Enriching the Environment of the Laboratory Cat

Sandra McCune
Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour, University of Cambridge,
Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, UK

"Enriching the Environment of the Laboratory Cat" is a chapter from: Smith, C.P. and V. Taylor (September 1995). Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. 27-42.

The following links access AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[AWIC]Main Contents ] Main Introduction ] How to Use This Document ]
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Cats are intelligent, highly specialized carnivores. Like many predators, their senses are highly developed (reviewed by Bradshaw 1992). The cat's ability to hear, see and smell outside our own range give it a very different perception of its environment to ours. For example, it has a second olfactory system, the vomerosensory system which is associated with social behavior. The system is used when cats come into contact with other cats or their urine. In addition, the cat's visual images are supplemented with information from its highly developed sense of balance and sensory hairs on the head and legs which give the cat its position relative to other objects.

The domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, used in laboratories is the same species that is commonly kept as a pet and exists in substantial numbers in feral colonies. Until recently, cats were thought to be essentially solitary but studies h ave shown they are also found in large socially structured groups (at densities of over 2000 per km2 Izawa 1984; Izawa et al. 1982; Kerby and Macdonald 1988). The key to the success of the domestic cat is flexibility. Its ability to adapt enables it to survive in environments as diverse as the laboratory cage and isolated islands where individual territories can reach 6 km2 (Liberg and Sandell 1988). The rest of this paper introduces the problems of confinement experiene d by domestic cats, the principles of enrichment relevant to this species and the role of enrichment in preventing and relieving problems.

Specific problems associated with confinement include boredom, aggression to people and to cats, fearfulness, poor reproductive success, anorexia, tail-chasing, stereotypies, fabric eating and self-mutilation (Mellen 1988; Holmes 1993). It seems that cats confined in relatively restricted environments are more likely to develop behavior problems as Mertens and Schär (1988) claim pet cats restricted to indoors are more likely to be presented for behavior problems than cats with access to outdoors. As single laboratory caging represents the most extreme and barren environment in which cats are confined, it is likely that this is where the worst problems will develop. However, any form of cat housing can be made more stimulating, complex, and less predictable through both environmental and social enrichment.

To: Top of Document | Introduction | Environmental Enrichment | Social Enrichment | References | Cat Bibliography

Environmental enrichment

Above a critical minimum, improving quality of space for cats rather than quantity may be a better investment (Mansard 1989). In several species, increasing housing space alone did not change levels of activity (Hite et al. 1977; Bebak and Beck 1993). Quality of space can be improved by providing a range of resting places, by extending vertical space, by increasing complexity and by frequently changing internal structure and contents.

Elevated resting places are particularly favored by cats for watching their surroundings. They also preferred resting places that were warm, dry, and protected on one, or even better, two sides (Smith 1990; Roy 1992) and situated in the corners or edges of an enclosure where they can watch without the possibility of being approached from behind (Roy 1992). A range of resting places should be provided so that cats can choose their degree of contact with other cats. This may be particularly important if they are timid or the focus of aggression. The provision of shelves, ropes and climbing poles (illustrated in Loveridge 1984; Horrocks 1994) enrich the enclosure's vertical complexity and extend the available space. The latest advances in enriched group-housing are illustrated in Loveridge's paper (1994). Shelving allows the available space to be separated into functional areas. For example, the areas can be allocated to food, litter, scratch posts, toys, bedding and viewing points. These areas can be changed to promote activity. If shelves are hinged so they can fold down, the internal space periodically can be changed by erecting different combinations of the shelves available. Surface materials commonly used are metal and plastic but cats pr efer materials which maintain a constant temperature such as straw, shredded paper, shavings, sacks, clothes or wood (Roy 1992).

Within the available space, furniture and objects can be provided to create a focus of interest, exploration and play. Toys which provide movement and which are frequently changed attract the most interest.

Food has been the focus of enrichment for several other Felis species (Mellen et al. 1981; Law et al. 1990). In laboratories, dry food is particularly suitable for hiding in the enclosure or for placing inside containers which the cat has to work at to extract individual pieces. A cheap version of a food puzzle can be made by gluing together two yoghurt containers containing dry food, with holes just large enough to extract one piece at a time. The puzzle can be made more challenging by hanging the tubs just above the cat's head height. Puzzle boxes for cats are now commercially available. Alternatives include hiding food inside cardboard boxes, in bedding, on shelves and inside rolling toys.

