Horse

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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses


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Training



Aguera, E.I., M.D. Rubio, R. Vivo, R. Santisteban, A. Munoz, and F. Castejon (1995). Blood parameter and heart rate response to training in Andalusian horses. Revista Espanola De Fisiologia 51(2): 55-64.
Descriptors: horses, Andalusian horses, training response, physiological effects of training.

Alberghina, D., P. Medica, F. Cusumano, A. Ferlazzo, and S.J. Wickler (2001). Effetto dell' allevamento sui livelli circolanti di ACTH e beta-endorfina in cavalli sottoposti a test d' esercizio standardizzato su treadmill. Nota preliminare (adrenocorticotropina). [Effect of training on circulating ACTH and beta-endorphin of horses after standardized exercise test on treadmill. A preliminary study (AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone)]. Atti Della Societa' Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie 55: 63-64. ISSN: 0518-3588.
Abstract: Beta-endorphin and ACTH response was examined after SET (Standardized Exercise Test) on horses during a training protocol of two months. A significant increase after SET on hormonal levels was detected. Basal values and hormonal response to exercise significantly decreased during training period.
Descriptors: treadmill exercise tests, corticotropin, physical activity, endorphins, physiological regulation, effect of training on hormone levels.
Language of Text: Italian.

Arai, T., T. Kawaue, M. Abe, E. Kuramoto, R. Nuruki, and T. Sako (1997). Glycolytic enzyme activities in leukocytes of Thoroughbreds undergoing training exercise. Journal of Equine Science 8(4): 113-116. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, effects of training on enzyme activity.

Avelar, D.C.B. (1997). Training techniques of military police horses. Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 21(3): 151-157.
Descriptors: horses, training for public service, police horses, military horses.

Avellini, L., E. Chiaradia, and A. Gaiti (1999). Effect of exercise training, selenium and vitamin E on some free radical scavengers in horses (Equus caballus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 123(2): 147-154. ISSN: 1096-4959.
Descriptors: horses, training, selenium, vitamin E, free radical savengers.

Avellini, L., M. Silvestrelli, and A. Gaiti (1995). Training-induced modifications in some biochemical defences against free radicals in equine erythrocytes. Veterinary Research Communications 19(3): 179-184. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V38
Descriptors: horses, effects of training on biochemical defense.

Back, W., J.L.M.A. Remmen, J. Knaap, and J.J. De Koning (2003). Effect of lateral heel wedges on sagittal and transverse plane kinematics of trotting Shetland ponies and the influence of feeding and training regimes. Equine Veterinary Journal 35(6): 606-612. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, lateral heel wedges, shoeing, Shetland ponies, training, feeding.

Boffi, F.M., J. Cittar, G. Balskus, M. Muriel, and E. Desmaras (2002). Training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 34): 275-278. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, training induced apoptosis, creatine kinase, DNA fragmenting or laddering, enzyme, skeletal muscle, treadmill training program, training-induced increases in fitness.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 22-28 September 2002.

Boyde, A. and E.C. Firth (2005). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 8. Quantitative back-scattered electron scanning electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy of the epiphysis of the third metacarpal bone. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(2): 123-132. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, computerised tomography, effects of training, racehorses, bone density.

Brama, P.A.J., R.A. Bank, J.M. Tekoppele, and P.R. Van Weeren (2001). Training affects the collagen framework of subchondral bone in foals. Equine Veterinary Journal 162(1): 24-32. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, foals, effects of training, bone characteristics.

Buchholz Bryant, M.A., L.A. Baker, J.L. Pipkin, B.J. Mansell, J.C. Haliburton, and R.C. Bachman (2001). The effect of calcium and phosphorus supplementation, inactivity and subsequent aerobic training on the mineral balance in young, mature, and aged horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(2): 71-77. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, calcium, phosphorus, supplementary feeding, mineral metabolism, nutrient balance, physical activity, training of animals, age differences, digestibility, time, urine, feces, blood serum.

Buhl, R., A.K. Ersboll, L. Eriksen, and J. Koch (2005). Changes over time in echocardiographic measurements in young Standardbred racehorses undergoing training and racing and association with racing performance. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226(11): 1881-1887. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, training, performance, cardiovascular response, echocardiography.

Christley, R.M., D.R. Hodgson, D.L. Evans, and R.J. Rose (1997). Effects of training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58(6): 653-657. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, training, arterial hypoxemia.

Cohen, N.D., S.M. Berry, J.G. Peloso, G.D. Mundy, and I.C. Howard (2000). Association of high-speed exercise with racing injury in Thoroughbreds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(8): 1273-1278. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: racing, Thoroughbreds, musculoskeletal injury.
Notes: Meeting Information: AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: Equine Welfare, 8 December 1999, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Colahan, P.T., C. Kollias Baker, C.M. Leutenegger, and J.H. Jones (2002). Does training affect mRNA transciption for cytokine production in circulating leucocytes? Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 34): 154-158. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, cytokine production stimulated by physical exertion, mRNA, leukocytes, training, leukocyte cytokine responses, training program, Thoroughbreds.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 22-28 September 2002.

Cotta, T. and M.I.C. Ferreira (1995). Effects of athletic training on lactate levels, cardiac output and hematocrit of the eventing horses. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 47(3): 315-327.
Descriptors: horses, training, eventing, physiological effects, cardiac effects.

Cottin, F., C. Medigue, P. Lopes, E. Petit, Y. Papelier, and V.L. Billat (2005). Effect of exercise intensity and repetition on heart rate variability during training in elite trotting horse. International Journal of Sports Medicine 26(10): 859-67.
Abstract: RR intervals of ten elite trotting horses were recorded during an interval training session performed on track. This study examined two hypotheses. Firstly, like in humans, the hyperpnea combined with a decrease in cardiac autonomic control on heart rate during heavy exercise could result in a prevalence of high frequency heart rate variability. Secondly, this prevalence could increase with the heavy exercise repetition. Two exercise intensities were compared: moderate (ME) and heavy (HE). Furthermore, heavy exercise repetitions were compared between the beginning and the end of the interval training session. When comparing ME and HE periods: heart rate was significantly lower (155 +/- 12 vs. 210 +/- 9 ms, p < 0.001), LF spectral energy (0.04 - 0.2 Hz) was significantly higher (ME: 6.94 +/- 4.80 and HE: 0.24 +/- 0.14 ms(2) . Hz (-1), p < 0.001) whereas HF (0.2 - 2 Hz) was significantly lower (ME: 7.09 +/- 2.24 and HE: 10.60 +/- 3.64 ms(2) . Hz (-1), p < 0.05). In relative terms, ME showed similar results in both LFn (LF/LF+HF) and HFn (HF/LF+HF) whereas HE showed a large prevalence of HFn energy compared to LFn (p < 0.001). The difference in LF/HF ratio between the two exercise conditions was significant (1.14 +/- 0.92 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.12, p < 0.001). Exercise repetition induced a significant increase in heart rate between the beginning and the end of the interval training session (207 +/- 10 beats . min (-1) vs. 212 +/- 9 beats . min (-1), p < 0.001) whereas LF energy decreases (1.54 +/- 1.65 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.24 ms(2) . Hz (-1), p < 0.01) and HF energy remained constant (10.79 +/- 4.10 vs. 10.40 +/- 3.35 ms(2) . Hz (-1), NS). This study confirmed the results observed in humans during heavy exercise conditions with a large prevalence of HF in contrast to LF, this prevalence increasing with exercise repetitions. The observed decrease in LF/HF ratio could provide an index of hyperpnea in horses during interval training.
Descriptors: trotting horses, interval training, exercise intensity, heart rate.

Courouce, A., M. Chretien, and J.P. Valette (2002). Physiological variables measured under field conditions according to age and state of training in French trotters. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(1): 91-97. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, French trotters, effect of age, effect of training, physiological response.

Cury, L.J. (1997). Training techniques of racehorses. Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 21(3): 146-151.
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, training methods.

