ISBN 0 900767 91 X
AWIC Resource Series No. 2
|United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
10301 Baltimore Boulevard
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
|Universities Federation for Animal Welfare|
8 Hamilton Close
Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QD
Telephone: 01707 658202
|Cynthia Petre Smith, M.S.
Tim Allen, M.S.
D'Anna Jensen, B.S.
Michael Kreger, M.S.
Jean Larson, M.S.
|Victoria Taylor, B.Sc. - Development Officer|
Roger Ewbank, M.V.Sc.
Robert Hubrecht, Ph.D.
Trevor Poole, Ph.D.
Articles contributed by:
Christine Nicol, Ph.D., Bristol University
Sandra McCune, Ph.D., University of Cambridge
Robert Hubrecht, Ph.D., Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
Michael Appleby, Ph.D., University of Edinburgh
Dorothy Einon, Ph.D., University College, London
Debbie Gunn, Ph.D. and David B. Morton, Ph.D. , University of Birmingham
Heleen A. van de Weerd, M.Sc. and Vera Baumans, Ph.D., Utrecht University
National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:
Environmental enrichment information resources for laboratory animals: 1965-1995.
(AWIC resource series; no. 2)
1. Laboratory animals--Bibliography. 2. Laboratory animals--Handling--Bibliography. 3. Animal Welfare--Bibliography.
I. Smith, Cynthia Petrie. II. Taylor, Victoria. III. Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.)
IV. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. V. Title.
Cover photo of Wiley, a 4-year old Red Merle Australian Shepherd, by Tim Allen.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, and marital or familial status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs). Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA Office of Communications at (202) 720-5881 (voice) or (202) 720-7808 (TDD).
To file a complaint, write the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250, or call (202) 720-7327 (voice) or (202) 720-1127 (TDD). USDA is an equal employment opportunity employer.
Mention of commercial enterprises or brand names does not constitute endorsement or imply preference by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Items appearing in this publication do not represent positions or policies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or any agency thereof.
Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals has been produced jointly by the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library (NAL) and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) in an effort to encourage the implementation of environmental enrichment programs in laboratory animal husbandry. This publication covers birds, cats, dogs, farm animals, ferrets, rabbits, and rodents. The exclusion of non-human primates is deliberate as they are covered in a separate AWIC publication, Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Nonhuman Primates: 1987-1992.
Various terms are used to describe the welfare requirements of animals in captivity--"psychological well-being," "ethological" or "behavioral needs," and "environmental enrichment." Whatever the term used, they are essential requirements, not luxuries. Legislation and guidelines in the European Union (EU) and the United States recognize this. The Council Directive of the EU concerning all laboratory animals stipulates that facilities "...should permit the satisfaction of certain ethological needs...." In the United States, the Animal Welfare Act requires facilities to provide exercise for dogs and programs to promote the psychological well-being of non-human primates, while the U.S. Public Health Service Guide to the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals encourages "enriching the environment as appropriate to the species...." The literature cited in this bibliography reflects the extent of research that has taken place in the field of environmental enrichment or deprivation. While offering a useful resource, the bibliography also reveals areas that are lacking in basic information. Consequently, for species about which little information exists, we have provided literature sources on natural and captive behaviors as a foundation for the development of enrichment programs.
Each section of this bibliography is introduced by a paper which provides general background information on the biology of the animals and their currently accepted needs in captivity. It is advisable to refer to all of the contributions. This should
act as a starting point for those about to embark on an enrichment project and the citations can then provide further relevant information.
The staffs of the Animal Welfare Information Center and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare hope that you find this publication to be a useful addition to your laboratory animal resources and welcome any comments for future editions.
How To Use This Document
This publication is divided into 8 sections: articles and bibliographies, journal listing, subscription information for selected journals, organizations, suppliers and products, common devices and programs, subject index, and document delivery information for U.S. and foreign patrons.
Articles and Bibliographies
The primary section of this publication consists of seven subsections broken out by species or class of animal. Each subsection is introduced by an article written by a recognized authority in the field of environmental enrichment or behavior. The reference section for each article may or may not overlap with citations in the bibliographic portion of each subsection. Immediately following each article is a comprehensive bibliography containing citations that are arranged alphabetically according to the last name of the primary author. Each entry also contains descriptors and the NAL Call Number if the particular source is available at the National Agricultural Library (NAL).
This section is a listing of journals that appear in the bibliography. It is further categorized by species or class of animal with all entries appearing in alphabetical order. Each entry lists the journal title, place of publication, language, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) listing, brief description of contents, the NAL Call Number (if available at NAL), and the electronic databases that index the journal.
Subscription Information for Selected Publications
During the production of this publication, we found ourselves routinely going to several publications because of their excellent coverage of environmental enrichment research or applied programs. Consequently, we felt it important to include information on how to subscribe to these publications.
There are many organizations that produce extremely useful materials for their members and other interested parties. In this section, organized by world regions, you will find information on how to contact these organizations via a variety of electronic means and that old standby, the postal service. You will also find World Wide Web addresses for those organizations that have posted homepages on the Web. However, readers are cautioned that because the WEB is a very dynamic media, these addres ses may change. You will also find information on the type of organization, the resources or services offered, requestor priority, and fees (if any).
Suppliers and Products
To make it even easier for you to develop enrichment programs, we have put together a lengthy, but by no means exhaustive, listing of commercial vendors and the enrichment products they supply. This listing include items as diverse as plastic tubes or tunnels for rodents to electric netting for free range chickens. All contact information is current as of September 1, 1995. Please note that "800" telephone numbers for U.S. companies may not be reached by all countries.
Common Enrichment Devices and Programs
In an effort to show the wide variety of items or strategies commonly employed in enrichment programs, we searched through articles for toys, devices, feed items, socialization programs, etc. and listed them according to the species or class of animal for which they are used.
The index for the publication was generated primarily from the descriptors that accompany each entry. In some instances, index words may have been taken from the title. Because people are more likely to be interested in a particular animal, indexes were generated for each species or class covered. The number associated with each index term corresponds to the page number on which the index term can be found.
Document Delivery Information
The information contained here provides directions on how to obtain copies of articles mentioned in the bibliography. There are separate directions for U.S. patrons and those readers outside the United States. All patrons are encouraged to use their local resources before contacting the National Agricultural Library. While the National Agricultural Library provides a variety of services to patrons around the world, videocassettes are not available for loan outside the United States and Canada.
The Animal Welfare Information Center
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
Phone: (301) 504-6212
FAX: (301) 504-7125
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