To: Top of Document | Introduction | Environmental Enrichment | Social Enrichment | References | Cat Bibliography

Social enrichment

The social environment can also improve the quality of time spent confined. Cats vary in their degree of sociability. In colonies where new cats frequently join the group, some cats remain essentially solitary (Roy 1992) whereas others form social attachments which undoubtedly enrich their lives by adding variety and complexity. By providing a variety of retreats and resting places, cats have the opportunity to interact closely with other cats or to remain alone if less sociable.

Social contact with cats

Singly caged cats lack the opportunity that communally confined cats have for rich, interactive relationships. Ideally, cats should remain in stable groups. If research requires single housing, cats can often be returned to social groups in between trials or for a period each day.

Social contact with people

People are also a rich source of stimulation. Many cats respond positively to human social contact. Cats kept in a relatively restricted environment will seek additional stimulation from people (Turner and Stammbach-Geering 1990) indicating they may derive some benefit from the contact.

If direct contact is not possible, social enrichment can be indirect. Visual, vocal and olfactory communication are possible without direct contact by the use of glass partitions and grills between pens. Access to a communal room in which other cats have previously left chemical messages, rubbed from their glands, or sprayed in their urine, convey information to cats about each other (Natioli 1984). Providing scratch posts enables cats to keep their claws trimmed but also allows them to leave olfactory and visual messages (scratch marks) to other cats in the colony. The sound of voices on radio may habituate timid cats to people (Hurni and Rossbach 1987).

Many problems associated with confinement can be prevented by adequate early socialization and careful selection of cats for suitable temperament (McCune in press; Reisner 1994; McCune et al. 1995). One study showed that friendly, confident cats were less distressed by being caged, their normal behavior was less inhibited and they adapted sooner than timid cats (McCune 1992). For cats inadequately socialized as kittens and already stressed by caging, social contact can be an additional stressor. For these individuals, methods other than handling must be used to relieve stress and enrich the captive environment (McCune 1995). Individuals will vary in both their need for enrichment and the benefit it provides them. For example, cats with a timid temperament (McCune 1992), extremes of age (McCune 1994) and restricted experience (Konrad and Bagshaw 1970; Ledger 1993) are more likely to have problems adjusting to confinement and responding to novelty. Mellen (1988) claims that male cats are more likely than female cats to develop problems in restricted environments.

Few of these studies were primarily interested in environmental enrichment. Techniques of enrichment need to be scientifically validated to promote and communicate methods that work for cats and to avoid techniques which produce problems. Assessments should look for a decrease in abnormal behavior and a behavioral repertoire which more closely resembles that of free-ranging cats (UK Cat Behavior Working Group 1995). Research animals without behavior problems are likely to have better welfare and produce better quality data.

To: Top of Document | Introduction | Environmental Enrichment | Social Enrichment | References | Cat Bibliography


Bebak, B., and A.M. Beck (1993). The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred Beagles. Laboratory Animal Science 43:457-459.

Bradshaw, J.W.S. (1992). The Behaviour of the Domestic Cat CAB International: Wallingford.

Carlstead,K., J.L Brown, and J. Seidensticker (1993). Behavioural and adrenocortical responses to environmental changes in Leopard Cats (Felis bengalensis). Zoo Biology 12:321-331.

Carlstead K, J.L. Brown, S.L. Monfort, R. Killens and D.E.Wildt (1992). Urinary monitoring of adrenal responses to psychological stressors in domestic and nondomestic felids. Zoo Biology 11: 165-176.

Hite M., H.M. Hanson, N.R. Bohidar, P.A. Conti, and P.A. Mattis (1977). Effect of cage size on patterns of activity and health of Beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 27: 60-64.

Holmes, R. (1993). Environmental enrichment for confined dogs and cats. In: The TJ Hungerford Refresher Course for Veterinarians Proceedings 214, The Post Graduate Committee in Veterinary Science: University of Sydney, pp. 191-197.

Horrocks, L. (1994). Care and management of WALTHAM pets. Waltham Focus 4:11-16.