Cygon, I. (2003). Die naturliche Pferdeaus-bildung - Der einfache Weg zum rittigen Pferd. [The natural horse training - the simple way to a rideable horse]. Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin 17(2): 53-55. ISSN: 0939-7868.
NAL Call Number: SF603.D48
Descriptors: horses, training techniques, natural training method.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

D' Angelis, F.H.F., G.C. Ferraz, I.C. Boleli, J.C. Lacerda Neto, and A. Queiroz Neto (2005). Aerobic training, but not creatine supplementation, alters the gluteus medius muscle. Journal of Animal Science 83(3): 579-585. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, Arabian horses, creatine monohydrate, aerobic training, gluteus medius.

De D'Angelis, F.H., M.D.S. Da Mota, E.V.V. Freitas, G.C. De Ferraz, A.R. Abrahao, J.C. De Lacerda Neto, and A. De Queiroz Neto (2005). Ultra-sonografia do musculo longissimus dorsi de equinos da raca Puro-sangue Arabe em treinamento de resistencia associado a suplementacao prolongada com creatina. [Ultrasonography images of the longissimus dorsi muscle of Arabian horses in endurance training associated to chronically supplemented with creatine]. Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Veterinaria 12(1/3): 142-146. ISSN: 1413-0130.
Descriptors: Arab, conditioning, creatine, fat thickness, feed supplements, height, lactic acid, longissimus dorsi, muscular hypertrophy, training of animals, ultrasonography, horses.
Language of Text: Portuguese with an English summary.

De Nogueira, G., R.C. Barnabe, J.C. Bedran de Castro, A.F. Moreira, W.R. Fernandes, R.M.S. Mirandola, and D.L. Howard (2002). Serum cortisol, lactate and creatinine concentrations in Thoroughbred fillies of different ages and states of training. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 39(1/6): 54-57. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Descriptors: horses, exercise, training, creatinine, serum lactate concentration, cortisol levels, age variation, training level variation.
Language of Text: English with a Portuguese summary.

Diehl, N.K. (2005). Review of research on the effectiveness of early intensive handling of foals. In: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 3, 2005-December 7, 2005, Seattle, Washington, Vol. 51, p. 239-245.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A46
Descriptors: animal handling, training animals, neonates, maternal behavior.

Dietl, G., S. Hoffmann, and N. Reinsch (2005). Impact of trainer and judges in the mare performance test of warmblood horses. Archiv Fuer Tierzucht 48(2): 113-120. ISSN: 0003-9438.
NAL Call Number: 49 AR23
Descriptors: horses, mares, genetics, heretability, rider, trainer, performance.

Duhaze, T. (2005). Dressage utile du cheval. [Useful training of horses]. Equ'Idee(52): 26-29. ISSN: 1162-8103.
Online: http://www.haras-nationaux.fr
Descriptors: animal behavior, training of animals, horses.
Language of Text: French.
Notes: Describes the training of horses, including techniques used for training horses, assessment and analysis of training.

Dyke, T.M., R.A. Sams, and K.W. Hinchcliff (1998). Exercise-training-induced alterations in hepatic function in mares. Journal of Applied Physiology 85(4): 1442-1447. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Descriptors: horses, mares, training, hepatic function.

Elsaesser, F., F. Klobasa, and F. Ellendorff (2001). Acth stimulationstest und bestimmung von cortisol im blut und speichel zur bewertung des trainings-zustands/der kondition beim warmblutpferd. [Evaluation of salivary cortisol determination and of cortisol responses to act as markers of the training status/fitness of warmblood sports horses]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 108(1): 31-36. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: horses, training, cortisol response, salivary cortisol.
Language of Text: German.

Escribano, B.M., F.M. Castejon, R. Vivo, R. Santisteban, E.I. Aguera, and M.D. Rubio (2005). Effects of training on phagocytic and oxidative metabolism of peripheral neutrophils in horses exercised in the aerobic-anaerobic transition area. Veterinary Research Communications 29(2): 149-158. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V38
Descriptors: horses, neutrophil function, phagocytosis, oxidative metabolism, aerobic exercise, anerobic exercise, training.

Eto, D., S. Yamano, K. Mukai, T. Sugiura, T. Nasu, M. Tokuriki, and H. Miyata (2004). Effect of high intensity training on anaerobic capacity of middle gluteal muscle in Thoroughbred horses. Research in Veterinary Science 76(2): 139-144. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: horses, training, gluteal mucle, anaerobic activity.

Evans, D.L. (2002). Welfare of the racehorse during exercise training and racing. In: N. Waran (Editor), The Welfare of Horses, Animal Welfare, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 181-201. ISBN: 1402007663.
NAL Call Number: SF285.3.W43 2002
Descriptors: management practices, racehorses, lameness, animal welfare, environmental risk factors, fatigue, effects of excessive training and inadequate recovery periods, fluid balance.

Evans, D.L. (2000). Adaptations to training and overtraining in the racehorse. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13(Suppl. Vol. C): 389-390.
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, training, physiological response.
Notes: Meeting Information: 9th Congress of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies and the 23rd Biennial Conference of the Australian Society of Animal Production Count, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; July 03-07, 2000.

Fan, Y.K., J.C. Hsu, H.C. Peh, C.L. Tsang, S.P. Cheng, S.C. Chiu, and J.C. Ju (2002). The effects of endurance training on the hemogram of the horse. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 15(9): 1348-1353.
Descriptors: horses, response to endurance training, hemograms.

Ferrucci, F., E. Zucca, V. Di Fabio, C. Croci, and F. Tradati (2002). Rilievi gastroscopici in 63 cavalli trottatori in allenamento (Lombardia). [Gastroscopic findings in 63 Standardbred racehorses in training (Lombardy)]. Atti Della Societa' Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie 56: 261-262. ISSN: 0518-3588.
Abstract: 63 Standardbred horses in training with variable clinical signs, ranging from poor performance to poor body condition and recurrent abdominal discomfort, underwent endoscopic examination of the oesophagus, stomach and proximal duodenum. 59 horses (93.6%) had endoscopic evidence of ulcerative lesions of the nonglandular mucosa of the stomach, which were classified, according to MacAllister et al. (1997), from grade 0 to grade 5 for severity. Most horses had lesions ranging in severity from grade 3 to grade 5. This study confirms the high prevalence of gastric lesions in Standardbred racehorses, in agreement with what has been reported for Thoroughbred racehorses, suggesting a similar influence of management factors predisposing to ulcer development.
Descriptors: Standardbred racehorses, disease surveys, stomach ulcers, endoscopy, feeding systems, management factors may predispose horses to ulcer development, gastrointestinal disorders.
Language of Text: Italian.

Firth, E.C. and C.W. Rogers (2005). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 7. Bone and articular cartilage response in the carpus. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(2): 113-122. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, early training, carpus, hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, bone morphology, bone density.

Firth, E.C. and C.W. Rogers (2005). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. Conclusions. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(6): 377-383. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Descriptors: abnormalities, bone density, bones, cartilage, collagen, joint diseases, joints animal, muscles, musculoskeletal system, racehorses, skeleton, tendons, Thoroughbred, training of animals, horses.

Firth, E.C., C.W. Rogers, and B.H. Anderson (2004). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 4. Morphometric, microscopic and biomechanical properties of the digital tendons of the forelimb. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(5): 285-292. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Thoroughbreds, early training, suspensory ligament, common digital extensor tendon, digital flexor tendon.

Firth, E.C., C.W. Rogers, M. Doube, and N.B. Jopson (2005). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 6. Bone parameters in the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(2): 101-112. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Thoroughbreds, training protocol, metacarpal, metatarsal.

