Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: Subject Index

Note:
The index for the publication was generated primarily from the descriptors that accompany each entry. In some instances, index words may have been taken from the title. Because people are more likely to be interested in a particular animal, indexes were generated for each species or class covered. The number associated with each index term corresponds to the printed page number on which the index term can be found. Although the page numbers referenced in this index refer to the original printed publication, the subject terms may be helpful when searching text in the electronic version. Each subhead also is linked to the chapter and bibliography related to that topic.

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Birds

acoustic enrichment 11
activity 3, 9, 14, 18, 19, 22-24
adaptation 5, 8, 13
age 13, 17, 20, 24
aggression 9, 17, 21
alleviate 13, 14
alternative system 19
alternative systems 6, 17
animal awareness 25
antibody titers 11
apparatus 10
approach 11
artificial selection 13
aviary 2, 3, 19, 21, 23, 24
avoidance 8, 14, 20
  • behavior 8, 20
  • battery cage 2, 5, 7-9, 11, 15-17, 21-24
    beak trimming 7, 16, 17, 23
    behavior 1-3, 5-25
  • agonistic 20
  • avoidance 8, 20
  • play 11
  • resting 12
  • bibliography 5, 16, 23
    biomedical research 1, 23
    bird density 9, 12, 21
    bird-human interaction 14
    blocking 11
    blood lipids 11
    body weight 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 20
    bone strength 2, 6, 19
    breast blisters 15
    breeding 11, 14, 25
    breeds 8
    broiler 11, 15, 18, 20, 22
  • breeders 22
  • chicks 11, 12
  • budgerigar 1, 11, 19, 25
    cage 1-3, 5-24
  • area 19
  • bar 22
  • density 5, 9, 18, 20
  • design 5, 17, 24
  • enrichment 8
  • get-away 24
  • height 19
  • modified 22
  • nest 22
  • partition 9, 21
  • reared 5
  • shallow 10
  • shapes 5, 12
  • size 6, 15, 21
  • space 18, 21
  • wire 9
  • caged 8, 10, 14, 15, 20, 21, 23
    canary 3, 15
    cannibalism 13, 16
    captivity 9
    carbohydrates 11
    care 1, 9, 15
    catching 2
    chickens 2, 5, 8, 15, 17
    chicks 11-14, 16, 21
    choice 22
    claw 24
    cockatiels 17
    cockatoo 21
    colony size 12, 21
    color 7, 16, 25
    comfort 5, 12, 19, 24
    comparison 15, 19, 23
    competitive 9
    confinement 7, 12
    consequences 5, 8, 13
    corticosteroids 8-9
    corticosterone 9, 10, 16, 23
    corticotropin 16
    Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) 14, 16, 23
    crowding 6, 12, 16
    debeaking 7, 23
    deep litter 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, 19
    demand elasticity 10
    density 5, 6, 8-12, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24 deprivation 19
    design 5, 6, 9, 11, 17, 18, 22, 24
    dietary diversity 13
    disease 7, 15
    displacement 24
    domestic fowl 1, 2, 13, 18, 20
    dominance 9, 13, 15, 20, 21
  • rank 9
  • drinking 5, 17, 24
    dustbath 1, 5, 6, 20, 24
    egg 3, 5-8, 10, 13, 17, 18, 21-23, 25
  • production 5-8, 10, 13, 18, 21
  • quality 6, 17, 25
  • embryology 20
    endocrinology 16
    enrichment 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 13-15, 17, 18, 20-22, 24
    environment 1, 2, 5, 8, 11, 18-20, 23
    environmental
  • control 22, 25
  • enrichment 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 13-15, 17, 18, 21, 22
  • stimulation 20
  • environmental
  • control 22, 25
  • enrichment 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 13-15, 17, 18, 21, 22
  • exercise 2, 7
    experiential
  • factors 13
  • units 11
  • exploratory activity 19
    facilities 5
    familiarity 25
    farm 25
    fear 2, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21
    feather 8, 16, 23
  • condition 18
  • loss 8
  • pecking 3, 7, 20, 24
  • scores 17
  • feed
  • access 2, 15
  • consumption 5, 7, 15, 17
  • efficiency 7, 15, 17, 18
  • restriction 22
  • trough 22
  • feeder 5, 10
    feeder size 10
    feeding 7-9, 11, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24
  • activity 9, 22
  • behavior 9, 22
  • feelings 25
    fiberglass screen 20
    field methods 20
    filial preference 7
    flock management 11
    flock 6, 11
    floor
  • area 19
  • pen 1, 5, 8, 11, 16-18, 20
  • rearing 18
  • slat 6
  • space 5, 6, 10, 17, 24
  • type 6, 7, 23
  • flying activity 3
    food 1-3, 13-15, 21
  • access 15
  • neophobia 13
  • foot condition 8
    foraging 1-3, 6, 10, 22
    fowl 1, 2, 13, 18, 20, 24
    gain-to-food ratio 14
    galliformes 1
    Gallus domesticus 9, 14, 20, 21
    genetic 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21
  • factors 13
  • stocks 9
  • strain 8
  • get-away cage system 24
    group 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 19, 21, 22, 24
  • housing 3, 19, 21, 22
  • size 6, 8, 10, 12, 24
  • growth 5, 12-14, 17, 20, 23
    habituation 2, 10, 14, 20
    handler influence 11
    handling 8, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23
    hand-rearing 15
    Hans Kier System 20
    head 24
    hen 2-3, 5-12, 14-24
    heritability 17
    heterophil-lymphocyte ratio 12
    hormones 10
    housing 1-3, 5-12, 15, 16, 19-22, 24, 200
  • density 6, 20, 24
  • humans 11, 21
    human contact 10
    husbandry 16, 22, 23
    illumination 20, 24, 25 immobility 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20
    immunosuppression 12
    imprint 11, 16
    industry 12, 18
    injury 2, 20, 21
    isolation 3, 19, 21
    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 7, 10, 14, 18, 23
    laboratories 1, 5
    laboratory methods 15
    layers 10, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24
  • performance 12
  • laying 1-3, 5-11, 15-24
  • hens 2, 3, 5-7, 9, 11, 15-24
  • learning 1, 11, 12, 16
    light 1, 20, 23
    litter 2, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22-24
  • reared 22
  • livability 18
    lumination 11
    mammals 15
    management 11, 15, 16, 23, 25
    mating opportunity 23
    mesh size 18
    mortality 7, 9, 10, 16-18, 21, 24
    motivation 10, 12, 19, 20, 22
    music 2, 11
    natural behavior 1
    neck 24
    nervousness 18
    nest 2-3, 5-7, 12, 17, 21-24
  • box 3, 6, 17, 24
  • building 12
  • disturbance 21
  • lining 21
  • material 12
  • pad 7
  • site 12
  • sites 5, 6
  • nesting 1, 3, 6, 12, 17, 19, 25
    novel 13, 14, 19
  • object 14
  • objects 14
  • observer effect 10
    ontogeny 13
    open field 14
    operant conditioning 10
    opioid receptor 22
    pairing intervals 23
    Parrot 15, 16
    partitions 2, 9, 21
    passerine 1, 15
    pattern 16
    peat 24
    pecking 3, 7, 8, 15-16, 18-22, 24
  • targets 18
  • pens 1, 5, 11, 16
    perception 16
    perch 2-3, 5-7, 15, 17-18, 24
  • preference 6
  • space 6
  • performance 2, 7, 9-14, 18, 23
    pheasants 23
    photoperiod 20, 23
    physiology 1, 11, 16
    pigeons (Columba livia) 1, 12
    plasma growth hormone 14
    plumage 17, 20, 24
    pre-laying
  • behavior 5, 21, 22
  • preference 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 19-21
    previous experience 13
    pre-laying behavior 5, 21, 22
    primates 15
    production 5-11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23
    productivity 8, 9, 11, 15, 18, 21
    prolactin 14
    Psittaciformes 21
    psychology 14-16, 21
    pullets 5, 7, 8, 13, 16, 23
    quail 1-3, 7, 10, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23
    range 10
    rearing environment 11, 18, 20
    reproduction 7, 17, 23
    restrictive environments 1
    ring-necked pheasant 23
    rollaway
  • hollow 5
  • nest box 6
  • sand 24
    seed
  • preferences 21
  • size 21
  • sex 13, 14, 17
    shape 10, 12, 21
    social 1, 3, 9-11, 15, 17, 19-22, 25
  • behavior 15, 17, 21
  • cues 25
  • dominance 21
  • environments 15
  • groups 1, 3, 10, 11
  • interactions 22
  • isolation 3, 19, 21
  • organization 20
  • proximity 25
  • socialization 13
    solid versus wire cage 9
    space 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 17-19, 21, 24
  • requirements 200
  • spatial
  • allowance 19
  • restriction 1, 3, 19
  • statistical design 11
    stereotypies 15
    stimuli 2, 7, 15-16, 20, 25
    stocking density 6, 11
    strain 8, 11, 13, 14
    stress 8, 10-13, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23
    submission 9
    substrate 5, 7, 11, 18, 20
    suffering 9
    surface area 12
    thyroid hormones 10
    tier housing system 11, 14
    time 19
    timidity 14
    toe 24
    tonic immobility 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20
    toys 11
    transport 18, 23
    trauma 21, 24
    turkey 12, 17
    vocalizations 14
    water 5, 10, 22
  • provision 22
  • restriction 5
  • waterer 5, 10
    waterfowl 9
    weight gain 14, 16, 17
    welfare 1-3, 5, 6, 8-16, 19, 22-24
    well-being 2, 10, 15, 18, 21
    White Leghorn 5, 8, 9, 13, 16, 18
    wild 1, 15, 20
    wildlife 20, 21
    wild birds 20
    wire floor 6, 23

