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Nutrition and Feeding

Anonymous. (1997). 2nd International Conference on Feeding Horses, March 17, 1997-March 20, 1997, United Kingdom, Dodson and Horrell Ltd.: Kettering, United Kingdom, 35 p.
Descriptors: heat stress, foot diseases, horses, organic diseases, stress, laminitis.

Argo, C.M.G., J.E. Cox, C. Lockyer, and Z. Fuller (2002). Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form. British Society of Animal Science 74(pt. 3): 517-528. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Abstract: Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (approximately 230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled and pelleted preparation (P). Ad libitum access to the study diet (gross energy = 17.2 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)) was attained over 2 weeks. In the following 4 weeks, groups 1 (no. = 3) and 2 (no. = 4) received pelleted and chaff-based diets respectively. Dietary forms were exchanged during week 5 and ad libitum provision continued for a further 4 weeks. Behaviour and apparent nutrient digestibilities were assessed in weeks 3 and 4 of each period. Pelleted food had a lower proportion of water (P, 0.12; C, 0.22), but relative proportions of oil (0.04), crude protein (0.08), crude fibre (0.29), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF; 0.53) and gross energy (GE) were neither altered by food processing nor time. Apparent digestibilities (DM, 0.49; GE, 0.50; NDF, 0.40 in period 1) of the pelleted and chaff-based diets were similar within periods but decreased (P < 0.01) to a similar extent for both diet types (proportional changes: DM, -0.14; GE, -0.16; NDF, -0.28) in period 2. Overall, mean intakes of digestible energy (DE) for chaff-fed animals during period 1 were 0.73 (P < 0.001) of pellet DE intake (DEI). Mean DEI of pellets increased (P < 0.001) during period 1 to attain 1.76 (s.e. 0.25) MJ/kg M0.75 on day 25. Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P < 0.001) to 0.68 (s.e. 0.07) MJ/kg M0.75 by the end of period 2. In contrast, DEI of animals which progressed from chaff to. pellets remained relatively constant between periods. Oestrous behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite of individual mares. Irrespective of differences in DEI, average daily gain (ADG) in body weight and condition score (CS) did not differ between groups. Overall, mean ADG decreased (P < 0.01) from 1.54 (s.e. 0.17) kg/day in period 1 to 0.26 (s.e. 0.08) kg/day in period 2. Changes in body weight were associated with CS (R2 = 0.72). Each CS point represented a 53.4 (s.e. 4.8) kg gain in body weight. Chaff meals were longer (30.6 (s.e. 1.6) min, P < 0.001), less frequent (23.8 (s.e. 1.4) per day, P < 0.001) and associated with a lower bite rate (3.8 (s.e. 0.2) per min, P < 0.001) and increased chewing requirement (23 (s.e. 1.2) per bite, P < 0.001), which decreased the rate of DM intake (17.0 (s.e. 0.9) g/min, P < 0.001). Overall, chaff-fed animals spent more time feeding (0.50 (s.e. 1.3) of the time; P < 0.001), primarily at the expense of non-feeding activity and rest. The ad libitum feeding regime enabled stabled ponies to re-establish natural feeding patterns and offers a viable alternative to meal and forage feeding. The more slowly ingested chaff form maximized time spent feeding and limited changes in DEI during the introductory period. Although CS and ADG increased over the first 4 weeks, growth and appetite returned to near maintenance values within 9 weeks in association with a decrease in dietary energy intake and nutrient digestibility.
Descriptors: horses, unrestricted feeding, feeding behavior, pelleted feeds, chaff, forage, complete feeds, energy intake, voluntary intake, body weight, body condition, digestibility, appetite, feeding preferences.

Austbo, D. and H. Volden (2006). Influence of passage model and caecal cannulation on estimated passage kinetics of roughage and concentrate in the gastrointestinal tract of horses. Livestock Science 100(1): 33-43. ISSN: 1871-1413.
Descriptors: evaluation methods, non-linear pasage model, total tract retention time, hindgut fractional passage rates, hay, concentrates, effect of caecal cannulation on passage parameters.
Notes: Meeting Information: Nutritive Value of Concentrates in Horses. Papers presented at the 54th EAAP meeting, Rome, Italy, 2003.

Cairns, M.C., J.J. Cooper, H.P.B. Davidson, and D.S. Mills (2002). Association in horses of orosensory characteristics of foods with their post-ingestive consequences. British Society of Animal Science 75(2): 257-265. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Descriptors: horses, feeding preference, nutrient content.

Carmalt, J.L., N.F. Cymbaluk, and H.G.G. Townsend (2005). Effect of premolar and molar occlusal angle on feed digestibility, water balance, and fecal particle size in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227(1): 110-113. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, feeding, nutritional intake, dental effects, feed digestibility, molars.

Carmalt, J.L., H.G.G. Townsend, E.D. Janzen, and N.F. Cymbaluk (2004). Effect of dental floating on weight gain, body condition score, feed digestibility, and fecal particle size in pregnant mares. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225(12): 1889-1893. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, pregnant mares, nutrition, dentistry, floating teeth, body condition score.

Clarke, J.V., C.J. Nicol, R. Jones, and P.D. McGreevy (1996). Effects of observational learning on food selection in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50(2): 177-184. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, learning, behavior patterns, feeding preferences.

