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Feeding Methods

Bergero, D., M. Tarantola, and B. Bassano (2000). Approccio alimentare a fronte di manifestazioni di coprofagia in una scuderia di cavalli sportivi. [Feeding strategy for coprophagy events in a sport horses stable]. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari (Italy) 21(2): 31-35. ISSN: 0392-1913.
NAL Call Number: QL750.E82
Abstract: The interest for oral and locomotory behaviour troubles in sport horses is increasing. Management faults, nutritional unbalances, excessive stress level can increase the incidence of these disorders. In this work we describe the effects of some practical feeding changes on the occurrence of coprophagy, in a sport horses stable where this disorder was widespread: 40 horses were present, of which 16 showed coprophagy. These 16 sport horses were divided into experimental groups (3 experimental groups in the first two experimental moments and 4 experimental groups in the third and last) with the aim of comparing the effect of different rations (in particular with no premix or different vitamins and trace elements premix levels). Feeding strategy showed a significant effect in the occurrence of coprophagy, even though other factors, not related to feeding, played an evident role. A vitamin and trace elements premix, added to the rations, decreased the frequency of coprophagy observation. This behaviour disorder can be evidently reduced in horses that show low frequency of occurrence by a proper premix, in particular using vitamins B1, B6, B12, folacin and vitamin C at high doses.
Descriptors: racehorses, abnormal behavior, coprophagia, excessive stress levels, management of horses, effects of nutrition on behavior, use of vitamins B1, B6, B12, folacin and vitamin C to reduce copraphagy, animal supplements, in vivo experimentation, nutritional disorders.
Language of Text: Italian.

Blackman, M. and M.J.S. Moore Colyer (1998). Hay for horses: the effects of three different wetting treatments on dust and nutrient content. British Society of Animal Science 66(3): 745-750. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Descriptors: allergens, hay, horses, nutritive value, hydration, dust, steaming, minerals, carbohydrates, antigens, feeds, heat treatment, immunological factors, pollutants, processing, quality, roughage, nutrient content, wetting.

Brewster Barnes, T. (1995). The effect of feeding after exercise on glucose and glycogen responses in the horse. Dissertation, University of Kentucky: Kentucky, USA. 98 p.
Descriptors: horses feeding and feeds, glucose, glycogen.
Notes: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Kentucky, 1995.

Buff, P.R., C.D. Morrison, V.K. Ganjam, and D.H. Keisler (2005). Effects of short-term feed deprivation and melatonin implants on circadian patterns of leptin in the horse. Journal of Animal Science 83(5): 1023-1032. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue that influences hypothalamic mechanisms regulating appetite and energy balance. In species tested thus far, including horses, concentrations of leptin increase as animal fat mass increases. The variables and mechanisms that influence the secretion of leptin are not well known, nor is it known in equine species how the secretion of leptin is influenced by acute alterations in energy balance, circadian patterns, and/or reproductive competence. Our objectives were to determine in horses: 1) whether plasma concentrations of leptin are secreted in a circadian and/or a pulsatile pattern; 2) whether a 48-h period of feed restriction would alter plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone, or insulin; and 3) whether ovariectomy and/or a melatonin implant would affect leptin. In Exp. 1, mares exposed to ambient photoperiod of visible light (11 h, 33 min to 11 h, 38 min), received treatments consisting of a 48-h feed restriction (RES) or 48 h of alfalfa hay fed ad libitum (FED). Mares were maintained in a dry lot before sampling and were tethered to a rail during sampling. Analyses revealed that leptin was not secreted in a pulsatile manner, and that mean leptin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in FED vs. RES mares (17.20 ½ 0.41 vs. 7.29 ½ 0.41 ng/mL). Plasma growth hormone was pulsatile, and mean concentrations were greater in RES than FED mares (2.15 ½ 0.31 vs. 1.08 ½ 0.31 ng/mL; P = 0.05). Circadian patterns of leptin secretion were observed, but only in FED mares (15.39 ½ 0.58 ng/mL for morning vs. 19.00 ½ 0.58 ng/mL for evening; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, mares that were ovariectomized or intact received either a s.c. melatonin implant or a sham implant. Thereafter, blood was sampled at weekly intervals at 1000 and 1700. Concentrations of leptin in samples collected at 1700 were greater (P < 0.001) than in those collected at 1000 (28.24 ½ 1.7 vs. 22.07 ½ 1.7 ng/mL). Neither ovariectomy nor chronic treatment with melatonin affected plasma concentrations of leptin or the circadian pattern of secretion. These data provide evidence that plasma leptin concentrations in the equine are sensitive to acute changes in nutritional status and vary in a circadian pattern that is sensitive to fasting but not to melatonin treatment or ovariectomy.
Descriptors: horses, leptin, circadian patterns, plasma concentration.