    To: Top of Document | About this index | Birds | Cats | Dogs | Farm Animals: Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine | Ferrets | Rabbits | Rodents: Hamsters and Gerbils, Guinea Pigs, Mice, Rats, Wild Rodents

    Cats

    acoustic stimulation 40
    ACTH 36
    activity budget 40
    adapt 27
    aggression 27, 28, 30, 32, 35, 38, 39, 41
    alley cats vs. cage-reared 41
    attention 36
    balls 36
    behavior 27, 29-32, 35-41
  • approach 40
  • communicative 35
  • conflict 39
  • differences 38
  • hiding 36
  • locomotor 39
  • modification 37
  • predatory 35-38
  • sexual 37, 39
  • towards prey 38
  • behavioral development 35
    bells 36
    blood proteins 38
    boredom 27
    breeding colony 31
    cage 27, 29, 30, 32, 38, 40, 41
    caged 29, 32, 36
    caretaking routine 36
    catnip 36, 37
    cat-human relationship 29, 35
    cerebral cortex 38, 41
    circling 39
    climbing 37
  • frame 39
  • poles 28
  • cognition 36, 40
    colony cats 32, 35, 38-40
    colony cats vs. pet cats 38
    color photos 35
    communication 29
    contact latency 40
    cortisol 36
    cotton tugs 36
    critical period 38
    cues 40
    decoys 36
    development 32, 35-41
    discrimination learning 40
    diseases 36
    dog 41
    drugs 37
    early experience 36-39
    environmental enrichment 28, 30, 32, 33, 36, 40
    environments 27, 30, 40, 41
    ethogram 33
    ethology 33, 41
    exercise 35-37
    exhibit 40
    experimenter 40
    fearfulness 27
    feeding
  • maternal 35
  • Felis bengalensis 30, 40
    Felis catus 31, 36, 39
    Felis viverrina 40
    feral cats 31, 32
    food 28, 31, 40
    friendly 29, 38, 40
  • responses to humans 38
  • games 36
    gamma-globulins 38
    grief 35
    grooming 37, 39
    gumabone tug 36
    gumadisc 36
    habituate 29
    hair 37
    handler 40
    handling 29, 32, 38
    haplorhini 38
    head rubbing 40
    hear 27
    hematology 38
    housing 27-29, 31, 35, 38-41
    human
  • pet bonding 41
  • rearing 39
  • hunting 35-37
    indoor
  • pen 39
  • tree 37
  • intelligence 38
    jump 37
    kitten 29, 31, 36, 39-41
    laboratory 27, 30-32, 35, 36, 38-41
  • conditions 39
  • learning 35, 36, 38, 40, 41
    lesions 41
    live prey 40
    locomotor play 39
    maternal rearing 39
    mating 36
    memory 38
    metabolic rate 39
    mother-offspring interactions 37
    novel objects 31, 32
    nylabone frisbee 36
    object 35, 36, 39
  • permanence 36
  • play 35, 39
  • olfactory system 27
    ontogeny 36, 39, 40
    orientation 36, 40
    perch 37
    pets 30, 33, 41
    physiology 32, 38, 41
    play 28, 30, 35-41
    polydipsia 39
    predation 35
    predatory behavior 35-38
    preference 38
    prey 37, 38, 40
    prior experience 36
    problem solving 36
    psychological stressors 30
    psychology 31, 36, 40
    psychomotor performance 36
    puppy 41
    recall 36
    relationships 29, 33, 35, 36, 41
    reproductive hormones 36
    research colony vs. pet cats 38
    resting boards 35
    reward 40
    ropes 28
    safety 37
    saliva 37
    scratching
  • device 37
  • post 28, 29, 35, 36
  • see 27
    senses 27, 35, 37, 41
    sensory
  • abilities 35
  • deprivation 40
  • sheepskin mice 36
    shelving 28
    skin 37
    sleep 37
    smell 27
    social
  • behavior 27, 35, 38, 41
  • bonds 38
  • development 41
  • enrichment 27, 29
  • environment 29, 37
  • housing 35
  • play 35, 36, 39
  • socialization 29, 32, 35, 38, 39
    space 28, 40
  • perception 40
  • stress 29, 36, 40
    technical personnel 38
    time 28, 29, 39, 41
    timid 28, 29
    toys 28, 35, 36, 39
  • balls 36
  • bells 36
  • gumabone tug 36
  • object play 35, 39
  • sheepskin mice 36
  • tree trunks 35
    tunnel 37
    vices 41
    vision 40
    visual
  • cortex 38
  • perception 38
  • vocalizations 39, 40
    vomerosensory 27
    weaning 39
    welfare 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41
    whirling 39
    young 41
    To: Top of Document | About this index | Birds | Cats | Dogs | Farm Animals: Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine | Ferrets | Rabbits | Rodents: Hamsters and Gerbils, Guinea Pigs, Mice, Rats, Wild Rodents

    Dogs

    ACTH 50
    activity
  • measurements 58
  • patterns 54, 55
  • adaptation 53, 59
    age differences 59
    aggression 45, 49, 53, 54, 56-58
    Alsatian 51
    amateurs' manuals 56
    Animal Welfare Act 50, 54, 56
    atropine 60
    avoidance 52, 57
    balls 51
    barking 44, 47, 57
    beagles 45, 46, 49, 50, 58, 59
    bedding 49
    behavior 43, 47, 49-58, 60-62
  • agonistic 53, 58
  • competitive 56
  • deviant 51
  • exploratory 62
  • feeding 50, 56
  • mating 54
  • measurements 51
  • modification 52, 57, 60
  • patterns 56
  • spatial 58
  • stereotypic 57
  • therapy 61
  • bells 51 bibliography 49, 60
    biochemical measurements 54
    biting 57
    blood
  • chemical 58
  • circulation 60
  • serum 53
  • body weight 56, 58
    bonding 50, 52, 57, 60, 61
    bradycardia 60
    breeding 46, 50, 52, 53
  • colony 53
  • breed differences 45, 57
    building 56
    cage 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 52-56, 58-60
  • confinement 58, 60
  • density 55
  • design 49
  • size 45, 47, 49, 52, 54-56, 58
  • Canis lupus 43, 46, 53
    care 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52-54, 61
    case report 57
    chemical 49, 58
    chews 45, 55
    circadian activity 56
    confinement
  • effects 52
  • systems 51
  • construction 56, 60
    contact 44, 55, 58, 59
    control 44, 62
    coping 59
    cortisol 50
    cotton tugs 51
    crowding 52, 58
    dark 59
    decoys 51
    differential rearing 54, 62
    dingo 50, 51
    disease susceptibility 60
    dissertation 58, 59
    distress 50, 58, 59
  • vocalizations 58
  • dog owner's book 53
    domestication 43, 45, 46, 53
    dominance 51, 57, 58, 62
  • hierarchy 51
  • early
  • experience 51
  • separation 60
  • eating 56, 58
    economics 49
    education 59
    EKG 51
    electrocardiograph 54
    electroencephalography 49
    electrophysiology 49
    elimination 56
    enrichment 44-47, 50, 51, 55-57
    environment 43-45, 49-53, 55-58, 60-62
    environmental
  • conditions 56
  • enrichment 44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 55-57
  • stress 58
  • enzymes 56, 58
    ethology 46, 51-54, 58, 62
    eustress 50
    examinations 54
    exercise 44-47, 49-53, 55-58, 60, 61
    experimental design 51
    exploratory behavior 62
    facilities 43, 54
    factors 52, 53
    familiarity 57
    fear 53
    feeding 50, 56
    feed intake 56
    feral 43, 50
    fighting 44
    food 45, 56, 58, 61
  • rewards 61
  • fur quality 56
    games 53
    genetics 47, 57, 60
    genotype 52
    glucocorticoids 50
    grooming 57
  • excessive 57
  • guidelines 54
    guinea pig 53
    gumabone 51
    gumabone tug 51
    gumadisc 51
    hand-rearing 62
    handling 52, 57, 60
    heart rate 60
    hematologic 54
    hemoglobin 56
    history 54
    housing 43-47, 49-56, 59-62
    human
  • contact 44, 55, 58
  • interaction 49, 61
  • isolation 52
  • presence 60
  • sex differences 57
  • husbandry 43-46, 49, 50, 52-54, 56, 59, 60
    hydrocortisone 51, 53
    identification 52
    infanticide 51
    infants 57
    intra-species 52
    isolation 46, 49, 52, 54, 57, 58
    kennels 45, 47, 49, 55, 57, 60
    kinetic energy 59
    knotted towel 61
    laboratory 44-47, 49, 52-56, 58, 60-62
  • management 54
  • rearing 53
  • legislation 50, 53, 59
    light 59
    litter-rearing 62
    locomotor activity 62
    lycaon 53
    lying 45, 54
    lymphocyte
  • transformation 50
  • management 47, 50, 54, 56, 58, 61
    minerals 56
    mortality 60
    mouse 53
    movements 59
    muscle 51, 58
  • enzyme 51
  • musculoskeletal system 58
    neurochemical 49
    novel 43, 62
    nutrition 60
    nylabone 51
    nylabone frisbee 51
    ontogeny 62
    ophthalmic 54
    packed cell volume 56
    pens 45, 52, 54
    pets 56, 58, 59
    pet supplies 56
    petting 60
    physical
  • activity 52, 58
  • conditioning 59
  • fitness 51
  • physiology 56, 60, 62
    plasma 56
    plastic bottles 61
    plastic chain 51
    play 45, 49, 57
    playthings 56, 57
    policy 54, 61
    polydipsia 57
    posture 57
    poultry 52
    primates 50, 52, 59
    psychology 57, 59
    puppies 43, 47, 51, 53, 57, 60-61, 62
    rabbit 53
    rat 53
    rearing 49, 52-54, 57, 62
    recognition 52
    red blood cell counts 56
    regulations 47, 54, 55, 59
    regulatory issues 60
    relationships 57
    reproduction 50
    responses to environment 57
    resting
  • area 52
  • boards 49
  • rhythms 56
    rodents 50, 52
    selective breeding 46, 52
    sensory isolation 57
    separation 49, 58-60
  • distress 58, 59
  • stress 60
  • service dogs 51
    sex 53, 57
  • differences 53, 57
  • sheepskin mice 51
    shelters 55
    Shetland Sheepdogs 58, 59
    sitting 54
    sleeping 45, 54
    social
  • attachment 59
  • behavior 43, 50, 51, 53, 55, 57
  • density 51
  • dominance 57
  • housing 49
  • interaction 49, 54
  • isolation 52, 57
  • organization 53, 62
  • stimulation 52
  • socialization 44, 47, 50-52, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62
  • intra-species 52
  • period 44, 57, 62
  • session 55
  • with humans 59
  • space 45, 54, 56, 58
  • recommendations 56
  • requirements 54
  • spatial behavior 58
    standards 50, 61, 62
    standard values 60
    standing 54
    stereotypies 52, 55, 57
    stimuli 53
    stimulus 62
    stone chewing 57
    stress 50, 53, 58-61
    stress psychology 59
    substrates 56
    susceptibility 53, 60
    swine 51
    tameness score 56
    Telomians 58, 59
    temperament 45, 46, 52, 61
  • testing 61
  • tongue injury 57
    toys 53, 55, 57, 58, 61
  • balls 51
  • bells 51
  • chews 45, 55
  • cotton tugs 51
  • gumabone 51
  • gumabone tug 51
  • gumadisc 51
  • knotted towel 61
  • nylabone 51
  • nylabone frisbee 51
  • plastic bottles 61
  • playthings 56, 57
  • tongue injury 57
    training 51, 59, 60
  • methods 51
  • T-touch 60
    weight gain 54, 60
    welfare 43, 45-47, 49-56, 59-62
    well-being
  • psychic 54
  • psychological 52, 61
  • wellbeing 46, 47, 50, 54, 55, 59, 61
    wolves 43, 46, 57
    wool sucking 57
    young 54, 58
    zootechny 60
    To: Top of Document | About this index | Birds | Cats | Dogs | Farm Animals: Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine | Ferrets | Rabbits | Rodents: Hamsters and Gerbils, Guinea Pigs, Mice, Rats, Wild Rodents

