among foals of Equus caballus. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(2):113-123.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior, social interaction, herd structure, sex differences.

Crowell-Davis, S.L., K.A. Houpt, and L. Kane (August 1987). Play development in Welsh pony (Equus caballus) foals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 18(2):119-131.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior, colt, fillies, mating behavior, mares.

Cuddeford, D. and P. Imlah (1991). Effect of restricted grazing area on the normal behaviour of horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1-2):192(abstract).
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: welfare, behavior, grazing, natural environment.

Ewbank, R. (January 1985). Contributions of ethology to clinical interpretation of the horse's welfare. Equine Veterinary Journal 17(1):2-3.
NAL call number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: behavior, welfare, care, health, handling, well-being.

Fagen, R.M. and T.K. George (1977). Play behavior and exercise in young ponies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2(3):267-269.
NAL call number: QL751 B4
Descriptors: foals, behavior, running, exercise, socialization.

Feh, C. and J. de Mazieres (1993). Grooming at a preferred site reduces heart rate in horses. Animal Behaviour 46(6):1191-1194.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: social behavior, husbandry, grooming, stress.

Heird, J.C., R.W. Bell, and S.G. Brasier (1986/1987). Effects of early experience upon adaptiveness of horses. In: Advances in Animal Welfare Sciences Martinus Nijhoff Publishers: Boston, MA, pp.103-109.
NAL call number: HV4701.A34
Descriptors: foals, adaptability, domestication, behavior, welfare, training.

Heird, J.C., D.D. Whitaker, R.W. Bell, C.B. Ramsey, and C.E. Lokey (1986). The effects of handling at different ages on the subsequent learning ability of 2-year-old horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(1):15-25.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior, learning, training, novel stimuli, conditioning, maze-learning.

Hogan, E.A., K.A. Houpt, and K. Sweeney (September 1988). The effect of enclosure size on social interactions and daily activity patterns of the captive Asiatic wild horse (Equus przewalskii). Applied Animal Behaviour Sci ence 21(1/2):147-168.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Equus caballus przewalskii, wild animals, housing, space requirements, socialization, behavior.

Houpt, K.A. (Winter 1987). Equine behavior problems in relation to humane care. Anthrozoos 1(3):184-187.
NAL call number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: aggression, behavior, handling, care, treatment, welfare.

Houpt, K.A. and H.F. Hintz (1983). Some effects of maternal deprivation on maintenance behavior, spatial relationships and responses to environmental novelty in foals. Applied Animal Ethology 9(3/4):221-230.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: social behavior, feeding behavior, stress, newborn, foals, solitary confinement, pasture, familiarity, contact, space, grazing, novel environment.

Houpt, K.A. and T.R. Houpt (June 1992). Social and illumination preferences of mares. Equine Practice 14(6):11-16.
NAL call number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: social environment, physical environment, operant conditioning, lighting, preferences, behavior.

Houpt, K.A. and T.R. Houpt (September 1988). Social and illumination preferences of mares. Journal of Animal Sciences 66(9):2159-2164.
NAL call number: 49.J82
Descriptors: social environment, physical environment, operant conditioning, lighting, preferences, behavior.

Hunter, L. and K.A. Houpt (August 1989). Bedding material preferences of ponies. Journal of Animal Sciences 67(8):1986-1991.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: housing, behavior, substrate, straw, wood shavings.

Kiley-Worthington, M. (January 1990). The behaviour of horses in relation to management and training, towards ethologically sound environments. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 10(1):62-71.
NAL call number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: behavioral problems, vices, feeding behavior, mating behavior, group interaction, tractability, animal welfare, time allocation.

Kiley-Worthington, M. (1987). The behaviour of horses in relation to management and training: Horse psychology and behavior A. Muller: Ruschlikon-Zurich, Switzerland, 216p.
NAL call number: SF281.K5415 (German), SF281.K54 (English)
Descriptors: welfare, social behavior, learning, stereotypies.

Kolter, L. (September 1988). Social behavior of Przewalski horses in the Cologne Zoo and its consequences for management and housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21(1/2):117-145.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Equus caballus przewalskii, social behavior, housing, husbandry, facilities, zoological gardens, space requirements.

Kolter, L. (1984). Social relationships between horses and its influence on feeding activity in loose housing. In: Proceedings of the International Congress on Applied Ethology in Farm Animals J. Unshelm, G. van Putten and K. Zeeb, eds., Germany, pp. 151-155.
NAL call number: SF756.7.I5
Descriptors: social behavior, feeding behavior, housing, space, size.

Kresse, W. (1993). Open housing for the welfare of horses [Offenstllhaltung fuers wohlbefinden der pferde.] Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt. Organ des Landesbauernverbandes in Baden-Wuerrtemberg 160(8):45(abstract).
NAL call number: S232 B24L36
Descriptors: saddle horses, housing, animal needs, livestock, work animals, preferences.

Kusunose, R., H. Hatakeyama, F. Ichikawa, K. Kubo, A. Kiguchi, Y. Asai, and K. Ito (1986). Behavioral studies on yearling horses in field environments. 2.Effects of group size on the behaviour of horses. In: Bulletin of Equine Res earch Institute (No. 23) Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association: Tokyo, Japan, pp.1-6.
NAL call number: SF321 N5
Descriptors: animal behavior, group dynamics, social behavior, pastured, grazing.

Kusunose, R., H. Hatakeyama, K. Kubo, A. Kiguchi, Y. Asai, Y. Fujii, and K. Ito (1985).Behavioral studies on yearling horses in field environments. I. Effects of the field size on the behavior of horses. In: Bulletin of Equine Res earch Institute (No. 22) Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association: Tokyo, Japan, pp.1-7.
NAL call number: SF321 N5
Descriptors: animal behavior, group dynamics, social behavior, exercise, field size, pastured, grazing.

Mal, M.E., T.H. Friend, D.C. Lay, S.G. Vogelsang, and O.C. Jenkins (July 1991). Behavioral responses of mares to short-term confinement and social isolation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 31(1/2):13-24.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior, isolation, socialization, pastures, open housing, stalls, stress.

Mal, M.E., T.H. Friend, D.C. Lay, S.G. Vogelsang, and O.C. Jenkins (1991). Physiological responses of mares to short-term confinement and social isolation. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 11(2):96-102.
NAL call number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: isolation, stalls, cortisol, stress, disease, adrenal glands, haemoglobin, thyroid hormones, mitogens, lymphocyte transformation, environment, housing, haematology, immune response, age differences.

Mal, M.E., C.A. McCall, K.A. Cummins, and C. Newland (1992). Influence of early handling on subsequent learning abilities in weanling horses. Journal of Animal Science 70 (Supplement 1):156(abstract).
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: abstract, foal, behavior, care, management, livestock, stress.