Hurni, H. and W. Rossbach (1987). The laboratory cat. In: The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, 6th edition T.B. Poole, ed. Longman Scientific and Technical: Harlow, pp. 476-492.

Izawa, M. (1984). Ecology and social systems of the feral cats (Felis catus Linn.). Ph.D. thesis: Kuyshu University.

Izawa, M., T. Doi and Y. Ono (1982). Grouping patterns of feral cats (Felis catus) living on a small island in Japan. Japanese Journal of Ecology 32:373-382.

Kerby, G. and D.W. Macdonald (1988). Cat society and the consequences of colony size. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behavior D.C. Turner and P. Bateson, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 67-81.

Konrad, K.W. and M. Bagshaw (1970). Effect of novel stimuli on cats reared in a restricted environment. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 70:157-164.

Law, G., H. Boyle, J. Johnston and A. Macdonald (1990). Food presentation: Part 2-Cats. RATEL 17:103-105.

Ledger, R. (1993). Factors Influencing the Responses of Kittens to Humans and Novel Objects MSc thesis: University of Edinburgh.

Liberg, 0. and M. Sandell (1988). Spatial organization and reproductive tactics in the domestic cat and other felids. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behavior D.C. Turner and P. Bateson, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 83-98.

Loveridge, G. (August 1994). Provision of environmentally enriched housing for cats. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 45(2):69-87.

Loveridge, G. (1984). The establishment of a barriered respiratory disease-free cat breeding colony. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 35:83-92.

Mansard, P. (1989). Some environmental considerations for small cats. RATEL 16:12-15.

McCune, S. (in press) The impact of paternity and early socialization on the development of cats' behaviour to people and novel objects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science.

McCune, S. (1995). Coping with confinement: Temperament effects on how domestic cats adjust to caging and handlers. In: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals Shepherdson D., Mellen J. and Hutchins M.eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington DC.

McCune, S. (1994). Caged cats: Avoiding problems and providing solutions. Newsletter of the Companion Animal Behaviour Study Group No. 7.

McCune, S. (1992). Temperament and the Welfare of Caged Cats Ph.D. thesis: University of Cambridge.

McCune, S., J.A. McPherson, and J.W.S. Bradshaw (1995). Avoiding problems: The importance of socialization. In: The Waltham Book of Human-Animal Interactions I. Robinson, ed., Pergamon Press: Oxford.

Mellen, J.D. (1988). The effects of hand-raising on sexual behaviour of captive small felids using domestic cats as a model. AAZPA Annual Proceedings: 253-259.

Mellen, J.D., V.J. Stevens and H. Markowitz (1981). Environmental enrichment for servals, Indian elephants and Canadian otters at Washington Park Zoo, Portland. International Zoo Yearbook. 21:196-201.

Mertens, C. and Schär, R. (1988) Practical aspects of research on cats. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behavior D.C. Turner and P. Bateson, eds., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 179-190.

Natioli, E. (1985). Behavioural responses of urban feral cats to different types of urine marks. Behaviour 94: 234-243.

Podberscek, A.L., J.K. Blackshaw and A.W. Beattie (1991). The behaviour of laboratory colony cats and their reactions to a familiar and unfamiliar person. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 31:119-130.

Reisner, I.R., K.A. Houpt, N.E. Hollis and F.W. Quimby (1994). Friendliness to humans and defensive aggression in cats: The influence of handling and paternity. Physiology and Behaviour 55:1119-1124.

Roy, D. (1992). Environmental Enrichment for Cats in Rescue Centres B.Sc. thesis: University of Southampton.

Smith, D. (1990). Sociality and Behaviour in Rescued Cats B.Sc. thesis: University of Southampton.

Turner, D.C. and K. Stammbach-Geering (1990). Owner assessment and the ethology of human-cat relationships. In: Pets, Benefits and Practice I.H. Burger, ed., British Veterinary Association Publications: London.

UK Cat Behaviour Working Group (1995). An Ethogram for Behavioural Studies of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus L.) Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Potters Bar, England, 31pp.

To: Top of Document | Introduction | Environmental Enrichment | Social Enrichment | References | Cat Bibliography

Cat Bibliography

Animal Welfare Institute (1979). Cats. In: Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals. Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, D.C., pp. 44-51.
NAL call number: SF91.A5 1979
Descriptors: resting boards, social housing, scratching post, tree trunks.

