Horse

Animal Welfare Information Center

Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses


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PMU Ranching



Ban, I., F. Borchers, H. Heinemann, and H.H. Rasche (Inventors) (1998). Method for obtaining estrogens from pregnant mare urine by solid-phase extraction. (US 5814624, September 29, 1998). Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, 1214 (5): 5330. ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
Descriptors: estrogen extraction methods, pregnant mare urine, solid phase extraction, PMU.

Ban, I., H. Heinemann, G. Mechtold, and H.H. Rasche (Inventors) (1998). Method for obtained estrogens from pregnant mare urine by solid phase extraction on a semi-polar adsorber resin. (US 5723454, March 3, 1998). Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, 1208 (1): 451. ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
Descriptors: estrogen extraction methods, hormone replacement therapy, pregnant mare urine, solid-phase extraction, semi-polar adsorber resin.

Baumgartner, A.R. (1999). Proud of Premarin. Canadian Medical Association Journal 160(13): 1821.
Descriptors: animal welfare, drug industry, estrogens, pregnant mares urine, PMU ranching, Canada.
Notes: Comment In: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1999 Nov 30;161(11):1389-1390.

Clay, S.A. (1995). Controversy over use of pregnant mare's urine. Canadian Medical Association Journal 152(11): 1746-1748.
Descriptors: animal rights, drug industry, estrogens, horses, professional ethics, pregnant mares urine, horse welfare.
Notes: Comment On: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1994 Oct 1;151(7):1009-1012.

Comm, M. (1995). Controversy over use of pregnant mare's urine. Canadian Medical Association Journal 152(11): 1745-1746.
Descriptors: animal rights, drug industry, estrogens, pregnant mares urine, Canada, ethics.
Notes: Comment On: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1994 Oct 1;151(7):1009-1012.

Cox, D. (1996). Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine? Journal of Medical Ethics 22(4): 199-203.
Abstract: Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
Descriptors: animal rights activism, estriol, estrogen replacement therapy, medical ethics, moral obligations, urine chemistry, bone density, horses, menopause drug effects, suffering of mares, synthetic estrogen.

DiVita, L.J. (2002). Veterinary, equine community dispel accusations against the pregnant mare urine industry. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(8): 1130-1131. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, horses, pregnant mares urine, animal rights, drug industry, estrogens, animal housing, horse welfare.
Notes: Comment In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2002 Jun 15;220(12):1778.

Evans, M. (2002). Thinks pregnant mare urine industry inhumane. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(11): 1612; Author Reply 1612-1613. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, estrogens in urine, horses, equine housing, pregnant mares urine, PMU ranching.

Flannigan, G. and J.M. Stookey (2002). Day-time time budgets of pregnant mares housed in tie stalls: a comparison of draft versus light mares. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78(2-4): 125-143. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pregnant mare urine (PMU), comparison of behaviors between draft and light pregnant mares, recording of behavioral activities, stereotypic behavior, time budgets, low prevalence of stereotypic behavior of mares in tie-stalls, management systems.

Freeman, D.A. (2002). More on the pregnant mare urine industry. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(12): 1778. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, equine housing, pregnant mares urine, PMU ranching.
Notes: Comment On: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2002 Apr 15;220(8):1130-1131.

Freeman, D.A. (2000). The pregnant mares' urine industry--management and research. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(8): 1239-1242. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: mares, pregnancy, urine, biological production, animal welfare, animal husbandry.

Freeman, D.A., N.F. Cymbaluk, B. Kyle, H.C. Schott II, K.W. Hinchcliff, and S.M. McDonnell (1998). Health and welfare of stabled PMU mares under varied water and turnout schedules. 1. Physiology. In: Proceedings from the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 6, 1998-December 9, 1998, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Vol. 44, p. 19-20.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: urine, animal welfare, water intake, pregnant mare urine.

Frink, M. (Inventor) (2005). Urine collection device with a detachable head part. (US 06854427, February 15, 2005). Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
Descriptors: horse urine collection device with detachable head part, pregnant mares urine, collection of urine, holding harness, horse welfare and comfort, allows possibility of grazing.

