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Anesthesia and Analgesia



Aubin, M.L. and K. Mama (2002). Field anesthetic techniques for use in horses. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 24(5): 411-417. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: horses, injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, neuroleptics, drug combinations, xylazine, ketamine, diazepam, morphine, detomidine, propofol, dosage, depth of anesthesia, guaifenesin, butorphanol, tiletamine, zolazepam, anesthesia induction.

Baert, K. and P. de Backer (1999). The development of a routine method for detecting embutramide, the main component of the veterinary euthanasia drug, T-61Reg. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 68(3): 145-147. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: SF967.M3N49 1991
Descriptors: horses, euthanasia, embutramide detection, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry.
Language of Text: English with a Dutch summary.

Bettschart Wolfensberger, R., P.M. Taylor, and J.W. Sear (1996). Physiologic effects of anesthesia induced and maintained by intravenous administration of a climazolam-ketamine combination in ponies premedicated with acepromazine and xylazine. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(10): 1472-1477. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, effects of anesthesia, drug combinations.

Bhattacharya, S. and P.K. Samanta (1999). Simpler anaesthetic technique for equine castration under field condition. Indian Journal of Animal Health 38(2): 131-132. ISSN: 0019-5057.
NAL Call Number: SF1.I4
Descriptors: horses, anesthetic, castration procedure, diazepam, lidocaine.

Bolt, D.M., D.J. Burba, J.D. Hubert, G.R. Pettifer, and G.L. Hosgood (2004). Evaluation of cutaneous analgesia after non-focused extracorporeal shock wave application over the 3rd metacarpal bone in horses. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 68(4): 288-292. ISSN: 0830-9000.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C24
Descriptors: anesthetic, shock wave therapy, musculoskeletal disorder, treatment.
Language of Text: English with a French summary.

Bueno, A.C., J. Cornick Seahorn, and T.L. Seahorn (1999). Cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of intravenous administration of low doses of medetomidine and xylazine to adult horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(11): 1371-1376. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, medetomidine, xylazine, administration effects.

Burford, J.H. and K.T. Corley (2006). Morphine-associated pruritus after single extradural administration in a horse. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 33(3): 193-198. ISSN: 1467-2995.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: Pruritus following a single administration of 100 [mu]g kg[superscript [-]1] of preservative-free morphine sulphate given via an extradural catheter was seen in a 580 kg horse. The catheter was placed in the first intercoccygeal space. Focal irritation, represented by both local alopecia over the left gluteal muscles and serum exudation, occurred 4-8 hours after injection. This was attributed to the extradural morphine administration.
Descriptors: anesthesia administration, pruritus, preservative free morphine sulphate, alopecia, serum exudation.

Carson, D.M. (2002). Methods of restraint and handling. In: M.H. Hayes (Editor), Veterinary Notes for Horse Owners, Ebury Press: London, UK, p. 583-587.
Descriptors: handling horses, analgesics, restraint technique, safety, twitches, tying.

Castro, F.A., J.S. Schumacher, F. Pauwels, and J.T. Blackford (2005). A new approach for perineural injection of the lateral palmar nerve in the horse. Veterinary Surgery 34(6): 539-542. ISSN: 0161-3499.
Descriptors: anesthesia, drug delivery systems, injection, metacarpus, peripheral nerves, synovial sheaths, techniques, horses.

Clark, L., R.E. Clutton, K.J. Blissitt, and M.E. Chase Topping (2005). Effects of peri-operative morphine administration during halothane anaesthesia in horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32(1): 10-15. ISSN: 1467-2987.
Online: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp?code=VAA&goto=journal
Descriptors: horses, morphine, analgesia, hemodynamic variables, blood gas values, surgery.

Clutton, E. (1997). Remote intramuscular injection in unmanageable horses. In Practice 19(6): 316-319. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: horses, intramuscular injection, oral administration, injectable anesthetics, dosage, tubes, manometer tubing.

Constantinescu, G.M. and E.M. Green (1995). Zonele cutanate si aplicatiile clinice ale anesteziei tronculare a nervilor cranieni la cal. [Cutaneous areas and clinical applications of nerve block anaesthesia of the cranial nerves in the horse]. Revista Romana De Medicina Veterinara 5(1): 57-66.
Descriptors: horses, nerve block, surgery, peripheral nervous system, anesthesia, cranial nerve.
Language of Text: Romanian with English and French summaries.

Crawford, P. (2004). Dental anaesthesia techniques. VN Times 4(11): 6-7.
Descriptors: horses, non steroidal anti-inflammatory, anesthesia, anesthetic techniques, dentistry, neuroleptics.

Dabareiner, R.M., G.K. Carter, and C.M. Honnas (2003). Injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and amikacin into the navicular bursa in horses with signs of navicular area pain unresponsive to other treatments: 25 cases (1999-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(10): 1469-1474. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: navicular disease, therapy, corticosteroids, sodium hyaluronate, amikacin.

De Rossi, R. and I.A. Gomez de Segura (2001). Efeitos analgesicos, hemodinamicos e respiratorios da xilazina epidural caudal em equinos. [Analgesic, haemodynamic, and respiratory effects of caudal epidural injection of xylazine in horses]. A Hora Veterinaria 20(120): 49-53. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, epidural injections, dosage variation, xylazine, lidocaine.
Language of Text: Portuguese with an English summary.

De Rossi, R., B.F.B. Sampaio, J.V. Varela, and A.L. Junqueira (2004). Perineal analgesia and haemodynamic effects of the epidural administration of meperidine or hyperbaric bupivacaine in conscious horses. Canadian Veterinary Journal 45(1): 42-47. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, analgesics, bupivacaine, meperidinepethidine, epidural administration.
Language of Text: English with a French summary.

Del Castillo, S. and N.S. Matthews (2005). How to assemble, apply, and use a head-and-tail rope system for the recovery of the equine anesthetic patient. In: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 3, 2005-December 7, 2005, Seattle, Washington, USA, p. 490-493.
Descriptors: adverse effects, anesthesia, animal welfare, postoperative care, postoperative complications, recovery, trauma, horses.

Dirikolu, L., A.F. Lehner, W. Karpiesiuk, J.D. Harkins, W.E. Woods, W.G. Carter, J. Boyles, M. Fisher, and T. Tobin (2000). Identification of lidocaine and its metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS/MS. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23(4): 215-222. ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z5
Abstract: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that is widely used in equine medicine. It has the advantage of giving good local anesthesia and a longer duration of action than procaine. Although approved for use in horses in training by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), lidocaine is also an Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Class 2 drug and its detection in forensic samples can result in significant penalties. Lidocaine was observed as a monoprotonated ion at m/z 235 by ESI+ MS/MS (electrospray ionization-positive ion mode) analysis. The base peak ion at m/z 86, representing the postulated methylenediethylamino fragment [CH2N(CH2CH3)2]+, was characteristic of lidocaine and 3-hydroxylidocaine in both ESI+ and EI (electron impact-positive ion mode) mass spectrometry. In addition, we identified an ion at m/z 427 as the principal parent ion of the ion at m/z 86, consistent with the presence of a protonated analog of 3-hydroxylidocaine-glucuronide. We also sought to establish post-administration ELISA-based 'detection times' for lidocaine and lidocaine-related compounds in urine following single subcutaneous injections of various doses (10, 40, 400 mg). Our findings suggest relatively long ELISA based 'detection times' for lidocaine following higher doses of this drug.
Descriptors: local anesthetics, lidocaine, detection in racehorses, post-administration ELISA-based detection times, urine samples, drug dosage.

Dujardin, C.L.L., P. Gootjes, and Y. Moens (2005). Isoflurane measurement error using short wavelength infrared techniques in horses: influence of fresh gas flow and pre-anaesthetic food deprivation. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32(2): 101-106. ISSN: 1467-2987.
Online: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=vaa
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, isoflurane, measurement error, gas analysis, short wavelength analysis, analytical techniques.