Clarke, C.J., P.L. Roeder, and P.M. Dixon (1996). Nasal obstruction caused by nutritional osteodystrophia fibrosa in a group of Ethiopian horses. The Veterinary Record 138(23): 568-570. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A severe, advanced case of nutritional osteodystrophia fibrosa is described in a 10-year-old gelding with primary upper respiratory obstruction and chronic weight loss, which was one of a group of similarly affected horses in Ethiopia. The diagnosis was based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and management history. The affected bones had suffered severe mineral depletion.
Descriptors: bone diseases, nasal obstruction, vitamin D deficiency, osteodystrophia fibrosa, gelding, upper respiratory obstruction, weight loss, Ethiopia.

Coenen, M. (1998). Beurteilung des Ernahrungszustandes von Pferden und Rindern im Rahmen amtstierarztlicher Massnahmen. [Review of nutritional conditions of horses and cattle as a tool in veterinary services animal welfare procedures]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 105(3): 124-127. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Abstract: The control of husbandry by veterinarians with the prospect of animal welfare demands a valuation of the nutritional status of farm animals. The situation of main importance is a suspected undernutrition. A prolonged failure in nutrient and energy supply results in mobilisation of body fat as well as body protein. Especially the protein depletion includes a loss of capacity of several essential functions, e.g. of the immune system or the respiratory tract. Undernutrition is often classified as stress, but the typical parameters for stress related reactions offer no sufficient information to evaluate a case of undernutrition. A useful tool to justify the nutritional status of an animal is the amount of body fat by sonographic measurements. Processes related to reproduction are rather sensible to a reduction of body fat; although they are less expensive by energy point of view compared to exercise or milk production. Measuring body fat offers the opportunity to describe the degree of undernutrition and to appreciate, if a malnourished animal is damaged accordingly the definitions of animal welfare. However, the equipment and the experience to use sonographic methods is often not available for veterinarians, who are responsible in official control of husbandry. But the visual and manual procedures to proof defined areas, mainly related to back fat thickness, well known as the body condition scoring, alternatively can be used. The body condition score systems, as defined for cows, sheep and horses, are proofed by different experiments with regard to accuracy and reproducibility. They completely cover the demand in precision to evaluate body fat and in consequence the nutritional status of an animal.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, body condition score, cattle, horses, nutritional status, health status, veterinary medicine, malnutrition, protein depletion.
Language of Text: German.

Cooper, J.J., N. Mcall, S. Johnson, and H.P.B. Davidson (2005). The short-term effects of increasing meal frequency on stereotypic behaviour of stabled horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(3-4): 351-364. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: feeding frequency, stereotyped behavior, feed concentrates.

Dacre, I. (2005). The impact of nutrition on dental health and management of equine teeth for optimal nutrition. In: Applied Equine Nutrition 1st Equine NUtrition COnference ENUCO, October 1, 2005-October 2, 2005, Hannover, Germany, p. 27-41.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, dental caries, dental health, dentistry, dentition, diet, digestibility, mastication, reviews, teeth, tooth diseases, horses.

De La Rua Domenech, R., H.O. Mohammed, J.F. Cummings, T.J. Divers, A. De Lahunta, and B.A. Summers (1997). Intrinsic, management, and nutritional factors associated with equine motor neuron disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(10): 1261-1267. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: equine motor neuron disease (EMND), intrinsic elements, nutrition risk factors, oxidative stress as a risk factor, epidemiology, age and breed effects, rabies vaccination effects, feeding practices, exercise, grass paddocks, vitamin E, selenium.

Doxey, D.L., S. Tothill, E.M. Milne, and Z. Davis (1995). Patterns of feeding and behaviour in horses recovering from dysautonomia (grass sickness). The Veterinary Record 137(8): 181-183. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: horses, digestive disorders, nervous system diseases, animal diseases, feeding habits, behavior, behavior, disorders, functional disorders, organic diseases, grass-sickness, dysautonomia.

Drogoul, C., A. de Fombelle, and V. Julliand (2001). Feeding and microbial disorders in horses. 2. Effect of three hay:grain ratios on digesta passage rate and digestibility in ponies. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(10): 487-491. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, fiber, digestibility, digesta passage rate, transit time, hay:grain ratios, barley, feeding disorders.

Durham, A.E. (2006). Clinical application of parenteral nutrition in the treatment of five ponies and one donkey with hyperlipaemia. The Veterinary Record 158(5): 159-164. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: horses, donkeys, hyperliaemia, clinical conditions, lipid-free partial parenteral nutrition, glucose, amino acids, energy, triglyceride concentration, clinical response.

Durham, A.E., T.J. Phillips, J.P. Walmsley, and J.R. Newton (2004). Nutritional and clinicopathological effects of post operative parenteral nutrition following small intestinal resection and anastomosis in the mature horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 36(5): 390-396. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, nutrition, colic surgery, parenteral nutrition, intestinal resection.

Durham, A.E., T.J. Phillips, J.P. Walmsley, and J.R. Newton (2003). Study of the clinical effects of postoperative parenteral nutrition in 15 horses. The Veterinary Record 153(16): 493-498. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Several clinical variables were compared in two groups of 15 horses recovering from resection and anastomosis of a strangulated small intestine; 15 were treated with parenteral nutrition and 15 were starved routinely. There was some evidence that parenteral nutrition had a short-lived adverse effect on both the catheter sites and gastric emptying, but there were no marked adverse clinical effects and no evidence of any improvement in the horses' condition.
Descriptors: abdomen, anastomosis, parenteral nutrition, horse diseases, laparoscopy, postoperative complications, treatment outcome.