Christensen, R.A., K. Malinowski, C.G. Scanes, and H.D. Hafs (1997). Pulsatile release of somatotropin related to meal feeding and somatotropin response to secretagogues in horses. Journal of Animal Science 75(10): 2770-2777. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Our goal was to establish a time of day and(or) interval from feeding that would avoid the refractory period after a somatotropin (ST) surge and optimize the responsiveness of horses to ST secretagogues. Two experiments were conducted with eight geldings conditioned to consume grain at 0800 and 1600 daily. In Exp. 1, during a 24-h period, these geldings averaged 3.2 +/- .3 pulses of ST with peak amplitude of 4.2 +/- .4 ng/mL, pulse duration of 55 +/- 6 min, and interpeak interval of 400 +/- 57 min. No ST peaks occurred within 2 h after either grain feeding. In Exp. 2, eight geldings were given 50 micrograms of ST-releasing factor (STRF) at 0800. Two geldings that had a pulse of ST between 0700 and 0800 failed to respond to STRF, but the other six responded with a pulse of ST at 37 +/- 3 min; peak amplitude was 4.6 +/- 2.2 ng/mL and duration was 123 +/- 25 min. Experiments 3 and 4 were with mares aged 20 to 26 yr and conditioned to be fed grain at 0800 daily. In Exp. 3, blood was sampled for 8 h beginning at 0500. Seven of the eight mares had a ST pulse in progress at 0500. Five additional pulses were detected, all from 0740 to 0940, but none from 0600 to 0700 or from 1000 to 1300. In Exp. 4, four of the same eight mares were given 50 micrograms of STRF at 0700 and the other four at 1300. Three of the four treated at 0700 and all four treated at 1300 responded to STRF with ST peaks at 20 +/- 5 min; peak amplitude was 12.7 +/- 9.5 ng/mL and duration was 69 +/- 6 min. In Exp. 5, nine mares aged 20 to 26 yr were fed grain at 0800 and 1600 as in Exp. 1 and 2 and given a nonpeptidal ST secretagogue (STS, Merck L-163,255) i.v. at 0, 1, or 5 mg/kg (n = 3 mares/dose) at 1300. No mare had a pulse of ST during. the 1 h before treatment. All six mares given STS responded with ST pulses. The ST responses to STS at 1 and 5 mg/kg did not differ (P > .05); time to ST peak was 35 +/- 4 min, pulse amplitude was 24.0 +/- 6.3 ng/mL, and pulse duration was 100 +/- 9 min. We conclude that mares and geldings fed grain once or twice daily usually have a period of 2 to 5 h after feeding with no ST pulses. When horses are fed grain at 0800, one may give a ST secretagogue at 1300 to avoid a refractory period and improve the probability of an ST response.
Descriptors: horses, age groups, hormone secretion, somatotropin, somatoliberin, circadian rhythm, hormonal control, feeding, blood plasma.
Notes: Meeting Information: Paper presented at "Swine Nutrition: Nutrient Usage During Pregnancy and Early Postnatal Growth, a Symposium in Honor of Wilson G. Pond" at the ASAS 88th Annual Meeting, July 25, 1996, Rapid City, S.D.