Malinowski, K., N.A. Hallquist, L. Helyar, A.R. Sherman, and C.G. Scanes (September 1990). Effect of different separation protocols between mares and foals on plasma cortisol and cell-mediated immune response. Journal of Equine V eterinary Science 10(5):363-368.
NAL call number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: weaning, stress, hydrocortisone, concentration, immunity, behavior, blood plasma, separation.

Malpass, J.P. (November 1994). A simple and effective environmental enrichment device for ponies in long-term indoor confinement. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 33 (6):74-76.
NAL call number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: horses, environment, enrichment, foraging, abnormal behavior.

McCall, C.A. (1993). Solving behavior problems in horses. Equine Practice 15(8):30-31.
NAL call number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: disease, animal behavior, animal welfare, housing, feeding exercise, training, abnormal behavior, stimuli, positive reinforcement, learning.

McCall, C.A. (January 1990). A review of learning behavior in horses and its application in horse training. Journal of Animal Science 68(19):75-81.
NAL call number: 49.J82
Descriptors: learning ability, training.

McCall, J. (1988). Influencing horse behavior a natural approach to training, 1st edition. Alpine Publishers: Loveland, CO, 77p.
NAL call number: SF287.M44
Descriptors: behavioral principles, psychology, handling, care.

McCann, J.S. (1986). Ethological observations and the effect of handling and reserpine on normal and nervous yearling horses. Dissertation Abstracts International, B 47(2):446.
NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53
Descriptors: theses, adaptation, training, behavior, stress, neuroleptics.

Pinsent, P.J.N. (1984). The horse and its welfare in different states of confinement. In: Priorities in Animal Welfare: The Proceedings of the Animal Welfare Foundation's First Symposium L. Bagnall, ed., BVA Animal Welfare Fo undation: London, England, pp.67-72.
NAL call number: HV4704.A54
Descriptors: environment, stress, welfare, sports, isolation, space, socialization.

Pollack, J. (March 1987). Welfare lessons of equine social behavior. Equine Veterinary Journal 19(2):86-89.
NAL call number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: social behavior, wild horses, wild burros, social structure.

Rifa, H. (January 1990). Social facilitation in the horse. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 25(1/2):167-176.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Equus caballus, maternal behavior, social behavior.

Smith, C.P. (1994). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Horses: January 1988-January 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 62p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.94-22
Descriptors: bibliography, flooring, stress, housing design, ventilation, temperature control, transport, social environment.

Tellington-Jones, L. (1994). A Touch of Magic for Horses Phane Marketing International, Inc.: La Quinta, CA, VHS, 47 minutes.
Descriptors: training, handling, stress, human-animal bond, learning, total body recognition, vices..

Tellington-Jones, L. and U. Bruns (1988). An Introduction to the Tellington-Jones Equine Awareness Method: The T.E.A.M. Approach to Problem-free Training Breakthrough Publications: Millwood, NY, 180p.
NAL call number: GV1831 H8T44
Descriptors: handling, total body awareness, human-animal bond, learning.

Williams, M. (1974). The effect of artificial rearing on the social behavior of foals. Equine Veterinary Journal 6(1):17-18.
NAL call number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: intensive husbandry, foal, social behavior.

Young, J.R. (July 1979). Man and horse vs. boredom. Horseman 23(12):22-23, 26-27.
NAL call number: SF309.H6
Descriptors: repetition, training, handling, varied routine.

Zeeb, K. (March 1994). Possibilities for the all-year raising of horses. [Moglichkeiten der ganzjahrigen freilandhaltung von pferden.] Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 101(3):122-123.
NAL call number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: animal needs, welfare, management, semi-natural environment, shelter, social behavior, comfort behavior.

Zeitlerfeicht, M.H. (May 1993). Minimum requirements for lighting, climate and air-pollution for horse stables with respect to animal welfare. Tierärztliche Umschau 48(5):311.
NAL call number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: stables, animal health, metabolic changes, humidity, environment, temperature, ammonia concentrations.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

Sheep and Goats

Baldock, N.M. and R.M. Sibly (November 1990). Effects of handling and transportation on the heart rate and behaviour of sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28(1/2):15-39.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: isolation, handling, transport, stress, heart rate.

Berry, D. (1994). Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Sheep and Goats: January 1985-April 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 30p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.94-36
Descriptors: bibliography, flooring, crate design, ventilation, temperature control.

Biquand, S. and V. Biquand-Guyot (1992). The influence of peers, lineage and environment on food selection of the criollo goat (Capra hircus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34(3):231-245.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: social environment, food selection, genetics.

Bobek, S., J. Niezgoda, K. Pierzchala, P. Litynski, and A. Sechman (November 1986). Changes in circulating levels of iodothyronines, cortisol and endogenous thiocyanate in sheep during emotional stress caused by isolation of the animals from t he flock. Zentralblatt fürVeterinarmedizin, Riehe A 33(9):698-705.
NAL call number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: social isolation, stress, adaptation, physiology.

Boe, K., J.J. Nedkvitne, and D. Austbo (December 1991). The effect of different housing regimes on the performance and rectal temperature of sheep. Animal Production 53(pt. 3):332-337.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: housing, environmental temperature, feed intake, production.

Carbonaro, D.A., T.H. Friend, G.R. Dellmeier, and L.C. Nuti (February 1992). Behavioral and physiological responses of dairy goats to isolation. Physiology and Behavior 51(2):297-301.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Descriptors: Nubian goat, Alpine goat, social isolation, fear, vocalization, behavior.

Casteilla, L., P. Orgeur, and J.P. Signoret (December 1987). Effects of rearing conditions on sexual performance in the ram: Practical use. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19(1/2):111-118.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: social behavior, experience, sexual behavior, rams.

Fenwick, D.C. and D.J. Green (August 1986). The effects of handling procedures, breed differences and treatment with lithium and dexamethasone on some blood parameters in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16(1):39-47.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: ewes, border leicester, blood plasma, erythrocytes, sodium, potassium, calcium, hypocalcemia, stress, behavior.

Gonyou, H.W. (October 1991). Behavioral methods to answer questions about sheep. Journal of Animal Science 69(10):4155-4160.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: preference testing, aversiveness, spatial behavior, social behavior.

Gonyou, H.W. and J.M. Stookey (July 1985). Behavior of parturient ewes in group-lambing pens with and without cubicles. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14(2):163-171.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: goats, parturition, cubicles, kids, pens.

Gonyou, H.W., J.M. Stookey, and L.G. McNeal (May 1985). Effects of double decking and space allowances on the performance and behavior of feeder lambs. Journal of Animal Science 60(5):1110-1116.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: production, growth, behavior, housing.