Ewing, R.A. (1997). Beyond the Hay Days: A Refreshingly Simple Guide to Effective Horse Nutrition, 1st edition, PixyJack Press: LaSalle, Colorado, USA, 128 p. ISBN: 0965809803.
NAL Call Number: SF285.5.E97 1997
Descriptors: horses, feeding and feeds, horses nutrition.

Feige, K., A. Furst, and M.W. Eser (2002). Auswirkungen von haltung, futterung und nutzung auf die pferdegesundheit unter besonderer berucksichtigung respiratorischer und gastrointestinaler krankheiten. [Influences of environment, feeding and use on equine health with emphasis on respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases]. Schweizer Archiv Fuer Tierheilkunde 144(7): 348-355. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: horses, hypersensitivity of respiratory tract to fungi and thermophil aktinomyces, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), feeding practices, equine health, dental problems in horses, gastric ulcers, colic, Switzerland.
Language of Text: German.

Fuller, Z., J.E. Cox, and C. M. Argo (2001). Photoperiodic entrainment of seasonal changes in the appetite, feeding behaviour, growth rate and pelage of pony colts. British Society of Animal Science 72(pt.1): 65-74. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Abstract: Relationships among photoperiod and changes in voluntary food intake, feeding behaviour, growth and pelage were determined in seven, 2-year-old pony colts (182.4 (s.e. 5.4) kg). Individually housed colts were provided with ad libitum access to a complete pelleted diet (gross energy = 16.7 MJ/kg dry matter). Voluntary food intake (VFI, kg/day) was calculated daily and body weights were recorded weekly throughout the 36-week study. Feeding behaviour was evaluated at approximately 4-week intervals by continuous observation (24 h), and the hair weight density (HWD, mg/cm2) of shoulder pelage was determined fortnightly. Day length was artificially manipulated to mimic the prevailing mid-summer photoperiod (16 h light:8 h dark, 16L:8D). After 1 week of the study (and the preceding fortnight), day length was abruptly decreased and thereafter animals were exposed to alternating 14-week periods of short (SD, 8L:16D) and long days (LD, 16L:8D). The mean daily VFI of individual ponies was calculated weekly and normalized for digestible energy (DE) content and metabolic body weight (DEI, MJ/kg M0.75). The average daily gain (ADG, kg/day) in body weight of each individual was calculated weekly. The apparent digestibility of dietary energy (digestibility) was determined over 72 h (no. = 6) on two occasions (days 92 to 95 and 190 to 193) during the study. Digestibility was similar in both periods (0.48, s.e. 0.01). DEI, ADG and HWD changed in a cyclic manner throughout the study. The period of the appetite cycle (24.4 (s.e. 1.3) weeks) did not differ from that of the 28-week photoperiodic regime. DEI decreased from a maximum of 1.4 (s.e. 0.03) MJ/kg M0.75 per day (day. 21), to a nadir of 0.75 (s.e. 0.02) MJ/kg M0.75 per day (day 154, P < 0.001) and had increased (P < 0.001) to attain a second zenith (0.93 (s.e. 0.01) MJ/kg M0.75 per day) before the end of the study. Ponies ate discrete meals of similar duration, but meal frequency was associated with changes in VFI (r = 0.77) as was proportion of time spent feeding (r = 0.79). Changes in ADG reflected those of DEI. Body weight was stable for 4 weeks at the nadir of the appetite cycle. Maximal HWD was coincident with the nadir of the appetite and growth cycles. Regression of individual values for DEI on ADG described a linear relationship (R2 = 0.80) which could be used to predict the energy requirements of growing ponies maintained under similar conditions: DEI(total) (MJ/kg M0.75 per day) = 0.654ADG (kg/day) + 0.789. The duration of the photoperiod, appetite, growth and pelage cycles were similar, suggesting a causal relationship. Physiological responses to photoperiodic change were not immediate and exhibited a delay of 5 to 8 weeks.
Descriptors: colts, photoperiod, appetite, voluntary intake, energy intake, feeding frequency, duration, coat, seasonal variation, hair, weight, density.

Hall, J.O. (2001). Toxic feed constituents in the horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America, The Equine Practice 17(3): 479-489. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call Number: SF951.V47
Abstract: Poisoning cases in horses associated with dietary exposures can encompass a wide variety of etiologies that can be caused by natural or man-made components. Feed mixing errors and ingestion of feed formulated for other species are the most common means by which poisonings from man-made materials occur. Ionophore feed additives and antibacterial agents are especially toxogenic to horses. Effects of ionophores in horses include clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic changes associated with cardiac, muscular, and neurologic tissues involvement. The acute effects of ionophores, however, can result in long-term cardiac dysfunction. Antibacterial effects are associated with changed microbial populations in the digestive tract that results in bacterial toxin liberation. These bacterial toxins damage the mucosa, and they result in systemic effects. For either type of feed-associated poisoning, it is critical that samples be analyzed for an accurate diagnosis.
Descriptors: animal feed associated poisoning, feed mixing errors, ionophore feed additives, antibacterial agents added to feed, toxicity, cardiac dysfunction, bacterial toxins, sample analysis.

Harris, P. (2005). Feeding the endurance horse. In: Applied Equine Nutrition. 1st Equine NUtrition COnference ENUCO, October 1, 2005-October 2, 2005, Hannover, Germany, p. 61-84.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, electrolytes, energy intake, energy requirements, horse feeding, nutrient requirements, racehorses, vitamin supplements, water intake, horses.