Dumasia, M.C., L. Williams, K. Silverthorne, and E. Houghton (2000). Detection of the local anaesthetic mepivacaine and its metabolites in equine urine: In vivo biotransformation and urinary excretion after subcutaneous administration. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, R & W Publications (Newmarket) Ltd.: Newmarket, UK, p. 219-223.
Descriptors: racing horses, anesthetics, mepivacaine, urine, drug detection, local anesthetics.

Dunlop, C. (1995). Parenteral anesthesia techniques for intractable horses. In: Proceedings from the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 3, 1995-December 6, 1995, Lexington, KY, American Association of Equine Practitioners: Kentucky,USA, Vol. 41, p. 60-61.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: anesthesia, premedication, sedation techniques, stress management, ketamine, xylazine, butorphanol, diazepam, succinylcholine, detomine, morphine, acepromazine.

Dyson, S. (1997). An approach to hindlimb lameness. 3. Local analgesic techniques. In Practice 19(2): 82-88. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: horses, lameness, diagnosis, pain, analgesics, local anesthesia, nerve blocks.

Edner, A. (2005). Effects of anaesthesia on haemodynamics and metabolism in horses. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden. 83 p.
Online: http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/854/
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, musculoskeletal system, post-anaesthetic myopathy, muscle metabolism, microdialysis, laser doppler flowmetry, microdialysis, muscle biopsy.
Notes: Thesis.

Edner, A., B. Essen Gustavsson, and G. Nyman (2005). Muscle metabolic changes associated with long-term inhalation anaesthesia in the horse analysed by muscle biopsy and microdialysis techniques. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 52(2): 99-107. ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: horses, inhalation anesthesia, effects of anesthesia, muscle metabolism, analysis techniques.

Edner, A., G. Nyman, and B. Essen Gustavsson (2002). The relationship of muscle perfusion and metabolism with cardiovascular variables before and after detomidine injection during propofol-ketamine anaesthesia in horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29(4): 182-199. ISSN: 1467-2987.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, cardiovascular variables, muscle perfusion, propofol-ketamine, detomidine, muscular metabolic response, respiratory function.
Notes: Equine Special Issue.

Engeli, E. and K.K. Haussler (2004). Review of sacroiliac injection techniques. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 4, 2004-December 8, 2004, Denver, Colorado, USA, p. 372-378.
Online: http://www.aaep.org
Descriptors: etiology, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, injection, joint diseases, lameness, ligaments, local anesthetics, reviews, spine, horses.

Erkert, R.S., C.G. MacAllister, and M.E. Payton (2005). Use of force plate analysis to compare the analgesic effects of intravenous administration of phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine in horses with navicular syndrome. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(2): 284-288. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, analgesia, pain management, navicular disease, phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, analysis techniques.

Estrada U, M. (2000). Una tecnica de anestesia general intravenosa para equinos: recomendaciones practicas. [An intravenous general anaesthesia technique for equines: practical recommendations]. Ciencias Veterinarias Heredia 23(2): 57-63. ISSN: 0250-5640.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, anesthetic procedure, acepromazine, anesthesia, anesthetics, chloral hydrate, phenothiazines.
Language of Text: Spanish with an English summary.

Farstvedt, E.G. and D.A. Hendrickson (2005). Intraoperative pain responses following intraovarian versus mesovarian injection of lidocaine in mares undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227(4): 593-596. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare intraoperative pain responses following intraovarian versus mesovarian injection of lidocaine in mares undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS: 15 mares between 4 and 20 years old. PROCEDURE: Standard bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed. Prior to manipulation of the ovary, 2% lidocaine (10 mL) was injected into the ovary and saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (10 mL) was injected into the mesovarium on 1 side, with saline solution (10 mL) injected into the ovary and 2% lidocaine (10 mL) injected into the mesovarium on the other side. Presence (yes vs no) and severity (visual analogue scale) of pain were scored at 5 times (grasping of the ovary, dissection of the mesosalpinx, tightening of the first loop ligature, tightening of the second loop ligature, and transection of the ovarian pedicle) by 2 individuals blinded to treatment and each other's observations. RESULTS: During 4 of the 5 observation periods, significantly fewer mares had signs of pain following mesovarian injection of lidocaine, and during 2 of the 5 observation periods, visual analogue scale score was significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that mesovarian injection of lidocaine is associated with significantly lower pain responses, compared with intraovarian injection, in horses undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy.
Descriptors: local administration and dosage of anesthetics, horses, lidocaine, ovariectomy, pain, intraoperative care, laparoscopy methods, mesovarian injection compared to intraovarian injection of lidocaine.

Fischer, U. (1997). Moglichkeiten der Injektionsnarkose beim Pferd und Narkoserisiko. [Injection anaesthesia and anaesthesia risks in the horse]. Praktische Tierarzt 78(Sonderheft): 42-45. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, anesthetic injection, ketamine, xylazine, guaifenesin, risks.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Freeman, S.L. and G.C. England (1999). Comparison of sedative effects of romifidine following intravenous, intramuscular, and sublingual administration to horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(8): 954-959. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, sedation, romifidine, intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, sublingual administration.

Giguere, S., E. Bucki, D.B. Adin, A. Valverde, A.H. Estrada, and L. Young (2005). Cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, 2-dimensional echocardiography, and lithium-dilution method in anesthetized neonatal foals. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 19(5): 737-43.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess 2 noninvasive methods of measuring cardiac output (CO) in neonatal foals by comparing results to that of the lithium-dilution method. Ten neonatal foals were anesthetized and CO was manipulated by varying the depth of anesthesia and infusion of dobutamine. Concurrent CO measurements were obtained by lithium dilution (reference method), partial carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing, volumetric echocardiography (cubic, Teichholz, Bullet, area-length, and single and biplane modified Simpson formulas), and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Thirty pairs of lithium-dilution/noninvasive CO measurements were taken from the 10 foals. For each method, relative bias was calculated as a percentage of the average CO. Lithium determinations of CO ranged between 3.09 and 1 1.1 L/min (mean +/- SD = 6.39 +/- 2.1 L/min), resulting in cardiac indices ranging between 79.0 and 209 mL/kg/min (mean +/- SD = 131 +/- 35.9 mL/kg/min). Relative bias of Doppler echocardiography significantly increased (P < .05), whereas that of partial CO2 rebreathing significantly decreased (P = .03) with increasing CO. Other methods were not influenced by the level of CO. Among methods not influenced by the level of CO, relative bias of the Bullet method (-4.2 +/- 20.9%; limits of agreement -45.2 to 36.7%) was significantly lower (P < .05) than that of each of the other noninvasive methods evaluated. Volumetric echocardiography using the Bullet method provides an accurate and noninvasive estimate of CO in anesthetized neonatal foals and warrants investigation in critically ill conscious foals.
Descriptors: anesthesia, neonatal foals, noninvasive cardiac output measurement methods, methodology comparison, lithium dilution, partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, volumetric echocardiography, transthoracic Doppler echocardiography.

Gomez de Segura, I.A., R. de Rossi, M. Santos, J.L. San Roman, F. San Roman, and F.J. Tendillo (1998). Epidural injection of ketamine for perineal analgesia in the horse. Veterinary Surgery 27(4): 384-391. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: horses, conduction anesthesia, perineum, ketamine, evaluation, dosage, blood pressure, blood gases, pain, dosage effects.

Goodrich, L.R., S. Clark Price, and J. Ludders (2004). How to attain effective and consistent sedation for standing procedures in the horse using constant rate infusion. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 4, 2004-December 8, 2004, Denver, Colorado, USA, p. 229-232.
Online: http://www.aaep.org
Descriptors: analgesics, butorphanol, catheters, detomidine, drug delivery systems, neuroleptics, surgery, syringes, techniques, horses.