Gordon, G.D.H. and M.S. Cockram (May 1995). A comparison of wooden slats and straw bedding on the behaviour of sheep. Animal Welfare 4(2): 131-134.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: standing, moving, lying, flooring preference.

Hargreaves, A.L. and G.D. Hutson (May 1990). The effect of gentling on heart rate, flight distance and aversion of sheep to a handling procedure. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26(3):243-252.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: handling, fear, heart rate, stress.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and G.J. Coleman (1993). The human-animal relationship in agriculture and its consequences for the animal. Animal Welfare 2(1):33-51.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: stockpeople, human-animal bond, fear, handling.

Hinch, G.N. (1994). The behavioural and physiological assessment of well-being, pain, and distress in sheep and cattle. In: Improving the Well-being of Animals in the Research Environment: Proceedings of the conference held at the Marriott Hotel, Sydney, October, 1993 R.M. Baker, G. Jenkin, and D.J. Mellor, eds., ANZCCART, P.O. Box 19, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia, pp. 35-40.
Descriptors: stress, pain, social behavior, physiology, stereotypies.

Horton, G.M.J., K. Malinowski, C.C. Burgher, and D.D. Palatini (November 1991). The effect of space allowance and sex on blood catecholamines and cortisol, feed consumption, and average daily gain in growing lambs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32(2/3):197-204.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: space, housing, growth, stress, physiology, lambs.

Lawrence, A.B. and D.G.M. Wood-Gush (1985). Investigations on social space in open and restricted environments in sheep. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 35:171-191.
NAL call number: SF600.C82
Descriptors: space, social behavior, loose housing, clustering.

Lyons, D.M. (1992). Early human-animal relationships and temperament differences among domestic dairy goats. In: The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions H. Davis and D. Balfour, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England, pp. 295-315.
NAL call number: QL55 I44
Descriptors: flight distance, avoidance, rearing experience, corticosteroids, production, psychobiology.

Lyons, D.M. and E.O. Price (1987). Relationships between heart rates and behavior of goats in encounters with people. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 18(3-4):363-370.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: fear, heart rate, vocalizations, human-animal bond.

Lyons, D.M., E.O. Price, and G.P. Moberg (July 1993). Social grouping tendencies and separation-induced distress in juvenile sheep and goats. Developmental Psychobiology 26(5):251-259.
NAL call number: QP351 D4
Descriptors: social affinities, pen-mates, locomotor activity, plasma corticosteroid, vocalizations, adrenocortical responses, natural grouping, object attachment, depression, psychology, socialization, stress.

Lyons, D.M., E.O. Price, and G.P. Moberg (1988). Individual differences in temperament of domestic dairy goats: Constancy and change. Animal Behaviour 36(5):1323-1333.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: genetics, rearing environment, social behavior, temperament.

Mateo, J.M., D.Q. Estep, and J.S. McCann (October 1991). Effects of differential handling on the behaviour of domestic ewes (Ovis aries). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32(1):45-54.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: handling, lambs, human-animal bond.

Moberg, G.P. and V.A. Wood (1985). Effect of differential rearing on the behavioral and adrenalcortical response of lambs to a novel environment. Developments in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 18:403-413.
NAL call number: QL1.D48
Descriptors: housing, stress physiology, rearing, lambs.

Niezgoda, J., D. Wronska, K. Pierzchala, S. Bobek, and S. Kahl (December 1987). Lack of adaptation to repeated emotional stress evoked by isolation of sheep from the flock. Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin, Reihe A 34(1 0):734-739.
NAL call number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: social isolation, stress, adaptation, physiology.

Nugent, R.A. III and T.G. Jenkins (August 1992). Effects of alternative lamb production systems, maternal line, and culling strategy on flock age structure. Journal of Animal Science 70(8):2285-2295.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: production, lambing, age, ewe replacement.

Parrott, R.F., K.A. Houpt, and B.H. Misson (May 1988). Modification of the responses of sheep to isolation stress by the use of mirror panels. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19(3/4):331-338.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cortisol, isolation, stress, mirrors.

Ramos, A. and T. Tennessen (March 1992). Effect of previous grazing experience on the grazing behavior of lambs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33(1):43-52.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: feeding preferences, age, genetics, experience.

Scheibe, K.M. (1989). Experimental determination of stress situations of sheep locomotor and psychic challenge in the course of keeping. Monatshefte für Veterinaermedizin 44(13):450-453.
NAL call number: 41.8 M742
Descriptors: handling, isolation, noise, stress.

Wood, G.N., V. Molony, S.M. Fleetwood-Walker, J.C. Hodgson, and D.J. Mellor (1991). Effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous naloxone on the changes in behaviour and plasma concentrations of cortisol produced by castration and tail docking with tight rubber rings in young lambs. Research in Veterinary Science 51(2):193-199.
NAL call number: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: lambs, castration, docking, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, naloxone, behavior, blood plasma, pain, anesthesia.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

Swine

Algers, B. and P. Jensen (1985). Communication during suckling in the domestic pig. Effects of continuous noise. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14:49-61.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: background noise, vocalizations, litter size, milk production.

Allen, T. (March 1994). Housing, husbandry, and welfare of swine: January 1991-January 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 75p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.94-14
Descriptors: bibliography, housing, flooring, pens, ventilation, temperature control, behavior, enrichment.

Anon. (May 1991). Sow stall and tethers. Veterinary Record 128(18):431-432.
NAL call number: SF601 I4
Descriptors: restraint, pregnancy, husbandry, welfare.

Apple, J.K. and J.V. Craig (November 1992). The influence of pen size on toy preference of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35(2):149-155.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: housing, stocking density, play, stress, abnormal behavior.

Appleby, M.C. and D.G.M. Wood-Gush (June 1985). Welfare of piglets in flat-deck cages. Animal Production 40(5):548.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: earth substrate, bare floor, flat-deck cages.

Arellano, P.E., C. Pijoan, L.D. Jacobson, and B. Algers (1992). Stereotyped behaviour, social interactions, and suckling pattern of pigs housed in groups or in single crates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35(2):157-166.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: housing, suckling behavior, crates, abnormal behavior, pens, chewing, aggression, straw, and space.

Arey, D.S. (1993). Effect of straw on the behaviour and performance of growing pigs in "Straw-Flow" pens. Farm Building Progress No. 112:24-25.
NAL call number: TH4911 F37
Descriptors: litter, pens, housing, behavior, comparison, self-dispensing, manual dispensing, natural behaviors, foraging, exploration, activity.