Harris, P. (2005). Nutrition, behaviour and the role of supplements for calming horses: the veterinarian's dilemma. Veterinary Journal 170(1): 10-11. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Descriptors: horses, behavior, nutrition, veterinary medicine, dietary supplements, stress, calming methods.

Harris, P. (1997). Energy sources and requirements of the exercising horse. Annual Review of Nutrition 17: 185-210. ISSN: 1545-4312.
NAL Call Number: QP141.A1A63
Descriptors: energy requirements for horses, equine diets, literature review, maintenance and energy, calculating available energy in diets.

Holland, J.L., D.S. Kronfeld, and T.N. Meacham (1996). Behavior of horses is affected by soy lecithin and corn oil in the diet. Journal of Animal Science 74(6): 1252-1255. ISSN: 1525-3163.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: dietary fats, tractibility of horses, behavioral observations, pedometer, reactivity, reduction in activity and reactivity of horses.

Hussein, H.S. and L.A. Vogedes (2003). Review: Forage nutritional value for equine as affected by forage species and cereal grain supplementation. Professional Animal Scientists 19(5): 388-397. ISSN: 1080-7446.
NAL Call Number: SF51.P76
Descriptors: horses, forage evaluation, forage quality, forage composition, literature reviews.

Hyslop, J.J., G.J. Stefansdottir, B.M.L. McLean, A.C. Longland, and D. Cuddeford (1999). In situ incubation sequence and its effect on degradation of food components when measured in the caecum of ponies. British Society of Animal Science 69(pt. 1): 147-156. ISSN: 1357-7298.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of bag incubation sequence on the degradation of food components in situ in the caecum of mature, caecally fistulated Welsh-cross pony geldings (mean live weight 278 kg) offered hay ad libitum. In experiment 1 a fibre-based commercial horse concentrate was incubated in situ using a forward (3, 5, 16, 8, 24, 48 h) or reverse (48, 24, 8, 16, 5, 3 h) incubation sequence. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre (ADF) degradation coefficients and calculated effective degradability (ED) values were determined. In experiment 2 unmolassed sugar-beet pulp (USBP), hay cubes (HC), soya hulls (SH) and a 2:1 mixture of oat hulls:naked oats (OHNO) were incubated in situ as for experiment 1. In experiment 3 unprocessed barley (UB), micronized barley (MB), extruded barley (EB) and dehydrated grass (DHG) were incubated in situ according to slightly different forward or reverse incubation sequences of (2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 24, 48 h) and (48, 24, 8, 4, 12, 6, 2 h) respectively. In experiments 2 and 3 only DM degradation parameters were studied. Of the three starch-based foods studied in experiment 3 (UB, MB and EB), incubation sequence did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect any of the degradation parameters examined. Conversely however, of the six fibre-based foods which were examined across the three experiments, incubation sequence did significantly (P < 0.05) affect in situ degradation parameters in the commercial horse concentrate in experiment 1, the SH food in experiment 2 and the DHG food in experiment 3. Depending on the food or food constituent studied (i.e. DM, CP, NDF or ADF) degradation coefficients. a, b, c and a + b along with ED values calculated at fractional outflow rates of 0.05 and 0.025 could all be statistically different (P < 0.05) according to whether a forward or reverse incubation sequence was used. It is postulated that this effect is related to the basic digestive physiology of the equine caecum which is small, digesta passage rate through it is fast and digesta volumes can vary considerably. These factors may interact to create a considerable degree of non-uniformity within the caecal digesta pool in which in situ bags are incubated. Consequently, it is recommended that in future in situ experiments in the equine hindgut, animals are offered ad libitum diets in an attempt to minimize variation within the caecum. It is also recommended that in situ experimental protocols incorporate more than one incubation sequence when the degradation parameters of fibrous foods are studied in equids.
Descriptors: horses, cecum, hay, concentrates, biodegradation, fiber content, beet pulp, soybean husks, oats, husks, barley, extrusion, grasses, digestion, dry matter, protein content, crude protein, methodology.

Jordan, R.M. (1995). Horse Nutrition and Feeding, Extension Service State Agriculture: St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, 13 p.
NAL Call Number: S451.M6M582
Descriptors: horse feed rations, digestive system, feeds, dry matter content, total digestible nutrients, energy value, differences in nutrient requirements during developmental stages, feed formulations, grazing, feeding behavior, nutritive value, level of activity, feed requirements.

Jose Cunilleras, E., K.W. Hinchcliff, V.A. Lacombe, R.A. Sams, C.W. Kohn, L.E. Taylor, and S.T. Devor (2006). Ingestion of starch-rich meals after exercise increases glucose kinetics but fails to enhance muscle glycogen replenishment in horses. Veterinary Journal 171(3): 468-77.
Descriptors: muscle glycogen concentration, athletic performance, whole body glucose kinetics, glycogen metabolism, horses metabolism, insulin levels.

Julliand, V. (2005). Impact of nutrition on the microflora of the gastro-intestinal tract in horses. In: Applied Equine Nutrition 1st Equine NUtrition COnference ENUCO, October 1, 2005-October 2, 2005, Hannover, Germany, p. 85-103.
Descriptors: diet, digestive tract, feed additives, microbial flora, probiotics, reviews, horses.