Green, P. (2001). Castration techniques in the horse. In Practice 23(5): 250-261. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: horses, veterinary procedures, castration, postoperative management, complications, surgical equipment, surgical methods.

Grubb, T.L., P.D. Constable, G.J. Benson, J.H. Foreman, W.O. Olson, J.C. Thurmon, W.J. Tranquilli, and L.E. Davis (1999). Techniques for evaluation of right ventricular relaxation rate in horses and effects of inhalant anesthetics with and without intravenous administration of calcium gluconate. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(7): 872-879. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, right ventricular relaxation rate, isoflurane, halothane, calcium gluconate, evaluation techniques.

Haga, H.A., S. Lykkjen, T. Revold, and B. Ranheim (2006). Effect of intratesticular injection of lidocaine on cardiovascular responses to castration in isoflurane-anesthetized stallions. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(3): 403-408. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: anesthesia, intratesticular administration, lidocaine, cardiovascular system, cremaster muscle tension, castration, inhalation anesthesia.

Hainisch, E.K. (2001). Sedation by continuous intravenous detomidine drip for standing surgical procedures. Equine Veterinary Education 13(1): 43-44. ISSN: 0957-7734.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E67
Descriptors: horses, surgical procedures, standing surgery, anesthesia, sedatives, detomidine.

Heess, D. and A.E. Hartmann (2003). Zur Injektionsanasthesie beim Pferd. [Injection anaesthesia in the horse]. Praktische Tierarzt 84(10): 764-770. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: horses, general anesthesia, xylazine, romifidine, detomidine, muscle relaxants, guaifenesin, ketamine, alpha-2-agonists, foals, propofol, diazepam.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Hendrickson, D.A., L.L. Southwood, M.J. Lopez, R. Johnson, and K.T. Kruse Elliott (1998). Cranial migration of different volumes of new-methylene blue after caudal epidural injection in the horse. Equine Practice 20(2): 12-14. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: horses, caudal epidural anesthesia, epidural injections, anesthesia procedure, injection quantity determination method.

HongBin, W. and S. Ying (1995). [Study by impedance cardiogram on the influence of several anaesthesia methods on the cardiac function of horses]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 28(4): 87-93. ISSN: 0578-1752.
NAL Call Number: 22.5 N928
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia techniques, cardiovascular system, electrocardiograms.
Language of Text: Chinese with an English summary.

HongBin, W. and W.e.a. YunHe (1995). [Studies on the influence of different anaesthetic methods on the arterial blood gases and acid-base status in horses]. Acta Veterinaria Et Zootechnica Sinica 26(1): 81-86. ISSN: 0366-6964.
Descriptors: horses, anesthetic techniques, blood chemistry, blood gases, acid base status.
Language of Text: Chinese with an English summary.

Hoyos Sepulveda, M.L., G.W. Brumbaugh, G. Meza Barreto, and H. Sumano Lopez (2001). Induccion experimental de anestesia general en potros con la administracion intravenosa de isoflurano. [Experimental induction of general anesthesia in foals with an intravenous administration of isoflurane]. Veterinaria Mexico 32(4): 257-263. ISSN: 0301-5092.
NAL Call Number: SF604.V485
Descriptors: horses, foals, general anesthesia, isoflurane, intravenous administration, dosage determination.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Hubbell, J.A.E., K.W. Hinchcliff, L.M. Schmall, W.W. Muir, J.T. Robertson, and R.A. Sams (1998). Administration of intravenous anesthetics to horses immediately after maximal exercise. Proceedings From the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 44: 242-243. ISSN: 0065-7182.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: injectable anesthetics, anesthesia.

Hussain, S.S. (1995). Techniques of acupuncture analgesia for equine surgery. Centaur Mylapore 12(1): 8-12.
Descriptors: horses, analgesia, anesthesia, acupuncture, surgical procedures.

Jansson, N., H.V. Sonnichsen, and E. Hansen (1995). Bone spavin in horse: Fenestration technique. A retrospective study. Pferdeheilkunde 11(2): 97-100. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: limb bones, bone spavin, joint diseases, Fenestration technique, anesthesia, musculoskeletal system, surgery, horses.
Language of Text: English with German and English summaries.

Kariman, A., S.M. Ghamsari, and M.R. Mokhber Dezfooli (2001). Evaluation of analgesia induced by epidural administration of medetomidine in horses. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran 56(2): 49-51. ISSN: 1022-646X.
Descriptors: horses, analgesics, sedatives, muscle relaxants, medetomidine, caudal epidural agents.
Language of Text: Persian with an English summary.

Kasashima, Y., K. Matano, and Y. Mizuno (1997). [Application of an anesthetic machine with a jet-type respirator in horses]. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Anesthesia and Surgery 28(1-2): 15-22. ISSN: 0916-5908.
Descriptors: anesthesia, respiratory system, jet-type respirators, cardiovascular system, chemicophysical properties.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Keegan, R.D., S.A. Greene, J.A. Brown, A.B. Weil, and W.M. Bayly (1999). Effects of pre-exercise frusemide administration and post exercise anaesthesia on cardiopulmonary and acid-base parameters and blood and plasma volumes in horses exercised supramaximally to fatigue. Equine Veterinary Journal 30(Suppl.): 174-177. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Abstract: Six horses were randomly assigned to receive either frusemide (F) (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or an equivalent volume of saline (S) i.v., 4 h prior to treadmill exercise. Horses were instrumented to enable measurement of heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) carotid arterial pressures, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary arterial temperature (TEMP), blood gases, and cardiac output (CO). Plasma (PV) and blood volumes (BV) were measured using 2 injections of Evan's Blue dye. Baseline parameters were recorded while the horse stood quietly. Horses were then administered F or S. Four hours later, they were warmed up for 3 min at 4 m/s and then exercised to the point of fatigue at 115% VO2max. Horses were anaesthetised immediately following exercise by administration of detomidine (0.04 mg/kg bwt i.v.) followed 5 min later by tiletamine-zolazepam (1.25 mg/kg bwt i.v.). After transporting the horse to a recovery stall, anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 100% O2. Data were analysed using a 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures with post hoc differences identified using the Student-Newman-Keul's procedure. Exercise was associated with increases in HR, SAP, MAP, DAP, PAP, CVP, TEMP, PCV, and BV, and decreases in PV, pH, arterial bicarbonate and base excess. Anaesthesia was associated with marked hypercapnia, a decrease in HR following detomidine administration, and persistent pulmonary hypertension despite carotid arterial pressure which returned to baseline. No effects attributable to F were identified at any time during the study.
Descriptors: anesthesia, blood volume, diuretics, furosemide, heart drug interactions, horse physiology, physical conditioning, acid base equilibrium, blood pressure, exercise test, muscle fatigue, respiration.

Keegan, K.G., D.A. Wilson, J.M. Kreeger, M.R. Ellersieck, K.C. Kuo, and Z. Li (1996). Local distribution of mepivacaine after distal interphalangeal joint injection in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(4): 422-426. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, pharmacology, local anesthetic drug, mepivacaine, pharmacokinetics.