Arey, D.S. (1993). The effect of straw on the behaviour and performance of growing pigs kept in a novel housing system. In: Livestock Environment IV: Fourth International Symposium, University of Warwick, Coventry, England, July 6 -9, 1993 E. Collins and C. Boon, eds., Scottish Agricultural College, Centre for Rural Building, Craibstone, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB2 9TR, UK, pp.491-494.
NAL call number: SF91 L58
Descriptors: swine, litter, behavior, Straw-Flow, performance, feed conversion, behavioral effects, substate.

Arey, D.S. (1993). The welfare of pigs in confined and non-confined farrowing systems. Pig News and Information 14(2):81N-84N.
NAL call number: SF391 P55
Descriptors: reviews, sows, parturition, piglets, housing, farrowing, environment.

Arey, D.S. (1993). The effect of bedding on the behaviour and welfare of pigs. Animal Welfare 2(3):235-246.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: reviews, straw, housing, behavior, litter, nesting.

Arey, D.S. (1993). The preference of growing pigs for sloped or level floors. Farm Building Progress No. 114:18-20.
NAL call number: TH4911 F37
Descriptors: lying activity, feeding activity, behavior, housing.

Arey, D.S., and J.M. Bruce (April 1993). A note on the behaviour and performance of growing pigs provided with straw in a novel housing system. Animal Production 56(pt.2):269-272.
NAL call number: 49 An55
Descriptors: swine, behavior, substrate, bedding, growth rate, feed conversion effiiciency, welfare, husbandry.

Arey, D.S., J.M. Bruce, and C.A. Pearce (April 1993). Straw-flow: A high welfare system for pigs. In: Proceedings from the Conference on Straw - A Valuable Raw Material Pira International Publishing: Leatherhead, Surrey, UK, 4pp.
Descriptors: housing, litter, straw, self-dispensing, manipulation, bedding, sloped pens, behavior.

Arey, D.S., A.M. Petchey, and V.R. Fowler (1992). The effect of straw on farrowing site choice and nest building behaviour in sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54:129-133.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: preference, lying, nesting behavior, farrowing, straw.

Arey, D.S., A.M. Petchey, and V.R. Fowler (1991). The preparturient behaviour of sows in enriched pens and the effect of pre-formed nests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 31:61-68.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: nest building, sand floor, straw enrichment, motivation.

Baldwin, B.A. and I.B. Start (1985). Illumination preferences of pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14:233-243.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: preference testing, light, motivation, environmental control.

Baldwin, B.A. and G.B. Meese (May 1977). Sensory reinforcement and illumination preference in the domesticated pig. Animal Behaviour 25(2):497-507.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: light, heat preference, reinforcement, environmental control.

Barnett J.L., G.M. Cronin, P.H. Hemsworth, and C.G. Winfield (1983). The welfare of confined sows: physiological, behavioral, and production responses to contrasting housing systems and handler attitudes. Annals of Veterinary Rese arch [Annales de Recherches Veterinarires] 15(2):217-226.
NAL call number: SF602 A5
Descriptors: human-animal interaction, corticosteroid level, stress, handling.

Barnett, J.L. and P.H. Hemsworth (1994). The animal's response to its physical environment-physiology and behavior. In: Improving the Well-being of Animals in the Research Environment: Proceedings of the conference held at the Marriott Hotel, Sydney, October, 1993 R.M. Baker, G. Jenkin, and D.J. Mellor, eds., ANZCCART, P.O. Box 19, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia, pp. 65-73.
Descriptors: group housing, pen shape, stress, tether-stall, density, aggression.

Barnett, J.L., and P.H. Hemsworth (August 1986). The impact of handling and environmental factors on the stress response and its consequences in swine. Laboratory Animal Science 36(4):366-369.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: swine, handling, environment, stress, housing, behavior.

Barnett J.L., P.H. Hemsworth, G.M. Cronin, E.A. Newman, T.H. McCallum, and D. Chilton (1992). Effects of pen size, partial stalls, and method of feeding on welfare-related behavioural and physiological responses of group-housed pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34(3):207-220.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, cortisol, pen design, skin lesion, aggression, stress response, pregnancy statistics.

Barnett J.L., P.H. Hemsworth, G.M. Cronin, C.G. Winfield, T.H. McCallum, and E.A. Newman (1988). The effects of genotype on physiological and behavioral responses related to the welfare of pregnant pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour S cience 20(3-4):287-296.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: social interaction, tethering vs. groups, growth, stall-design, pregnancy, stress, aggression.

Barnett, J.L., P.H. Hemsworth, E.A. Newman, T.H. McCallum, and C.G. Winfield (1989). The effect of design of tether and stall housing on some behavioral and physiological responses related to the welfare of pregnant pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 24(1):1-12.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, social interaction, stress, corticosteroid, group-house, tether-stalls, cage-stalls, pen design.

Barnett J.L., P.H. Hemsworth, and C.G. Winfield (1987). The effects of design of individual stalls on the social behavior and physiological responses related to the welfare of pregnant pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1 8(2):133-142.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, chronic stress, aggression, stall-design, welfare, free-corticosteroid.

Barnett, J.L. and G.D. Hutson (1987). Objective assessment of welfare in the pig: Contributions from physiology and behavior. In: Manipulating Pig Production I. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA) J.L. Barnett, E.S. Batterham, G.M. Cronin, C. Hansen, P.H. Hemsworth, D.P Hennessy, P.E Hughes, N.E. Johnston, and R.H. King, eds., Australasian Pig Science Association: Werribee, Australia, pp. 1-22.
NAL call number: SF391.3 A87
Descriptors: swine, environment, stress, welfare, behavior, physiology, review.

Barbari, M., U. Chiappini, and P. Rossi (1993). Survey on the behaviour of pregnant sows housed in collective pen with straw bedding. In: Livestock Environment IV: Fourth International Symposium, University of Warwick, Coventry, England, July 6-9, 1993, E. Collins and C. Boon, eds., Scottish Agricultural College, Centre for Rural Building, Craibstone, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB2 9TR, UK, pp.453-460.
NAL call number: SF91 L58
Descriptors: swine, behavior, housing, litter, nesting, slatted floors, flooring, groups, comparison, individual stalls, group housing.

Bartussek, H., R. Steinwender, A. Hausleitner, A. Schauer, and J. Solkner (1993). Influence of keeping restricted fed pigs in groups without or with straw litter at different ambient temperatures on daily gain, feed conversion and carcass qual ity [Zum Einfluss der gruppenhaltung mit und ohne stroheinstreu bei unterschiedlichen schlachtkorperqualitat von restriktiv gefutterten mastschweinen.] Die Bodenkultur 44(2):163-182.
NAL call number: 19 B635
Descriptors: welfare, feed conversion, environment, housing, restricted feeding, flooring, injuries.