Julliand, V., A. de Fombelle, C. Drogoul, and E. Jacotot (2001). Feeding and microbial disorders in horses. 3. Effects of three hay:grain ratios on microbial profile and activities. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(11): 543-546. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, horse feeding, hay, barley, ratios, digesta, cecum, colon, intestinal microorganisms, bacteria, pH, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids.

Karlsson, C.P., J.E. Lindberg, and M. Rundgren (2000). Associative effects on total tract digestibility in horses fed different ratios of grass hay and whole oats. Livestock Production Science 65(1/2): 143-153. ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call Number: SF1.L5
Descriptors: oats, grass hay, digestibility, hay:oat ratios, feeds, dry matter, digestible energy, nutrient availability, urine analysis, digestive tract.

Kempson, S.A. (2005). Nutritional management of horses with hoof diseases. In: Applied Equine Nutrition 1st Equine NUtrition COnference ENUCO, October 1, 2005-October 2, 2005, Hannover, Germany, p. 105-112.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, diet, foot diseases, hooves, lameness, laminitis, reviews, horses.

Kienzle, E., K. Sturmer, D. Ranz, and M. Clauss (2006). A high roughage/concentrate ratio decreases the effect of ammonium chloride on acid-base balance in horses. Journal of Nutrition 136(7 Suppl.): 2048s-2049s.
Descriptors: diet composition, hydrogen ion concentration, pharmacology, acid base equilibrium, ammonium chloride.

Kolarova, S. and B. Cermak (1997). Zasady Krmeni Koni. [Basic Principles of Horse Feeding], Institut Vychovy a Vzdelavani MZe: Prague, Czech Republic, 25 p. ISBN: 8071051497.
Descriptors: draught horses, mares, foals, stallions, racehorses, animal feeding, roughage, grain feed, feed additives, proximate composition, age, seasons, feed intake, additives, feeding behavior, feeding habits, feeds.
Language of Text: Czech.

Lauk, H.D., B. Huskamp, and E. Deegen (2005). Proceedings Equine Nutrition Conference, Hannover, Germany, 1-2 October, 2005. Pferdeheilkunde 21: 132. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, bone diseases, bones, carbohydrates, colostrum, enzymes, exercise, feed additives, feed formulation, feed supplements, fermentation, foals, in vitro digestibility, milk composition, milk quality, nutrient requirements, nutrition physiology, nutritive value, osteochondritis, racehorses, racing performance, rest, seasonal variation, horses.

Lawrence, L.M. (2005). Feeding more and getting less: effects of high grain intakes on digestive capacity and gastrointestinal health of performance horses. In: Advances in Equine Nutrition III, p. 227-233.
Descriptors: calories, digestive system, energy balance, energy consumption, feed grains, horse feeding, racehorses, reviews, horses.

Lopes, M.A.F. and N.A. White II (2002). Parenteral nutrition for horses with gastrointestinal disease: A retrospective study of 79 cases. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(3): 250-257. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, gastrointestinal diseases, parenteral feeding, nutritional support, prognosis, complications, costs, clinical aspects, parenteral nutrition.

Magdesian, K.G. (2003). Nutrition for critical gastrointestinal illness: Feeding horses with diarrhea or colic. Veterinary Clinics of North America, The Equine Practice 19(3): 617-644. ISSN: 0749-0739.
NAL Call Number: SF951.V47
Abstract: Horses with GI diseases such as colic and diarrhea are often intolerant of adequate enteral nutrition. Nutritional intervention should be an early part of therapeutic management in such cases. Protein and energy malnutrition in critically ill horses can have deleterious effects, including poor wound or incisional healing, reduced immunity, and weight loss. Early enteral or parenteral support should be provided to supply resting DE requirements in the equine ICU.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, colic, diarrhea, enteral nutrition, horses, nutritional requirements, nutritional status, parenteral nutrition, gastrointestinal diseases, protein and energy malnutrition.

McKellar, Q.A. and L.J.I. Horspool (1995). Stability of penicillin G, ampicillin, amikacin and oxytetracycline and their interactions with food in in vitro simulated equine gastrointestinal contents. Research in Veterinary Science 58(3): 227-231. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Penicillin G was extensively (84.7 per cent) and amikacin moderately (14.4 per cent) degraded when incubated for one hour in a chloride buffer at pH 1.9 designed to mimic the equine gastric pH. Ampicillin and oxytetracycline were stable at pH 1.9. Penicillin and ampicillin were moderately stable (more than 90 per cent) when incubated in equine caecal liquor for three hours but were degraded by about 65 per cent after 24 hours. More than 80 per cent of the initial concentrations of amikacin and oxytetracycline were recovered after 24 hours' incubation in equine caecal liquor. The concentrations of short chain fatty acids in equine caecal liquor were not affected by incubation with penicillin G. ampicillin, amikacin or oxytetracycline. More than 84 per cent of penicillin G and amikacin became bound to hay in buffers at pH 1.9 and pH 7.0. Ampicillin did not become bound to hay at pH 1.9, but more than 60 per cent became bound at pH 7.0.
Descriptors: horses, penicillins, ampicillin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, drug-food interactions, digestive juices, gastric acid, cecum, in vitro simulation, short chain fatty acids, hay, gastric pH, simulated digesta, cecal liquor, simulated gastrointestinal contents.