Bateson, P., M. Mendl and J. Feaver (1990). Play in the domestic cat is enhanced by rationing of mother during lactation. Animal Behaviour 40:514-525.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: colony cats, object play, social play, restricted versus ad libitum maternal feeding.

Beaver, B. (1980). Veterinary Aspects of Feline Behavior C.V. Mosby Co.: St. Louis, Missouri, 217p.
NAL call number: SF446.5.B4
Descriptors: senses, play, learning, communicative behavior, socialization, hunting.

Behrend, K. and M.Wegler (1991). Complete Book of Cat Care: How to Raise a Happy and Healthy Cat Barron's Educational Series, Inc.: Hauppauge, NY., 141p.
NAL call number: SF447.B4513 1993
Descriptors: toys, scratching posts, exercise, play, hunting, color photos.

Blackshaw, J.K. (December 1988). Abnormal behavior in cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 65(12):395-396.
NAL call number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: animal behavior, cats, aggression, grief, social behavior.

Bradshaw, J.W.S. (1992). The Behavior of the Domestic Cat Redwood Press Ltd: Melksham, UK., 219p.
NAL call number: SF446.5.B72 1992
Descriptors: sensory abilities, behavioral development, hunting, predation, social behavior, cat-human relationship, welfare.

Carlstead, K., J.L. Brown and W. Strawn (1993). Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38:143-158.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: ACTH, cortisol, caged cats, caretaking routine, hiding behavior, reproductive hormones.

Caro, T.M. (1981). Predatory behaviour and social play in kittens. Behaviour 76(1-2):1-24.
NAL call number: 410 B393
Descriptors: ontogeny, play, relationships.

DeLuca, A.M. and K.C. Kranda (January 1992). Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility. Lab Animal 21(1):38-44.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: dogs, cats, swine, gumadisc, nylabone frisbee, plastic chain, decoys, gumabone tug, catnip, sheepskin mice, balls, bells, cotton tugs, scented apples.

Dore, F.Y. (September 1990). Search behavior of cats (Felis catus) in an invisible displacement test: Cognition and experience. Canadian Journal of Psychology 44(3):359-70.
Descriptors: attention, cats, psychology, orientation, predatory behavior, problem solving, object permanence, psychomotor performance, recall, prior experience.

Drouard, C.M. (1979). Behavior of housed and stray cats. [Le comportement du chat et les chats errants.] Thesis, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire: Alfort, France, 140pp.
Descriptors: cat diseases animal welfare; cat, animal behavior.

Fox, M.W. (1975). The behavior of cats. In: The Behavior of Domestic Animals, E.S.E. Hafez, ed., 3rd edition, Bailliere Tindall: London, UK. pp. 410-436.
NAL call number: QL785.5.D7H3 1975
Descriptors: behavior, mating, cat, kitten, play, hunting, development, early experience, learning.

Frazier, A. and N. Eckroate. (1990). Desirable behavior in cats and owners. In: The New Natural Cat: A Complete Guide for Finicky Owners. Penguin Books: New York, NY, 448p.
NAL call number: SF447.F7 1990
Descriptors: scratching posts, toys, unsafe toys, games, play, exercise.

Guyot, G.W., T.L. Bennett, and H.A. Cross. (May 1980). The effects of social isolation on the behavior of juvenile domestic cats. Developmental Psychobiology 13(3):317-329.
NAL call number: QP351 D4
Descriptors: early experience, social environment, mother-offspring interactions, play, exploratory behaviour.

Hart, B.L. (1978). Feline Behavior: Collected Columns from Feline Practice Journal. Veterinary Practice Publishing Company: Santa Barbara, CA., 110p.
NAL call number: SF446.5.H37
Descriptors: sexual behavior, senses, development, sleep, grooming, predatory behavior, behavior modification.

Hart, B.L. (1974). Feline behavior: The role of grooming activity. Feline Practice 6(4):14,16.
NAL call number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: saliva, skin, hair, behavior, cat.

Hart, B.L. (1974). Feline behavior: Predatory behavior. Feline Practice 4(2):8-9.
NAL call number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: cat, hunting, prey.