Batchelor, G.R. (1991). Environmental enrichment for the laboratory pig. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 42(3):185-189.
NAL call number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: toys, social interaction, human-animal bond.

Beattie, V.E., I.A. Sneddon, and N. Walker (1993). Effect of environmental enrichment on behaviour, growth, and meat quality in the domestic pig Sus scrofa. Animal Production 56(3):477(abstract).
NAL call number: SF19.C45
Descriptors: abstract, behavior, husbandry, environment, housing, substrate, straw.

Beattie, V.E., I.A. Sneddon, and N. Walker (1993). Behaviour and productivity of the domestic pig in barren and enriched environments. In: Livestock Environment IV: Fourth International Symposium, University of Warwick, Coventry, England, July 6-9, 1993, E. Collins and C. Boon, eds., American Society of Agricultural Engineers: St. Joseph, MI, pp.43-50.
NAL call number: SF91 L58
Descriptors: swine, behavior, housing, litter, stress, exploratory behavior, comparison, individual stalls, group housing, behavioral effects, growth rates.

Beattie, V.E., N. Walker, and I.A. Sneddon (1995). Effects of environmental enrichment on behaviour and productivity of growing pigs. Animal Welfare 4:207-220.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, behaviour, environmental enrichment, intensive housing, tail biting, growth rates, substrate, barren pens.

Beattie, V.E., N. Walker, and I.A. Sneddon (1993). Effects of space allowance and environmental enrichment for the domestic pig (Sus scrofa). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38(1):82.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: housing, welfare, behavior, bedding, socialization.

Becker, B.A., J.J. Ford, J.A. Nienaber, G.L. Hahn, and R.K. Christenson (1986). Endocrine and behaviour changes associated with intensive housing systems for swine. In: Swine in Biomedical Research M.E. Tumbleson (ed.), Vol. 1. Plenum Press: New York, pp. 173-189.
NAL call number: RB125.C68 1985.
Descriptors: gilts, sows, behavior, pig housing, intensive husbandry, tether stalls, ACTH, cortisol, dexamethasone.

Blackburn, P.W. (March 1991). Ban on sow stalls and tethers. [Letter] Veterinary Record 128(6):140.
NAL call number: SF601 I4
Descriptors: stalls, tether, housing, welfare.

Britton, M., J.A. Roden, O. MacPherson, G. Willox, and P.R. English (1993). A comparison of a straw-based and slatted floor housing system for the weaned pig. Animal Production 56(3):477(abstract).
NAL call number: SF19.C45
Descriptors: abstract, swine, welfare, housing, litter, injuries, weight gain.

Carter, H. (February 1991). Ban on sow stalls and tethers. [Letter] Veterinary Record 128(6):140.
NAL call number: SF601 I4
Descriptors: stalls, tether, housing, welfare.

Chiappini, U. (April 1993). The "peace" of sows on the straw [La "tranquillita" delle scrofe su paglia.] Rivista di Suinicoltura 34(4):89-92.
NAL call number: 46.8 Su3
Descriptors: welfare, behavior, reproduction, pregnancy, intensive husbandry, farrowing pens, litter, bedding.

Cronin, G.M., P.R. Wiepkema, and J.M. Van Ree (1986). Endorphins implicated in stereotypies of tethered sows. Experientia 42:198-199.
NAL call number: 475 EX7
Descriptors: coping, tether, stereotypies, endorphins, chronic stress.

Dantzer, R., H.W. Gonyou, S.E. Curtis, and K.W. Kelley (1987). Changes in serum cortisol reveal functional differences in frustration-induced chain chewing in pigs. Physiology and Behavior 39(6):775-777.
NAL call number: QP1.P4
Descriptors: food presentation, stereotypies, cortisol.

Ernst, E., S. Stamer, and G. Gertken (1993). Animal welfare in group housing of breeding sows [Tiergerechte gruppenhaltung bei zuchtsauen.] KTBL-Schrift No. 357:131pp.
Descriptors: automatic feeding, natural behavior, individual housing, group housing, feed conversion.

Faucitano, L. (March 1993). Less stress, more welfare: Swine breeding in the ECC [Meno stress, piu benessere: Allevamento suini nella CEE.]
NAL call number: 46.8 Su3
Descriptors: swine, husbandry methods, animal health, intensive husbandry, meat yield, meat quality, European community.

Farmer, C. and G.I. Christison (1982). Selection of perforated floors by newborn and weanling pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62:1229-1236.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: floor preferences, expanded metal, temperature, traction.

Feddes, J.J.R. and D. Fraser (1994). Non-nutritive chewing by pigs: Implications for tail-biting and behavioral enrichment. Transactions of the ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers) 37(3):947-950.
NAL call number: 290.9 Am32T
Descriptors: pigs, juvenile, braided cotton cord, rubber strips, chewing, tail-biting.

Fiedler, E. (1993). Straw and free range are good for sows. Stable-systems for piglet production [Stroh und auslauf tut sauen gut. Stallsysteme fuer die ferkelerzeugung.] Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt. Organ des Landesbauernver bandes in Baden-Wuerrtemberg 160(39):18-19.
NAL call number: S232 B24L36
Descriptors: free range, housing, group size, straw.

Fisher, T.F. (May 1993). Miniature swine in biomedical research: Applications and husbandry considerations. Lab Animal 22(5):47-50.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: handling, social interactions, toys, psychological needs.

Franceschini, E. (1993). Straw litter for the swine welfare [Lettiera di paglia per il benessere suino. Rivista di Suinicoltura 34(2):41-43.
NAL call number: 46.8 Su3
Descriptors: straw, housing, husbandry, behavior, production.

Fraser, D., P.A. Phillips, B.K. Thompson, and T. Tennessen (1991). Effect of straw on the behaviour of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30:307-318.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: behavior, raised decks, straw bedding, rooting, chewing, social activity.

Gertken, G. and E. Ernst (1993). Integrated group housing: a form of keeping sows according to animal welfare [Integrierte Gruppenhaltung: eine tiergerechte Haltungsform fuer Sauen.] Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduk tion 45(31):18-20.
Descriptors: slatted floors, feed dispensers, automation, group housing.

Glodek, P. (1986). Breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine. In: Swine in Biomedical Research M.E. Tumbleson, (ed.), Vol. 1. Plenum Press: New York, pp. 23-37.
NAL call number: RB125.C68 1985.
Descriptors: Gottingen miniature swine, breeding, boars, sows, body weight, litter size.

Gloor, P. and C. Holzer-Dolf (October 1986). Should gilt sows be housed alone or in groups? [Galtsauen einzeln oder in Gruppen? ] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 128(10):535-547.
NAL call number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: housing, social groups, isolation, standards.