Menard, C., P. Duncan, G. Fleurance, J.Y. Georges, and M. Lila (2002). Comparative foraging and nutrition of horses and cattle in European wetlands. Journal of Applied Ecology 39(1): 120-133. ISSN: 0021-8901.
NAL Call Number: 410 J828
Descriptors: horses, cattle, species coexistence, grazing patterns, pasture management, foraging behavior.

Milinovich, G.J., D.J. Trott, P.C. Burrell, A.W. Van Eps, M.B. Thoefner, L.L. Blackall, R.A.M. Al Jassim, J.M. Morton, and C.C. Pollitt (2006). Changes in equine hindgut bacterial populations during oligofructose-induces laminitis. Environmental Microbiology 8(5): 885-898. ISSN: 1462-2912.
Descriptors: causes of laminitis, microbial ecology, oligofructose-utilizing organisms, induction of laminitis, fecal samples, presence of Streptococcus sp.

Monahan, C.M., M.R. Chapman, H.W. Taylor, D.D. French, and T.R. Klei (1998). Experimental cyathostome challenge of ponies maintained with or without benefit of daily pyrantel tartrate feed additive: comparison of parasite burdens, immunity and colonic pathology. Veterinary Parasitology 74(2-4): 229-241. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: Eighteen mixed-breed, naturally infected ponies ranging in age from 1 to 16 yr and four cyathostome-naive ponies reared and maintained under parasite-free conditions ranging in age from 1 to 4 yr were used in this study. Naturally-infected ponies were treated with 1 dose of ivermectin (IVM) at 200 micrograms kg-1, followed by a 5-day regimen of oxibendazole (OBZ) at 20 mg kg-1 to remove existing cyathostome burdens; cyathostome-naive control ponies were treated with IVM alone. The naturally infected ponies were matched on age and gender, then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups of six animals per group; the four cyathostome-naive ponies constituted a fourth group. Following OBZ treatment, Group 1 ponies were treated with pyrantel tartrate (PT) in their pelleted ration; the remaining ponies received only the pelleted ration. Beginning on experiment Day 3, a daily challenge infection of 10(4) mixed cyathostome larvae was administered orally to ponies of Group 1, Group 2 and the cyathostome-naive controls. Group 3 ponies served as unchallenged controls to determine residual parasite burdens following IVM/OBZ treatment. Necropsy examinations were performed on three Group 3 ponies on Day 1; the remainder of the necropsy examinations began on Day 41. Cyathostome burdens were evaluated by recovery of larvae and adults from the luminal contents, by digestions of the intestinal mucosa, and by mural transillumination of full-thickness intestinal sections. Differences in postchallenge clinical responses were also compared. Necropsy examinations included comparisons of grossly visible inflammation of the large bowel, weights of biopsy specimens from each region, and histologic evaluations of these biopsies. Parasite recoveries at necropsy indicated a strong protective effect derived from daily PT treatment. Mean weights of intestinal biopsies corresponded with worm burdens, but histological evaluation did not reveal architectural or cellular changes to account for the increase in weight; therefore, edema was suspected. A strong age-related resistance to challenge infection was apparent in both the PT-treated and control groups by virtue of the lower mean worm burdens found in older ponies compared to younger ponies of the same treatment group; however, daily PT treatment of older ponies reduced the variability of their worm burdens to a uniformly low level. Comparisons of luminal and mucosal parasite burdens of age stratified nontreated controls further suggest that the age related resistance, which is acquired, targets increasing numbers of parasite stages as this resistance matures. Further, there is no evidence for an immune mediated acquisition of hypobiotic L3.
Descriptors: cyathostome, parasite load, ivermectin, oxibendazole, worming, pyrantel tartrate protective effect, worm burdens, age-related resistance to parasite infection.

Nash, D. (1999). Drought Feeding for Horses, Rural Industries Research and Development Corp, Equine Research and Development Program: Barton, Australia, 64 p. ISBN: 064257958X.
NAL Call Number: SF285.5.N373 1999
Descriptors: effect of drought on horses, Australia, feeding and feeds, nutritional status.
Notes: "Project no. DAV-156A".

Nielsen, B.D., G.D. Potter, L.W. Greene, E.L. Morris, M. Murray Gerzik, W.B. Smith, and M.T. Martin (1998). Response of young horses in training to varying concentrations of dietary calcium and phosphorus. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 18(6): 397-404. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, training, calcium, phosphorus, mineral nutrition, nutrient intake, dosage, feed supplements, bone density, urine analysis, feces composition, blood chemistry, magnesium, nutrient balance.
Notes: Meeting Information: Paper presented at the Equine Nutrition and Physiology Society Annual Symposium, Fort Worth, Texas, USA; May 28-31, 1997.

Owens, E. (2005). Sport horse nutrition - an Australian perspective. In: Advances in Equine Nutrition III, p. 185-192.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, animal sports, body weight, feed intake, feeding frequency, feeds, horse feeding, nutrient deficiencies, reviews, horses.

Pagan, J.D. (2005). Advances in Equine Nutrition III, Nottingham University Press: England, UK, 503 p.
NAL Call Number: SF285.5.A39 2005
Descriptors: nutrition, feed management methods, development, diseases, effects of nutritition, exercise, immune system, muskuloskeletal sysem, nutrition related performance disorders.

