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Age Specific Nutrition

Buechner Maxwell, V.A. (2005). Nutritional support for neonatal foals. Veterinary Clinics of North America, The Equine Practice 21(2): 487-510. ISSN: 0749-0739.
Descriptors: complications, diets, foals, horse feeding, newborn animals, nutrients, nutritional support, parenteral feeding, therapy, horses.

Cartmill, J.A., D.L. Thompson, W.A. Storer, J.C. Crowley, N.K. Huff, and C.A. Waller (2005). Effect of dexamethasone, feeding time, and insulin infusion on leptin concentrations in stallions. Journal of Animal Science 83(8): 1875-1881. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Three experiments tested the hypotheses that daily cortisol rhythm, feeding time, and/or insulin infusion affect(s) leptin secretion in stallions. Ten mature stallions received ad libitum hay and water and were fed a grain concentrate once daily at 0700. In Exp. 1, stallions received either a single injection of dexamethasone (125 [micro]g/kg BW i.m.; n = 5) or vehicle (controls; n = 5) at 0700 on d -1. Starting 24 h later, blood samples were collected every 2 h for 36 h via jugular venipuncture. Cortisol in control stallions varied (P < 0.01) with time, with a morning peak and evening nadir; dexamethasone suppressed (P < 0.01) cortisol concentrations. Leptin and insulin were greater (P < 0.01) in the treated stallions, as was the insulin response to feeding (P < 0.01). Leptin in control stallions varied (P < 0.01) in a diurnal pattern, peaking approximately 10 h after onset of eating. This pattern of leptin secretion was similar, although of greater magnitude (P < 0.01), in treated stallions. In Exp. 2, five stallions were fed the concentrate portion of their diet daily at 0700 and five were switched to feeding at 1900. After 14 d on these regimens, blood samples were collected every 4 h for 48 h and then twice daily for 5 d. Cortisol varied diurnally (P = 0.02) and was not altered (P = 0.21) by feeding time. Insulin and leptin increased (P < 0.01) after feeding, and the peaks in insulin and leptin were shifted 12 h by feeding at 1900. In Exp. 3, six stallions were used in two 3 x 3 Latin square experiments. Treatments were 1) normal daily meal at 0700; 2) no feed for 24 h; and 3) no feed and a bolus injection of insulin (0.4 mIU/kg BW i.v.) followed by infusion of insulin (1.2 mIU[bullet]kg BW-1[bullet]min-1) for 180 min, which was gradually decreased to 0 by 240 min; sufficient glucose was infused to maintain euglycemia. Plasma insulin increased (P < 0.01) in stallions when they were meal-fed (to approximately 150 [micro]IU/mL) or infused with insulin and glucose (to approximately 75 [micro]IU/mL), but insulin remained low (10 [micro]IU/mL or less) when they were not fed. The increases in insulin were paralleled by gradual increases (P < 0.01) in leptin concentrations 3 to 4 h later in stallions fed or infused with insulin and glucose. When stallions were not fed, leptin concentrations remained low. These results demonstrate that feeding time, and more specifically the insulin increase associated with a meal, not cortisol rhythm, drives the postprandial increase in plasma leptin concentrations in horses.
Descriptors: horses, plasma leptin concentration, insulin, daily cortisol rhythm, dexamethasone, feeding time, stallions.

Danek, J., E. Wisniewski, and W. Krumrych (1996). Wplyw nadmiaru wapnia w paszy na jakosc nasienia ogierow. [Effect of calcium excess in feed on semen quality in stallions]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 52(7): 459-461. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: stallions, semen quality, calcium supplements, spermatozoa, animal feeding.
Language of Text: Polish.

De Oliveira, K., C.E. Furtado, and E.P. Da Graca (2001). Desempenho e parametros sanguineos de equinos em crescimento submetidos a dietas com diferentes niveis de farelo de canola. [Performance and blood parameters of growing equine fed diets with different levels of canola meal]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 30(1): 174-180. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: growing horses, nutrition, canola meal, soybean meal, performance, blood parameters, concentrates.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