Gonyou, H.W., R.P. Chapple, and G.R. Frank (1992). Productivity time budgets and social aspects of eating in pigs penned in groups of five or individually. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34(4):291-301.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, pens design, barrow, gilt, weight gain, feed intake, diurnal.

Gonyou, H.W., P.H. Hemsworth, and J.L. Barnett (1986). Effects of frequent interactions with humans on growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(4):303-314.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: corticosteroids, chronic stress, reproductive effects, handling.

Grandin, T. (Winter 1989). Environment and genetic effect on hog handling. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Papers St. Joseph, Michigan, 7p. Paper #89-4514.
NAL call number: 290.9 AM32P
Descriptors: swine, hogs, housing, enriched environment, sensory restriction, excitability, transportation, temperament, husbandry, genetic effects, behavior.

Grandin, T., S.E. Curtis, and W.T. Greenough (1988). Environmental enrichment for pigs: Differences in somatosensory cortical neurons and subsequent behaviour. In Proceedings of the VIth International Congress on Animal Hygiene I. Ekesbo (ed.), Vol. 2, Skare, Sweden. June 14-17, 1988. pp.692-695.
NAL call number: SF757 R36 no.20-21
Descriptors: piglets, cortex, stimulation, environment, behavior.

Grandin, T., S.E. Curtis, and W.T.Greenough (1983). Effects of rearing environment on the behavior of young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 57(Supplement 1):137(abstract).
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: care, handling, piglets, adaptation, housing.

Grandin, T., S.E. Curtis, and I.A. Taylor (1987). Toys, mingling, and driving reduce excitability in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 65(Supplement 1):230-231.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: stress, husbandry, fear, enrichment devices.

Grauvogl, A. (1994). Pigs require bread and play. Schweinezucht und Schweinemast 41(2):30-32.
Descriptors: pigs, play, toys, games, behavior, welfare, performance.

Haskell, M.J. and G.D. Hutson (1993). The pre-farrowing behaviour of sows with access to straw and space for locomotion. Animal Production 56(3):435(abstract).
NAL call number: SF19.C45
Descriptors: abstract, swine, welfare, housing, litter, nest building, breeding, piglets, movement.

Hemsworth, P.H. (1992). The biological basis of animals responses to man. Animal Production 54(3):458.
NAL call number: SF19.C45
Descriptors: swine, chronic stress, fear, welfare.

Hemsworth, P.H. and J.L. Barnett (1992). The effects of early contact with humans on the subsequent level of fear of humans in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35(1):83-90.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, early handling, behavioral response, patting, stroking, socialization.

Hemsworth, P.H. and J.L. Barnett (1991). The effects of aversively handling pigs, either individually or in groups, on their behaviour, growth and corticosteroids. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1/2):61-72.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, handling, behavior, stress, growth, reproduction, corticoids, groups, individuals.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and G.J. Coleman (1993). The human-animal relationship in agriculture and its consequences for the animal. Animal Welfare 2(1):33-51.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: stock people, human-animal bond, fear, handling.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and G.J. Coleman (1992). Fear of humans and its consequences for the domestic pig. In: The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions H. Davis and D. Balfour, eds., Cambridge Unive rsity Press: Cambridge, England, pp. 264-284.
NAL call number: QL55.I44
Descriptors: fear, experimenter influence, corticosteroids, production.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and C. Hansen (1986). The influence of handling by humans on the behaviour, reproduction and corticosteroids of male and female pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15:303-314.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: stress, handling, physiology, corticosteroids, behavior.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, and C. Hansen (1987). The influence of inconsistent handling by humans on the behavior, growth, and corticosteroids of young pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 17(3-4):245-252.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, stress, welfare, reproductive status, breeding behavior.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, C. Hansen, and H.W. Gonyou (1986). Influence of early contact with humans on subsequent behavioural response of pigs to humans. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15(1):55-63.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: socialization, husbandry, handling, human-animal bond.

Hemsworth, P.H., J.L. Barnett, C. Hansen, and C.G. Winfield (1986). Effects of social environment on welfare status and sexual behavior of female pigs II: Effects of space allowance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16(3):259 -268.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, gilt, corticosteroid, mating, stress, crowding, behavior.

Hennessy, D.P. and P.N. Jackson (1987). Relationship between adrenal responsiveness and growth rate. In: Manipulating Pig Production I. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA) J.L. Barnett, E.S. Batterham, G.M. Cronin, C. Hansen, P.H. Hemsworth, D.P Hennessy, P.E Hughes, N.E. Johnston, and R.H. King, eds., Australasian Pig Science Association: Werribee, Australia, pp. 23.
NAL call number: SF391.3 A87
Descriptors: swine, environment, hydrocortisone, growth, stress, welfare, behavior.

Hesse, D. (1994). Pig keeping on straw. Landtechnik 48(10):506,541-544.
NAL call number: S675.L32
Descriptors: litter, building material, round bales, environment, housing, husbandry, piglets, costs, dietary supplement.

Horrell, I. (1992). Effects of environmental enrichment on growing pigs. Animal Production 54(3):483.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: behavioral needs, rooting, vertical chain, football, straw, tire, space requirements, weight gain.

Hunter, E., S.A. Edwards, and P.H. Simmins (1989). Social activity and feeder use by a dynamic group of 40 sows using a sow-operated computerized feeder. Animal Production 48(3):643-644.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: dominance, environmental control, sows.

Kamada, T., M. Kimata, and I. Notsuki (1993). The effect of providing pigs with toy on the welfare and performance. Journal of Animal Science 71(Supplement 1):115(abstract).
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: abstract, manipulanda, device, housing, well-being.

Kerr, S.G.C., D.G.M. Wood-Gush, H. Moser, and C.T. Whittemore (1988). Enrichment of the production environment and the enhancement of welfare through the use of the Edinburgh family pen system of pig production. Research and Devel opment in Agriculture 5(3):171-186.
NAL call number: S539.5 R473
Descriptors: alternative housing, family pens, commercial viability, abnormal behavior, lactational oestrus.

Ladewig, J. and L. Matthews (1990). Social contact requirements of domestic pigs assessed by behavioral demand functions. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science. 53:25-30.
NAL call number: SF600.C82
Descriptors: social interaction, psychological needs.

Lawrence, A.B., E.M.C. Terlouw, and A.W. Illius (1991). Individual differences in behavioral responses of pigs exposed to nonsocial and social challenges. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1-2):73-86.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: gilts, handling, novel objects, group feeding, social behavior.

Lien, J. and Klopfer, F.D. (1978). Some relations between stereotyped suckling in piglets and exploratory behaviour and discrimination reversal learning in adult swine. Applied Animal Ethology 4:223-233.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: artificially fed, sow-fed piglets, exploration, learning.