    Farm Animals

    Cattle

    adrenal cortex hormones 73
    age 78
    aggression 77
    altruism 76
    anesthesia 73
    bedding 75, 76
    beef cattle 73, 74, 77
    beef cows 76, 77
    behavior 69-71, 73-78
    bibliography 73
    bulls 77
    calves 73-76, 78
    calving 75, 77
  • interval 75
  • care 73
    chutes 70, 78
    comfort 76
    comparison 75, 76
    conception 64
    confinement 74-76
    construction 76
    corrals 78
    cortex 73
    cortisol 73, 75, 76
    costs 76
    cost benefit analysis 76
    cows 73-77
    crates 74
    cubicles 76
    dairy 73-77
  • cows 64, 75-77
  • herds 76
  • design 74-76
    dominance 76
    economics 76, 77
    economic impact 75
    enclosures 78
    enrichment 77
    environment 73, 75-77
    environmental factors 73
    ethograms 76
    extensive livestock farming 75
    facilities 73, 78
    fear 77
    feeding 70, 76, 77
    fencing 74
    flooring 70, 76, 78
    footing 77
    grooming 76
    guidelines 74
    handling 69, 73-75, 77, 78
    heart rate 74
    housing 73-78
  • alternative 77
  • calf 76
    dry-lot 75
  • group 74,76
  • isolated 74
  • human-animal bond 77
    humane 73
    husbandry 73-77
    hygiene 76
    immune response 73
    injuries 74
    intensive livestock farming 75
    interaction 76, 77
    isolation 64
    kinship 76
    literature review 76
    litter 76
    livestock 75, 76
    management 73, 76, 77
    microclimate 75, 78
    milk
  • production 75
  • quality 75
  • milking interval 75
    movement 74
    paddock drainage 77
    pain 75
    pasture 76
    pathogen transmission 74, 75
    pens 74, 75, 78
    perception 74
    performance 75-78
    physiology 75
    pigs 77
    plasma cortisol 73
    polling 73
    preference 74
    preputial sucking 74
    production 75, 77
    psychology 74
    rearing 74, 75, 78
    resting behavior 76
    restraint 69
    review 73, 76
    sheep 75
    simmental 77
    size 74
    slatted floors 76, 78
    social
  • behavior 75-78
  • interaction 76
  • stress 76
  • structure 76
  • socialization 76
    space requirements 74, 75
    stables 78
    stalls 74
    steer 73, 75, 77
    stereotypies 75
    stress 73-78
  • management 70, 73
  • response 73, 74
  • surveys 74
    transport 70, 73, 74
    veal calves 73, 74, 78
    vision 74
    weight loss 74
    welfare 73-77
    wellbeing 73, 75
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    Horses

    activity 80, 82
    adaptation 80, 84
    adrenal glands 83
    age differences 83
    aggression 80
    ammonia 85
    Asiatic wild horse (Equus przewalskii) 80
    avoidance 79
    bedding 81
    behavior 71, 79-85
  • feeding 81, 82
  • maternal 84
  • mating 79, 81
  • bibliography 84
    blood plasma 83
    body
  • awareness 85
  • recognition 85
  • boredom 85
    care 80, 83, 84
    colt 79
    comfort 79, 85
    comparative study 79
    concentration 83
    conditioning 71, 80, 81
    confinement 81, 83, 84
    cortisol 83
    design 84
    device 83
    disease 83
    domestication 80
    domestic horses 79
    early handling 83
    enrichment 83
    environment 79, 81, 83-85
    Equus caballus 79, 80, 82, 84
    exercise 80, 82, 83
    experience 80
    facilities 82
    feeding 81-83
  • activity 82
  • behavior 65, 66, 81, 82
  • feral horses 79
    field size 82
    fillies 79
    flight distance 79
    flooring 84
    foals 79-81, 83, 85
    foraging 83
    grazing 79, 81, 82
    grooming 79, 80
    group
  • dynamics 82
  • interaction 81
  • size 82
  • haematology 83
    haemoglobin 83
    handling 79, 80, 83-85
    health 80, 85
    heart rate 80
    herd structure 79
    horses 79-85, 87
    housing 80-84
    design 84
    open 82, 83
    human-animal bond 79, 85
    humane 80
    humidity 85
    husbandry 80, 82, 84, 85
    hydrocortisone 83
    immune response 83
    immunity 83
    interaction 79, 81
    isolation 83, 84
    laboratory 83
    learning 80, 81, 83-85
  • ability 80, 84
  • lighting 81, 85
    livestock 82, 83
    lymphocyte transformation 83
    management 81-83, 85
    mares 79, 81, 83
    maternal behavior 84
    mating behavior 79, 81
    metabolic changes 85
    mitogens 83
    mutual confidence 79
    natural environment 79, 85
    needs 82, 85
    neuroleptics 84
    newborn 81
    novel stimuli 80
    operant conditioning 81
    pasture 81, 82
    physical environment 81
    plasma cortisol 83
    play 79, 80
    ponies 79, 80, 81, 83
    preferences 79, 81, 82
    Przewalski horses 82
    psychobiology 79
    psychology 81, 84
    racehorses 79
    rearing 85
    reinforcement 83
    repetition 85
    review 84
    running 80
    saddle horses 82
    safety 79
    semi-natural environment 85
    sex differences 79
    shelter 85
    size 80, 82
    social
  • behavior 80-82, 84, 85
  • environment 81, 84
  • interaction 79, 80
  • isolation 83
  • structure 84
  • socialization 80, 83, 84
    solitary confinement 81
    space 80-82, 84
  • requirements 80, 82
  • sports 79, 84
    stables 85
    stalls 83
    stereotypies 81
    straw 81
    stress 80, 81, 83-85
    substrate 79, 81
    temperature 84, 85
    control 84
    thyroid hormones 83
    time allocation 81
    training 80, 81, 83-85
    transport 84
    treatment 80
    ventilation 84
    vices 81, 85
    weaning 83
    welfare 79-85
    wellbeing 80
    wild
  • animals 80
  • burros 84
  • horses 84
  • wood shavings 81
    work animals 82
    zoo 82

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    Sheep and Goats

    activity 90
    adaptation 87, 90
    age 90, 91
    Alpine goat 87
    anesthesia 91
    aversiveness 88
    avoidance 89
    bedding 88
    behavior 87-91
    bibliography 87
    blood
  • plasma 88, 91
  • withdrawal 63
  • Border Leicester sheep 88
    calcium 88
    castration 91
    cattle 89
    clustering 89
    comparison 88
    corticosteroid 89, 90
    cortisol 87, 89, 91
    crate design 87
    cubicles 88
    dairy 87, 89, 90
    design 87
    dexamethasone 88
    docking 91
    environment 87, 89, 90
    environmental temperature 87
    erythrocytes 88
    ewe replacement 90
    experience 88, 89, 91
    fear 87-89
    feed
  • consumption 89
  • intake 87
  • preferences 71, 91
  • flight distance 88, 89
    flooring 70, 87, 88
    food selection 87
    genetics 87, 90, 91
    goats 87-90
    grazing 91
    growth 88, 89
    handling 69, 87-91
    heart rate 65, 87-89
    housing 87-90
    human-animal bond 89, 90
    husbandry 87
    hydrocortisone 91
    hypocalcemia 88
    isolation 64, 87, 90, 91
    kids 88
    lambing 88, 90
    lambs 88-91
    lidocaine 91
    locomotor activity 90
    lying 88
    metobolic rate 65
    mirrors 91
    naloxone 91
    noise 91
    Nubian goat 87
    pain 89, 91
    parturition 88
    pens 70, 88
    pen-mates 90
    performance 87, 88
    physiology 87, 89, 90
    plasma corticosteroid 90
    potassium 88
    preference testing 88
    preferences 71, 91
    production 87-90
    psychobiology 89, 90
    psychology 90
    rams 88
    restraint 63, 66, 69
    rearing 88-90
  • environment 90
  • experience 89
  • sexual behavior 88
    sheep 87-91, 93
    social
  • affinities 90
  • behavior 88-90
  • environment 87
  • isolation 87, 90
  • socialization 90
    sodium 88
    space 88, 89
    spatial behavior 88
    stereotypies 89
    straw bedding 88
    stress 70, 87-91
  • physiology 90
  • temperament 89, 90
    temperature control 87
    transport 69, 70, 87
    treatment 88
    ventilation 87
    vocalization 87, 89, 90
    welfare 87-89
    wellbeing 89
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    Swine