Kramer, J., K.G. Keegan, D.A. Wilson, B.K. Smith, and D.J. Wilson (2000). Kinematics of the hind limb in trotting horses after induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and intra-articular administration of anesthetic. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(9): 1031-1036. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify hind limb and pelvic kinematic variables that change in trotting horses after induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after subsequent intra-articular administration of anesthetic. ANIMALS: 8 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURE: Kinematic measurements were made before and after transient endotoxin-induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after intra-articular administration of anesthetic. Fourteen displacement and joint angle (metatarsophalangeal [fetlock] and tarsal joints) measurements were made on the right hind limb, sacrum, and the right and left tubera coxae. Kinematic measurements were compared by general linear models, using a repeated measures ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons between treatments were evaluated with a Fisher least squared difference test at alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: After lameness induction, fetlock and tarsal joint extension during stance decreased, fetlock joint flexion and hoof height during swing increased, limb protraction decreased, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more asymmetric. After intra-articular administration of anesthetic, limb protraction returned to the degree seen before lameness, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more symmetric. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increased length of hind limb protraction and symmetry of tubera coxae vertical excursion are sensitive indicators of improvement in tarsal joint lameness. When evaluating changes in tarsal joint lameness, evaluating the horse from the side (to assess limb protraction) is as important as evaluating from the rear (to assess pelvic symmetry).
Descriptors: anesthetics administration and dosage, horse diseases physiopathology, joints physiopathology, lameness, animal physiopathology, biomechanics, gait, hindlimb physiopathology, horses, injections, intra articular veterinary, reproducibility of results, video recording.

Lansdowne, J.L., C.L. Kerr, L.P. Boure, and S.G. Pearce (2005). Epidural migration of new methylene blue in 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 2% mepivacaine solution following injection into the first intercoccygeal space in foal cadavers and anesthetized foals undergoing laparoscopy. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(8): 1324-1329. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals. ANIMALS: 19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals. PROCEDURES: Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 100 head-down position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured. RESULTS: Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals.
Descriptors: foals, epidural cranial migration analgesia, injectable analgesia, laparoscopy, dermatome analgesia, mepivicanine, volume of injectate.

Levionnois, O.L., C. Spadavecchia, A. Bergadano, and U. Schatzmann (2005). Die Verwendung von Opioiden als Schmerzmittel beim Pferd unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Ruckenmarksanasthesie. [Use of opioids for horse analgesia with particular interest on epidural administration]. Pferdeheilkunde 21(4): 311-316. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: adverse effects, analgesics, butorphanol, conduction anesthesia, drug combinations, fentanyl, methadone, morphine, opioids, pain, pharmacokinetics, horses.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Liechti, J., H. Pauli, N. Jaggin, and U. Schatzmann (2003). Untersuchungen zum assistierten Aufstehen von Pferden wahrend der Aufwachphase nach einer Inhalationsanasthesie. [Investigation into the assisted standing up procedure in horses during recovery phase after inhalation anaesthesia]. Pferdeheilkunde 19(3): 271-276. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia recovery, inhaled anesthetics, assisted standing equipment, sling systems.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Lin, H.C., C.R. Johnson, S.H. Duran, and B.M. Waldridge (2004). Effects of intravenous administration of dimethyl sulfoxide on cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic variables in awake or halothane-anesthetized horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225(4): 560-566, 554. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, cardiovascular system, dimethyl sulfoxide, halothane anesthesia, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure variability.

Love, E.J., J.G. Lane, and P.J. Murison (2006). Morphine administration in horses anaesthetized for upper respiratory tract surgery. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 33(3): 179-188. ISSN: 1467-2987.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2005.00247.x
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: To determine the effect of morphine administration on commonly monitored cardio-respiratory variables and recovery quality in horses undergoing anaesthesia and surgery. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Thirty-eight Thoroughbred horses, 32 geldings and six mares, 3-13 years old, weighing 411-600 kg. A standard anaesthetic technique was used. Twenty minutes after induction of anaesthesia horses received 0.1 mg kg[superscript [-]1] (0.1 m) or 0.2 mg kg[superscript [-]1] (0.2 m) morphine by intravenous injection. A control group did not receive morphine. Heart rate, respiratory rate (fr), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood gases were measured before morphine administration and every 10 minutes thereafter. Horses were positioned for 35 minutes in right lateral recumbency for tension palatoplasty by cautery and were then moved into dorsal recumbency for additional intraluminal surgery comprising one or more of aryepiglottic fold resection, sub-epiglottal mucosal resection, ventriculectomy and cordectomy. A subjective recovery score from 0 (worst) to 5 (best) was assigned by a single observer who was unaware of treatment group. Two-way repeated measures anova, one-way anova, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data where appropriate. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly over time and was significantly lower in horses that received morphine. One horse in the control group and two horses in each of the morphine groups had a PaO2 <13 kPa. No other significant cardiopulmonary effects were detected. Recovery scores [median (range)] were higher in morphine recipients: 4 (2-5) in 0.1 m, 4 (3-5) in 0.2 m compared with 3 (2-4) in the control group. The lower PaO2 in morphine recipients did not appear to be of clinical significance in healthy horses because the number of horses with a low PaO2 was similar between groups. The quality of recovery was significantly better in morphine recipients. These results indicate that morphine may be considered for use in clinical cases although further work is required to assess the analgesic properties of the drug in this species.
Descriptors: anesthesia, morphine administration, blood gases, cardio-respiratory variables, recovery quality, blood pressure, clinical trials, surgical procedures.

Luukkanen, L., T. Katila, and E. Koskinen (1997). Some effects of multiple administration of detomidine during the last trimester of equine pregnancy. Equine Veterinary Journal 29(5): 400-402. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Abstract: Detomidine was given to 11 pregnant mares at 3 week intervals during the last trimester of pregnancy. Maternal and fetal electrocardiographs were recorded and fetal activity studied by transabdominal ultrasonography, before and 2 h (2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min) after injection. After parturition, the foals were examined and weighed. Maternal and fetal heart rate showed an initial decline after detomidine administration. Maternal heart rate in the treatment group were lower already 2 min after injection, but a reduction in fetal heart was first seen 5 min after detomidine administration. Mean fetal heart rate at 2 min after detomidine injection was 109, 104, 95 and 90 beats/min, whereas at 5 min it was 80, 76, 72 and 66 beats/min in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th examination session, respectively. The heart rates did not revert to the control values during follow-up. Decline and recovery patterns were quite similar during all examination sessions. The mares exhibited conductive disturbances 2 min after detomidine administration, but fetal heart rhythm remained regular. Fetal activity was decreased at 5 min but had reverted to control values about 90 min after detomidine administration. Administration of detomidine (0.015 mg/kg) to healthy pregnant mares at 3 week intervals during the last trimester had no measurable detrimental effects on the outcome of pregnancy.
Descriptors: detomidine, pregnant mares, fetal activity recordings, maternal and fetal heart rate, effect of detomidine on outcome of pregnancy.

Machon, R. (1999). Injectable techniques in equine anaesthesia. In: NZVA Conference, June 3, 1928-July 3, 1999, Nelson, New Zealand, Veterinary Continuing Education, Massey University: Vol. 193, p. 1-14.
NAL Call Number: SF604.P82
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, injection methods.

Mama, K.R. (2000). Anesthetic Management of the Horse: Intravenous Anesthesia. In: E.P. Steffey (Editor), Recent Advances in Anesthetic Management of Large Animals, International Veterinary Information Service.
Online: http://www.ivis.org/advances/Steffey_Anesthesia/mama_horse/ivis.pdf
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, intravenous administration, clinical techniques.

Mama, K.R., P.J. Pascoe, E.P. Steffey, and C. Kollias Baker (1998). Comparison of two techniques for total intravenous anesthesia in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(10): 1292-1298. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, ketamine, propofol, intravenous injection, infusion, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, body temperature, respiration rate, blood gases, hematocrit, blood protein, pharmacokinetics, dosage effects.

Marntell, S. and G. Nyman (1996). Prolonging dissociative anaesthesia in horses with a repeated bolus injection. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia 23(2): 64-69. ISSN: 0950-7817.
Descriptors: horses, Standardbreds, anesthesia maintenance techniques, romifidine, ketamine, cardiovascular system, respiratory system.

