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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses

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Vitamins and Supplements

Cabrera, L., L. Leclere, and J.L. Tisserand (1997). Influence of food nitrogen source on levels of plasma free amino acids in ponies. Annales De Zootechnie 46(1): 93-103. ISSN: 0003-424X.
NAL Call Number: 49 F84
Descriptors: horses, Shetland ponies, plasma free amino acids, feeding.
Language of Text: French.

Harris, P.A. and R.C. Harris (2005). Ergogenic potential of nutritional strategies and substances in the horse. Livestock Production Science 92(2): 147-165. ISSN: 0301-6226.
Descriptors: amino acids, carnitine, creatine, performance, racehorses, reviews, horses.
Notes: Special issue: Adaptability of Sport Horses to Stressful Conditions. EAAP Publication No. 1/2005.

Heintzsch, A. (1995). Effeckte einer enzymmischung (ae-amylase, xylanase, B-glucanase, pectinase) als futteradditiv auf die praeileale verdaulichkeit starkereicher rationen beimn pferd. [Effects of mixed enzyme supplementation (ae-amylase, xylanase, B-glucanase and pectinase) as a feed-additive on the preileal digestibility of ration based on high content of starch on horses]. Dissertation, Tierarztliche Hochschule: Hannover, Germany. 137 p.
NAL Call Number: DISS F1995101
Descriptors: horses, nutrition, starch content, mixed enzyme supplementation, ae-amylase, xylanase, B-glucanase, pectinase, preileal digestion.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.
Notes: Thesis (doctoral)--Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, 1995.

Hintz, H.F. (1997). Equine nutrition and health: carotene. Equine Practice 19(9): 5, 25. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: horses, beta carotene, supplementary feeding, injection.

Hoffman, R.M. (2000). Recent findings on the role of antioxidant vitamins in horse nutrition. In: 62nd Cornel Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers Proceedings, October 24, 2000-October 26, 2000, Rochester, N.Y., Departments of Poultry Husbandry, Animal Husbandry, and Biochemistry and Nutrition, New York State College of Agriculture, and the Graduate School of Nutrition, Cornell University, in cooperation with the American Feed Manufacturers' Association: Ithaca, New York, USA, p. 1-7.
NAL Call Number: 389.79 C81
Descriptors: oxidation, stress, retinol, beta carotene, vitamin E, immunity, ascorbic acid, horse feeding, oxidative stress.

Kienzle, E., C. Kaden, P.P. Hoppe, and B. Opitz (2003). Serum beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in horses fed beta-carotene via grass-meal or a synthetic beadlet preparation with and without added dietary fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87(3-4): 174-180. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Descriptors: horses, serum response, bioavailability indicators, nutrition, effects of feed sources.

Kirschvink, N., L. Fievez, V. Bougnet, T. Art, G. Degand, N. Smith, D. Marlin, C. Roberts, P. Harris, and P. Lekeux (2002). Effect of nutritional antioxidant supplementation on systemic and pulmonary antioxidant status, airway inflammation and lung function in heaves-affected horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(7): 705-712. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, respiratory diseases, inflammation, antioxidants, lung function, tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, feed supplements, heaves, oxidative stress.

Koch, C.A. (2003). Heilpflanzen Beim Pferd - Experimentelle Grundlagen Zu Ausgewahlten Anwendungsgebieten, Praxisubliche Produktkonzepte Und Futtermittelrechtliche Wertung. [Medicinal Plants for Horses - Experimental Bases on Their Application to Selected Areas - Product Concepts in Practice and Legal Evaluation of Their Use in Animal Food], 208 p.
Descriptors: animal health, chemical composition, digestive system, drug therapy, feed additives, immune system, law, medicinal plants, musculoskeletal system, plant composition, plant extracts, prophylaxis, respiratory system, horses.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

McKenzie, E.C., S.J. Valberg, S.M. Godden, J.D. Pagan, G.P. Carlson, J.M. MacLeay, and F.D. DeLaCorte (2003). Comparison of volumetric urine collection versus single-sample urine collection in horses consuming diets varying in cation-anion balance. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(3): 284-291. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine daily variation in urinary clearance and fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes and minerals within and between horses and to compare volumetric and single-sample urine collection for determining FE values of diets with a range of dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB). ANIMALS: 5 Thoroughbred and 6 mixed-breed mares. PROCEDURE: 3 isocaloric diets with low, medium, and high DCAB values (85, 190, and 380 mEq/kg of dry matter, respectively) were each fed for 14 days. Daily blood samples, single urine samples collected by using a urinary catheter (5 mares), and volumetric urine collections (6 mares) were obtained during the last 72 hours of each diet. RESULTS: Urine and plasma pH values, plasma concentrations, and FE values of sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium were altered by varying the DCAB. Noticeable variation in clearance and FE values was detected within horses from day-to-day on the same diet as well as between horses. Fractional excretion values were not significantly different between single-sample and volumetric methods, except for magnesium in the high DCAB diet. Volumetric and single-sample collections revealed similar patterns of change in urinary FE values with varying DCAB, except for calcium and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Substantial variation in clearance and FE of electrolytes and minerals are evident within horses between 24-hour periods as well as between horses fed a specific diet. Three daily urine samples provide similar information regarding dietary-induced changes in clearance and FE values (excluding calcium and magnesium) as that obtained by volumetric urine collection.
Descriptors: urine collection methods, dietary cation-anion balance, excretion of electrolytes, horse nutrition, determination of fractional excretion of electrolytes and minerals.