Firth, E.C., C.W. Rogers, N.R. Perkins, B.H. Anderson, and N.D. Grace (2004). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 1. Study design, and clinical, nutritional, radiological and histological observations. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(5): 261-271. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Abstract: AIMS: This is the first in a series of papers reporting studies in 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses that aimed to determine the response of musculoskeletal tissues to early training on grass and sand racetracks. In this paper, the experimental set-up of the whole study is described, and nutritional, workload, and clinical, radiographic and pathological outcomes are reported, including semi-quantitative assessment of macroscopic changes in articular cartilage. METHODS: The study group comprised 14 two-year-old Thoroughbred fillies reared entirely at pasture. Of these, seven were selected by a licensed racehorse trainer to undergo a 4-week period of initial training in which they were taught to accept saddle and rider, followed by a 13-week period of flatrace training at a racetrack (Weeks 1-13); the other seven fillies were confined to large grass enclosures and were not trained. Nutrient, including macro- and trace-element intakes were estimated. Distances cantered or galloped and average velocities were quantified for the trained horses. All horses were observed daily, weighed approximately weekly, and underwent a clinical lameness examination at Weeks 5, 9 and 13. Distal forelimbs were radiographed prior to Week 1, during Weeks 7-8, and again at the end of the study, when macroscopic changes in articular cartilage of the proximal surface of the proximal phalanx were also scored after staining with India ink. RESULTS: Dietary intakes met or exceeded recommended requirements for all nutrients except sodium, which was low in the trained horses. Bodyweight increased throughout the study in the untrained horses, and increased until Week 7 and then decreased slightly in the trained horses. Mean velocity data were used to define three stages of the training programme: Stage 1 comprised canter in Weeks 1-4; Stage 2 comprised canter in Weeks 5-8; and Stage 3 comprised canter in Weeks 9-13 and galloping twice weekly. Four of seven horses completed training. These covered a mean distance of 179.2 km at mean velocities (excluding gallops) of 7.63 m/sec (SD 0.58), 8.99 m/sec (SD 0.56), and 8.43 m/sec (SD 0.74) for Stages 1-3, respectively, and galloped 4.45 km at 14.4 (SD 0.1) m/sec. The three horses that did not complete training became lame in Weeks 9, 10 and 11, and covered 147.9 km at velocities of 7.38 m/sec (SD 0.44), 8.88 m/sec (SD 0.33) and 8.43 m/sec (SD 0.59) and galloped 2.1 km. Overall, slight or intermittent lameness in trained horses was noted on 76/655 (12%) of horse observation days. Swelling was evident on 284/655 (41%) of horse observation days in the metacarpophalangeal (MCPJ) and metatarsophalangeal (MTPJ) joints (92%), palmar metacarpal tendon region (7%) or carpus (1%). Swelling of the MCPJ or MTPJ was not associated with obvious lameness. Radiographic changes were minor and no gross lesions in bone or tendon tissue were evident except for one case of dorsal metacarpal disease. Post mortem, the cartilage of some MCPJ and MTPJ had obvious wear lines and high lesion scores, which were not consistently related to clinical evidence of pain, lameness or joint swelling. Mean lesion scores were not significantly different between the MCPJ and MTPJ, or between trained and untrained horses. CONCLUSIONS: Workload can be readily quantified in racehorses under semi-commercial training conditions. Obvious lesions in cartilage of the MCPJ or MTPJ were present in some trained and some untrained horses and not consistently associated with clinical evidence of lameness, joint swelling or change in other connective tissues. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Workload data in racing horses are likely to be highly relevant for studying the pathogenesis of changes in bone, tendon and cartilage during training, for training management and for risk analysis in racehorse populations. Although obvious cartilage lesions produced little clinical effect, such lesions have previously been shown to be progressive and to prejudice athletic capability. Detection of such occult lesions in young horses will require more sophisticated detection methods.
Descriptors: horses, effects of early training, musculoskeletal system, workload determination, Thoroughbreds, racehorses, training on grass and sand, 2 year old horses.

Galloux, P. (2003). Development of the training method in three-day-event horses. In: The Elite Dressage and Three Day Event Horse: Conference on Equine Sports Medicine and Science 2002, October 19, 2002-October 21, 2002, Saumur, France, Arbeitsgruppe Pferd.: Essen, Germany, p. 55-60.
Descriptors: training methods for performance horses, three-day events, physiology, horse health, athletic development, mental development, horse-rider relationship.

Gehlen, H., S. Marnette, K. Rohn, L. Kreienbrock, and P. Stadler (2005). Prazisionskontrolle echokardiographischer links-ventrikularer funktionsparameter durch wiederholte messsungen an drei aufeinanderfolgenden tagen bei trainierten und trainierten warmblutpferden. [Day to day variability of left ventricular echocardiographic parameters by repeated measurement at 3 days in trained and untrained warmblood horses]. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 112(2): 48-54. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, methods and techniques, veterinary medicine, random effects model, mathematical and computer techniques, left ventricular echocardiography, laboratory techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, day to day variability.
Language of Text: German.

Geor, R.J., L.J. McCutcheon, and Shen Hua (1999). Muscular and metabolic responses to moderate-intensity short-term training. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 311-317. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, training response, muscle metabolism, oxygen consumption, gluteal muscle, epinephrine, blood chemistry, muscle glycogenolysis.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

Ghafir, Y., T. Art, and P. Lekeux (1996). Infrared thermography in the study of thermoregulation in the horse: training effects. Annales De Medecine Veterinaire 140(2): 131-135.
NAL Call Number: TRANSL 22570
Descriptors: horse, training response, thermoregulation, thermography.

Greig, C.R., K.E. Brass, F.G. De Oliveira, F.D. De La Corte, J.H. Silva, and C.A.M. Silva (2005). Relevancia da ultra-sonografia dos tendoes flexores em cavalos puro sangue de corrida na adaptacao ao treinamento. [Significance of flexor tendon ultrasonography in training Thoroughbred horses]. Ciencia Rural 35(4): 832-836. ISSN: 0103-8478.
NAL Call Number: S192.R4
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, ultrasonograph, superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, tendon cross sectional area, effects of exercise, training techniques.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Halo, M., M. Valent, and P. Cupka (1995). Metabolic characteristics of race horses during the training process. In: Book of Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, September 4-7 (1995), Prague, Czech Republic, Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 344. ISBN: 9074134246.
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, training, training management, metabolism, training response.

Halo, M., M. Valent, P. Cupka, and P. Kalas (1996). Sledovanie dusikoveho a pecenoveho profilu dostihovych koni v treningovom procese. [Monitoring nitrogen and liver profile of race horses in training process]. Acta Zootechnica 51: 111-114. ISSN: 1335-258X.
NAL Call Number: S13.A28
Abstract: Effect of training including training and resting periods in a group of seven race horses on nitrogen level and liver profile was investigated. The training process was divided into four parts. 1 - the end of racing season, 2 - the end of the resting period, 3 - the end of quantitative training and 4 - the end of qualitative training. Level of urea in blood serum was within the reference limits, with a tendency towards increased values in the 1st and the 2nd period (5.07 - 5.79 mmol l** (-1). The average values of global protein, AST, ALT and bilirubin varied within the reference levels in the first two periods. In the 3rd and 4th periods the level of global protein, AST and bilirubine increased significantly in comparison with the 1st and 2nd period of the training process.
Descriptors: racehorses, nitrogen metabolism, blood serum, liver, bilirubin, biochemical reactions, nitrogen levels, effects of training, resting periods.
Language of Text: Slovak with an English summary.

Halo, M., M. Valent, J. Cupka, and P. Kalas (1996). Sledovanie dusikoveho a pecenoveho profilu dostihovych koni v treningovom procese. [Nitrogen and liver profile of race horses during training]. Acta Zootechnica 51: 111-114. ISSN: 1335-258X.
NAL Call Number: S13.A28
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, nutrition, metabolism of nitrogen, training, serum nitrogen, bilirubin, liver enzyme activity.
Language of Text: Slovak with an English summary.