Matthews, N.S., M.K. Chaffin, S.W. Erickson, and W.A. Overhulse (1995). Propofol anesthesia for non-surgical procedures of neonatal foals. Equine Practice 17(3): 15-16, 19-20. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: foals, newborn animals, injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, drug effects, adverse effects, respiration rate, heart rate, blood pressure, blood, gases, bicarbonates.

Mattson, S., L. Boure, S. Pearce, C. Kerr, and S. Mattson (2001). Clinical observation: Bilateral upward fixation of the patella following epidural administration of morphine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(3): 298-299. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: morphine, epidual administration, patellar ligament, analgesics, injections, horses.

Maxwell, L.K., S.M. Thomasy, N. Slovis, and C. Kollias Baker (2003). Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl following intravenous and transdermal administration in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 35(5): 484-490. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Abstract: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Although fentanyl has been reported to cause CNS excitation in horses, a transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) containing this mu agonist has recently been used empirically in equine medicine to treat moderate to severe pain. A better understanding of the disposition of fentanyl following transdermal administration would facilitate the clinical use of TTS fentanyl to obtain analgesia in horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl following i.v. and TTS patch administration in healthy, mature horses and to evaluate the tolerance of horses to TTS fentanyl administration. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in serum were assessed following a single i.v. dose, a single TTS dose, and multiple TTS doses in 6 healthy horses. Physical examinations, haematology and serum biochemistry analyses during transdermal fentanyl application were then performed to determine tolerance of continuous fentanyl administration. RESULTS: Fentanyl was very rapidly and completely absorbed following a single TTS dose. Mean serum fentanyl concentrations consistent with analgesia in other species were reached by 1 h and maintained until 32 h after patch application. Similar steady state serum concentrations were obtained when multiple doses of TTS fentanyl were administered every 48 or 72 h over 8 or 9 days, with less fluctuation in serum concentrations during the 48 h dosing interval. Three horses exhibited brief (< 12 h) episodes of increased body temperature; however, transdermal fentanyl administrations were not associated with other significant changes in haematology and biochemistry panels or physical examination findings. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Although the pharmacodynamics of fentanyl have not been investigated fully in horses, transdermally-administered fentanyl exhibited a favourable pharmacokinetic profile without clinically relevant side effects and may be a useful analgesic in equine patients.
Descriptors: analgesics, fentanyl, horse metabolism, drug dose response relationship, routes of administration, intravenous injections, pain, administration of fentanyl transdermally.

Mee, A.M., P.J. Cripps, and R.S. Jones (1998). A retrospective study of mortailty associated with general anaesthesia in horses: elective procedures. The Veterinary Record 142 (11): 275-276. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: horses, general anesthesia, surgical procedures, risk factors, complications.

Milosavljevic, P. and S. Knezevic (2004). General injection anesthesia in horse. Opsta injekciona anestezija konja. In: Sesto Medjunarodno Savetovanje iz Klinicke Patologije i Terapije. [Clinica Veterinaria 2004: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium in Animal Clinical Pathology and Therapy], June 14, 2004-June 18, 2004, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro), Fakultet Veterinarske Medicine: p. 126-132. ISBN: 86-81043-19-6.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, neurotropic drugs, drugs, Equidae, mammals, Perissodactyla.
Language of Text: Serbian with English and Serbian summaries.

Mosley, C. (2006). Intravenous techniques for field anesthesia. In: Ahead of the Curve: OVMA Conference Proceedings, January 26, 2006, Toronto, Canada, Ontario Veterinary Medical Association. Milton, Canada, p. 288-293.
Online: http://www.ovma.org
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, guaifenesin, intravenous injection techniques, ketamine, xylazine.

Muir, W.W. and C. Scicluna (1998). Anaesthesia and anaesthetic techniques in horses. Equine Veterinary Education 10(1): 33-41. ISSN: 0957-7734.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E67
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, veterinary procedures, clinical techniques.

Natalini, C.C., S.D. Alves, A.G. Guedes, A.S. Polydoro, J.T. Brondani, and S. Bopp (2004). Epidural administration of tiletamine/zolazepam in horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31(2): 79-85.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic, physiologic, and behavioral effects of the epidural administration of tiletamine/zolazepam in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind, randomized experimental study. ANIMALS: Five adult, healthy horses aged 10-16 years and weighing (mean +/- SD) 400 +/- 98 kg. METHODS: The horses were sedated with 1.0 mg kg(-1) intravenous (IV) xylazine, and an epidural catheter was placed into the first intercoccygeal intervertebral space. After a 48-hour resting period, epidural tiletamine/zolazepam, 0.5 mg kg(-1) (treatment I) or 1.0 mg kg(-1) (treatment II), diluted up to 5 mL in sterile water, was administered with a 1-week interval between the treatments. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and sedation were evaluated. In order to evaluate the respiratory effects, blood from the carotid artery was withdrawn at time 0 (baseline), and then after 60 and 240 minutes. Analgesia was evaluated by applying a noxious stimulus with blunt-tipped forceps on the perineal region, and graded as complete, moderate, or absent. Data were collected before tiletamine/zolazepam administration and at 15-minute intervals for 120 minutes, and 4 hours after tiletamine/zolazepam administration. Data were analyzed with anova and Bonferroni's test with p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results showed no significant difference between treatments in cardiovascular and respiratory measurements. Sedation was observed with both doses, and it was significantly different from baseline at 60, 75, and 90 minutes in treatment II. Moderate analgesia and locomotor ataxia were observed with both the treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results suggest that caudal epidural 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) tiletamine/zolazepam increases the threshold to pressure stimulation in the perineal region in horses. The use of epidural tiletamine/zolazepam could be indicated for short-term moderate epidural analgesia. There are no studies examining spinal toxicity of Telazol, and further studies are necessary before recommending clinical use of this technique.
Descriptors: epidual anesthesia, horses, blood pressure, drug effects on heart rate and respiration, behavioral and physiologic effects, tiletamine administration and dosage, zolazepam administration and dosage, Telazol.

Natalini, C.C., G. Pettifer, G. Hosgood, A.F. Cunha da, S.D.L. Alves, C.A. Valadao, A.J. Lewis, and I.G. Fuchs (2004). The cardiopulmonary, behavioral, and analgesic effects of epidural administration of hydromorphone in standing and anesthetized horses. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 4, 2004-December 8, 2004, Denver, Colorado, USA, Lexington, USA: American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), p. 494-501.
Online: http://www.aaep.org
Descriptors: adverse effects, anesthesia, animal behavior, blood gases, blood pressure, cardiac output, conduction anesthesia, heart rate, isoflurane, morphine, opioids, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, respiration rate, xylazine, horses.

Nielsen, C.G. (1995). Propofol: et nyt injektionsanaestetikum. [Propofol: a new anaesthetic for injection (review)]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 78(8): 411-414. ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Descriptors: dogs, cats, sheep, goats, swine, calves, horses, pigeons, anesthetics, puppies, pharmacology, side effects, drug combinations, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, clinical trials, age groups, animal morphology, domestic animals, Propofol, experimentation, livestock, neurotropic drugs, ruminants, toxicity, young animals.
Language of Text: Danish.