Crandell, K. (2005). Trends in feeding the American endurance horse. In: Advances in Equine Nutrition III, p. 181-184.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, Arab, calories, concentrates, dietary fat, feed grains, feed supplements, forage, horse feeding, protein, racehorses, reviews, horses.

Cuddeford, D. (2005). Feeding, management and equine dentistry. The Veterinary Record 156(23): 751. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: abrasive wear, dentistry, diets, feeds, hay, haylage, horse feeding, racehorses, teeth, tooth diseases, grasses, horses, Poaceae.

De Fombelle, A., L. Veiga, C. Drogoul, and V. Julliand (2004). Effect of diet composition and feeding pattern on the prececal digestibility of starches from diverse botanical origins measured with the mobile nylon bag technique in horses. Journal of Animal Science 82(12): 3625-3634. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: feeding, starch digestion, prececal digestion, feed composition.

Drogoul, C., A. de Fombelle, and V. Julliand (2001). Feeding and microbial disorders in horses. 2. Effect of three hay:grain ratios on digesta passage rate and digestibility in ponies. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(10): 487-491. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, fiber, digestibility, digesta passage rate, transit time, hay:grain ratios, barley, feeding disorders.

Fleurance, G., P. Duncan, H. Fritz, J. Cabaret, and I.J. Gordon (2005). Importance of nutritional and anti-parasite strategies in the foraging decisions of horses: an experimental test. Oikos 110(3): 602-612. ISSN: 0030-1299.
Descriptors: contaminants, feces, feed intake, feeding behavior, feeding preferences, foraging, grass sward, nutritive value, parasites, parasitism, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea, horses, Lolium perenne, Strongylidae, Trifolium repens.

Householder, D.D. (1996). Feeding management of horses. Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Creative Educational Video, Inc.: College Station, Texas, USA. Videocassette (55 min); 2 support publications.
NAL Call Number: Videocassette no. 2731
Abstract: Texas Agricultural Extension Service horse specialist Dr. Doug Householder hosts a program that tries to provide an understanding of horse nutrition, the composition of feeds, and horse behavior. Covers classes of horses and basic feeding programs, determining body weights and condition scoring, storing hays and concentrates, feeding hays, feeding concentrates, and managing eating behaviors. Support publications: The digestive system of the horse / D. Douglas Householder, Gary D. Potter, and Pete G. Gibbs (4 p.) ; Feeding management points for Texas horse owners by D. Douglas Householder et al. (7 p.).
Descriptors: nutrition, feed composition, horse behavior, body weight determination, body condition scoring, hays, grain, eating behaviors, equine digestive system.
Notes: "Funding for scripting provided by the Animal Nutrition Division of Cargill, Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota." "Tape #TAM37005".

Hudson, J.M., N.D. Cohen, P.G. Gibbs, and J.A. Thompson (2001). Feeding practices associated with colic in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(10): 1419-1425. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific feeding practices were associated with development of colic in horses. DESIGN: Prospective matched case-control study. ANIMALS: 364 horses examined by veterinarians in private practice in Texas because of colic (cases; n = 182) or any other reason (controls; 182). PROCEDURE: Participating veterinarians were sent forms at the beginning of the study to collect information on signalment, feeding management practices, farm management practices, and preventive medical treatments. Case and control horses were compared by use of conditional logistic regression to identify factors associated with colic. RESULTS: Risk factors for colic were a recent change in batch of hay, decreased exposure to pasture, a recent change in type of grain or concentrate fed, feeding > 2.7 kg (6 lb) of oats/d, feeding hay from round bales, and Thoroughbred breed. Recent anthelmintic administration decreased the risk of colic. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that certain changes in diet (eg, change in batch of hay, change in type of grain or concentrate, feeding hay from round bales) and management (eg, decreased availability of pasture) increase the risk of colic in horses.
Descriptors: colic, feeding methods, identified colic risk factors, change in batch of hay, decreased exposure to pasture, change in grain, use of round bales, Thoroughbreds, dietary changes and management.