Haney, E., G.D. Potter, P.G. Gibbs, and C. Rammerstorfer (1997). Physiologic responses to a standardized exercise test in reining horses trained by conventional and interval procedures. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Equine Nutrition and Physiology Symposium, May 28, 1997-May 31, 1997, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, Equine Nutrition & Physiology Society Publications: Savoy, USA, p. 45-50.
Descriptors: reining horses, horse health, training methods, exercise tests, interval training.

Haouet, M.N., G. Martino, F. Poricello, F. Rueca, A. Spaterna, M.B. Conti, L. Avellini, M. Silvestrelli, and O. Olivieri (1995). The effect of training on morphological and chemical blood parameters in maremma horses undergoing a performance test. In: Book of Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, September 4, 1995-September 7, 1995, Prague, Czech Republic, Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 345. ISBN: 9074134246.
Descriptors: horses, training effects, blood chemistry, exercise, performance.

Harris, P.A., D.J. Marlin, and J. Gray (1998). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities in Thoroughbred racehorses in relation to age, sex, exercise and training. Veterinary Journal 155(3): 295-304. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training response, age variation, sex variation, fitness variation, plasma aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase.

Hebenbrock, M., M. Due, H. Holzhausen, A. Sass, P. Stadler, and F. Ellendorff (2005). A new tool to monitor training and performance of sport horses using global positioning system (GPS) with integrated GSM capabilities. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(7): 262-5.
Abstract: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are considered suitable to monitor the position and velocity of horses during cross-country competition or in training. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of life data such as heart rate could be useful to assess the horse's condition during exercise. To test the suitability and reliability of a commercially available GPS system with integrated heart rate recording system and with built in GSM for data transmission, the Fidelak Equipilot Type EP-2003-15/G-2.11 (EP-15/G) was evaluated first for reliability of pulse recording from a pulse generator within the physiological range of horses; furthermore distance, velocity and heart rate recordings were carried out on a standard 1000 m field track with five repetitions. Agreement (% deviation from actually measured distance and from stopwatch-distance based velocity calculations) and variability (Coefficient of Variation for distance, velocity, heart rate) were calculated. From the results it was safe to assume that the heart rate sensor recorded horse heart rates at a high degree of accuracy. Overall distances and velocities are in high agreement with actually measured values. However, overall variability expressed in terms of relative variability (C.V.) is smaller for distance recording (C.V. 0.68%) when compared to velocity (C.V. 1.01%). The system tested is suitable and reliable for simultaneously recording of distance, velocity and heart rates for horses during cross country exercise. GPS-based monitoring of movement along with simultaneous recording of physiological data and the possibility to call upon data will not only be of benefit for training horses or for surveillance during competition, it may also be suitable for distant patient monitoring and in behavioural studies as well as in veterinary medicine in general.
Descriptors: usage of global positioning systems, GPS, reliability assessment, competition, training.

Hernandez, J. and D.L. Hawkins (2001). Training failure among yearling horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(9): 1418-1422. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, yearlings, early training, incidence of training difficulty.

Hiney, K.M., B.D. Nielsen, and D. Rosenstein (2004). Short-duration exercise and confinement alters bone mineral content and shape in weanling horses. Journal of Animal Science 82(8): 2313-2320. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, weanlings, bone mass, housing, confinement, exercise protocol, skeletal strength, diagnostic techniques.

Hintz, H.F. (1997). Calcium requirements of young horses in training. Equine Practice 19(8): 6-7. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: horses, early training, nutrition, calcium.

Hiraga, A., M. Kai, K. Kubo, and B.K. Erickson (1995). The effect of long slow distance training on aerobic work capacity in young Thoroughbred horses. Journal of Equine Science 6(1): 1-6. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training protocol, distance training, aerobic capacity.

Hiraga, A., M. Kai, K. Kubo, and S. Sugano (1997). The effect of training intensity on cardiopulmonary function in 2 year-old Thoroughbred horses. Journal of Equine Science 8(3): 75-80. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, cardiac function, effects of training, exercise intensity variation.

Holt, K.M. and M.C. Nicodemus (2003). The influence of training on flat walking temporal variables of Tennessee Walking horse yearlings. Journal of Animal Science 86(Suppl. 1): 262-263. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, Tennessee Walking horses, yearlings, training methods, temporal variables.
Notes: Meeting Information: Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, the American Society of Animal Science and the Mexican Association of Animal Production, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; June 22-26, 2003.

Islas, A., M. Quezada, A. Bernales, G. Mora, J.L. Lopez Rivero, V. Merino, P. Dossow, V. Rojas, and L. Marin (2000). Caracteristicas histoquimicas, morfometricas y metabolicas del musculo gluteus medius de equinos entrenados para competencias de salto. [Histochemical, morphometrical and metabolic characteristics of the gluteus medius muscle from horses in training for jumping competition]. Archivos De Medicina Veterinaria 32(1): 11-19. ISSN: 0301-732X.
Descriptors: horses, muscles, gluteus medius, training effects, jumping, fibrillar composition, evaluation techniques.
Language of Text: Spanish with an English summary.

Janiszewska, J., J. Ignor, and A. Ciesla (2004). Einfluss eines 11-monatigen trainings auf die ergebnisse des "aengstlichkeitstests" von jungen halbblut-hengsten. [Modifying influence of 11-months training on results of 'timidity' test of young half bred stallions]. Archiv Fuer Tierzucht 47(1): 7-13. ISSN: 0003-9438.
NAL Call Number: 49 AR23
Descriptors: horses, stallions, behavior, training.

Jonsson, H. and A. Egenvall (2006). Prevalence of gastric ulceration in Swedish Standardbreds in race training. Equine Veterinary Journal 38(3): 209-213. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: Standardbreds, race training, epidemiology, sex and age difference correlation, gastric ulcers.

Kallweit, E., J. Dodenhoff, M. Steinhardt, H.H. Thielscher, C. Mueller, M. Henning, and J. Ladewig (1996). Criteria to evaluate the state of training in horses. Zuechtungskunde 68(4): 246-257.
Descriptors: horses, training, evaluation methods.

Kapron, M. (2001). Projekt modernizacji systemu wierzchowych prob dzielnosci ogierow pokrwi w Zakadach Treningowych. [A plan for the modernization of the saddle performance testing system of half-bred stallions at training stations]. Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki(Suppl. z. 14): 81-94. ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call Number: SF1.R6
Descriptors: horses, stallions, performance evaluation methods, genetics.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Kapron, M., I. Janczarek, M. Pluta, K. Bocian, and A. Suska (2001). Wybrane wskazniki zaawansowania treningowego ogierow pokrwi w ramach testu 100 dni. [Selected indicators of training progress of half-bred stallions as part of the 100-day test]. Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki(Supl. z. 14): 95-107. ISSN: 0137-1657.
NAL Call Number: SF1.R6
Descriptors: horses, stallions, training, heart rate, performance testing methods.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Kapron, M., G. Zieba, K. Strzelec, A. Stachurska, H. Kapron, and I. Janczarek (1997). Ocena zmiennosci poziomu odziedziczalnosci cech uzytkowych ogierow pokrwi trenowanych w zakadach treningowych (1973-1992) z uwzglednieniem ich przynaleznosci rasowej i wykorzystywanych metod statystycznych. [Estimating the variation of heritability of performance traits in Halfbred stallions trained at specialized stations (1973-92) with regard to breed type and statistical methods]. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, Zootechnika 35: 177-186. ISSN: 0137-1940.
NAL Call Number: 20.5 St43
Descriptors: horses, stallions, performance testing, statistical methods, variance analysis, evaluation methods.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Kasashima, Y., D. Eto, K. Kusano, S. Hobo, and Japan Tendinitis Researching Project Team (2001). Comparison of the method of cold therapy to equine limbs after training, with the aim of preventing tendinitis. Journal of Equine Science 12(3): 96. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, training, exercise, tendinitis prevention, cold therapy methods, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 42nd Annual Meeting of Investigation and Research Concerning the Racehorses. Part II. Kudan Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan; 5-6 December, 2000.