Hart, B.L. (1974). Feline behavior: The catnip response. Feline Practice 4(6):8,12.
NAL call number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: Nepeta cataria, behavior, cat.

Hart, B.L. (1980). Feline behavior: The cat as hunter. Feline Practice 10 (5):8, 10-11
NAL call number: SF985.F4
Descriptors: predatory behavior.

Hatch, R.C. (1972). Effect of drugs on catnip (Nepeta cataria):Induced pleasure behavior in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 33(1):143-155.
NAL call number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: drugs, cat, behavior.

Hayes, A.A. (1985). Keeping your cat healthy: Play/Exercise. In: The Complete Book of Cat Health W.J. Kay and E. Randolph, eds., Macmillan Publishing Company: New York, NY, pp. 52-53.
NAL call number: SF447.K39
Descriptors: jump, climb, indoor tree, tunnel, scratching device, perch, safety.

Karsh, E.B. (1983). The effects of early handling on the development of social bonds between cats and people. In: New Perspectives on Our Lives with Companion Animals, A.H. Katcher and A.M. Beck, eds., University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, PA, pp. 22-28.
NAL call number: SF411.5.N48
Descriptors: research colony vs. pet cats, behavior differences, early experience, preference.

Karsh, E. (1984). Factors influencing the socialization of cats to people. In: The Pet Connection: Its Influence on Our Health and Quality of Life. R.K. Anderson, B.L. Hart, and L.A. Hart, eds., University of Minnesota: Minneapolis, Minn., pp. 207-215.
NAL call number: SF411.5.P47
Descriptors: social bonds, handling, critical period, friendly responses to humans.

Kubota, K. (September 1987). Physiology of the brain: Intelligent behavior and brain. Nippon Rinsho 45(9):1998-2009.
Descriptors: behavior, animal behavior, cerebral cortex, intelligence, cats, haplorhini, memory, visual cortex, visual perception.

Kupper, W. (1979). Keeping laboratory cats under the right conditions. [Zur artgemassen und verhaltensgerechten Unterbringung von Versuchskatzen.] Du und das Tier 9(1):32-33.
Descriptors: laboratory animal house, animal welfare, cage, technical personnel, laboratory animals, cat.

Kristensen, F. and J.A. Barsanti (1977). Analysis of serum proteins in clinically normal pet and colony cats, using agarose electrophoresis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 38(3):399-402.
NAL call number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: hematology, laboratory animals, blood proteins, cat, increased gamma-globulins in colony cats vs. pet cats.

Leyhausen, P. (1979). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. Garland STPM Press: New York, 340p.
NAL call number: QL737.C23L49
Descriptors: social behavior, aggression, behavior towards prey, play, experience, learning.

Loveridge, G., Horrocks, L.J, and A.J. Hawthorne (May 1995). Environmentally enriched housing for cats when housed singly. Animal Welfare 4(2):135-141.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: human-animal contact, single housing, glass walls, sensory stimulation, socialization.

Loveridge, G. (August 1994). Provision of environmentally enriched housing for cats. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology 45(2):69-87.
NAL call number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: cats, animal housing, environment enrichment, design, animal husbandry, socialization, animal welfare.

Luesher, U.A., D.B. McKeown and J. Halip. (March 1991). Stereotypic or obsessive-compulsive disorders in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 21(2):401-413.
NAL call number: SF601 V523
Descriptors: grooming, polydipsia, circling, whirling, barking, aggression, early experience, conflict behavior.

Martin, P. and P. Bateson. (1985). The ontogeny of locomotor play behavior in the domestic cat. Animal Behaviour 33:502-510.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: laboratory conditions, indoor pen, climbing frame, kittens, locomotor behavior, vocalizations.

Martin, P. (1985). The influence of experimentally manipulating a component of weaning on the development of play in domestic cats. Animal Behaviour 33(2):511-518.
NAL call number: 410 B77
Descriptors: kittens, weaning, social play, object play, locomotor play.

Martin, P. (1984). The time and energy cost of play behavior in the cat. Zeitscrift für Tierpsychologie 64:298-312.
NAL call number: 410.Z35
Descriptors: Felis catus, colony cats, kittens, percentage of total time spent playing, toys, metabolic rate.