Pagan, J.D. (1999). Recent developments in equine nutrition. In: 61st Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers, October 19, 1999-October 21, 1999, Rochester, New York, USA, Departments of Poultry Husbandry, Animal Husbandry, and Biochemistry and Nutrition, New York State College of Agriculture, and the Graduate School of Nutrition, Cornell University, in cooperation with the American Feed Manufacturers' Association: New York, USA, Vol. 61st, p. 160-167.
NAL Call Number: 389.79 C81
Descriptors: horse feeding, feed grains, diet, processing, selenium, nutrient sources, dietary fat, exercise, digestion, blood sugar, responses, feeding, timing, saddle performance.

Pagan, J.D., P. Harris, T. Brewster-Barnes, S.E. Duren, and S.G. Jackson (1998). Exercise affects digestibility and rate of passage of all-forage and mixed diets in Thoroughbred horses. Journal of Nutrition 128(12): 2704S-2707S. ISSN: 0022-3166.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 J82
Descriptors: Thoroughbred horses, geldings, digestibility, exercise effects, rate of passage, forage.

Perrone, G., J. Caviglia, R. Jimenez, M. Chiappe, and G. Gonzalez (2005). Comparacion de la tolerancia al almidon del grano de avena en equinos alimentados con pasturas y dietas mixtas. [Comparison between equine tolerance of oats grain starch in pasture and mixed diets]. Revista De Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires 86(1): 13-16. ISSN: 0325-6391.
Descriptors: oral starch tolerance test, oat grains, starch intestinal overload, glycemia, lactacidemia, pasture, concentrates, glycemic curves, lactacidemic curves.
Language of Text: Spanish with an English summary.

Ralston, S.L. (2005). Feeding dentally challenged horses. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice 4(2): 117-119. ISSN: 1534-7516.
Descriptors: diet composition, roughages, concentrates, weight loss, malnutrition.
Notes: Special issue: Equine Dentistry.

Ralston, S.L., D.L. Foster, T. Divers, and H.F. Hintz (2001). Effect of dental correction on feed digestibility in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 33(4): 390-393. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, digestibility, dentistry, teeth, dry matter, crude protein, fiber, hay, feed grains, adverse effects, digestion.

Smithurst, K.J., S. Armstrong, A. Waller, R.J. Geor, G.L. Ecker, and M.I. Lindinger (2003). Feeding effects on plasma TCO2 and blood/plasma electrolyte and acid-base state in horses over a 25-hour period. FASEB Journal 17(4-5): Abstract # 89.2. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: nutrition, blood chemistry, electrolytes, plasma TCO2, acid-base and electrolyte status, Standardbred horses, traditional racehorse diet, blood sampling, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, San Diego, CA, USA; April 11-15, 2003.

Todd, L.K., W.C. Sauer, R.J. Christopherson, R.J. Coleman, and W.R. Caine (1995). The effect of feeding different forms of alfalfa on nutrient digestibility and voluntary intake in horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 73(1): 1-8. ISSN: 0044-3565.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Descriptors: geldings, lucerne, pellets, briquettes, nutrients, digestibility, formulations, feed intake, behavior, feeding habits, feeds, formulations, green feed, nutritive value, quality.

Todd, L.K., W.C. Sauer, R.J. Christopherson, R.J. Coleman, and W.R. Caine (1995). The effect of level of feed intake on nutrient and energy digestibilities and rate of feed passage in horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 73(3): 140-148. ISSN: 0044-3565.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Descriptors: horses, feeding level, nutrients, digestibility, energy value, flow rate, tracer techniques, feces, excreta, feeding, fluid flow, fluid mechanics, nutritive values.

United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. National Animal Health Monitoring System. (2000). Fumonsin B1 Mycotoxin in Horse Grain/Concentrate on U.S. Horse Operations, U.S. Department of Agriculture: Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 2 p.
NAL Call Number: aSF757.5.F86 2000
Descriptors: fumonsins, mycotoxins, feeds contamination, United States.

Voros, K. and S. Fekete (2002). A lovak dietas taplalasa. Indokok es lehetosegek. [Dietary nutrition of horses. Reasons and opportunities]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 124(1): 11-18. ISSN: 0025-004X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V644
Descriptors: nutrition for compromised horses, dietary nutrition, disease specific nutrition, digestion physiology, rules of nutrition according to each disease.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Wilson, J.H. and D.A. Fitzpatrick (2004). How to manage starved horses and effectively work with humane and law enforcement officials. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 4, 2004-December 8, 2004, Denver, Colorado, USA, p. 429-432.
Descriptors: animal nutrition, animal welfare, horse feeding, plane of nutrition, refeeding, starvation, horses.

Wyse, C.A., D.M. Murphy, T. Preston, D.G. Sutton, D.J. Morrison, R.M. Christley, and S. Love (2001). The(13)C-octanoic acid breath test for detection of effects of meal composition on the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying in ponies. Research in Veterinary Science 71(1): 81-83. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The aim of this study was to apply the(13)C-octanoic acid breath test for detection of alterations in the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying, induced by changes in test meal composition, in ponies. After a 14 hour fast the ponies (n = 4) ingested a test meal with 0, 35 or 70 ml soya oil, and labelled with 250 mg(13)C-octanoic acid. Each pony was given each of the three test meals on three separate occasions, in a randomised order. Exhaled breath samples were collected for 12 hours after ingestion of the test meal. Breath samples were analysed by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Three indices of breath(13)C-enrichment were computed, half-dose recovery time (t 1/2), gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) and time to peak breath(13)C-excretion t(max). The(13)C-octanoic acid breath test was a reliable means of assessing the significantly decreased rate of gastric emptying in the pony, associated with addition of soya oil to the test meal.
Descriptors: gastric emptying, octanoic acids, animal feed, breath tests, carbon isotopes, cross over studies, horse metabolism, soya oil, C-octanoic acid.