Katz, L.M., W.M. Bayly, M.J. Roeder, J.K. Kingston, and M.T. Hines (2000). Effects of training on maximum oxygen consumption of ponies. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(8): 986-991. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: ponies, training, oxygen consumption.

Kedzierski, W. and M. Podolak (2002). Wplyw treningu koni rasy arabskiej na poziom parametrow biochemicznych zwiazanych z gospodarka weglowodanowo-lipidowa. [Training arabian horses and its effect on the level of biochemical indices related to the metabolism of carbohydrate and lipids]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 58(10): 788-791. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: horses, Arabian horses, nutrition, effects of training, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism.
Language of Text: Polish.

Kim, J.S., K.W. Hinchcliff, M. Yamaguchi, L.A. Beard, C.D. Markert, and S.T. Devor (2005). Exercise training increases oxidative capacity and attenuates exercise-induced ultrastructural damage in skeletal muscle of aged horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 98(1): 334-342. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Descriptors: horses, exercise, training, effect of age, muscle damage, skeletal muscle, endurance, enzymes.

Kim, J.S., K.W. Hinchcliff, M. Yamaguchi, L.A. Beard, C.D. Markert, and S.T. Devor (2005). Exercise training increases oxidative capacity and attenuates exercise-induced ultrastructural damage in skeletal muscle of aged horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 98(1): 334-42.
Abstract: Exercise training improves functional capacity in aged individuals. Whether such training reduces the severity of exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 10 wk of treadmill exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and exercise-induced ultrastructural damage in six aged female Quarter horses (>23 yr of age). The magnitude of ultrastructural muscle damage induced by an incremental exercise test before and after training was determined by electron microscopic examination of samples of triceps, semimembranosus, and masseter (control) muscles. Maximal aerobic capacity increased 22% after 10 wk of exercise training. The percentage of type IIa myosin heavy chain increased in semimembranosus muscle, whereas the percentage of type IIx myosin heavy chain decreased in triceps muscle. After training, triceps muscle showed significant increases in activities of both citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase. Attenuation of exercise-induced ultrastructural muscle damage occurred in the semimembranosus muscle at both the same absolute and the same relative workloads after the 10-wk conditioning period. We conclude that aged horses adapt readily to intense aerobic exercise training with improvements in endurance, whole body aerobic capacity, and muscle oxidative capacity, and heightened resistance to exercise-induced ultrastructural muscle cell damage. However, adaptations may be muscle-group specific.
Descriptors: aged horses, training adaptation, exercise training, muscle damage, treadmill exercise, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, endurance, whole body aerobic capacity.

Knudsen, D.M. and P.F. Joergensen (2000). Svoemmetraening af heste sammenlignet med trav- og ridetraening: Vurdering af traeningsintensitet paa grundlag af kredsloebs- og syre-base parametre. [Swimming training of horses compared to trotting and dressage: evaluation of training intensity based on parameters for the cardiovascular system and lactate production]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 83(23): 6-10. ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Descriptors: racehorses, animal training, alternative methods of training, training intensity, physical activity, acid base equilibrium, lactate production, cardiovascular system, swimming.
Language of Text: Danish.

Kobayashi, M., K. Kuribara, and A. Amada (1999). Application of V200 values for evaluation of training effects in the young Thoroughbred under field conditions. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 159-162. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training, incremental exercise test, evaluation techniques for training effects.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

Kraft, U.I., and F.I. Kraft (Inventors) (2005). Free-reign walking machine for training animals along a defined training course. (US 06871615, March 29, 2005). Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
Descriptors: equipment apparatus devices and instrumentation, animal husbandry, agriculture, free reign walking machine, field equipment.

Krueger, K. (2007). Behaviour of horses in the “round pen technique”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 106(1-3): 184-189. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: round pen, horse whisperers, horse behavior, training, learning, following in pen did not translate to following in pasture, dominance relationship.

Kusunose, R. and A. Yamanobe (2002). The effect of training schedule on learned tasks in yearling horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78(2/4): 225-233. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, young animals, Thoroughbreds, training of animals, frequency, duration, heart rate, learning, horse riding, saddles, equipment, accuracy.
Notes: In the special issue: Equine Behavior edited by K. Houpt and R. Rudman.

Lakritz, J., E.R. Wisner, T. Finucane, T.R. O'Brien, W.S. Tyler, J.R. Pascoe, and C.G. Plopper (1995). Morphologic and morphometric characterization of lung collagen content in clinically normal adult Thoroughbreds in race training. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56(1): 11-18. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Thoroughbreds, respiratory system, lung collagen, training effects.

Lange, J., S. Matheja, E. Klug, C. Aurich, and J.E. Aurich (1997). Influence of training and competition on the endocrine regulation of testicular function and on semen parameters in stallions. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 32(6): 297-302. ISSN: 0936-6768.
NAL Call Number: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: horses, stallions, endocrine system, effects of training, performance, reproductive system, testicular function, semen production.

Lansade, L., M. Bertrand, X. Boivin, and M.F. Bouissou (2004). Effects of handling at weaning on manageability and reactivity of foals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 87(1-2): 131-149. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: temperatment, early experiences, handling of young horses, Anglo-Arab, foals, weaning, optimal period for handling.

Lansade, L., M. Bertrand, and M.F. Bouissou (2005). Effects of neonatal handling on subsequent manageability, reactivity and learning ability of foals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 92(1-2): 143-158. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horse breeds, training animals, animal age, animal behavior, learning, human animal relations, Welsh Pony horse breed.

Larsdotter, S., L. Holm, K. Dahlborn, A. Jansson, M. Josefsson, and Y. Ridderstrale (2002). Carbonic anhydrase activity and sweat gland morphology in trained and untrained Standardbred trotters. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 34): 560-563. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Standardbreds, exercise, training stages, morphology of sweat glands, carbonic anhydrase, light microscopic image analysis method.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 22-28 September 2002.

Lewczuk, D. (2000). Zastosowanie komputerowej analizy obrazu w ocenie zdolnosci skokowych koni pokrwi w zakadach treningowych. [The usefulness of video image analysis in prediction of halfbred horse jumping skills in young stallion's training centres]. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Zootechnica(40): 91-98. ISSN: 1506-1698.
Descriptors: horses, jumping performance prediction, genetics, video image analysis.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Lightowler, C., G. Pidal, G. Romei del Olmo, G. Piccione, E. Giudice, and M. Cattaneo (2002). Uso dell' ecocardiografia per valutare i cambiamenti cardiaci indotti dall' attivita' fisica nel cavallo. [Using echocardiography to evaluate cardiac changes induced by training in the horse]. Archivio Veterinario Italiano 53(1-2): 53-61. ISSN: 0004-0479.
Abstract: The AA carried out an echocardiographic study of the cardiac changes resulting by different training protocols in horses. 42 clinically healthy horses, not previously trained, were divided in 2 groups and underwent different training programs (endurance and speed training). 3 echographs were used to assess the following echocardiographic parameters: Left Ventricular Diastolic Diameter (LVDD), Left Ventricular Myocardial Mass (LVMM), Left Ventricular Diastolic Volume (LVDV), Relative Wall Thickness (RWT) and Left Ventricular Diastolic Volume/Left Ventricular Myocardial Mass ratio (LVDV/LVMM). The endurance-trained horses showed increases in LVDD (16.06%), LVDV (22.82%) and LVMM (32.54%) values, while RWT and LVDV/LVMM ratio were constant. In speed-trained horses LVDD and LVDV values were unchanged (0.062 and 0.25%, respectively), LVMM and RWT raised (26.40 and 19.40%, respectively), while LVDV/LVMM ratio decreased (21.37%).
Descriptors: echocardiography, animal physiology and performance, effect of training on cardiovascular system, heart rate, echography, blood circulation.
Language of Text: Italian.