    ACTH 98
    activity 93, 94, 100, 104, 106
    adaptation 101
    adrenal response 107
    age 106, 110, 111
  • differences 106
  • aggression 93, 95, 96, 106, 109, 110
    amphetamines 111
    artificially fed 105
    automatic feeding 99
    automation 100
    barrow 101
    bedding 94, 97-100, 109
    behavior 71, 93-112
  • aggressive 108, 109
  • agonistic 65, 111
  • breeding 103
  • exploratory 97
  • natural 99
  • nesting 95
  • sexual 103
  • social 71, 96, 104-106, 110, 111
  • spatial 105
  • stereotypic 65
  • behavioral
  • effects 94, 97
  • frequency 106
  • needs 104
  • response 102
  • bibliography 93, 110, 111
    biomedical use 110
    blood
  • chemistry 107
  • sampling 63, 109
  • boars 100, 107, 111
    body weight 100
    breeding 99, 100, 102, 103
  • behavior 103
  • building material 103
    cage 96
    cage-stalls 96
    cardiovascular response 110
    care 101, 106, 110
    catecholaminergic systems 111
    cattle 109
    chewing 93, 99, 100
    chronic implants 109
    cloth 112
    comparative study 108
    comparison 93, 97, 98
    computerized feeding system 111
    conditioning 112
    confinement unit 109
    coping 99
    cortex 101
    corticosteroid 95, 96, 101-103, 107
    cortisol 96, 98, 99, 107
    costs 103
    cows 109
    crates 93, 108
    crate design 111
    crowding 103, 112
    curiosity 112
    defecation area 105
    density 93, 95, 112
    design 96, 101, 106, 109, 111, 112
    device 104, 112
    dexamethasone 98
    dietary supplement 103
    disease 110
    diurnal 101
    dominance 104, 108
    early handling 102
    earth substrate 93
    economics 109
    Edinburgh Foodball 112
    endorphins 99
    enrichment 69, 93, 95, 97-99, 101, 104, 108-110, 112
  • devices 101
  • environment 94-97, 101, 103, 104, 106-111
    environmental
  • control 95, 104
  • factors 95, 108
  • excitability 101
    expanded metal flooring 99
    experimenter influence 102
    exploration 93, 105, 106, 110, 112
    exploratory behavior 97
    facilities 111
    family pens 104
    farm 93, 94
    farrowing 94, 95, 99, 102, 108
  • crate 108
  • pens 99
  • fear 101, 102, 109, 110
    feed
  • consumption 111
  • conversion 94, 97, 99
  • dispensers 66, 100, 112
  • intake 64, 101, 110
  • preference 71
  • restriction 65
  • feeding 94, 96, 97, 99, 104, 109, 111
  • activity 94
  • floor 93, 95, 98, 99, 105, 108
  • expanded metal 99
  • levels 108
  • preferences 99
  • slatted 97, 98, 100
  • space 105, 108
  • type 105
  • flooring 93, 97, 106, 111
    food presentation 99
    football 104
    foraging 93, 112
    free range 100
    gilt 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 112
    gonadotropin 111
    Gottingen miniature swine 100
    group
  • feeding 104
  • housing 95-97, 99, 100, 111, 112
  • mixing 111
  • size 100, 112
  • groups 93, 96, 97, 100-102, 106, 109, 111
    growth 94, 96-98, 102, 103, 107-109, 111
  • rate 94, 97, 98, 103, 107, 111
  • handler 95
  • handling 66, 67, 70, 95, 100-104, 107, 109, 110
    health 99, 108, 109
    heat preference 95
    hiding area 108
    hormones 63
    housing 71, 93-112
  • alternative 104, 109, 110
  • individual 99
  • intensive 98, 108
  • human-animal
  • bond 97, 102, 103, 109
  • contact 63
  • interaction 95
  • husbandry 93, 94, 97-101, 103, 106, 110
    hydrocortisone 103, 107
    hygiene 101
    immune response 106, 108
    individuals 102, 111
    injuries 97, 98, 106
    intensive husbandry 98, 99, 106
    interaction 95-97, 104, 109
    isolation 100, 105, 110, 111
    laboratory 95, 97
    learning 71, 105, 106, 112
    legislation 105
    light 95
    lighting 105
    literature review 106
    litter 93, 94, 97-100, 102, 103
  • size 93, 100
  • livestock 94, 97, 108, 112
    loaders 108
    locomotion 102, 111
    lying 94, 95, 105
    management 106, 109
    manipulanda 104, 108, 112
    manipulation 94
    manual dispensing 93
    mating 103, 111
  • behavior 111
  • meat
  • quality 97, 99
  • yield 99
  • miniature swine 100
    milk production 93
    motivation 95, 108
    movement 102
    natural behavior 99
    needs 100, 104
    nesting behavior 95
    nest building 95, 102
    neurobiology 112
    newborn 99
    noise 93, 110
    novel
  • diet 106
  • objects 104
  • novel objects 104
    nutrition 109
    operant conditioning 112
    parturition 94
    patting 102
    pen 70, 93-95, 98, 99, 101, 104, 106
  • design 96, 101
  • shape 95, 112
  • performance 93, 94, 101, 104, 106, 107, 109, 110
    physical environment 95
    physiology 95, 96, 99, 103, 107, 110
    piglets 93, 94, 101-103, 105
    pigs 93-112
    plasma cortisol 107
    play 93, 101, 112
    postweaning interval 109
    preference 93-95, 105, 106, 108, 110
  • testing 95, 105, 108, 110
  • tests 106, 108
  • preferences 95, 99
    pregnancy 93, 96, 99, 109
  • statistics 96
  • prepartum behavior 112
    production 93-98, 100, 102-104, 106, 107, 109, 112
    psychological needs 100, 104
    raised decks 100
    ramps 108
    rearing 101, 105, 107, 109, 111
  • environment 101
  • reinforcement 95
    reproduction 99, 102, 103, 106
    reproductive
  • effects 101
  • status 103
  • restraint 63, 93, 106, 110
    restricted feeding 97, 109
    review 94, 96, 106
    rooting 100, 104
    seasonal cycles 111
    self-dispensing 93, 94
    sensory restriction 101
    sexual behavior 103
    siblings 106
    size 93, 96, 100, 105, 106, 108, 112
    skin lesion 96
    slatted floors 97, 100
    slaughter 110
    social
  • activity 100, 104
  • behavior 71, 96, 104-106, 110, 111
  • environment 103, 111
  • groups 100
  • interaction 93, 96, 97, 104,100, 108
  • isolation 111
  • stress 112
  • structure 111
  • socialization 98, 102, 103, 105, 109, 110
    soundness 111
    sows 94, 95, 97-100, 102, 104, 105, 107-109, 111, 112
    sow-fed piglets 105
    space 93, 98, 102-105, 107, 108, 112
    space requirements 104, 107, 108, 112
    spatial behavior 105
    stalls 96-98, 106, 112
    stall-design 96
    standards 100
    stereotypies 99, 111
    stimulation 101
    stocking density 93
    stock people 102
    Straw-Flow 93, 94
    straw 93-95, 97-100, 102-105, 109, 112
  • bedding 97, 100, 109
  • enrichment 95
  • stress 66, 93, 95-97, 99, 101-103, 106-112
  • factors 107, 108
  • response 95, 96
  • stroking 102
    substrate 93, 94, 97, 98, 105
    suckling behavior 93
    swine 93-103, 105, 107-111, 113
    temperament 101
    temperature 93, 99, 111
  • control 93, 111
  • testosterone 111
    tether 95, 96, 98, 99, 106, 112
  • stalls 95, 98
  • thesis 105
    tire 104
    toys 64, 66, 67, 97, 100, 101, 107, 109
    traction 99
    transponders 111
    transport 70, 101, 110
    ventilation 93, 111
    vertical chain 104
    vibration 110
    vocalizations 93
    weaning 99, 105
    weight gain 98, 101, 104, 106, 108
    welfare 93-107, 109-112
    wellbeing 95, 104, 108
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    Ferrets

    abnormal behavior 118, 125
    activity 113, 115, 118-120, 122, 124-126
    age factors 125
    aggression 113, 117, 125
    anesthesia 118
    animal welfare 117, 124
    bank vole 120
    behavior 113, 114, 117-126