Nunez, E., E.P. Steffey, L. Ocampo, A. Rodriguez, and A.A. Garcia (2004). Effects of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists on urine production in horses deprived of food and water. American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(10): 1342-1346. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the dose- and time-related effects of IV administration of xylazine and detomidine on urine characteristics in horses deprived of feed and water. ANIMALS: 6 horses. PROCEDURE: Feed and water were withheld for 24 hours followed by i.v. administration of saline (0.9% NaCI) solution, xylazine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg), or detomidine (0.03 mg/kg). Horses were treated 4 times, each time with a different protocol. Following treatment, urine and blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Blood samples were analyzed for PCV and serum concentrations of total plasma solids, sodium, and potassium. Urine samples were analyzed for pH and concentrations of glucose, proteins, sodium, and potassium. RESULTS: Baseline (before treatment) urine flow was 0.30 +/- 0.03 mL/kg/h and did not significantly change after treatment with saline solution and low-dose xylazine but transiently increased by 1 hour after treatment with high-dose xylazine or detomidine. Total urine output at 2 hours following treatment was 312 +/- 101 mL versus 4,845 +/- 272 mL for saline solution and detomidine, respectively. Absolute values of urine concentrations of sodium and potassium also variably increased following xylazine and detomidine administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Xylazine and detomidine administration in horses deprived of feed and water causes transient increases in urine volume and loss of sodium and potassium. Increase in urine flow is directly related to dose and type of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Dehydration in horses may be exacerbated by concurrent administration of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists.
Descriptors: adrenergic agonists, food and water deprivation, horses, xylazine, deomindine, urine characteristics, alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, dehydration.

Ohmura, H., M. Akai, K. Kawasaki, T. Yamanaya, and T. Kato (2002). Influence of bolus injection of thiopental sodium on respiratory and cardiovascular function under general anesthesia in the horse. Journal of Equine Science 13(4): 123-126. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, general anesthesia, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thiopental sodium, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, tidal volume, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output.

Ohwa, Y. (2001). [Examination, treatment and surgical facilities at the Equine Medical Centre]. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 54(10): 850-853. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Descriptors: horses, veterinary facilities, veterinary examination methods, veterinary treatment methods.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Orlianges, E. (1999). L'administration epidurale des morphinomimetiques chez le cheval: une voie a exploiter. [Epidural administration of opioids in horses]. Pratique Veterinaire Equine 31(121): 55-58. ISSN: 0395-8639.
NAL Call Number: SF957.P7
Descriptors: horses, opioids, pain managment, analgesic administration, lidocaine, morphine, butorphanol, veterinary procedures.
Language of Text: French with an English summary.

Ovidiu, T.A., L. Ionita, and G.I. Cristian (2004). Method for general anaesthesia in horses. In: Clinica Veterinaria 2004: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium in Animal Clinical Pathology and Therapy, June 14, 2004-June 18, 2004, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine: p. 404-405. ISBN: 86-81043-19-6.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, anesthetics, ketamine, drugs, Equidae, mammals, neurotropic drugs, Perissodactyla.

Peck, K.E., A.C. Ray, G. Manuel, M.M. Rao, and J. Foos (1996). Quantification of phenylbutazone in equine sera by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a nonevaporative extraction technique. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(11): 1522-1524. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: bute, phenylbutazone, analgesics, high performance liquid chromatography, neurotropic drugs, oxyphenbutazone, extraction, blood serum.

Piccot Crezollet, C., J.M. Casamatta, and O.M. Lepage (2005). Anesthesies semiologiques digitales chez le cheval: technique et elements d'interpretation. [Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: Technique and elements of interpretation]. Canadian Veterinary Journal 46(9): 807-813. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: Technique and elements of interpretation. Semiological anesthesia of the pes is used during examinations for lameness in horses. Recent research data on the distal digital, distal interphalangeal articular, and podotrochlear intrathecal nerve blocks indicate that they are less than specific when considered in isolation. They should be used in combination to localize pain in the pes. A positive response to anesthesia of the distal interphalangeal articulation could also indicate that the source of the pain was in the podotrochlear apparatus or the dorsal part of the sole. Podotrochlear anesthesia also anesthetizes the dorsal part of the sole and, later, the distal interphalangeal joint. Distal digital anesthesia affects a large palmar area of the hoof and extends dorsally. Overall, basic research provides little support for the practical uses of semiological blocks.
Descriptors: horses, lameness examination techniques, pain location methods, digital semiological anesthesia.
Language of Text: French.

Popot, M.A., M. Jaubert, F. Balssa, and Y. Bonnaire (2001). Detection of dipyrone administration in the horse by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians, 2000, Cambridge, UK, R & W Publications (Newmarket) Ltd.: Newmarket, UK, p. 386-390.
Descriptors: metamizole, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, antipyretic, horses, drug residue detection, analgesics, urine analysis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry.

Quandt, J.E. (1996). Anaesthetic techniques and considerations in foals. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 18(3): 307-312. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: foals, anesthetic techniques, veterinary procedures.

Raisis, A.L. (2005). Skeletal muscle blood flow in anaesthetized horses. Part I. Measurement techniques. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32(6): 324-30.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to describe the methodology and limitations of techniques that have been used to measure skeletal muscle blood flow in anaesthetized horses. DATABASE USED: Pubmed, personal files. CONCLUSION: Numerous techniques have been used in horses to study skeletal muscle blood flow during anaesthesia and after the administration of vasoactive agents. Of the available techniques, blood flow measurements are limited to either microvascular flow (radioactive xenon, laser Doppler flowmetry) or total blood flow (radioactive microspheres, electromagnetic flowmetry, Doppler ultrasonography). None of the techniques currently available are able to fully assess the distribution of flow throughout the skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy has the potential to assess the adequacy of oxygenation within muscles; however, this technique is not without limitations, and more work is required to assess its suitability. Understanding the limitations of these techniques is an important prerequisite to the critical evaluation of the information currently available on the effects of anaesthesia and vasoactive drugs on skeletal muscle blood flow.
Descriptors: anethetized horses, skeletal muscle blood flow measurement techniques, methodology, microvascular flow, total blood flow, radioactive xenon, laser Doppler flowmetry, radioactive microspheres, electromagnetic flowmetry, Doppler ultrasonography.

Ratajczak, K. and Z. Kielbowicz (1995). Haemodynamic consequences of immediate intra-anaesthesia application of intermittent positive pressure breathing in horses. Archivum Veterinarium Polonicum 35(1-2): 5-17. ISSN: 1230-5359.
Descriptors: horses, lengthy operative procedures, anesthetic management, controlled ventilation, cardiovascular system.

Ratajczak, K., P. Stochnij, and P. Skrzypczak (2000). [Anaesthetic compound and its application in general anaesthesia of horses]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 56(2): 107-113. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: horses, anesthesiology, anesthetic maintenance, anesthetic protocol.
Language of Text: Polish.

Roncada, P., N. Romagnoli, A. Spadari, A. Venturini, A. Barbagallo, and A. Zaghini (2003). Andamento cinetico del midazolam nel cavallo dopo somministrazione endovenosa. [Kinetic of midazolam in the horse after intravenous administration]. In : Atti della Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie (Italy). [Italian Society of Veterinary Science. 57. Annual meeting], September 25, 2003-September 27, 2003, Ischia, Napoli (Italy), p. 227-228.
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, anesthetics, muscle relaxants, injection, blood plasma, HPLC, analytical methods, application methods, blood, chromatography, drugs, Equidae, mammals, neurotropic drugs, Perissodactyla.
Language of Text: Italian with an English summary.

Ross, M.W. (1996). Carpal and high palmar injection techniques. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 10: 597.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia.

Sabiel, J. (1995). Pramedikation und Induktion von Risikonarkosen beim Pferd mit Romifidine, Ketamin und Diazepam im Verleich mit einer Standardmethode. [Premedication and induction of risk-anesthesia in horses with romifidine, ketamin and diazepam, compared with a standard method]. Hannover. 118 p.
NAL Call Number: DISS F1995162
Descriptors: horses, anesthesiology, comparison anesthesia induction methods, romifidine, ketamine, diazepam.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.
Notes: Thesis.