Maier, P. (1993). Studies on ontogeny of playing behaviour in young piglets kept in a modified STOLBA pig house [Untersuchungen zur ontogenese des speil-und sozialverhaltens juveniler hausschweine in einem modifizierten STOLBA-familienstall.] Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 80(3):89-90.
NAL call number: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: thesis, piglets, sows, behavior, socialization, housing.

Matthews, L.R. and J. Ladewig (1994). Environmental requirements of pigs measured by behavioural demand functions. Animal Behaviour 47(3):713-719.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: pig, male, isolation, social contact, feed, behavior.

Marx, D. (1990). Observations on the new animal welfare legislation on the housing of pigs. Tierärztliche Umschau 45(2):94-103.
NAL call number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: floor type, spatial behavior, lighting, lying area, defecation area.

Marx, D. and H. Schuster (February 1986). Ethological choice studies with early weaned piglets kept on flat decks. 4. Results of studies on the preference for type of floor, surface size and padding (straw) from the viewpoint of the animal and conclusions for the evaluation of flat deck rearing with reference to all results. [Ethologische Wahlversuche mit fruhabgesetzten wahrend der Flatdeckhaltung. 4. Mitteilung: Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen zür Rangfolge der Bodenart, der Flachengrosse und des Reizangebotes (Stroh) aus der Sicht des Tieres und Schlussfolgerungen für die Beurteilung der Flatdeckhaltung unter Berucksichtigung aller Ergebnisse.] Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 93(2):75-80.
NAL call number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: social behavior, preference testing, floor type, substrate, weaning, floor space.

McGlone, J.J. (October 1991). Techniques for evaluation and quantification of pig reproduction. Journal of Animal Science 69(10):4146-4154.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: literature review, social behavior, preference tests, behavioral frequency, animal care.

Mendl, M., D.M. Broom and A.J. Zanella (1993). A long-term study of the effects of housing conditions on the welfare of domestic pigs. Animal Production 56(3):440(abstract).
NAL call number: abstract, flooring, pens, stalls, groups, individual, stress, weight gain.

Meunier-Salaun, M.C. and R. Dantzer (December 1990). Behaviour-environment relationships in pigs: Importance for the design of housing management systems in intensive husbandry. Pig News and Information. 11(4):507-513.
NAL call number: SF391.P55
Descriptors: behavior, housing, husbandry, age differences, welfare.

Mews, A.R. (April 1991). Ban on sow stalls and tethers. Veterinary Record 128(10):239.
NAL call number: SF601 I4
Descriptors: stalls, tether, restraint, housing.

Moore, A.S., H.W. Gonyou, J.M. Stookey, D.G. McLaren (1994). Effect of group composition and pen size on behaviour, productivity, and immune response of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 40(1):13-30.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pigs, socially reared, pen size, aggression, injuries, activity, performance, immune response.

Nicol, C.J. and S.J. Pope (1994). Social learning in sibling pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 40(1):31-43.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: novel diet, learning, exploration, siblings.

Paterson, A.M. and G.P. Pearce (1992). Growth, response to humans and corticosteroids in male pigs housed individually and subjected to pleasant, unpleasant or minimal handling during rearing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34:315-328.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: aversive handling, effects, behavior, plasma cortisol, adrenal response, stress, growth performance.

Paterson, A.M., G.P. Pearce, and P.E. Hughes (1987). Puberty in gilts handled pleasantly or unpleasantly. In: Manipulating Pig Production I. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA ) J.L. Barnett, E.S. Batterham, G.M. Cronin, C. Hansen, P.H. Hemsworth, D.P Hennessy, P.E Hughes, N.E. Johnston, and R.H. King, eds., Australasian Pig Science Association: Werribee, Australia, pp. 75-76.
NAL call number: SF391.3 A87
Descriptors: swine, sows, environment, hydrocortisone, housing, stress, welfare, behavior, sexual maturity.

Pearce, G.P. and A.M. Paterson (1993). The effect of space restriction and provision of toys during rearing on the behaviour, productivity and physiology of male pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36(1):11-28
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: swine, stress, welfare, abnormal behavior, blood chemistry, hydrocortisone, boars, growth rate, pig housing, space requirements.

Pearce, G.P., A.M. Paterson, and A.N. Pearce (May 1989). The influence of pleasant and unpleasant handling and the provision of toys on the growth and behaviour of male pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23(1/2):27-37.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal behavior, pig housing, boars, handling, stress factors, growth.

Pearce, G.P., A.M. Paterson, and A.N. Pearce (1987). The behavior and growth of male pigs handled pleasantly or unpleasantly during rearing. In: Manipulating Pig Production I. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Austral asian Pig Science Association (APSA) J.L. Barnett, E.S. Batterham, G.M. Cronin, C. Hansen, P.H. Hemsworth, D.P Hennessy, P.E Hughes, N.E. Johnston, and R.H. King, eds., Australasian Pig Science Association: Werribee, Australia, pp. 78-79.
NAL call number: SF391.3 A87
Descriptors: swine, boars, environment, hydrocortisone, stress, welfare, behavior.

Pedersen B., S.E. Curtis, K.W. Kelley, and H.W. Gonyou (1993). Well-being in growing finishing pigs: environmental enrichment and pen space allowance. In: Livestock Environment IV: Fourth International Symposium, University of War wick, Coventry, England, July 6-9, 1993 E. Collins and C. Boon, eds., American Society of Agricultural Engineers: St. Joseph, MI, pp.143-150.
NAL call number: SF91 L58
Descriptors: comparative study, swine, behavior, intensive housing, animal health, environmental factors.

Pedersen B., S.E. Curtis, K.W. Kelley, and H.W. Gonyou (1992). Effect of enrichment and pen size on behavior productivity and immune response of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 70(Supplement 1):49.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: conference paper, space requirements, hiding area, manipulanda, floor levels, weight gain, growth.

Phillips, P.A., D. Fraser, and B.K. Thompson (1991). Preference by sows for a partially enclosed farrowing crate. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32:35-43.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal behavior, housing, crates, stress factors.

Phillips, P.A., D. Fraser, and B.K. Thompson (December 1992). Sow preference for farrowing crate width. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72(4):745-750.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: farrowing crate, preference testing, floor space.

Phillips, P.A., B.K. Thompson, and D. Fraser (March 1988). Preference tests of ramp designs for young pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 68(1):41-48.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: loaders, preference testing, ramps, behavior.

Rushen, J. (1990). Social recognition, social dominance and the motivation of fighting by pigs. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 53:135-143.
NAL call number: SF600.C82
Descriptors: social interactions, aggressive behavior.