Luis, E.S., N. Hernandez, and S. Hecker Torres (1999). Efecto del entrenamiento sobre actividades enzimaticas y composicion fibrilar en el M.G. medius de caballos pura sangre Venezolanos. [Effect of training on enzyme activities and fibrillar composition in the M.G. medius of Venezuelan Thoroughbreds]. Revista Cientifica, Facultad De Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Del Zulia 9(6): 489-501.
Descriptors: horses, muscles, effects of training, oxidative capacity of muscle fibers, enzyme activity, muscle fiber area, capillary density, aerobic capacity.
Language of Text: Spanish with an English summary.

Mal, M.E. and C.A. Mccall (1996). The influence of handling during different ages on a halter training test in foals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50(2): 115-120. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, foals, age variation, effects of handling, training.

Malinowski, K., C.F. Kearns, P.D. Guirnalda, V. Roegner, and K.H. Mckeever (2004). Effect of chronic clenbuterol administration and exercise training on immune function in horses. Journal of Animal Science 82(12): 3500-3507. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Standardbreds, race training, immune function, clenbuterol, inflammatory airway disease management.

Malinowski, K., E. Shock, V. Roegner, P. Rochelle, C.F. Kearns, P.D. Guirnalda, and K.H. Mckeever (2002). Age and exercise training alter plasma beta-endorphin, cortisol, and immune parameters in horses. Journal of Animal Science 85(Suppl. 1): 156. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, age variation, exercise, training stages, plasma beta-endorphin, cortisol, immune system.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; July 20-25, 2002.

Mansell, B.J., L.A. Baker, J.L. Pipkin, G.D. Potter, R.C. Bachman, L.J. Perino, G.O. Veneklasen, J.C. Haliburton, and M.A. Buchholz Bryant (2001). The effect of calcium and phosphorus supplementation on bone metabolism in young, mature, and aged horses during inactivity and subsequent aerobic training. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(9): 445-450. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, calcium, phosphorus, supplementary feeding, bone density, metabolism, bones, young animals, exercise.

Marc, M., N. Parvizi, F. Ellendorff, E. Kallweit, and F. Elsaesser (2000). Plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations in the warmblood horse in response to a standardized treadmill exercise test as physiological markers for evaluation of training status. Journal of Animal Science 78(7): 1936-1946. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, blood chemistry, exercise, training, evaluation methods, physiological evaluation.

Martin Jr., B.B., V.B. Reef, E.J. Parente, and A.D. Sage (1999). Clinical evaluation of poor training or racing performance in 348 horses (1992-1996). In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, December 5, 1999-December 8, 1999, Albuquerque, New Mexico, American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP): Lexington, Kentucky, USA, p. 322-324.
Descriptors: racehorses, training, performance analysis, upper respiratory tract abnormalities, laryngeal hemiplegia, cardiac disease, lameness, electrocardiography, tread mills.

Mcclure, S.R., D.S. Carithers, S.J. Gross, and M.J. Murray (2005). Gastric ulcer development in horses in a simulated show or training environment. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227(5): 775-777. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, transport, competition, confinement, exercise, stress, gastric ulcer causation, management practices.

Mccutcheon, L.J. and R.J. Geor (2000). Influence of training on sweating responses during submaximal exercise in horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 89(6): 2463-2471. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Descriptors: horses, physiology, exercise, effects of training, sweat response.

McCutcheon, L.J., R.J. Geor, and Shen Hua (1999). Skeletal muscle Na+-K+-ATPase and K+ homeostasis during exercise: effects of short-term training. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 303-310. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, training, exercise, gluteal mucle, plasma, potassium regulation, oxygen consumption, adenosinetriphosphatase.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

McIlwraith, C.W. (2001). What are we doing to prevent severe injury in the equine athlete in training. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 15: 118-119.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: horses, joint diseases, bone diseases, bone fractures, diagnostic techniques, radiography, computed tomography, imagery, scintigraphy, synovial fluid, serum, Colorado, magnetic resonance imaging, 3-D computed tomography, subchondral bone disease, serum markers, joint modeling, optical coherence tomography.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting held January 13-17, 2001 in Orlando, Florida. In the volume: Large Animal. Part of a three volume set.

Mckeever, K.H., R. Scali, S. Geiser, J.M. Agans, P.D. Guirnalda, C.F. Kearns, and A.N. Dimock (1999). Training-induced alterations in renal function in horses. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(5 Suppl.): S323.
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, renal function.
Notes: Meeting Information: 46th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Washington, D.C., USA; June 2-5, 1999.

Mckeever, K.H., A.M. Szucsik, V.B. Balaskonis, C.L. Betros, C.F. Kearns, and K. Malinowski (2002). Effect of management practices and training on plasma tCO2 concentration in horses. Journal of Dairy Science 85(Suppl. 1): 172. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call Number: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: horses, metabolism, training, exercise, management techniques, CO2 levels, meeting abstracts.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; July 20-25, 2002.

Medica, P., E. Fazio, A. Ferlazzo, D. Alberghina, and S.J. Wickler (2002). Effetto dell' allenamento sulla risposta di cortisolo e iodotironine totali e libere di cavalli a test d' esercizio standardizzati su treadmill. [Effect of training on response of circulating cortisol and total and free iodothyronine levels of horses to standardized exercise tests on treadmill]. Atti Della Societa' Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie 56: 83-84. ISSN: 0518-3588.
Abstract: Adrenocortical and thyroid responses of horses were evaluated after Standardized Exercise Tests (SET) during a training protocol of two months. A significant increase of circulating cortisol and free triiodothyronine levels 5 and 15 min after SET was detected. A significant effect of training on total tiroxine levels was recorded.
Descriptors: treadmill exercise tests, horses, effects of training, iodohyronine, blood plasma levels of cortisol, glucocorticoids, physical activity.
Language of Text: Italian.

Miller, R.M. (2001). Fallacious studies of foal imprint training. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21(3): 102-103, 105. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: foals, imprinting, training of animals.

Miller, R.M. (1998). Training methods are important. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 18(9): 562-563. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, training of animals.

Miller, R.M. (1995). Early learning: The complete training of the newborn foal during its imprinting and critical learning periods. Video Velocity: Virginia City, Nevada, USA.
NAL Call Number: Videocassette no. 2593
Abstract: Demonstrates techniques for training newborn foals to accept grooming, hoof trimming, clipping, veterinary examinations, trailer loading and unexpected objects.
Descriptors: training foals, imprinting, equine psychology, behavior of foals.

Misumi, K., H. Sakamoto, and R. Shimizu (1995). Changes in skeletal muscle composition in response to swimming training for young horses. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 57(5): 959-961. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Descriptors: horses, training methods, exercise alternatives, swimming, skeletal muscle response.

Miyata, H., T. Sugiura, M. Kai, A. Hiraga, and M. Tokuriki (1999). Muscle adaptation of Thoroughbred racehorses trained on a flat or sloped track. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(12): 1536-1539. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training methods, skeletal muscle response.

Mohr, E., H. Krzywanek, and W. Pinkowski (1999). Monitoring training success using a lactate-speed relationship. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 46(9): 565-571. ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: training, success evaluation methods.

Munoz, A., R.G. Lucas, M. Benito, J. Palacio, M.M. Lopez, K. Satue, and F.M. Castejon (2001). Evaluacion del entrenamiento mediante el analisis hematologico y bioquimico plasmatico en caballos angloarabes de carreras. [Evaluation of training level using haematological and biochemical plasmatic analysis in Anglo Arabian horses]. Medicina Veterinaria 18(7/8): 491-499. ISSN: 0212-8292.
Descriptors: horses, training level assessment, exercise, blood chemistry analysis, biochemical response analysis.
Language of Text: Spanish with an English summary.

Munoz, A., R. Santisteban, M.D. Rubio, E.I. Aguera, B.M. Escribano, and F.M. Castejon (1999). Locomotor, cardiocirculatory and metabolic adaptations to training in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses. Research in Veterinary Science 66(1): 25-31. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: horses, exercise response, training protocol variation, heart rate, blood chemistry analysis.