Scicluna, C. (1997). Detomidine/ketamine/ketamine: evaluation d'un nouveau protocole d'anesthesie moyenne duree pour cheval. [Detomidine/ketamine/ketamine: evaluation of a new procedure for medium term anaesthesia in the horse]. Pratique Veterinaire Equine 29(4): 247-252. ISSN: 0395-8639.
NAL Call Number: SF957.P7
Descriptors: anesthesia, castration, ketamine, detomidine, horses.
Language of Text: French with an English summary.

Sellon, D.C., V.L. Monroe, M.C. Roberts, and M.G. Papich (2001). Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of butorphanol administered by single intravenous injection or continuous intravenous infusion in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(2): 183-189. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine an infusion rate of butorphanol tartrate in horses that would maintain therapeutic plasma drug concentrations while minimizing development of adverse behavioral and gastrointestinal tract effects. ANIMALS: 10 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography following administration of butorphanol by single IV injection (0.1 to 0.13 mg/kg of body weight) or continuous IV infusion (loading dose, 17.8 microg/kg; infusion dosage, 23.7 microg/kg/h for 24 hours). Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated, and changes in physical examination data, gastrointestinal tract transit time, and behavior were determined over time. RESULTS: A single IV injection of butorphanol was associated with adverse behavioral and gastrointestinal tract effects including ataxia, decreased borborygmi, and decreased defecation. Elimination half-life of butorphanol was brief (44.37 minutes). Adverse gastrointestinal tract effects were less apparent during continuous 24-hour infusion of butorphanol at a dosage that resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 29 ng/ml, compared with effects after a single IV injection. No adverse behavioral effects were observed during or after continuous infusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Continuous IV infusion of butorphanol for 24 hours maintained plasma butorphanol concentrations within a range associated with analgesia. Adverse behavioral and gastrointestinal tract effects were minimized during infusion, compared with a single injection of butorphanol. Continuous infusion of butorphanol may be a useful treatment to induce analgesia in horses.
Descriptors: analgesics, drug effects on behavior, butorphanol, gastrointestinal transit, horse metabolism, high pressure liquid chromatography, cross over studies, half life, intravenous infusions and injections.

Shini, S., A.M. Klaus, and H.J. Hapke (1997). Eliminationskinetik von Diazepam nach intravenoser Applikation beim Pferd. [Kinetics of elimination of diazepam after intravenous injection in horses]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 104(1): 22-25. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Abstract: Diazepam is used in veterinary medicine as sedative and pre-anaesthetic agent. This publication describes the plasma-concentration time curve for diazepam and its metabolite in horses suffering from colic after intravenous application as pre-anaesthetic agent. Elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) after a dose of 0.05-0.08 mg/kg (30-50 mg Diazepam per horse) was 7.5 to 13.2 h. Total clearance (Cltot) between 1.86 and 3.44 ml/min/kg was detected and apparent volume of distribution in steady state (Vdiss) was 1.98 to 2.25 l/kg. Diazepam was still found in serum after 24 h. The metabolite oxazepam could be found in plasma. Its elimination half-life was 14-16.5 hours.
Descriptors: diazepam, sedative, pre-anethesia, use of diazepam in horses with colic, elimination half-life, metabolic clearance rate, horses.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Singh, M., V. Kumar, A.C. Varshney, S.K. Sharma, and J.M. Nagam (1996). Clinico-biochemical effects of xylazine administration in Spiti ponies - a clinical study. Centaur Mylapore 13(2): 21-23.
Descriptors: horses, castration, anesthesia, xylazine, pain management, local analgesia.

Skarda, R.T. and W.W. Muir III (2001). Analgesic, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects induced by caudal epidural administration of meperidine hydrochloride in mares. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(7): 1001-1007. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the analgesic, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects induced by caudal epidural administration of meperidine hydrochloride in mares. ANIMALS: 7 healthy mares. Procedure: Each mare received meperidine (5%; 0.8 mg/kg of body weight) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution via caudal epidural injection on 2 occasions. At least 2 weeks elapsed between treatments. Degree of analgesia in response to noxious electrical, thermal, and skin and muscle prick stimuli was determined before and for 5 hours after treatment. In addition, cardiovascular and respiratory variables were measured and degree of sedation (head position) and ataxia (pelvic limb position) evaluated. RESULTS: Caudal epidural administration of meperidine induced bilateral analgesia extending from the. coccygeal to S1 dermatomes in standing mares; degree of sedation and ataxia was minimal. Mean (+/- SD) onset of analgesia was 12 +/- 4 minutes after meperidine administration, and duration of analgesia ranged from 240 minutes to the entire 300-minute testing period. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressures, Hct, PaO2, PaCO2, pHa, total solids and bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess were not significantly different from baseline values after caudal epidural administration of either meperidine or saline solution. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Caudal epidural administration of meperidine induced prolonged perineal analgesia in healthy mares. Degree of sedation and ataxia was minimal, and adverse cardiorespiratory effects were not detected. Meperidine may be a useful agent for induction of caudal epidural analgesia in mares undergoing prolonged diagnostic, obstetric, or surgical procedures in the anal and perineal regions.
Descriptors: meperidine hydrochloride, respiratory effects, caudal epidural administration, mares, analgesia, hemodynamic effects, induction of prolonged perineal analgesia, meperidine.

Skarda, R.T. and W.W. Muir III (1999). Effects of intravenously administered yohimbine on antinociceptive, cardiorespiratory, and postural changes induced by epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution to healthy mares. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(10): 1262-1270. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: mares, yohimbine, intravenous injection, narcotic antagonists, detomidine, conduction anesthesia, drug effects, pain, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, position.

Skarda, R.T. and W.W. Muir III (1996). Comparison of antinociceptive, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects, head ptosis, and position of pelvic limbs in mares after caudal epidural administration of xylazine and detomidine hydrochloride solution. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(9): 1338-1345. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: mares, xylazine, detomidine, conduction anesthesia, pain, drug effects, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, head, limbs, position.

Smith, G.W., P.D. Constable, J.H. Foreman, R.M. Eppley, A.L. Waggoner, M.E. Tumbleson, and W.M. Haschek (2002). Cardiovascular changes associated with intravenous administration of fumonisin B1 in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(4): 538-545. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, cardiovascular system, leukoencephalomalacia, fumosin B1, neurologic disease, toxins, neurotoxicity, hepatoxicity.

Souza, A.H., C.A.A. Valadao, A. Queiroz Neto, G. Zamur, and V. Coelho (2002). Efeito da injecao subcutanea de doses baixas de cetamina em equinos. [Effect of subcutaneous injection of low doses of ketamine in horses]. Ars Veterinaria 18(3): 223-230. ISSN: 0102-6380.
NAL Call Number: SF604.A78
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, ketamine, subcutaneous injections, effects of dosage variation.
Language of Text: Portuguese with an English summary.

Spadavecchia, C., O. Levionnois, P.W. Kronen, M. Leandri, L. Spadavecchia, and U. Schatzmann (2006). Evaluation of administration of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration on depression of a nociceptive withdrawal reflex evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ponies. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(5): 762-9.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the forelimb of ponies as a method for quantifying anesthetic potency. ANIMALS: 7 healthy adult Shetland ponies. PROCEDURE: Individual MAC (iMAC) for isoflurane was determined for each pony. Then, effects of isoflurane administered at 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05 iMAC on the NWR were assessed. At each concentration, the NWR threshold was defined electromyographically for the common digital extensor and deltoid muscles by stimulating the digital nerve; additional electrical stimulations (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mA) were delivered, and the evoked activity was recorded and analyzed. After the end of anesthesia, the NWR threshold was assessed in standing ponies. RESULTS: Mean +/- SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.0 +/- 0.2%. The NWR thresholds for both muscles increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner during anesthesia, whereas they decreased in awake ponies. Significantly higher thresholds were found for the deltoid muscle, compared with thresholds for the common digital extensor muscle, in anesthetized ponies. At each iMAC tested, amplitudes of the reflex responses from both muscles increased as stimulus intensities increased from 3 to 40 mA. A concentration-dependent depression of evoked reflexes with reduction in slopes of the stimulus-response functions was detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Anesthetic-induced changes in sensory-motor processing in ponies anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of approximately 1.0 MAC can be detected by assessment of NWR. This method will permit comparison of effects of inhaled anesthetics or anesthetic combinations on spinal processing in equids.
Descriptors: anesthesia, isoflurane, minimum alveolar concentration, nocicetive withdrawal reflex, anesthetic potency, dosage effects, electric stimulation.