  • exploratory 118, 120, 124
  • feeding 121, 122
  • hybrid 124
  • hyperactive 118
  • play 118, 122, 123, 125
  • pre-copulation 123
  • social 71, 121, 122
  • stereotypic 118
  • bibliography 117, 119
    biology 117, 119, 120
    biting 114, 124, 125
    black-footed 120
    body weight 114, 121-123
    breeding 113, 114, 120, 121, 123, 126
    cages 114, 117, 120, 125
    captivity 113, 114, 119
    care 117, 119, 124, 126
    cat 123, 124
    chicken 121
    chinchillas 117
    circadian rhythms 119, 126
    circulatory system 120
    communication 118
    cortisol 120
    courtship 123, 126
    coypus 117
    development 113, 115, 120, 122
    diet 119, 120, 122-124, 126
    diseases 119, 124
    dog 120, 124
    dummy prey 117
    endocrine
  • control 125
  • system 126
  • environment 113, 114, 116, 120, 123
    environmental
  • enrichment 113, 119
  • factors 124
  • exploration 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 124, 126
    feeding 118, 119, 121-123
  • behavior 121, 122
  • zones 123
  • female 114, 117-126
    ferret-polecat hybrid 119, 125, 126
    food preferences 120
    foxes 117
    gonadectomy 119
    grooming 121
    group activity 118
    growth 125
    guidelines 124
    handling 117, 121, 123-125
    health 114, 117
    hiding place 123
    housing 114, 115, 117-123, 125
    hunting 119, 124
    husbandry 114, 117, 119, 120, 123-125
    hybrid behavior 124
    hyperactive 118
    isolation 114, 118, 121
    learning 113-116, 124, 126
    light 120
    low vs. high frequency sound 123
    male 114, 117-126
    maze 114, 124, 126
    mink 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 123-125
    mouse 123
    mustelids 114, 118, 120, 123-125
    neonates 120
    nest boxes 120, 123
    nursing 122
    nutrition 118, 119
    otters 119
    pelt quality 114, 122, 125
    personality 122
    pet 124
    physiology 115, 117, 119, 123
    play 113, 114, 116-126
  • behavior 118, 122, 123, 125
  • prepubertal 125
  • polecat 113, 115-118, 119, 121-126
    predation 113, 120, 122
    prey 114, 115, 117, 120, 122
  • catching 114, 117
  • pre-copulation behavior 123
    rabbit 119, 123
    rat 113, 116, 121, 123
    reproduction 118-120, 123, 125
    restraint 118
    restricted movement 125
    rodents 119
    running 119
    scent marking 125
    seasons 113, 118, 121, 122
    sex differences 117, 123
    shelter 123
    skeletal changes 114, 125
    skin biting 114, 125
    social
  • behavior 71, 121, 122
  • groups 118, 121, 122, 124, 125
  • interaction 113, 119, 120, 124
  • organization 125
  • sound 115, 123
    space 114, 123, 125
    starvation 118
    stereotypic behavior 118
    stocking rate 117
    Stone marten 123
    stress 113, 114, 117, 118, 120, 121
    stunning 117
    tactile stimuli 117
    toys 114, 118, 121, 125
    tubes 126
    visual stimuli 117
    weanling 119-121
    weasel 118, 120, 122
    wheel-running 119
    wildlife 122
    zoo animals 122
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    Rabbits

    acoustic
  • environment 137
  • stimulus 136
  • activity 129, 132-136, 138, 139, 143
    adaptation 129, 138
    affiliative behavior 138
    age 129, 136, 142
    aggression 132, 134, 136, 138
    agonism 136
    ambient temperature 137, 139
    androstenedione 136
    artificial appliances 134
    avoidance 142
    back-bone distortions 129
    bar-biting 128
    bedding 139-141
    behavior 127, 128, 130-143
  • chewing 137
  • feeding 135
  • flehmen 134
  • investigatory 141
  • maintenance 141
  • natural 140
  • normal 133
  • reproductive 140
  • resting 135
  • sleeping 135
  • social 127, 133-134, 136-139, 141
  • spacing 143
  • stereotyped 135, 140
  • behavioral 127-129, 134-136
  • repertoire 128, 134, 135
  • bone 129, 141, 142
    boredom 128-130, 132
    breeding 127, 129, 132, 133, 136, 138, 140-142

  • groups 127, 129, 142
  • breeds 140
    bricks 137
    building 129, 139
    burrows 127, 137
    cage 128-130, 132-140-142
  • activity 135
  • colony 136
  • design 133
  • odor 142
  • outside 138
  • space 139
  • caging 128, 129, 137, 139, 141, 142
    care 129, 131, 133, 135, 141
    catecholamine 135
    chemical cues 134
    chemosignals 137
    chewing behaviors 137
    Chinchilla 139, 141
    chinning 138
    chin marking 137
    chronobiology 138
    circadian activity 139
    code
  • of practice 131
  • of recommendations 133
  • colony management 143
    comfort 141
    commercial housing 142
    communal nest box 136
    confinement 136
    consumption 138, 142
    corticotropin 136
    costs 140
    cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) 134
    cottontail rabbits 134, 135
    critical period 143
    crowding 142
    daily activity 135
    defecation 127, 138
    defense 138
    density 136, 140, 142
    development 133
    developmental 142, 143
    diet 128, 130, 136, 139
    disease 139
    distance 127, 143
    diurnal 127, 137, 138
    domestic 127, 132, 134, 137-139, 142, 143
    domestication 138
    dominance 127, 134, 136, 138
    dopamine 135
    economic 128, 139, 140
    enrichment 130-132, 134, 136, 137, 140-143
  • devices 141
  • objects 131, 134, 137
  • environment 127-130, 135-137
    environmental
  • change 138
  • control 134, 141
  • enrichment 130, 134, 136, 137, 140, 143
  • noise 136, 138
  • stress 137
  • equipment 142
    estradiol 133, 136
    estrus 138
    ethology 132, 138
    exercise 129, 137, 142, 143
    exploration 139
    exploratory activity 136, 143
    exposure to male 138
    fear 141
    feeding 127, 128, 135, 137, 139
  • behavior 135
  • feed restriction 138
    female 127, 130, 134, 136, 137
    ferrets 140
    fertility 140
    floor
  • area 128, 142
  • pens 129, 130, 134, 137, 139
  • food 138, 140, 142
  • consumption 142
  • intake 138
  • foraging 127, 129, 134
    free-range 143
    genetics 135, 137, 141, 142
    gerbil 134
    gestation 133
    grooming 129
    group 127, 129, 130, 134, 137, 140, 142
  • composition 133
  • housing 130, 132, 134, 139, 140, 142, 143
  • sizes 139
  • guidelines 139
    habituation 141
    hamster 134
    handling 132, 133, 135, 137, 138, 140, 141, 143
    health 128, 129, 136, 138, 140
    hierarchy 134
    housing 127-143
  • group 127-143
  • paired 129, 131, 134, 137, 142
  • human interaction 141
    humidity 128, 140
    husbandry 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136, 138-143
    hypoplasia 141, 142
    illumination 135, 137
    individual cages 138, 141
    industry 142
    infancy 135, 143
    infarction 138
    intermale activity 136
    intestinal
  • rupture 137
  • stasis 129, 131, 137
  • investigatory behavior 141
    isolation 128, 133, 135
    labor 140
    legislation 142
    Lepus capensis syriacus 142
    lighting 128, 140
    litters 141
    litter size 140
    locomotor activity 135, 138, 139, 141
    maintenance behavior 141
    male 127, 134, 136, 138
    management 130, 133, 136, 138, 139, 143
  • system 138
  • maternal presence 142
    mouse 134
    movement 128, 129, 141
    nest
  • area 142
  • box 136
  • communal 136
  • nesting 135-137, 142
    neurotransmitter 135
    New Zealand White 130, 131, 134, 137, 139, 141
    nocturnal 138
    noise 136-138, 140
    norepinephrine 135
    normal behavior 133
    nulliparous 138
    odors 134
    odor preferences 142
    oestrus 137
    open-field test 143
    opioid peptides 135
    osteoporosis 129
    outside cages 138
    paddock system 136
    paired housing 129, 131, 134, 137, 142
    pens 129, 130, 132, 134, 138, 139, 141
    pheromone 134
    photoperiod 135, 137, 138
    physiological 135, 137, 140
  • effects 135
  • response 137
  • plastic cages 139
    population density 136
    preference 135, 137, 142
  • testing 142
  • production 133, 138, 139
    productivity 129, 136
    progesterone 133
    psychological needs 136
    psychology 135, 138, 143
    pup area 142
    PVC pipe 134
    rat 134
    rats 137, 140
    rearing activities 128
    refinement 130, 140
    reproductive behavior 140
    resting
  • behavior 135
  • periods 135
  • rodents 134, 140, 141
    sandy lop rabbits 130, 134
    scent-marking 134
    season 139
    secretion 134
    selective breeding 136
    semi-natural conditions 139
    sexual 130, 133, 137, 138, 142
  • activity 133
  • behavior 138, 142
  • display 137
  • single 128, 131, 134, 137, 139, 142, 143
  • caging 128, 139, 142
  • housing 134, 137, 143
  • slaughter 133
    sleep 135, 136
    social 127-129, 131-139, 141-143
  • activity 135, 138, 143
  • behavior 127, 133-134, 136-139, 141
  • contact 134, 143
  • isolation 128, 133
  • display 138
  • groups 134, 137, 142
  • interactions 136
  • isolation 128, 133
  • peers 134
  • relationships 142, 143
  • solitary housing 133, 134
    space 128, 134, 139
  • allocation 139
  • spatial
  • behavior 138, 139
  • conditions 142
  • needs 137
  • stereotyped behavior 128, 130, 131, 135, 139-141, 142
    stimulation 128, 129, 135
    stimuli 135
    straw bedding 139
    stress 129, 131, 136-141
    stressors 136
    submission 136
    suffering 128, 131
    systems 138, 139, 141
    temperature 128, 137, 139, 140
    testosterone 133, 136
    time of day 135
    tonic pain 136
    transport 139
    trauma 136
    travel 139
    ultrasound 140
    urine 134
    ventilation 128, 140
    vertebrae 141, 142
    warrens 127
    water 133, 138
    weight
  • gain 142
  • loss 129
  • welfare 127-135, 139, 140, 142
    wellbeing 128, 129, 139
    wild 127, 129, 131, 132, 138
    wire-floor 139
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    Rodents