O'Neill, W., S. McKee, and A.F. Clarke (2002). Immunological and haematinic consequences of feeding a standardised Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract to healthy horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(3): 222-227. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Echinacea angustifolia, plant extracts, immunostimulants, immunostimulation, efficacy, medicinal properties, immune competence, phagocytosis, lymphocytes, neutrophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythropoiesis.

Suwannachot, P. (2001). K+-homeostasis in horses: Effects of training and food supply on the Na+, K+-ATPase concentration in skeletal muscle. Dissertation, Utrecht University: Utrecht, Netherlands. 203 p.
Online: 9039326517
Descriptors: training of horses, food supply, homeostasis, skeletal muscle, supply balance, potassium, effects of training and food supply.
Notes: Thesis.

Zeyner, A. and J. Harmeyer (1999). Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as feed additive in horses. A review. Archiv Fur Tierernahrung 52(2): 115-138.
NAL Call Number: TRANSL 22766
Abstract: L-carnitine, a betaine derivative of beta-hydroxybutyrate, is found in virtually all cells of higher animals and also in some microorganisms and plants. In animals it is synthesized almost exclusively in the liver. Two essential amino acids, i.e., lysine and methionine serve as primary substrates for its biosynthesis. Also required for its synthesis are sufficient amounts of vitamin B6, nicotinic acids, vitamin C and folate. The first discovered ergogenic function of L-carnitine is the transfer of activated long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondrial matrix. For this transfer acyl-CoA esters are transesterified to form acylcarnitine esters. Thus, in carnitine deficiency fat oxidation and energy production from fatty acids are markedly impaired. Skeletal muscles constitute the main reservoir of carnitine in the body and have a carnitine concentration at least 200 times higher than blood plasma. Uptake of carnitine by skeletal muscles takes place by an active transport mechanism which transports L-carnitine into muscles probably in the form of an exchange process with gamma-butyrobetain. In young animals including foals, the capacity for biosynthesis of carnitine is not yet fully developed and apparently cannot meet the requirements of sucking animals. Sucking animals depend therefore on an extra supply of carnitine which is usually provided with milk. Additionally, young animals including foals possess a lower concentration of carnitine in blood plasma than adult animals. Besides its role as carrier of activated acyl groups, L-carnitine functions as a buffer for acetyl groups which may be present in excess in different tissues during ketosis and hypoxic muscular activity. Other functions of L-carnitine are protection of membrane structures, stabilizing of a physiologic CoA-SH/acetyl-CoA ratio and reduction of lactate production. Animal's derived feeds are rich in L-carnitine whereas plants contain usually very little or no carnitine. Carnitine is absorbed from the small intestine by active and passive transport mechanisms. From the increase in renal excretion of L-carnitine after oral supplementations of 10 g/d to horses it has been concluded that the efficiency of absorption of L-carnitine is rather low (about 5 to 10% of the supplied dose). A further decrease in fractional carnitine absorption was observed when the oral dose of carnitine was increased. L-carnitine is virtually not degraded in the body and renal excretion of carnitine is comparatively small under normal conditions. The concentration of L-carnitine in blood plasma of horses varies markedly between animals and between different days. In addition, circadian changes in carnitine concentration in plasma have been reported. Peak concentrations were found during late afternoon, being up to 30% higher than those in the morning. In breeding mares the carnitine concentration in blood plasma declines with onset of lactation. In resting skeletal muscles about 90% of the total carnitine content is present as free carnitine with the remaining part being available as carnitine esters. With increasing exercise intensity a continuing greater proportion of free carnitine (up to 80%) is converted into carnitine esters, mainly into acetylcarnitine. This shift from free to acetylcarnitine is readily reversed within about 30 min after termination of exercise. It appears that acute exercise does not have a marked effect on the content of total carnitine in skeletal muscle whereas training seems to elevate its total concentration in the middle gluteal muscle of 3 to 6 year old horses and to reduce variation of its concentration compared to age-matched untrained horses. Oral supplementations of 5 to 50 g of L-carnitine per day to horses elevated the carnitine concentration in blood plasma to about twice its basal concentration. No clear relationship existed, however, between the orally administered dose of carnitine and the increase of L-carni
Descriptors: animal nutrition, carnitine metabolism, food additives, horses, animal feed, carnitine administration and dosage, physical conditioning, L-carnitine, oral supplementation.

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