Munoz, A., R. Santisteban, M.D. Rubio, R. Vivo, E.I. Aguera, B.M. Escribano, and F.M. Castejon (1997). Training as an influential factor on the locomotor pattern in Andalusian horses. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 44(8): 473-480. ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: horses, Andalusians, effects of training, movement patterns.

Munoz, A., K. Satue, S. Rovira, R.G. Lucas, and M. Benito (2005). Electrocardiographic ventricular repolarisation processes in Andalusian horses before and after physical training. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8(1): 23-34. ISSN: 1311-1477.
Descriptors: cardiac output, cardiac rhythm, chloride, electrocardiography, electrolytes, exercise, heart, heart rate, polarization, potassium, racehorses, sodium, training, ventricles, horses.

Murray, R.C., H.C. Janicke, F. Henson, and A. Goodship (2000). Equine carpal articular cartilage fibronectin distribution associated with training, joint location and cartilage deterioration. Equine Veterinary Journal 32(1): 47-51. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, joints, carpus, articular cartilage, cartilage breakdown.

Nielsen, B.D., G.D. Potter, L.W. Greene, E.L. Morris, M. Murray Gerzik, W.B. Smith, and M.T. Martin (1998). Response of young horses in training to varying concentrations of dietary calcium and phosphorus. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 18(6): 397-404. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, training, calcium, phosphorus, mineral nutrition, nutrient intake, dosage, feed supplements, bone density, urine analysis, feces composition, blood chemistry, magnesium, nutrient balance.
Notes: Meeting Information: Paper presented at the Equine Nutrition and Physiology Society Annual Symposium, Fort Worth, Texas, USA; May 28-31, 1997.

Normando, S., I. Perini, and F. Gottardo (2006). The importance of the trainer's gaze in horse training. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5(3): 256-259. ISSN: 1680-5593.
Online: http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=javaa.2006.256.259
Descriptors: training methods, ethological characteristics, round pen training, effect of eye contact with trainer on behavior.

Ohmura, H., A. Hiraga, H. Aida, M. Kuwahara, and H. Tsubone (2002). Effects of initial handling and training on autonomic nervous function in young Thoroughbreds. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(11): 1488-1491. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, autonomic nervous system, effects of training, effects of handling.

Ohmura, H., A. Hiraga, H. Aida, A. Matsui, Y. Inoue, and Y. Asai (2004). Adaptation of Thoroughbreds to oxygen transport mechanisms through training. Journal of Equine Science 15(1): 25. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training, aerobic capacity, exercise, oxygen transport evaluation, diagnostic methods, cardiovascular system, respiratory system.

Ohmura, H., A. Hiraga, A. Matsui, H. Aida, Y. Inoue, K. Sakamoto, M. Tomita, and Y. Asai (2002). Changes in running velocity at heart rate 200 beats/min (v200) in young Thoroughbred horses undergoing conventional endurance training. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(6): 634-635. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, endurance training, speed evaluation.

Patterson Kane, J.C., E.C. Firth, D.A.D. Parry, A.M. Wilson, and A.E. Goodship (1998). Effects of training on collagen fibril populations in the suspensory ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(1): 64-68. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, tendon composition, ligament composition.

Perkins, N.R., S.W.J. Reid, and R.S. Morris (2005). Profiling the New Zealand Thoroughbred racing industry. 1. Training, racing and general health patterns. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(1): 59-68. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, race performance, training methods, animal health, racing industry.

Perkins, N.R., S.W.J. Reid, and R.S. Morris (2004). Effect of training location and time period on racehorse performance in New Zealand. 1. Descriptive analysis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(5): 236-242. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, race performance, effect of training surface, effect of time period.

Perkins, N.R., C.W. Rogers, E.C. Firth, and B.H. Anderson (2004). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 3. In vivo ultrasonographic assessment of the cross-sectional area and echogenicity of the superficial digital flexor tendon. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(5): 280-284. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: hores, Thoroughbreds, tendons, cross-sectional area, echogenecity, effects of early training, ultrasonography.

Podolak, M., W. Kedzierski, and I. Janczarek (2004). Wplyw intensywnego treningu na poziom wybranych parametrow biochemicznych krwi i liczbe tetnau koni rasy arabskiej. [Intense training of arabian horses and its effect on the level of selected biochemical indices in their blood and heart rate]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 60(4): 403-406. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: horses, effects of intensive training, exercise, biochemical indices, cardiovascular system.
Language of Text: Polish.

Poole, D.C., D.J. Marlin, and H.H. Erickson (2002). Plasticity of muscle energetics in the horse after training. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(1): 6-7. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, exercise, skeletal mucle.

Porciello, F., F. Rueca, A. Fruganti, C. Pieramati, and G.P. Macolino (2001). Relationship between racing performance and echocardiographic measurements before and after training in Thoroughbred horses. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 15(3): 321. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, exercise, training, performance analysis, echocardiographs.
Notes: Meeting Information: 19th Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Denver, CO, USA; May 23-26, 2001.

Porr, C.A., E.A. Ott, E.L. Johnson, and J.B. Madison (1997). Bone mineral in young Thoroughbred horses is affected by training. Equine Practice 19(8): 28-31. ISSN: 0162-8941.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E62
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, effects of training, bone mineral content.

Prado Filho, J.R.C. do and F. Sterman de A (2004). Avaliacao da densidade mineral ossea em potros da raca Puro Sangue Ingles em inicio de treinamento. [Evaluation of mineral bone density in Thoroughbred horses under an initial training programme]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 41(6): 384-388. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Descriptors: analytical methods, bone density, bone mineralization, bones, techniques, Thoroughbred, horses.
Language of Text: Portuguese with an English summary.

Price, J.S., B. Jackson, R. Eastell, A.M. Wilson, R.G.G. Russell, L.E. Lanyon, and A.E. Goodship (1995). The response of the skeleton to physical training: a biochemical study in horses. Bone 17(3): 221-227. ISSN: 8756-3282.
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, skeletal changes.

Raidal, S.L., D.N. Love, G.D. Bailey, and R.J. Rose (2000). Effect of single bouts of moderate and high intensity exercise and training on equine peripheral blood neutrophil function. Research in Veterinary Science 68(2): 141-146. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: horses, training, exercise, circulatory system.

Raidal, S.L., R.J. Rose, and D.N. Love (2001). Effects of training on resting peripheral blood and BAL-derived leucocyte function in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 33(3): 238-243. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, exercise, training of animals, adverse effects, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, phagocytosis, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, oxidation.

Rivera, E., S. Benjamin, B. Nielsen, J. Shelle, and A.J. Zanella (2002). Behavioral and physiological responses of horses to initial training: The comparison between pastured versus stalled horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78(2/4): 235-252. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: training horses, stalls, pastures, heart rate, cortisol, blood plasma, animal behavior, Arabian horses, learning ability.
Notes: In the special issue: Equine Behavior edited by K. Houpt and R. Rudman.

Rivero, J.L.L. (1996). Muscle biopsy as a tool for assessing muscular adaptation to training in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(10): 1412-1416. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, training, muscle change assessment methods, muscular biopsy.

Rivero, J.L.L., M.C. Ruz, A.L. Serrano, and A.M. Diz (1995). Effects of a 3 month endurance training programme on skeletal muscle histochemistry in Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 27(1): 51-59. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, endurance training, effects of exercise, skeletal muscle.

Rivero, J.L.L., R.J. Talmadge, and V.R. Edgerton (1996). Correlation between myofibrillar ATPase activity and myosin heavy chain composition in equine skeletal muscle and the influence of training. Anatomical Record 246(2): 195-207.
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, skeletal muscle, muscular composition.

Rogers, C.W. and E.C. Firth (2004). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 2. Measurement error and effect of training stage on the relationship between objective and subjective criteria of training workload. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(5): 272-279. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, race training, exercise, workload determination methods, injury, lameness.