Frink, M. (Inventor) (2003). Holding harness with urine collecting device. (US 6666171, December 23, 2003). Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, 1277 (4). ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
Descriptors: holding harness, urine collecting device, patent, comfort of wear for horse, freedom of movemement, allows possibility to graze instead of tethered in narrow stall.

Houpt, K., T.R. Houpt, J.L. Johnson, H.N. Erb, and S.C. Yeon (2001). The effect of exercise deprivation on the behaviour and physiology of straight stall confined pregnant mares. Animal Welfare 10(3): 257-267. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: horses, mares, pregnancy, animal welfare, housing, straight stalls, exercise limitation, behavior, plasma cortisol levels, cortisol response to ACTH, rebound locomotion.

Jongman, E.C., I. Bidstrup, and P.H. Hemsworth (2005). Behavioural and physiological measures of welfare of pregnant mares fitted with a novel urine collection device. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93(1-2): 147-163. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horse welfare, pregnant mare urine (PMU), collection device, housing, welfare.

Lamb, C., J.E. Tilton, R. Weigl, and P.M. Swantek (1995). Free choice water and long term confinement effects on hormone production in the pregnant mare. Journal of Animal Science 73(Suppl. 1): 215. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, mares, pregnancy, reproduction, endocrine system, effects of housing, hydration, animal welfare.
Notes: Meeting Information: 87th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science, Orlando, Florida, USA; July 25-28, 1995.

Lamb, C., R.M. Weigl, and J.E. Tilton (1997). Water intake and confinement effects on estrogen and cortisol production in pregnant mares. North Dakota Agricultural Research Fall 1997
Online: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/ndagres/fall97/ar21197a.htm
Descriptors: mares, pregnancy, estradiol, hydrocortisone, hormone secretion, urine, water intake, stalls, exercise, confinement in tie-stalls, restricted water intake.

Luba, N.K. (1999). PMU ranching demonstrates benefits of self-regulation. Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin 10(1/2): 7-9. ISSN: 1522-7553.
NAL Call Number: aHV4701.A952
Descriptors: pregnant mares urine, PMU, mare, animal welfare, inspection, collection, crossbreeding, foals.

Malinowski, K. and N. Luba (2004). The equine industry - economic and societal impact. In: Perspectives in World Food and Agriculture 2004, Iowa State Press: Ames, Iowa, USA, p. 187-204.
Descriptors: economic and social impacts of the horse industry, North America, horse racing, hippotherapy, PMU ranching, estrogen replacment hormones, equine import and export, horses as livestock, animal welfare.

McDonnell, S.M., D.A. Freeman, N.F. Cymbaluk, B. Kyle, H.C. Shott II, and K.W. Hinchcliff (1998). Health and welfare of stabled PMU mares under various watering methods and turnout schedules. 2. Behavior. In: Proceedings from the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 6, 1998-December 9, 1998, Baltimore, MD, Vol. 44, p. 21-22.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: urine, animal behavior, water intake, animal welfare, pregnant mare urine.

Murray, E.J.B. (2005). Effects of animal rights activism and the women's health initiative findings on the well-being of mares used in Premarin production. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20(9, Suppl. 1): S403. ISSN: 0884-0431.
Descriptors: animal rights activism, PMU ranching, horse welfare, mares, production of Premarin.
Notes: Meeting Information: 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Nashville, TN, USA; September 23 -27, 2005.

Stopps, R. (1995). Pregnant mare's urine: Welfare or rights for animals? Canadian Medical Association Journal 153(5): 520.
Descriptors: animal rights, horses urine, animal husbandry, Premarin production, PMU ranching, horse welfare.
Notes: Comment On: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1995 Jun 1;152(11):1745.

Van den Berg, I.S. (1996). Modified apparatus for collection of free-flow urine from mares. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 67(4): 214-216. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: An apparatus for collection of free-flow urine from female horses is described. This apparatus is a modification of a similar device described previously. It allows the collection of voided urine from adult female horses without confining them to metabolic stables or resorting to invasive procedures like bladder catheterization. It is relatively easy to use after a short adaptation period.
Descriptors: urine, equipment design, free flow urine collection, pregrnant mares, horse welfare, alternative to metabolic stalls or bladder catheterization.

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