De Rezende, A.S.C., I.B.M. Sampaio, G.L. Legorreta, and D.C.D.A. Moreira (2000). Efeito de dois diferentes programas nutricionais sobre o desenvolvimento corporal de potros Mangalarga marchador. [Effect of two different nutritional programs on development in Mangalarga Marchador foals]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 29(2): 495-501. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: horses, foals, weaning, concentrate, supplements, Mangalarga Marchador, Brazilian horse breed.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Dos Santos, C.P., C.E. Furtado, C.C. Jobim, A.C. Furlan, C.A. Mundim, and E.P. Da Graca (2002). Avaliacao da silagem de graos umidos de milho na alimentacao de equinos em crescimento: valor nutricional e desempenho. [Evaluation of high moisture corn silage for growing horses diets: Nutritional value and performance]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 31(3): 1214-1222. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: growing horses, nutrition, high moisture corn silage, growth, performance, corn grain alternatives.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Drozdova, J. and L. Bindas (1997). Zasady spravnej vyzivy zriebat. [Principles of proper nutrition of foals]. In: Proceedings from the International Conference Held on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Research Institute of Animal Production, October 8, 1997-October 9, 1997, Nitra, Slovak Republic, Nitra, Slovak Republic, p. 163-165. ISBN: 8096770020.
Abstract: The work deals with the main principles of the proper nutrition of foals based both on earlier practical experiences and present knowledge. In relation to the prevention of health disorders it relates to the problems within the periods of the colostral and milk nutrition to the questions of artificial raising of foals and the principles of proper weaning and post-weaning of foals.
Descriptors: foal nutrition, experience and scientific knowledge, health disorders, colostrum, milk nutrition, artificial rearing of foals, weaning.
Language of Text: Slovak.

Fowden, A.L., P.M. Taylor, K.L. White, and A.J. Forhead (2000). Ontogenic and nutritionally induced changes in fetal metabolism in the horse. Journal of Physiology 528(1): 209-219. ISSN: 0022-3751.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J82
Descriptors: horses, Fick principle, tracer method, fetal foals, nutrition, gestational stages, umbilical bloodflow, umbilical oxygen uptake, fetal glucose use, umbilical lactate uptake.

Guay, K.A., H.A. Brady, V.G. Allen, K.R. Pond, D.B. Wester, L.A. Janecka, and N.L. Heninger (2002). Matua bromegrass hay for mares in gestation and lactation. Journal of Animal Science 80(11): 2960-2966. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Matua bromegrass hay (Bromus willdenowii Kunth) is a high quality forage, but its value for mares during gestation and lactation is not well known. Intake, rate of passage, performance, and reproduction by gestating and lactating Quarter Horse mares fed the hay was investigated. In this experiment, 12, 2- to 12-yr-old gravid mares (mean BW = 553 kg; SD = 36) were fed Matua hay (CP = 11.5%) or alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) (CP = 15.4%) for variable days prepartum (mean 59.9 d; SD = 23.5) and for 70 d postpartum. Matua and alfalfa hay were fed as the roughage portion of the diet with a grain supplement. Mares, blocked by age, expected date of foaling, and BW, were assigned randomly within blocks to treatments (six mares per treatment). Forage type did not affect intake, gestation length, birth weight, number of foals, foal weight gain, day of first postpartum ovulation, cycles per conception, or pregnancy rate at 70 d. On d 1, milk from mares fed alfalfa hay contained less (P < 0.03) CP than milk from mares fed Matua hay. Milk CP decreased (P < 0.01) in all mares over time. In a separate experiment, voluntary intake and rate of passage of Matua (CP = 15.5%), alfalfa (CP = 24.9%), and Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) (CP = 4.1%) hays were determined in nine 2-yr-old pregnant mares (mean BW = 447 kg; SD = 21). Diets were 100% forage. Timothy hay did not meet CP requirements for mares. Voluntary intake of alfalfa hay was higher (P < 0.01) than Matua hay. Intake of Timothy hay was lower (P < 0.01) than the mean of alfalfa and Matua hay. Rate of passage of forage was measured by passage of Cr-mordanted fiber. Passage rate and retention time did not differ between Matua and alfalfa. hay; however, the retention times of Matua and alfalfa hays were shorter (P < 0.01) than for Timothy hay. Our results indicate that Matua hay is a forage that can be used safely for mares during gestation and early lactation and for their young foals.
Descriptors: mares, lactation, fodder crops, feed intake, digestion, performance, sexual reproduction, Bromus catharticus, alfalfa hay, foaling, liveweight, twinning, foals, liveweight gain, conception rate, pregnancy rate, mare milk, transit time, timothy hay, matua hay, Phleum pratense L., Medicago sativa L.

Guillaume, D., G. Duchamp, J. Salazar Ortiz, and P. Nagy (2002). Nutrition influences the winter ovarian inactivity in mares. Theriogenology 58(2-4): 593-597. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: horses, mares, nutrition, seasonality, endocrine function, reproduction, ovulation, chemeostasis, lactation.