Jackson, S.G. (1998). The Effect of Type of Feed and Feeding Time on Glucose and Insulin Status of Horses, Dodson and Horrell Ltd.: Kettering (United Kingdom), 4 p.
Descriptors: feeds, diet, horses, animal feeding, glucose, insulin, blood composition, blood, grazing, physical activity, aldoses, animal feeding, blood, carbohydrates, hormones, monosaccharides, peptides, reducing sugars, sugars, blood chemistry, exercise.
Notes: Meeting Information: International Conference on Feeding Horses: famous, independent experts talking on a range of topical and controversial subjects. Scientific session.

Jaggy, U. (1996). Einfluss des Stallklimas, insebesondere von Heustaub, auf die Lungengesundheit von Pferden : Eine Feldstudie. [The influence of stable conditions, especially of hay-dust, on the state of health of horses lungs]. Dissertation, Tierarztliche Hochschule: Hannover, Germany. 126 p.
NAL Call Number: DISS F1996171
Descriptors: horses, animal welfare, respiratory system, hay dust, environmental factors.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.
Notes: Thesis (doctoral)--Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, 1996.

Jansson, A. and K. Dahlborn (1999). Effects of feeding frequency and voluntary salt intake on fluid and electrolyte regulation in athletic horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 86(5): 1610-1616. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Descriptors: horses, fitness, meal frequency, fluid regulation, plasma aldosterone concentration, voluntary sodium intake.

Jose Cunilleras, E., K.W. Hinchcliff, R.A. Sams, S.T. Devor, and J.K. Linderman (2002). Glycemic index of a meal fed before exercise alters substrate use and glucose flux in exercising horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 92(1): 117-128. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Abstract: In a randomized, balanced, crossover study each of six fit, adult horses ran on a treadmill at 50% of maximal rate of oxygen consumption for 60 min after being denied access to food for 18 h and then 1) fed corn (51.4 kJ/kg digestible energy), or 2) fed an isocaloric amount of alfalfa 2-3 h before exercise, or 3) not fed before exercise. Feeding corn, compared with fasting, resulted in higher plasma glucose and serum insulin and lower serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations before exercise (P < 0.05) and in lower plasma glucose, serum glycerol, and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and higher skeletal muscle utilization of blood-borne glucose during exercise (P < 0.05). Feeding corn, compared with feeding alfalfa, resulted in higher carbohydrate oxidation and lower lipid oxidation during exercise (P < 0.05). Feeding a soluble carbohydrate-rich meal (corn) to horses before exercise results in increased muscle utilization of blood-borne glucose and carbohydrate oxidation and in decreased lipid oxidation compared with a meal of insoluble carbohydrate (alfalfa) or not feeding. Carbohydrate feedings did not produce a sparing of muscle glycogen compared with fasting.
Descriptors: treadmill exercise test, food restriction, corn, alfalfa, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, carbohydrate oxidation, lipid oxidation during exercise, carbohydrate-rich meals prior to exercise.

Lacombe, V.A., K.W. Hinchcliff, C.W. Kohn, S.T. Devor, and L.E. Taylor (2004). Effects of feeding meals with various soluble-carbohydrate content on muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(7): 916-923. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, exercise, feeding, nutrition, soluble-carbohydrate content, muscle glycogen synthesis.

Laudadio, V., A.M. Cito, and F. Petrera (2005). Indagine sulla gestione alimentare del cavallo da salto ad ostacoli. [Investigation on feeding management in jumping horse]. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 26(4): 31-34. ISSN: 0392-1913.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, energy intake, feed intake, feeding, nutrient requirements, protein intake, working animals, horses.
Language of Text: Italian with an English summary.