    Hamsters and Gerbils

    body 151-153
  • fat 151
  • mass 153
  • temperature 153
  • weight 151, 152
  • abstract 152
    activity 151
    adolescent 152
    adrenal 152
    adult 151-153
    age 152
    ambient temperature 153
    bedding 151
    behavior 151-153
  • foraging 151
  • motor 152
  • solitary 146
  • brain 151
    cages 152, 153
    caging 151
    cortisol 152
    crowding 152
    development 152, 153
    dominance 153
    environmental enrichment 146, 148, 151, 152
    fat 151
    female 151-153
    fighting 152, 153
    food 146, 151
    gerbil 151, 152
    golden hamster 153
    gonadectomized 153
    group housing 146, 151, 152
    growth 151, 152
    hamster 151-153
    handling 151
    housing 146, 151-153
    isolation 151-153
    lifespan 151
    litter size 153
    locomotor activity 151
    male 151-153
    Meriones unguiculatus 151, 152
    Mongolian gerbil 152
    mouse 151
    neural 152
    novel objects 151
    odors 151-153
    old 151
    olfaction 153
    outdoor 151, 152
    pairs 153
    pheromones 153
    play 152, 153
  • fighting 152, 153
  • preference test 153
    pregnancy 153
    reproduction 152
    running wheel 153
    sex 152
    size 153
    social 146, 151, 152
  • environment 152
  • interaction 152
  • isolation 152
  • socialization 151
    somatic growth 152
    strain
  • Golden 151-153
  • Siberian 153
  • Syrian Golden 153
  • submission 153
    temperature 153
    testes weight 152
    testosterone 152
    toys 152
    vaginal 152
    weanling 152, 153
    weight 151, 152
    welfare 151, 153
    wire 152
    young 153
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    Guinea Pigs

    body weight 156
    activity 155, 156
    adult 156
    bedding 156
    behavior 155, 156
  • agonistic 155
  • exploratory 155
  • open field 155
  • cage 156
    care 155, 156
    communication 155
    cortisol 156
    domestic 155
    dominance 155
    female 155, 156
    gerbil 155
    gnawing 147
    hamster 155
    housing 149, 155
    isolation 155, 156
    lactating 155
    male 155, 156
    maternal 155, 156
    mouse 155
    neonate 155
    neural 155
    noise 155, 156
    nonpregnant 155
    nonvocal sounds 155
    observations 155
    open-field 155
    play 155
    pregnancy 155
    reproduction 156
    separation 156
    silence 155
    social isolation 155
    softwood sticks 147
    space 156
    spatial 156
    virgin 155
    vocalizations 155
    weanling 156
    weight 156
    welfare 155
    young 156

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    Mice

    body 157, 161, 163, 164, 166-168
  • weight 157, 163, 164, 166-168

  • abstract 164
    activity 157-159, 161, 163-166
    adrenal 157-159, 164
  • gland 157, 164
  • adult 165
    affiliative behavior 166
    age 161, 168
    aging 159, 163
    ambient temperature 168
    ammonia 160
    anthropocentric view 164
    anti-psychotic drugs 168
    apparatus 158
    autoimmune disease 166
    aversive
  • response 159
  • stimuli 157
  • BALB/CJ 165
    bedding 147, 160-162, 165-167
    behavior 157-168
  • affiliative166
  • agonistic 146, 159, 164
  • exploratory 157
  • nesting 147, 162
  • play 166
  • social 146, 165, 166
  • behaviorally deficient mutant 161
    biochemistry 163
    bottles 167
    brain 157-159, 162, 163, 165-167
  • chemistry 167
  • stem 159, 163
  • weight 159
  • breeding 160
    cage 157, 159-164, 167
  • size 147, 163
  • caging 157-159, 161, 162, 164
    care 162, 165
    cellulose 162, 166
    cerebellum 159, 163
    cerebral
  • cortex 160, 167
  • chlordiazepoxide 168
    complexity 157, 159
    copulation 168
    cortex 159, 160, 163, 167
    cortical
  • depth 159, 167
  • corticosteroids 160
    cytolytic 161
    darkness 157
    defecation 157, 163, 164
    depression 168
    deprivation 160
    development 159, 165
    diencephalon 159
    diet 166
    dietary proteins 165
    discrimination tasks 159
    dominance 159, 161-164
    dwarf mice 158
    electric shock 157
    emotionality 157, 159
    enrichment 157-164, 166, 167
    environmental 157, 159-164, 166, 167
  • complexity 157
  • enrichment 145- 148, 157, 159-164, 166, 167
  • ethanol 167
    exercise wheel 165
    exploration 159, 160, 163, 164, 166
    fat 161
    feed 166
    female 157, 160, 162, 163, 165-168
    fetal 162
    fighting 162-164
    food competition 157, 164
    genetic variance 161
    genotype 161, 163, 164
    gerbil 158
    gestation 168
    glands 159
    grooming 159
    group
  • housing 165
  • reared 162
  • growth 161
    habituation 158
    hamster 158
    handling 146, 157, 160
    handling-reactivity test 160
    hardwoods 166
    hemocyanin 162
    Hepa-1 166
    heterogenous 159, 160
    high fat content 161
    hippocampus 163
    hoarding 163, 164, 166
    housing 157, 158, 160-162, 165-168
  • conditions 157
  • group 146, 148, 149
  • ICR 160, 162, 165
    ICR-albino 160
    IgG 162
    IgM 162
    imipramine 168
    immobility 168
    immunity 162, 165
    impoverished 160, 162
    inbred 158-160, 162, 163, 165, 166
  • strain 158, 160
  • isolation 158, 159, 161-166, 168
    learning 157, 158, 160, 166, 167
    lesions 160
    litter size 160
    liver 160, 162, 165

  • enzymes 165
  • metabolism 165
  • locomotor
  • activity 158
  • male 157-168
    maturation 167
    maze 158-160, 166, 167
    memory 163
    methods 165
    mice (Mus domesticus) 159
    Morris
  • water maze 167
  • mouse hepatoma cell line 166
    mycotoxins 165
    neonate 159, 164
    nesting 147, 162
    neural 158, 159, 165
    neuronal
  • development 159
  • plasticity 160
  • noise 161, 168
    novel environment 165
    nutrition 167
    objects 164
    occipital cortex 159
    odors 161
    old 163, 167
    olfaction 159, 161, 162, 164
    open field 157-160, 163-164
    pair housing 166
    pairs 160
    partitions 159
    passive 163
    physiological responses 157
    plasticity 160
    play 164, 166
  • behavior 166
  • Plexiglas 163
    post-weaning 158
    preference test 157
    pregnant 162, 165, 167
    prostate 157
    receptor binding 163
    reproduction 158, 168
    reserpine 168
    running wheel 158, 163-164
    septal lesions 160
    sex 162
    shelter 157
  • drinking bottles 147
  • plastic tubes 147
  • shuttlebox 166
    size 160, 163
    sleeping area 147
    social 157, 158, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168
  • behavior 146, 165, 166
  • interactions 166
  • isolation 168
  • socialization 159
    space 160
    spatial 158, 166
  • maze 166
  • spontaneous alternation 158
    standard 162
    strain
  • A/J 164
  • B6D2F2 167
  • BALB/c 159, 160, 162, 163, 165, 166
  • Binghamton 160
  • BXSB 157
  • C3H-AVY FB 167
  • C3H/HeJ 164
  • C57BL 166
  • C57BL/6 162, 163
  • C57B1/6J 163, 165, 167
  • C57BL/10J 164
  • CBA/J 163
  • CD 159, 160, 166
  • CD-1 159, 160, 166
  • CF-1 166
  • CFLP 164
  • DW/Orl-dw 158
  • HA-ICR Swiss 162
  • ICR 165
  • ICR-albino 160
  • New Zealand Black 166
  • NIH 165
  • outbred CD-1 166
  • Quackenbush albino 159
  • ST/bJ 163
  • Swiss 157, 159, 162, 165, 168
  • Swiss albino 165
  • Swiss CD-1 159
  • Swiss Webster 168
  • SWJ/Jac 162
  • TO 160
  • Wistar 163
  • stress 157, 159, 161
    striatum 163
    strychnine 159
    submission 162, 164
    surface texture 163
    swimming 159, 168
    Swiss 157, 159, 162, 165, 168
    tasks 159, 163, 167
    telencephalon 159
    temperature 158, 161, 168
    testes 157
    toys 167
    tumors 161, 167
    visual cortex 160
    water
  • consumption 163
  • maze 160, 167
  • weaning 158, 167
    weanling 158-162, 164, 166, 168
    weight 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 166-168
    welfare 158, 162, 164
    wire 163
    wood shavings 165
    young 159, 163, 168
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    Rats