Spadavecchia, C., N. Schmucker, and U. Schatzmann (1999). Untersuchungen zur Injectionsanasthesie (TIVA) des Pferdes mit Ketamin / Guanaifenesin / Xylazin: Versuche mit einer computergesteuerten Infusion. [Investigations into injection anesthesia (TIVA) of the horse with ketamine-guaifenesin-xylazine: experiences with computerized pump infusion]. Praktische Tierarzt 80(2): 118-122. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Descriptors: horses, infusion anesthesia, inhalation anesthesia alternatives, guaifenesin, ketamine, xylazine.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Spriet, M., F. David, and Y. Rossier (2004). Ultrasonographic control of navicular bursa injection. Equine Veterinary Journal 36(7): 637-639. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, clinical techniques, navicular disease, pain management, ultrasonography.

Stanway, G. (2001). Anaesthesia for minor surgical procedures in the horse. In Practice 23(1): 22-29. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, surgery, maintenance of anesthesia, monitoring protocol, associated risks.

Sysel, A.M., R.S. Pleasant, J.D. Jacobson, H.D. Moll, L.D. Warnick, D.P. Sponenberg, and P. Eyre (1997). Systemic and local effects associated with long-term epidural catheterization and morphine-detomidine administration in horses. Veterinary Surgery 26(2): 141-149. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: horses, conduction anesthesia, morphine, detomidine, drug combinations, catheters, adverse effects, safety.

Taylor, P.M. (2002). Anesthetic protocols: pros and cons of different methods. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 147-148.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, methodology.

Taylor, P.M. (2002). Equine epidural anesthesia and sedation techniques. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 151-153.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: horses, anesthesia, neuroleptics.

Thomasy, S.M., E.P. Steffey, K.R. Mama, A. Solano, and S.D. Stanley (2006). The effects of i.v. fentanyl administration on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in horses. British Journal of Anaesthesia 97(2): 232-7.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fentanyl decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhaled anaesthetics and has been used clinically to reduce the requirements of other anaesthetic drugs in humans and small animals. We hypothesized that i.v. fentanyl would decrease the MAC of isoflurane in horses in a dose-dependent manner. METHODS: Following determination of baseline MAC of isoflurane, fentanyl was administered i.v. to target plasma concentrations of 1, 8 and 16 ng ml(-1). Each horse was randomly assigned two of three target concentrations administered in ascending order. Loading and infusion doses for each horse were determined from previously derived individual pharmacokinetic values. Isoflurane MAC determination began 45 min after fentanyl administration at each target fentanyl concentration. Venous blood was collected at fixed intervals during the infusion for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentrations. RESULTS: Mean actual fentanyl plasma concentrations were 0 (baseline), and 0.72 (sd 0.26), 8.43 (3.22), and 13.31 (6.66) ng ml(-1) for the target concentrations of 1, 8 and 16 ng ml(-1), respectively. The corresponding isoflurane MAC values were a baseline of 1.57 (0.23), and 1.51 (0.24), 1.41 (0.23) and 1.37 (0.09)%, respectively. The fentanyl concentrations of 0.72 and 8.43 ng ml(-1) did not significantly alter the MAC of isoflurane, but an 18 (7)% ISO-MAC reduction was observed at the 13.31 ng ml(-1) concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results cautiously encourage further study of fentanyl as an opioid anaesthetic adjunct to inhalant anaesthesia in horses.
Descriptors: inhaled anesthetics, dose requirements, fentanyl, minimum alveolar concentration, isoflurane.

Trim, C.M. (1998). Monitoring during anaesthesia: techniques and interpretation. Equine Veterinary Education 10(4): 207-218. ISSN: 0957-7734.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E67
Descriptors: veterinary procedures, anesthesia, monitoring techniques.

Van der Woerdt, A., B.C. Gilger, D.A. Wilkie, and S.M. Strauch (1995). Effect of auriculopalpebral nerve block and intravenous administration of xylazine on intraocular pressure and corneal thickness in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56(2): 155-158. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, using applanation tonometry, in both eyes of 20 horses after topical application of 0.5% proparacaine to the cornea. Ultrasonic pachymetry was used to measure central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral corneal thickness (CT) in all 4 quadrants of both eyes of 25 horses. All measurements were repeated after auriculopalpebral nerve block, sedation by IV administration of xylazine, or combination of nerve block and sedation. Mean IOP after topical anesthesia of the cornea was 20.6 +/- 4.7 mm of Hg for the left eye and 20.35 +/- 3.7 mm of Hg for the right eye. Mean central CT was 793.2 +/- 42.3 micrometers. The peripheral part of the cornea was significantly (P < 0.05) thicker, on average, than the central part of the cornea. Auriculopalpebral nerve block had no significant effect on IOP or CT. Intravenous administration of xylazine resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in IOP, but had no effect on CT.
Descriptors: horses, cornea, thickness, eyes, internal pressure, peripheral nerves, local anesthetics, xylazine, intravenous injection, mepivacaine-hydrochloride.

Wagner, A.E. (1995). Responses of horses to common anesthetic techniques. Proceedings From the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 41: 117-120. ISSN: 0065-7182.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: effect of anesthesia on horses, anesthetics, drugs, neurotropic drugs, veterinary medicine.

Wagner, A.E., C.I. Dunlop, E.M. Wertz, P.L. Chapman, G.M. Baxter, and L.S. Klopp (1995). Hemodynamic responses of horses to anesthesia and surgery, before and after administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Veterinary Surgery 24(1): 78-85. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: horses, hemodynamics, anesthesia, surgery, endotoxins, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, disease models, Escherichia coli, colic.

Wagner, A.E. and P.W. Hellyer (2000). Survey of anesthesia techniques and concerns in private veterinary practice. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(11): 1652-1657. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: inhalation anesthesia, intravenous anesthesia, methods of providing anesthetics, cats, dogs, horses, questionnaires, veterinary medicine, private practice veterinarians.

Weil, A.B., R.D. Keegan, and S.A. Greene (1997). Effect of low-dose atropine administration on dobutamine dose requirement in horses anesthetized with detomidine and halothane. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58(12): 1436-1439. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, atropine, preanesthetic medication, detomidine, halothane, blood pressure, anesthesia, heart rate, carbon dioxide, blood gases, adverse effects.

White, N.A., A. Elward, K.S. Moga, D.L. Ward, and D.M. Sampson (2005). Use of web-based data collection to evaluate analgesic administration and the decision for surgery in horses with colic. Equine Veterinary Journal 37(4): 347-350. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, colic, surgical procedures, anesthesia, analgesia, data entry systems.

Wittern, C., D.A. Hendrickson, T. Trumble, and A. Wagner (1998). Complications associated with administration of detomidine into the caudal epidural space in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(4): 516-518. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, detomidine, conduction anesthesia, complications, dosage, recovery, halothane, case reports.

Wolf, L. (2002). The role of complementary techniques in managing musculoskeletal pain in performance horses. Veterinary Clinics of North America, The Equine Practice 18(1): 107-115. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call Number: SF951.V47
Descriptors: horses, performance, pain management, accupuncture, musculoskeletal system, therapy coordination.

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 Last updated: October 25, 2011