Hintz, H.F. (1998). Protein nutrition of the mare. Equine Practice 20(4): 20-21. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: mares, animal feeding, animal nutrition, diet, proteins, feed intake, reproduction, lactation, behavior, feeding habits.

Hintz, H.F. (1995). Nutrition of the geriatric horse. Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers: 195-197. ISSN: 0885-7687.
Descriptors: nutritional requirements, geriatric horses, aging, animal health, biological development, physiological requirements.

Lakritz, J., W.D. Wilson, A.E. Marsh, and J.E. Mihalyi (2000). Effects of prior feeding on pharmacokinetics and estimated bioavailability after oral administration of a single dose of microencapsulated erythromycin base in healthy foals. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(9): 1011-1015. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of prior feeding on pharmacokinetics and estimated bioavailability of orally administered microencapsulated erythromycin base (MEB) in healthy foals. ANIMALS: 6 healthy foals, 3 to 5 months old. PROCEDURE: Foals were given 2 doses of MEB (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO). One dose was administered after food was withheld overnight, and the other was administered after foals had consumed hay. The study used a crossover design with a 2-week period between doses. Blood was collected via a jugular vein prior to and at specific times after drug administration. Concentrations of erythromycin A and anhydroerythromycin A in plasma were determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma concentration-time data for food-withheld and fed conditions were compared. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of erythromycin A for foals were lower after feeding than concentrations when food was withheld. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve, maximum plasma concentration, and estimated bioavailability were greater in foals when food was withheld than when foals were fed. Anhydroerythromycin A was detected in plasma after administration of MEB in all foals. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Foals should be given MEB before they are fed hay. Administration of MEB to foals from which food was withheld overnight apparently provides plasma concentrations of erythromycin A that exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of Rhodococcus equi for approximately 5 hours. The dosage of 25 mg/kg every 8 hours, PO, appears appropriate.
Descriptors: microencapsulated erythromycin base (MEB), anti-bacterial agents, administration of erythromycin, foals, feeding of hay, withholding fee prior to administration of MEB.

Malinowski, K., R.A. Christensen, A. Konopka, C.G. Scanes, and H.D. Hafs (1997). Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin. Journal of Animal Science 75(3): 755-760. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P <.07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P <.05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, poke-weed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.
Descriptors: mares, somatotropin, feed intake, body weight, body condition, muscles, lymphocyte transformation, blood picture, dosage, dry matter, leukocyte count, oxidation, granulocytes.

Monahan, C.M., M.R. Chapman, H.W. Taylor, D.D. French, and T.R. Klei (1997). Foals raised on pasture with or without daily pyrantel tartrate feed additive: comparison of parasite burdens and host responses following experimental challenge with large and small strongyle larvae. Veterinary Parasitology 73(3-4): 277-289. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: Three groups of foals were raised under different management programs in this study: Group 1 (n = 6) and Group 2 (n = 6) were raised with their dams on pasture; Group 3 foals (n = 5) were raised under parasite-free conditions. Mares and foals of Group 1 received daily pyrantel tartrate (PT) treatment with their pelleted feed ration, whereas mares and foals of Groups 2 and 3 received only the pelleted ration. Pasture-reared foals were weaned and moved to a heavily contaminated pasture for 5 weeks. Group 1 foals continued to receive daily PT treatment whereas Group 2 foals received only the pelleted feed ration. Following this period, all foals were moved into box stalls. Half of each group was challenged with 10(3) Strongylus vulgaris infective third-stage larvae (L3), 5 x 10(3) Strongylus edentatus L3 and 10(5) mixed cyathostome L3; the remaining half served as unchallenged controls. Necropsy examinations were performed 6-week post-challenge for evaluation of parasite burdens and lesions. Daily PT treatment of Group 1 reduced the patent cyathostome infections of both mares and foals and was effective in reducing pasture burdens of infective larvae. Daily treatment of Group 1 foals during weaning continued to suppress EPG levels; however, it did not prevent large strongyle infections during the weaning period. Group 1 foals were more sensitive to challenge than Group 2 foals, which did not exhibit any post-challenge disturbances. Group 1 foals were equally susceptible to challenge as parasite-free foals.
Descriptors: foals, mares, antinematodal, intestinal mucosa, pyrantel, strongyl infections, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, feces parasitology, ivermectin, larva, parasite egg count, cyathostome infections.