    body 172, 178, 179, 183-185, 187, 188, 190, 191, 196, 199, 201, 203-205, 208, 209
  • fat 201
  • mass 201, 209
  • protein 201
  • weight 172, 178, 179, 183-185, 187, 188, 190, 191, 196, 199, 201, 203, 205, 208
  • abstract 169, 178, 181, 184, 189, 193
    acetylcholinesterase 170, 177, 185, 194, 199, 208
    acquisition 173, 175, 187, 199
    active avoidance task 177
    activity 169-173, 175, 176, 181, 184-186, 188-191, 193, 194, 197, 199-202, 205, 206, 208
    adolescent 200, 208
    adrenal 172, 174, 175, 180, 187, 191, 196, 202
    adrenalectomy 175
    adrenal gland 191
    adrenocortical system 183
    adult 170-172, 174, 177, 179, 181, 185, 186, 188, 190-196, 199, 202-208
    aeroallergen levels 204
    aerosols 195
    age 181, 185, 202, 206
    aging 171, 176, 180, 181, 188, 190, 200, 201, 204, 205
    agonistic 171
    allergens 204
    allogrooming 194
    alpha male 179
    aminooxyacetic acid 182
    ammonia 195, 207
    amphetamine 171, 177, 179, 209
    amygdaloid lesions 186
    amylobarbitone 173
    angiogenesis 171, 200
    anogenital licking 190
    anti-serum 170
    anxiolytics 173
    apparatus 173, 178, 187, 208
    ataxia 182
    attack 200
    attention test 198
    auditory discrimination 198
    aversive stimuli 176
    avoidance
  • learning 186, 193, 194
  • training 180
  • barriers 172
    bedding 172, 175, 178, 185, 193, 195, 199, 204, 207
  • cedar wood shavings 172
  • behavior 169-204, 206-208
  • consummatory 186
  • contact 175
  • defensive 187
  • digging 208
  • exploratory 175, 178, 182
  • unconditioned 199
  • behavioral tests 189
    bilateral
  • hippocampal lesions 186
  • ICV injection 171
  • lesions 186, 197, 206-208
  • occipital lesions 197
  • binding assays 195
    biochemistry 174, 178, 183, 188, 193, 196, 197, 202, 208
    black rat 198
    black-hooded rat 209
    blood
  • parameters 172
  • pressure 171, 191
  • boredom 179
    bracelet removal test 198
    brain 169-171, 173-178, 180-182, 184-186, 188, 190-203, 205-208
  • chemistry 188
  • damage 197, 206
  • development 174, 176, 185
  • enzymes 199
  • growth 171, 175, 178, 185
  • morphology 181
  • thickness 176, 182
  • weight 170, 173-175, 178, 190, 195, 196, 199, 203, 207, 208
  • brainstem 194
    buproprion 191
    burrows 173, 182
    butyrylcholinesterase 208
    cage 169, 172, 173, 175, 176, 179, 190, 193, 200, 204, 206
  • size 147, 179, 190, 200
  • caging 169, 176, 182, 183, 187, 189, 195, 199, 205
    candle 188
    capillaries 171
    carbohydrates 187
    cardiomyopathy 175
    cardiovascular system 189
    care 176, 179, 183, 189, 190, 199
    cat avoidance apparatus 187
    caudate
  • nucleus 193, 206
  • cell physiology 184
    cerebellum 178, 194, 195, 206
    cerebral
  • artery 184
  • blood flow 180
  • cortex 171, 176, 185, 205
  • cerebrum 170
    chlordiazepoxide 173
    choice test 183
    cholinesterase 170, 199
    choline acetyltransferase 193, 194
    circadian activity 205
    citrate synthase 181
    clonidine 190
    closed field 191, 206
    cocaine 179, 183
    cognition 181, 193
    cognitive changes 188
    collagen 185
    complexity 184, 195, 203
    constant estrus 188
    copulation 200
    cortex 170-173, 176, 178, 180, 182, 184-186, 188, 190, 191, 194-197, 199, 200, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208
    cortical
  • dendrites 205
  • depth 175, 182
  • plasticity 205
  • corticosteroids 204
    corticosterone 173, 175, 190, 197, 202
    cross-modal 209
    darting 207
    deafness 182
    defecation 187, 190, 201
    defense 177
    dendrites 172, 178, 194, 199, 204, 205
    dentate gyrus 200
    depletion 171, 177, 191, 193, 206
    depression 197
    deprivation 174, 180, 183, 194, 196, 205, 208
    development 170, 172, 174, 176, 181, 185, 194, 200, 201, 203, 205, 208
    devocalized 207
    diabetes 175, 181
    diaphragm 209
    diazepam 173, 208
    diencephalon 181
    diet 178, 196, 204
    dietary saline 190
    diethyl maleate 187
    differential reinforcement 198
    dismutase 187
    domestic 184
    dominance 173, 179, 192, 194, 201, 208
    dominant 192
    dopamine 169, 171, 177, 185, 193, 194, 196
    dopaminergic agonists 179
    dopamine synthesis 171
    dorsal body 201
    dorsal hippocampus 203
    DRL-20 task 192
    d-amphetamine sulfate 209
    EEG 203
    elastin 185
    electric shock 179, 180, 193, 200
    electrodes 189, 199
    electro-oculogram 203
    emergence test 183
    EMG 203
    emotionality 147, 183, 185, 189, 191, 196
    emotional stress 197
    emotions 186-188
    endocrine system 172
    energy expenditure 201
    enriched 169, 175, 176, 178-181, 183, 184, 188, 190-196, 198, 199, 201, 203-206, 208
  • environment 169, 178, 179, 184, 188, 190, 193, 194-196, 199, 203-206, 208
  • enriched-impoverished experience 193
    entorhinal cortex 208
    environmental 169-207, 209
  • complexity 195, 203
  • enrichment 169-207
  • impoverishment 175, 193
  • epinephrine 187, 189
    epitrochlearis 181
    escape response 197
    estrus 188, 205
    ethanol 185, 196, 197, 208
    evoked 177, 188, 189, 200, 202, 205
  • responses 200
  • exercise 172, 175, 176, 180, 184, 185, 187, 196, 202, 204, 209
  • wheel 180
  • exploration 174, 180, 182, 185, 186, 190, 196, 197, 201, 206, 207
    extinction 173
    eye-opening 201
    family reared 184
    fat 187, 201
    fatty acid desaturase 189
    fear 180, 187, 189, 200
    feed 173, 175, 179, 184, 187, 191, 196, 201, 204, 209
  • acquisition 173, 175, 187
  • consumption 179, 191, 201
  • intake 184, 201, 209
  • restriction 196
  • feeding 183, 192, 202
    female 169, 170, 172-175, 179-188, 190-197, 199, 201-205, 207-209
    femoral 180
    fetal 185
    fetus 170
    field activity 201
    fighting 194, 195
    fimbria-fornix lesions 177, 185, 186
    flexor 181
    floor type 195
    food 146-148, 186, 187, 192, 202, 205
  • earned 146
  • foot shock 204
    forebrain 177, 185, 191, 193, 199, 206
    foster mothers 181, 186, 205, 206
    frontal cortex 176
    genetic influences 184
    gentling 201
    gerbil 171
    gestation 205
    glands 174, 187, 196
    glucocorticoid
  • receptor 173, 192
  • receptors 190
  • glutathione 187
    glycogen 209
    gnawing 176
    Golgi-Cox-Sholl stain 205
    Golgi-Cox-Sholl stain 205
    Golgi study 178, 199, 205
    granule cells 203
    gregariousness 187
    grip test 198
    grooming 190, 200
    group
  • housing 200, 208
  • reared 189, 199
  • rearing 188
  • groups 169, 176, 182, 184
    growth 171-173, 175, 178, 185, 190, 192, 195, 203, 204
  • associated protein 173
  • spurt 185
  • hamster 171
    handling 146, 169, 174, 176, 177, 181, 183-185, 189, 190, 193, 196, 199, 202, 203
    heart 172, 181, 196, 209
    Hebb-Williams maze 173, 175, 184, 186, 191, 193, 195, 196, 202, 205-208
    hemidecorticate deficit 198
    hemidecortication 198, 206
    hexokinase 181
    hippocampal lesions 177, 186, 208
    hippocampus 176-178, 181, 184-186, 190, 192, 194, 202, 203, 207, 208
    histology 170, 173, 176
    homing 201
    homozygous 181
    hooded rat 202
    hormonal state 182
    hormones 170, 182, 188
    housing 169, 171, 173, 174, 178, 180, 182, 185-187, 189, 199, 200, 204-206, 208
  • conditions 173, 185, 186, 199
  • group 146, 149, 200, 208
  • huddling 175
    humidity 195
    hydroxydopamine 171, 193, 194
    hyperactivity 172, 180
    hypertensive 189, 193
    hypoglycemia 209
    illumination 147, 206
    imipramine 173
    immobility 177, 204
    immobilization 197
    impoverished 170, 171, 173, 175, 176, 178-181, 185, 186, 188, 191, 193, 195, 196, 198, 199, 201-203, 206, 208
  • housing 178
  • indirect calorimetry 201
    insulin 169
    intake 184, 187, 196, 197, 201, 209
    in vitro 171
    isolation 169-172, 174, 176-185, 188-190, 192, 195-197, 199-201, 203, 204, 206, 208, 209
    juvenile 174, 182, 184, 188, 190, 200, 201, 204
    kanamycin 182
    knees 180
    lactate 187
    lactation 204, 205
    Lashley III maze 181, 195
    lateral hypothalamus 199
    learning 169, 170, 173, 175-181, 184-189, 191-200, 202, 204, 205, 207-209
    length 204
    lesions 174, 177, 182, 185, 186, 192, 197-199, 206-208
    lever-press training 198
    licking 190
    littermates 183, 195
    litter size 187
    liver 184, 209
    locomotion 199
    locomotor
  • activity 171, 176, 189, 191, 199, 206
  • tasks 182
  • lordosis reflex 188
    male 169-177, 179-204, 206-209
  • newborn 193
  • offspring 186
  • malnutrition 172, 174, 194, 203-205
    maternal 186, 190, 200, 202, 205
    maturation 193-195, 203
    maze 172-175, 178, 180-187, 190, 191, 193-197, 201, 202, 204-208
    medial
  • forebrain bundle 199
  • occipital cortex 176
  • medroxyprogesterone 170
    mellitus 175
    membrane fractions 195
    memory 176-178, 180, 181, 185, 186, 193, 194, 200, 202, 205
  • loss 205
  • tasks 177
  • methamphetamine 173, 199, 207
    methods 182, 183, 198, 202, 208
    micrencephaly 195
    midbrain 196
    mineralocorticoid receptor 173, 192
    morphine 183
    Morris
  • maze 182, 190
  • water maze 207
  • mothers 181, 186, 190, 205, 206
    motivation 184, 201
    motor pyramids 178, 194
    motor tasks 177
    mouse 171, 195
    mRNA 173, 178, 191
    muscarinic receptors 194
    muscle fibers 209
    neocortex 177, 181
    neonate 170-172, 175-177, 178, 184,187, 190, 191, 193-195, 199, 201-202, 203, 205-208
    neophobia 180, 183, 192, 206
    nerve growth factor 190, 192
    nest 147, 169, 176, 182, 190
  • building 176
  • neural 171, 173-176, 180, 182, 184, 195, 197, 200, 205-208
    neurobehavioral plasticity 193
    neuroendocrine effects 173
    neuronal
  • development 172
  • plasticity 190
  • transmitter 192
  • neurons 178, 189, 194, 204, 205
    neurotoxicity 202
    noise 169, 171, 180, 182, 191
    nonpregnant 182
    noradrenaline 171, 177, 206
    norepinephrine 187, 191, 193, 196
    normotensive 189
    novel environments 180, 189
    noxious stimuli 185
    nucleus accumbens 171, 177
    nursing 190
    nutrient self-selection 187
    nutrition 170, 172, 174, 178, 185
    object exploration test 207
    observations 195
    occipital cortex 172, 176, 178, 186, 197, 205, 207
    occupational exposure 204
    odors 179
    old 171, 174, 176, 181, 185, 190, 200, 201, 204, 205
    olfaction 172, 175, 183
    ontogenetic descriptions 204
    open field 174, 176, 179, 180, 183-188, 190, 191, 195, 198-199, 201, 206, 208
    operant
  • chambers 173
  • procedure 179
  • task 198, 207
  • order 201
  • organ weights 172
    ovarian steroids 188
    pain reception 200
    pair
  • housing 200
  • interaction 187
  • paired flashes 205
    pairs 177, 195
    paraventricular nucleus 189
    parietal 176
    passive 174, 186
  • avoidance problem 186
  • pavlovian tasks 207
    peer 184
    perceptually enriched 180
    physiological responses 189
    pinning behavior 192, 200
    plasticity 171, 174, 176, 184, 190, 193, 203-205
    play 170, 174, 181-184, 187, 190, 192, 194, 200-202, 204
  • behavior 174, 187, 200-202, 204
  • fighting 194
  • motivation 201
  • restricted 201
  • rough-and-tumble 183, 201
  • plucking 203
    postlesion performance 197
    postnatal 173, 177, 181, 182, 186, 194
    postsynaptic structures 199
    postweaning 172, 173, 176, 179, 182-184, 193-194, 203, 205, 207
    predation 186
    preference test 179
    pregnancy 175, 182, 204
    pregnant 175, 182, 186, 195
    prelesion performance 197
    premature weaning 199
    preproenkephalin 173
    preprosomatostatin-mRNA 191
    pretraining 202
    pre-pregnancy 175
    problem-solving 184, 191
    progestin 170
    protein 173, 187, 194, 201, 202, 206
  • kinase C 194, 202
  • kinase 194, 202
  • turnover 194
  • pups 175, 201
    quinine 208
    radial maze 174, 186, 202, 205
    receptor binding 202
    recording device 208
    red blood cells 184
    reflex maturation 195
    reinforcement 173, 198
    REM sleep 190
    reproduction 178, 203
    response-contingent events 198
    reward 192, 198
    ricin A toxin 189
    running wheel 170, 176, 185, 193, 196, 201
    sedentary 185
    self-administration 183, 209
    sensorimotor cortex 180, 182
    sensory stimuli 189, 208
    separation 202
    septal lesions 174
    serotonin 196
    sex 172, 174, 182, 186, 187, 200
    sexual
  • maturity 204
  • mounting 194
  • shock thresholds 179
    shuttlebox 177, 178, 186, 195
  • avoidance 178, 186
  • siblings 204
    size 177-179, 181, 185, 187, 190, 200, 205
    Skinner box 198
    social 169-171, 173, 176, 177, 182-184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 195, 199-202, 204, 205, 208, 209
  • behavior 146, 170, 208
  • contact 183
  • groups 169, 176, 182
  • interaction 171, 195, 201
  • isolation 169, 184, 190, 192, 199, 209
  • play 182-184, 200, 204
  • threat 177
  • socialization 176, 179, 185, 200
    sodium 173, 209
  • barbital 209
  • space 170, 187, 189, 199
  • requirements 199