Schaefer, A.L., M.O. Salomons, A.K.W. Tong, A.P. Sather, and P. Lepage (August 1990). The effect of environment enrichment on aggression in newly weaned pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 27(1/2):41-52.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: toys, aggressive behavior, postweaning interval.

Scheepens, C.J.M., M.J.M. Tielen, and P.R. Wiepkema (1990). New possibilities of improving health and welfare of pigs by introduction of the specific stress-free (SSF) system. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 116(8):837-846.
Descriptors: pigs, stress, production, alternative housing.

Seabrook, M.F. (1984). The psychological interaction between the stockman and his animals and its influence on performance of pigs and dairy cows. Veterinary Record 115:84-87.
NAL call number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: human-animal bond, fear, handling, behavior.

Semple, H.A., R. Berzins, R.T. Coutts, D.C. Secord, and Y.K. Tam (1986). Commercial pig pen modifications for housing miniature swine during chronic studies. In: Swine in Biomedical Research M.E. Tumbleson, ed., Vol. 1. Plenu m Press: New York, pp. 153-157.
NAL call number: RB125.C68 1985.
Descriptors: chronic implants, blood sampling, pharmacokinetics studies, confinement unit, design, modifications.

Simmins, P.H., S.A. Edwards, and H.H. Spechter (1994). Growth and body condition of sows given different feeding regimes during the rearing stage and through eight parities when housed in groups with straw bedding. Animal Producti on 58(2):271-283.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: restricted feeding, housing, bedding, socialization, welfare, plane of nutrition, pregnancy, growth, longevity.

Smidt, D. (1990). Animal welfare in cattle housing and pig housing and management. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 40(2):138-156.
NAL call number: 18 L2353
Descriptors: alternative housing, species-specific feeding, economics, animal welfare.

Smith, C.P. (1994). Animal Models in Biomedical Research: Swine. Special Reference Brief, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 118p.
NAL call number: aS21 D27S64 no. 94-01
Descriptors: disease, physiology, behavior, stress, biomedical use.

Spitzfaden, D.M. and J.P. Hitchcock (1994). Environment enrichment and its effects on performance of nursery age grower pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 77(Supplement 1):209.
NAL call number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: pigs, weanling, performance, abstract.

Stephens, D.B. and G.C. Perry (November 1990). The effects of restraint, handling, simulated and real transport in the pig (with reference to man and other species). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28(1/2):41-55.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: restraint, handling, transport, vibration, noise, fear, welfare, cardiovascular response, feed intake.

Stolba, A. and D.G.M. Wood-Gush (1984). The identification of behavioural key features and their incorporation into a housing system for pigs. Annales de Recherches Veterinaires 15:287-289.
Descriptors: social behavior, exploration, alternative housing.

Stookey, J.M. and S. Lerche (1993). Determining regrouping strategies in pigs using social preference testing. Journal of Animal Science 71(Supplement 1):111(abstract).
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: conference paper, abstract, socialization, isolation, aggression, behavior.

Swanson, J.C. (1990). Welfare, Care and Husbandry of Swine: January 1979-August 1990. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 20p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.91-14
Descriptors: bibliography, behavior, handling, transport, slaughter, housing.

Swanson, J.C. (1990). Swine Housing and Facilities: January 1985-August 1990. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 30p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no.91-15
Descriptors: bibliography, flooring, crate design, ventilation, temperature control.

Tan, S.S.L. and D.M. Shackleton (March 1990). Effects of mixing unfamiliar individuals and of azaperone on the social behaviour of finishing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26(1/2):157-168.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: social behavior, social structure, mixing groups, agonistic behavior.

Terlouw, E.M.C., A.B. Lawrence, and A.W. Illius (1992). Relationship between amphetamine and environmentally induced stereotypies in pigs. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 43(2):347-355.
NAL call number: QP901 P4
Descriptors: stereotypies, catecholaminergic systems, locomotion, amphetamines, stress.

Tonn, S.R., D.L. Davis, and J.V. Craig (August 1985). Mating behavior, boar-to-boar behavior during rearing, and soundness of boars penned individually or in groups from 6 to 27 weeks of age. Journal of Animal Science 61(2):287-296.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: mating behavior, growth rate, feed consumption, soundness, group housing, isolation.

Trudeau, V.L. and L.M. Sanford (1986). Influence of season and social environment on the reproductive-endocrine status of the adult boar. Journal of Endocrinology 108(Supplement ):36.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8293
Descriptors: social isolation, group housing, testosterone, gonadotropin, seasonal cycles.

Van Putten, G. (1989). The pig: A model for discussing animal behaviour and welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 22(2):115-128.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: sows, group housing, computerized feeding system, transponders.

Walton, J.R. (February 1991). Ban on sow stalls and tethers. [Letter] Veterinary Record 128(6):140.
NAL call number: SF601 I4
Descriptors: stalls, tether, housing, welfare.

Widowski, T.M. and S.E. Curtis (1990). The influence of straw, cloth tassel, or both on the prepartum behavior of sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 27:53-71.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: straw, cloth, prepartum behavior.

Wood-Gush, D.G.M. and K. Vestergaard (October 1991). The seeking of novelty and its relation to play. Animal Behaviour 43(4):599-606.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: play, exploration, curiosity, welfare.

Young, R.J., J. Carruthers, and A.B. Lawrence (March 1994). The effect of a foraging device (The "Edinburgh Foodball") on the behaviour of pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39(3/4):237-247.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pigs, gilts, foraging device, Edinburgh Foodball, diets, welfare, feed dispensers, enrichment.

Young, R.J., H.A. MacLeod, and A.B. Lawrence (1994). Effect of manipulandum design on operant responding in pigs. Animal Behaviour 47(6):1488-1490.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: learning, operant conditioning, manipulanda.

Zanella, A.J., D.M. Broom, and J.C. Hunter (1992). Sow housing behaviour and productivity are related to opioid receptor densities. Animal Production 54(3):462-463.
NAL call number: 49 AN55
Descriptors: group housing, production, neurobiology.

Zhou, J.Z. and W.R. Stricklin (1992). The influence of pen shape and size on crowding when density is constant. Journal of Animal Science 70(Supplement 1):174.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: livestock, space requirements, social stress, group size.


To: Top of Document | Introduction | Human Contact | Social Conditions | Physical Conditions | References | Farm Animal Bibliography: General, Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine

The following links access other chapters in Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals:

Main Contents ] Main Introduction ] How to Use This Document ]
Birds ] Laboratory Cat ] Dogs and Dog Housing ] [ Farm Animals ] Ferrets ] Rabbits ] Rodents ]
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August 11, 1998
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