Lorenzo Figueras, M., T. Preston, E. Ott, and A.M. Merritt (2005). Meal-induced gastric relaxation and emptying in horses after ingestion of high-fat versus high-carbohydrate diets. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(5): 897-906. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, feeding, nutrition, meal content, gastric relaxation, gastric emptying.

McKeever, K.H. (2005). Can feed cause a positive blood test in racehorses? Some recent information on the effect of dietary supplements on plasma tCO2 concentration in horses. In: Advances in Equine Nutrition III, p. 69-76.
Descriptors: bicarbonates, blood chemistry, carbon dioxide, electrolytes, feed supplements, pH, racehorses, reviews, horses.

Micol, D., W. Martin Rosset, and C. Trillaud Geyl (1996). Systemes d'elevage et d'alimentation a base de fourrages pour les chevaux. [Horse rearing and feeding systems with high forage diet]. Equ'Idee(24): 71-85. ISSN: 1162-8103.
Descriptors: saddle horses, rearing techniques, feeding systems, grazing, concentrates, rations, high forage diets.
Language of Text: French.

Moore Colyer, M.J.S. (1996). Effect of soaking hay fodder for horses on dust and mineral content. British Society of Animal Science 63(2): 337-342. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Descriptors: soaking hay, allergens, dust in hay, mineral content, particle size, soaking, antigens, immunological factors, pollutants.

Murrell, K.D., M. Djordjevic, K. Cuperlovic, L. Sofronic, M. Savic, M. Djordjevic, and S. Damjanovic (2004). Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices. Veterinary Parasitology ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Descriptors: horses, Trichinella spiralis, trichinosis, epidemiology, risk factors, animal feeding, meat products, food wastes, feed contamination, feeding behavior, infection, Serbia, equine trichinellosis, infected meat, meat eating behavior.

Ninomiya, S., R. Kusunose, S. Sato, M. Terada, and K. Sugawara (2004). Effects of feeding methods on eating frustration in stabled horses. Animal Science Journal 75(5): 465-469. ISSN: 1344-3941.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A542
Descriptors: horses, stable environment, feeding methods, behavioral evaluation, hay length, feeding time, feeding frequency, feeding location, hay type.

Pagan, J.D. (2005). Feeding management of horses under stressful conditions. In: J.D. Pagan (Editor), Advances in Equine Nutrition III, Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, p. 107-120. ISBN: 1904761283.
NAL Call Number: SF285.5.A39 2005
Descriptors: horses, stress, performance, competition, feeding methods, gastroinestinal function, hydration status, electrolytes, nutrition, effect of feeding practices on performance, electrolytes.

Pagan, J.D. and P.A. Harris (1999). The effects of timing and amount of forage and grain on exercise response in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 30(Suppl.): 451-457. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Abstract: There is considerable debate among horsemen about how to feed horses before exercise. Should horses be fed or fasted before work and when should hay be fed relative to grain and/or exercise? Three experiments were conducted to evaluate if feeding hay with and without grain affects glycaemic and haematological responses in Thoroughbred (TB) horses at rest and during a simulated competition exercise test (CET) on a high-speed treadmill. In Experiment 1, 6 TB horses were fed hay at 3 different times relative to a grain meal. Time of feeding hay affected glycaemic response, plasma protein and water intake post grain feeding. During Experiment 2, 4 TB horses were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine whether feeding grain with or without hay prior to a CET would affect substrate utilisation and exercise. Feeding grain reduced free fatty acid (FFA) availability and increased blood glucose disappearance during exercise (P < 0.05). Feeding hay either along with grain or ad libitum the night before exercise resulted in reduced plasma volume (P < 0.05) and higher lactate production (P < 0.05) and heart rates (P < 0.05) during exercise. During Experiment 3, 4 TB horses were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment to determine whether feeding forage but no grain prior to CET would affect substrate utilisation and performance. Feeding only forage before exercise did not adversely affect performance. It was concluded that grain should be withheld from horses before exercise, but that small quantities of hay should be fed to ensure proper gastrointestinal tract function.
Descriptors: Thoroughbreds, feeding horses prior to exercise, glycemic and hematological responses, treadmill exercise, feeding only forage prior to exercise, withholding of grain prior to exercise.