Ott, E.A. and J. Kivipelto (1998). Influence of dietary fat and time of hay feeding on growth and development of yearling horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 18(4): 254-259. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: dietary fats, feeding habits, feeding frequency, growth of young horses, biological development, feed intake, energy metabolism, supplements, hay, nutrient intake.

Ousey, J.C., M. Ghatei, P.D. Rossdale, and S.R. Bloom (1995). Gut hormone responses to feeding in healthy pony foals aged 0 to 7 days. In: Equine Reproduction VI, August 7, 1994-August 13, 1994, Caxambu, Brazil, Biology of Reproduction Monograph Series, Society for the Study of Reproduction: Madison, Wisconsin, USA, p. 87-96. ISBN: 0962792012.
NAL Call Number: SF768.2.H67E69 1995
Descriptors: foals, newborn animals, ponies, animal feeding, digestive system, gastrointestinal hormones.

Ousey, J.C., S. Prandi, J. Zimmer, N. Holdstock, and P.D. Rossdale (1997). Effects of various feeding regimens on the energy balance of equine neonates. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58(11): 1243-1251. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: foals, horse feeding, energy balance, energy intake, energy metabolism, feces, urine, energy expenditure, metabolizable energy, milk substitutes, total parenteral nutrition, mare milk, body weight, age differences.

Pagan, J.D. (2005). Nutrition of the growing horse: feeding management to reduce DOD. In: Applied Equine Nutrition 1st Equine Nutrition Conference ENUCO, October 1, 2005, Hannover, Germany, Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 127-138.
Descriptors: nutrition, feeding regimen, nutritional management, pathogenisis, orthopedic disease, bone disease, lameness, mineral deficiency, nutrient balance.

Quadros, J.B.D.S., C.E. Furtado, E.D. Barbosa, M.B. Da Andrade, and A.G. Trevisan (2004). Digestibilidade aparente e desenvolvimento de equinos em crescimento submetidos a dietas compostas por diferentes niveis de substituicao do feno de tifton 85 pela casca de soja. [Apparent digestibility and development of growing horses fed diets with different levels of substitution of tifton 85 hay for soybean hulls]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 33(3): 564-574. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: growing horses, nutritional utilization, diet composition, soybean hulls, Tifton 85 hay, alternative feeds.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Rassu, S.P.G., A. Cannas, G. Enne, R. Cherchi, and S. Delogu (1999). Impiego dei lieviti vivi nell' alimentazione degli stalloni. [Live yeast use in stallion feeding]. In: Proceedings of the ASPA Congress-Recent Progress in Animal Production Science, June 21, 1999-June 24, 1999, Italy, Piacenza (Italy), Vol. 1, p. 809-811.
Abstract: The effects of diet supplementation with live yeasts (20 g/head d) on feed digestibility and sperm quality of stallions were evaluated. The results showed a slight positive effect, not statistically significant, on digestibility during the first month of administration. The effects on quantitative and qualitative traits of semen were more interesting; sperm was better in treated group during 2 months following the interruption of treatment: volume ml 47 +- 9 vs 34 +- 5, concentration 10*[6)/ml 575 +- 806 vs 416 +- 39, live spermatozoa 83 +- 5 % vs 65 +- 29 % (P<0.05)].
Descriptors: stallions, animal feeding, dietary supplements, yeasts, feed digestibility, semen quality, probiotics, nitrogen retention, feed conversion efficiency.
Language of Text: Italian with an English summary.

Siciliano, P.D. (2002). Nutrition and feeding of the geriatric horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America, The Equine Practice 18(3): 491-508. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call Number: SF951.V47
Abstract: Little is known regarding nutrient requirements and feeding of geriatric horses, and more effort should be placed on this area of equine nutrition research. That which is known suggests that some geriatric horses may not have different requirements than other mature horses, whereas others affected by disease or poor dentition may have special nutritional needs. In general, rations for geriatric horses should be based on high-quality roughage supplemented with complementary minerals and vitamins. The need for additional energy aside from that provided by the forage can be supplied by adding energy concentrates, such as cereal grains or fat, to the ration. Processing techniques involving heat, such as pelleting and extruding, are advised when cereal grains are included in the ration so as to improve starch digestibility in the small intestine and avoid starch overload in the hindgut and it subsequent problem (ie, colic, laminitis). In addition, the environment in which geriatric horses are fed should be one that promotes ease of ration consumption and eliminates factors thar impair feed consumption, such as competition from other horses and the need to travel relatively long distances (eg, grazing marginal pastures). Finally, strict attention should be paid to the body condition of geriatric horses so as to evaluate adequacy of the ration and the general health of the horse.
Descriptors: geriatric horses, nutrient requirements, feeding, nutritional requirements, provision of high-quality roughage, mimization of competition for feed with other horses, body condition scoring, general horse health, aged horses.