Zentek, J., S. Aboling, and J. Kamphues (1999). Fallbericht: Tierernahrung fur Tierarzte--aktuelle Falle: Hundszunge (Cynoglossum officinale) im Weideaufwuchs--ein Risiko fur die Gesundheit von Pferden. [Accident report: Animal nutrition in veterinary medicine--actual cases: houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale) in pasture--a health hazard for horses]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 106(11): 475-477. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Abstract: Meteorism and colics were observed in horses after grazing on young pasture. The botanical analysis of a sample as taken by the owner revealed a great diversity of grasses, herbs and legumes. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale) in its rosette stage was identified in amounts of 1% of the total sample, although this cannot be regarded as representative for the composition of the green fodder. This plant has been reported to be highly toxic for horses and other species, mainly during the early growth stadium due to its contents of pyrrolizidin alkaloids with a strong hepatotoxic activity. In the present case it remained unclear, whether the horses actually ingested this poisonous plant in relevant amounts. In general it has to be emphasised, that a contamination especially of hay or silage bears a severe risk for horses. The contamination of green fodder with houndstongue can be a serious problem for the feeding practice in certain regions (dry grassland, loess or shell lime soil, extensive management).
Descriptors: houndstongue, Cynoglossum officinale, toxic plants found in pastures, pasture health, horse health and nutrition, toxicity, hay or silage contamination, colic, young pasture, meteorism.
Language of Text: German.

Zeyner, A., C. Geissler, and A. Dittrich (2004). Effects of hay intake and feeding sequence on variables in faeces and faecal water (dry matter, pH value, organic acids, ammonia, buffering capacity) of horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88(1-2): 7-19. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Descriptors: horses, feeding practices, hay intake, feeding sequence, digestive system, fecal content.

Zeyner, A., M. Roepke, A. Schindler, J. Bessert, A. Dittrich, J. Gropp, and M. Krueger (1997). Untersuchungen zur Fuetterungsabhaengigkeit der Konzentration an freiem Endotoxin in Kotwasser und Blutplasma von Pferden. [Investigations on free endotoxine in faecal water and blood of horses in respect of feeding]. In: Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology, Leipzig University, Germany, Frankfurt, Germany, Vol. 6, p. 64. ISBN: 3769040902.
Descriptors: horses, feces, water, blood plasma, endotoxins, starch, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, rations, lipid content, blood serum, foot diseases, bacterial toxins, blood, carbohydrates, excreta, glucans, oils, organic diseases, plant oils, polysaccharides, processed plant products, processed products, proximate composition, soybean products, toxic substances, toxins.
Language of Text: German.

Descriptors: abdomen, anastomosis, parenteral nutrition, horse diseases, laparoscopy, postoperative complications, treatment outcome.

Nutrition -- Web Resources


Equine Nutrition Research Updates - UK Animal & Food Sciences.
Description: Links to current journal articles on equine nutrition research.

Horse Nutrition, Bulletin 762-00, Carbohydrates and Fats.
Description: Discusses carbohydrate and fat content as well as the nutritional value of various roughages and concentrates.

Horse Nutrition, Bulletin 762-00, Protein.
Description: Provides protein needs based on horses' size, age, and use. Also includes various sources of protein that can be included in an equine diet.

Winter Energy Needs in Horses. Michigan State University. College of Veterinary Medicine.
Description: Feeding method to maintain horse health and condition during the colder winter season.

Basics of Feeding Horses: Reading the Feed Tag, G00-1403-A. Anderson, K.
Description: Explains the function of essential nutrients and how to interpret the tag on commercial horse feeds.

The Impact of Nutrition and Feeding Practices on Equine Behaviour and Welfare. Davidson, H.P.B.
Description: Effect of nutritional management on equine well being. Discusses both beneficial and detrimental practices.

Alternative Feeds for Horses. Kruse, K.
Description: Cost effective nutrition and details the use of roughage and grain alternatives.

Feeding Mangement for Horse Owners. Lardy, G. and C. Poland.
Description: Presents feeding practices tailored to the anatomy of the equine digestive tract. Details amounts and quality of roughages and concentrates to feed horses based on weight and workload, as well as the effects of dental health, supplement administration, and ration alteration.

Nutrient Requirements and Balancing Rations for Horses. Lawrence, L.A.
Description: Feeding rules, methods for balancing rations, specific ration calculation strategy, and condition evaluation chart.

Minerals in Equine Nutrition: Science and Application. Lawrence, L.
Description: Mineral requirements for horses, practical methods of meeting these requirements, and comparison of apparent versus true mineral digestibility.

Decreasing the Cost of Feeding Horses. McCall, C.A.
Description: Details amounts of specific nutrients needed by horses based on age, physiological state, and size. Includes management strategies for cost effective feeding.

Equine Nutrition for Health and Happiness. Veitch, A. and Susan C. Eades.
Description: Guide to developing an equine nutrition program to enhance welfare and performance and avoid feed related ailments.

Horses Publications: The Basics of Equine Nutrition. Williams, C.A.
Description: Fact sheet describing equine nutritional needs based on nutrient category. Discusses forages and concentrates as well as food quality and supplementation.

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 Last updated: October 25, 2011