Pearson, R.A., R.F. Archibald, and R.H. Muirhead (2006). A comparison of the effect of forage type and level of feeding on the digestibility and gastrointestinal mean retention time of dry forages given to cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys. British Journal of Nutrition 95(1): 88-98. ISSN: 0007-1145.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 B773
Descriptors: barley, barley straw, diets, digestibility, digestion, feed intake, forage, hay, lucerne, rumen digestion, straw, cattle, donkeys, horses, Medicago, sheep.

Pluta, M. (2000). Ocena zywienia konikow polskich, arabokonikow i kucow felinskich w systemie ad libitum oraz znormalizowanej pracy. [Estimation of the feeding of Polish Konik horses, Arab Konik horses and Felin Ponies in a system of ad libitum maintenance and standardized work]. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska Sectio EE Zootechnica (Poland) 18: 145-153. ISSN: 0239-4243.
NAL Call Number: SF84.A56
Abstract: The aim of the study was to find out information on the range of hay and oat amounts taken by Polish Konik, Arab Konik and Felin Pony mares fed ad libitum and exercised in standardized work. The mares were subjected to three kinds of experiments: in an electric treadmill, under saddle and in harness. 14 mares took part in 10 experiments, which examined 30 factors. The intensity of work negatively influenced the water and hay intake and positively the oat intake. The latter effect was significant. In all experiments there was a tendency to exceed the nutrient requirements. Arab Konik mares were came out to be the most resistant to be quality of work, while those of Felin Pony type usually reacted with a considerable increase in feed, nutrient and water intake. Polish Konik mares placed themselves at the medium position between the other 2 groups of mares.
Descriptors: horse breeds comparison, Polish Konik, Arab Konik, Felin Pony, mares, exercise, treadmill, under saddle, in harness, effect of work intensity on intake of food and water, animal feeding, unrestricted feeding, nurtient requirements.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Riond, J.L., S. Leoni, and M. Wanner (2000). Etude comparative de trois modes de rationnement pour les chevaux du train de l'armee suisse. [Comparative study of three feeding methods for the draught horses of the Swiss army]. Schweizer Archiv Fuer Tierheilkunde 142(10): 570-579. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: horses, feeding methods, nutrition, feed analysis, feed consumption, eating behavior, digestibility.
Language of Text: French.

Ullstein Jr., H. (1998). Feeding technique for welfare of horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 80(2-5): 217-219. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Descriptors: horses, management practices, feeding, animal welfare.

Vogel, C. (1996). The Complete Performance Horse: Preventive Medicine, Fitness, Feeding, Lameness, David & Charles: Newton Abbot, Devon, UK, 240 p. ISBN: 0715303457.
NAL Call Number: SF956.V64 1996
Descriptors: equine sports medicine handbooks, manuals, competition horses diseases handbooks, manuals, competition horses wounds and injuries handbooks, manuals, competition horses health handbooks, manuals.

Waller, A., K.J. Smithurst, G.L. Ecker, R. Geor, and M.I. Lindinger (2005). Cyclical plasma electrolyte and acid-base responses to meal feeding in horses over a 24-h period. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology 2(3): 159-169. ISSN: 1478-0615.
Descriptors: blood plasma electrolyte state, acid base equilibrium, effect of feeding, plasma acidosis, carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion concentration, physicochemical variables.

Zeitler Feicht, M.H. and S. Walker (2005). Zum Einsatz eines speziellen Heunetzes in der Pferdefutterung aus ethologischer Sicht. [Deployment of a special net as a method of hay feeding in horses under ethological aspects]. Pferdeheilkunde 21(3): 229-233. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: feeding methods, hay consumption time, loose hay versus netted hay, feeding behavior.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

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 Last updated: October 25, 2011