St. Lawrence, A.C., L.M. Lawrence, S.H. Hayes, and M. Adams (2001). Plasma glucose responses of growing horses to different concentrate feeds. Journal of Dairy Science 84(Suppl. 1): 208-209. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call Number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: feeding practices, plasma glucose levels, concentrates, young horses, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Joint Meeting of the American Diary Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; July 24-28, 2001.

Tomczynski, R., Z. Kaleta, D. Minakowski, E. Jastrzebska, and E. Wadas (2002). Studies on the use of flavour preparations in the feed mixtures for adult horses. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences(12): 167-196. ISSN: 1643-9953.
NAL Call Number: QH301.N388
Abstract: The preference tests involved granulated feed mixtures with the following flavour additives made by ETOL, Slovenia: Lucerne (Flavour 12021), hay (Flavour 12023), vanilin (Flavour12017). Horses were interested in flavoured feed after a 4-day adaptation period. Using additives of hay or lucerne flavour in a feed mixture used for feeding stallions had a favourable influence on the intake. It was also found that additives of vanilin Flavour 12017 and of lucerne Flavour 12021 had a favourable influence on the intake of nutritive fodder.
Descriptors: preference testing, granulated feed mixtures, Lucerne, hay, vanilin, flavored feed, stallions, effect of feed additives on intake of nutrient fodder, feed additives, feeding preferences.

Tomczynski, R., D. Miniakowski, Z. Kaleta, E. Wadas, and E. Jastrzebska (2003). Studies on the use of flavour preparations in the feed mixtures for foals. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences(13): 135-141. ISSN: 1643-9953.
NAL Call Number: QH301.N388
Abstract: Flavour additives in the nutrition of foals have got a limited influence on the intake of nutritive fodder. The addition of examined flavour preparations to the feed mixtures used in the nutrition of 2 month old suckling foals did not have any effect on the intake of feed. The foals at the age from 2 to 5 months showed an increased intake of the nutritive fodder, with the addition of milk flavour in particular, and the mixtures with vanilin flavour.
Descriptors: flavor additives in feed, foal nutrition, feeding preferences, effect of flavor on feed intatke, nutritive fodder, milk flavor, lucerne, milk, hay, vanillin, foal nutrition.

Van der Meer, F.J.U.M. and B. Colenbrander (1999). Sperm production in the horse: the influence of restricted feeding during the prepubertal and pubertal period. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 34(3-4): 361-365. ISSN: 0936-6768.
NAL Call Number: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: horses, puberty, sexual development, effects of feeding practices, restricted feeding.

Wilsher, S. and W.R. Allen (2003). The effects of maternal nutrition on placental and fetal development in maiden Thoroughbred mares. In: Proceedings of a Workshop on Embryonic and Fetal Nutrition, May 15, 2003-May 18, 2003, Ravello, Italy, Havemeyer Foundation Monograph Series, p. 70-71.
Descriptors: age, animal nutrition, body condition, fetal development, fetal growth, fetus, mares, placenta, plane of nutrition, pregnancy, Thoroughbred, horses.

Wodarczyk-Szydowska, A., W. Nowacki, M. Florek, and Z. Staroniewicz (2005). Swoista odpornosc posiarowa zrebiat w stadninie koni penej krwi. [Specific colostral protection of foals in a thoroughbred stable]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 61(11): 1296-1299. ISSN: 0025-8628.
Descriptors: foals, immune system, anibody levels, colostrum, pathogen antibodies.
Language of Text: Polish.

Youngblood, R.C., B.J. Rude, D.L. Christiansen, N.M. Filipov, R. Hopper, N.S. Hill, B.P. Fitzgerald, and P.L. Ryan (2003). Effects of feeding endophyte-infected tall Fescue diets on embryo survival in mares during early gestation. Journal of Dairy Science 86(Suppl. 1): 73. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call Number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: horses, pregnant mares, nutrition, reproductive system, endophyte infected tall Fescue plants, toxicology.
Notes: Meeting Information: Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, the American Society of Animal Science and the Mexican Association of Animal Production, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; June 22-26, 2003.

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