Mellen, J.D. (1992). Effects of early rearing experience on subsequent adult sexual behavior. Zoo Biology 11(1):17-32.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: human rearing, maternal rearing, aggression.

Mertens, C. and D.C. Turner (Fall 1988). Experimental analysis of human-cat interactions during first encounters. Anthrozoos 2(2):83-97.
NAL call number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: colony cats, contact latency, play, vocalizations, head rubbing.

Moelk, M. (1979). The development of friendly approach behavior in the cat: A study of kitten-mother relation and the cognitive development of the kitten from birth to eight weeks. Advances in the Study of Behavior 10:163-224.
NAL call number: QL750 A33
Descriptors: approach behavior, ontogeny, cognition.

Poucet, B. (May 1985). Spatial behavior of cats in cue-controlled environments. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 37(2):155-79.
Descriptors: cues, discrimination learning, orientation, space perception, cats.

Reichart, E. (1984). The importance of behavioral interactions of the laboratory cat and man. Stal Sciences et Techniques de l'Animal de Laboratoire. 9(3):149-156.
Descriptors: handler, experimenter, human-animal interaction.

Shepherdson, D.J., K. Carlstead, J.D. Mellen and J. Seidensticker. (1993). The influence of food presentation on the behavior of small cats in confined environments. Zoo Biology 12:203-216.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: Felis viverrina, Felis bengalensis, exhibit animals, activity budget, live prey, environmental enrichment.

Smith, C.P. (1994). The Cat: January 1984 - January 1994. Quick Bibliography Series U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library: Beltsville, MD, 73p.
NAL call number: aZ5071.N3 no. 94-25
Descriptors: bibliography, behavior, stress, housing, nutrition.

Stasiak, M. and B. Zernicki (February 1993). Delayed response learning to auditory stimuli is impaired in cage-reared cats. Behavioral Brain Research 53(1-2):151-154.
Descriptors: acoustic stimulation, housing, learning, cats, food, reward, sensory deprivation, vision.

Tellington-Jones, L. (1992). The Tellington Touch for Happier, Healthier Cats. Hartworks Video: Ashland, OR, VHS, 60 minutes.
NAL call number: Videocassette no. 1967
Descriptors: relaxation, training, behavior, body awareness.

Thierry, B. (1982). Social requirements of the dog and cat as laboratory animals. [Les exigences sociales du chien et du chat en tant qu'animaux de laboratoire.] Sciences et Techniques de l'Animal de Laboratoire 7(3):175-180
Descriptors: animal welfare, social behavior, laboratory animals

Turner, D.C. (1991). The ethology of the human-cat relationship. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 133(2):63-70.
NAL call number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: human-pet bonding, cats, behavior, housing.

Turner, D.C. and P. Bateson (1988). The domestic cat: The biology of its behaviour. In: Symposium Cats 86, D.C. Turner and P. Bateson, eds., Zurich-Irchel, Switzerland, September 1-3, 1986, Cambridge University Press: Port Chester, New York, USA; Cambridge, England, UK., pp. 9-22.
Descriptors: social development, senses, physiology.

Voith, V.L. (1980). Clinical animal behavior play: A form of hyperactivity and aggression. Modern Veterinary Practice 61(7):631-632.
NAL call number: 41.8 N812
Descriptors: cat, dog, kitten, pets, puppy, young animals, animal behavior, vices, aggression.

Wikmark, G., and J.M. Warren (March 1972). Delayed response learning by cage-reared normal and prefrontal cats. Psychonomic Science 26(5):243-245.
Descriptors: alley cats vs. cage-reared, lesions, cerebral cortex, cat learning, time, animal environments.

To: Top of Document | Introduction | Environmental Enrichment | Social Enrichment | References | Cat Bibliography

The following links access other chapters in Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals:

Main Contents ] Main Introduction ] How to Use This Document ]
Birds ] [ Laboratory Cat ] Dogs and Dog Housing ] Farm Animals ] Ferrets ] Rabbits ] Rodents ]
Journal Listing ] Subscription Information for Selected Publications ] Organizations ] Suppliers and Products ] Common Devices and Programs ] Main Subject Index ] Document Delivery Information ]

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