  • spatial 177, 178, 183, 188, 190-192, 205-207
  • learning 188, 191, 192
  • relationships 183
  • spontaneous alternation 186, 208
    stomach 187
    straight alley 181
    strain
  • Berkeley-S1 170, 178, 195, 196, 199, 204, 207, 208
  • Brattleboro 181
  • Brown-Norway 189
  • Carworth 187, 201
  • CD 172, 180
  • Charles River 200
  • Fischer 184, 185, 196, 199, 207
  • Fischer 344 185
  • Holtzman 175, 179, 186, 187, 194, 206
  • Holtzman-derived 179
  • hooded 175, 179, 185, 198, 202, 208, 209
  • Hooded Lister 175, 185, 198
  • Lister hooded 198
  • Long-Evans 172, 176, 177, 179-183, 186, 188, 192, 199-203, 206, 207
  • Norway 175, 184, 189, 190
  • Norwegian 202
  • Purdue Wistar 205
  • RHA-Verh 181
  • RLA-Verh 181
  • S3 200
  • Sprague-Dawley 169, 171, 172, 174, 176-178, 180, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 193, 194, 196, 203
  • Turkestan 201, 202
  • Wistar 169, 171, 173, 174, 179, 183, 184, 187-193, 200, 203-205, 208
  • Wistar-Kyoto 189, 193
  • streptozotocin 175
    stress 169, 173, 174, 180, 183, 187-191, 193, 196, 197, 199, 200, 204, 207
    striatum 169, 171, 177, 194
    stroking 202
    subcortex 178, 195
    subdominant 192
    subordinate male 194
    superior colliculi 208
    superoxide dismutase 187
    swimming 173, 187
  • maze 173
  • synaptogenesis 171
    tactile stimuli 203
    tasks 177, 182, 207
    taste 176, 180
  • aversion 176
  • telencephalon 181
    temperature 195
    testosterone 170
    testosterone anti-serum 170
    thymus 187
    time 190, 208
    tonic immobility 177, 204
    total energy intake 187
    toys 170-172, 174, 176, 179, 184, 187, 190, 194, 200, 203, 205
    training 172, 175, 180, 185, 187, 193, 195, 198, 204, 209
    transcription factor 192
    treadmill 172, 175, 180, 185, 187, 209
    T-maze 180, 184, 205
    ulcers 197
    ultrasonic vocalizations 175, 207
    undernutrition 185, 188, 203
    urea 209
    urination 190
    urine 179
    ventral 172
    virgin 175
    vision 184, 206
    visual
  • cortex 170-172, 200
  • discrimination 185, 196, 209
  • enrichment 170, 189
  • pattern discrimination 190
  • stimuli 203
  • Vitamin A 173
    Vitamin B1 196
    vocalizations 175, 191, 207
    wall thickness 185
    water
  • acquisition 187
  • consumption 179, 186, 191, 197
  • control 147
  • deprivation 196
  • maze 178, 193, 194, 197, 207
  • weaning 174, 176, 183, 192, 194, 199, 203
    weanling 169, 172-174, 179, 183, 184, 186, 189, 190, 192, 193, 195-197, 202, 203, 208, 209
    weight 170, 172-175, 178, 179, 183-185, 187, 188, 190, 191, 195, 196, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 208
    welfare 169, 171, 176, 191, 199
    wellbeing 189, 191
    wild 184
    wire 195
    Wistar-Kyoto 189, 193
    wood shavings 172
    xylocaine 201
    young 169, 177, 179, 181-183, 185, 190, 192, 194, 200-203, 205, 208
    zinc sulfate 190
    To: Top of Document | About this index | Birds | Cats | Dogs | Farm Animals: Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats, Swine | Ferrets | Rabbits | Rodents: Hamsters and Gerbils, Guinea Pigs, Mice, Rats, Wild Rodents

    Wild Rodents

    body temperature 212
    abstract 212
    adverse environments 212
    alarm response 211
    bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) 145, 211, 212
    behavior 145, 211, 212
    brain weight 211
    breeding 212
    burrows 212
    bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) 211
    cage size 149, 211
    capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) 211
    care 212
    chemical cues 211
    communication 212
    conflicts 211
    den boxes 211
    development 211
    environmental enrichment 149, 211, 212
    euthermic 212
    female 211
    flight or fight response 211
    frequency of torpor 212
    ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) 211, 212
    groups 212
    housing 211, 212
    huddling 212
    Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris 211
    impoverished 212
    isolation 212
    male 211
    mouse 212
    naked mole-rats 211
    nest 211, 212
    observations 211
    outdoor 212
    perception 211, 212
    pheromones 211
    preference test 211
    radiotelemetry 212
    reproduction 211, 212
    size 211
    social 211, 212
  • behavior 211
  • groups 212
  • stereotypies 211
    strain
  • BALB/cj 211
  • Golden 211
  • temperature 212
    tree squirrels (Sciurus sp.) 211
    vocalization 212
    weight 211
    white-footed mouse 212
    woodchuck 212
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    August 11, 1998
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