Rogers, C.W., E.C. Firth, and B.H. Anderson (2005). Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 5. Kinematic effects. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(2): 95-100. ISSN: 0048-0169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: horses, race training level variation, kinematic parameters, lameness, stride variation.

Rosa, G. de, F. Napolitano, F. Marinaro, A. Bordi, G. Migliori, and F. Grasso (2005). The influence of early handling on the behavioural reaction of foals at 2 months of age. Italian Journal of Animal Science 4(Suppl. 2): 409-411. ISSN: 1594-4077.
Descriptors: foals, Thoroughbreds, handling techniques, training, effect of early handling, equine behavior.
Language of Text: English with an Italian summary.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Scientific Associaton of Animal Production (ASPA) 16th Congress, Torino, Italy, 28-30 June 2005.

Rubio, M.D., B.M. Escribano, E.I. Agueera, A. Munoz, and F.M. Castejon (1998). The effect of forced training on blood and plasma parameters in Andalusian horses. Tieraerztliche Umschau 53(5): 269-271, 273-274. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, blood chemistry.

Rueca, F., M.B. Conti, M.C. Marchesi, F. Porciello, and G. Avellini (2000). Proposta di un test standardizzato su treadmill e pista nella valutazione del livello di allenamento di cavalli da endurance. Andamento del lattato e del profilo muscolare. [Proposal of a standardized exercise test on treadmill and track for the assessment of the level of training in endurance riding horses. Trends of lactate and muscular profile]. Atti Della Societa' Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie 54: 289-290. ISSN: 0518-3588.
Abstract: The AA performed a standardised exercise test on treadmill and track to evaluate increasing fitness in endurance riding horses. The LDH and CPK modifications during the test on treadmill showed LDH patterns as an indicator of the early stages of training, while CPK patterns as an indicator of more advanced level.
Descriptors: endurance horses, fitness evaluation, treadmill exercise test, physical activity, isoenzymes, muscles, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, enzymatic analysis.
Language of Text: Italian.

Sandberg, L., P. Miller, and J.C.J. Fuller (1998). The effect of intensive training and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (hmb) on muscle glycogen concentrations in the horse. Journal of Animal Science 81(Suppl. 1): 175. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, metabolites, muscles.
Notes: Meeting Information: Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science, Denver, Colorado, USA; July 28-31, 1998.

Santamaria, S., M.F. Bobbert, W. Back, A. Barneveld, and P.R. van Weeren (2005). Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(3): 418-24.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. ANIMALS: 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. PROCEDURE: The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at 6 months of age. Subsequently, they were allocated into a control group that was raised conventionally and an experimental group that received 30 months of early training starting at 6 months of age. At 4 years of age, after a period of rest in pasture and a short period of training with a rider, both groups were analyzed kinematically during free jumping. Subsequently, both groups started a 1-year intensive training for jumping, and at 5 years of age, they were again analyzed kinematically during free jumping. In addition, the horses competed in a puissance competition to test maximal performance. RESULTS: Whereas there were no differences in jumping technique between experimental and control horses at 6 months of age, at 4 years, the experimental horses jumped in a more effective manner than the control horses; they raised their center of gravity less yet cleared more fences successfully than the control horses. However, at 5 years of age, these differences were not detected. Furthermore, the experimental horses did not perform better than the control horses in the puissance competition. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Specific training for jumping of horses at an early age is unnecessary because the effects on jumping technique and jumping capacity are not permanent.
Descriptors: early training, kinematic analysis, jumping technique, jumping capacity.

Santamaria Penalta, S. (2004). Van veulen tot springpaard: ontwikkeling van springtechniek en het effect van training op jonge leeftijd. [From foal to performer: Development of the jumping technique and the effect of early training]. Dissertation, Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht: Netherlands. 111 p.
Online: 9039336768
NAL Call Number:
Descriptors: effects of early training on horses, show jumping, training of animals, kinematics, kinetics, forecasting future performance, saddle performance, horse mechanics.
Notes: Thesis.

Sapua, M., M. Budzynska, J. Kamieniak, W. Krupa, M. Hetman, and A. Zamoyska (2004). Wpyw treningu 100-dniowego i stopnia pobudliwosci nerwowej ogierow na zmiany mechaniki ich ruchu. [Influence of 100-day training and nervous irritability on movement mechanics changes in stallions]. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska Sectio EE Zootechnica (Poland) 22: 229-235. ISSN: 0239-4243.
NAL Call Number: SF84.A56
Descriptors: hores, stallions, behavior, movement characteristics, effects of training.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Shanahan, S. (2003). Trailer loading stress in horses: behavioral and physiological effects of nonaversive training (TTEAM). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(4): 263-274. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, safety, behavior, physiology, trailering techniques, Tellington Touch Equine Awareness Method, TTEAM.

Shearman, J.P., M.J. Hamlin, and W.G. Hopkins (2002). Effect of tapered normal and interval training on performance of Standardbred pacers. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(4): 395-399. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Standardbreds, training methods, effects of training, performance.

Siciliano, P.D., C.E. Kawcak, and C.W. Mcilwraith (2000). The effect of initiation of exercise training in young horses on vitamin K status. Journal of Animal Science 78(9): 2353-2358. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, early training, nutrition, vitamins.

Soendergaard, E. (1999). Opdraet Og Haandtering Af Hingsteplage: Traenings- Og Indlaeringsforberedelse. [Rearing and Handling of Colt Foals: Preparation for Training and Learning], Intern Rapport. Danmarks Jordbrugsforskning (Denmark), Danmarks Jordbrugsforskning, Foulum (Denmark), 51 p.
Descriptors: horses, animal training, animal learning, rearing techniques, mental ability, behavior, stabling, feed intake, animal husbandry methods, behavior, feeding habits.
Language of Text: Danish.

Spier, S.J., J.B. Pusterla, A. Villarroel, and N. Pusterla (2004). Outcome of tactile conditioning of on selected handling neonates, or "imprint training" measures in foals. Veterinary Journal 168(3): 252-258. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Descriptors: horses, foals, behavior, imprint training, training methods, handling, limb handling.

Spinka, M., R.C. Newberry, and M. Bekoff (2001). Mammalian play: Training for the unexpected. Quarterly Review of Biology 76(2): 141-168.
Descriptors: play behavior, training, kinematic response, emotional response, stimuli.

Stephens, T.L., G.D. Potter, P.G. Gibbs, and D.M. Hood (2004). Mineral balance in juvenile horses in race training. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 24(10): 438-450. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, nutrition, training, mineral absorption, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.

Stevanovic, J., J. Vitic, R. Trailovic, D. Trailovic, and N. Mijatovic (1996). Some protein, lipoprotein and lipid alterations in serum of show jumping horses during different phases of training. Acta Veterinaria 46(2-3): 81-86.
NAL Call Number: TRANSL 30948
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, jumping, blood chemistry.

Suwannachot, P. (2001). K+-homeostasis in horses: Effects of training and food supply on the Na+, K+-ATPase concentration in skeletal muscle. Dissertation, Utrecht University: Utrecht, Netherlands. 203 p.
Online: 9039326517
Descriptors: training of horses, food supply, homeostasis, skeletal muscle, supply balance, potassium, effects of training and food supply.
Notes: Thesis.

Suwannachot, P., C.B. Verkleij, S. Kocsis, R.R.v. Weeren, and M.E. Everts (2001). Specificity and reversibility of the training effects on the concentration of Na+, K+-ATPase in foal skeletal muscle. Equine Veterinary Journal 33(3): 250-255. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: foals, skeletal muscle, exercise, sodium, potassium, adenosinetriphosphatase, muscles, water content, gluteus medium, semitendinosus, masseter muscle.

Tyler, C., L. Golland, D. Evans, D. Hodgson, and R. Rose (1995). Changes in gas exchange during prolonged training and overtraining in horses. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Suppl.): S202.
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, effects of overtraining, gas exchange, respiratory system, circulatory system.
Notes: Meeting Information: 42nd Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; May 31-June 3, 1995.

Valent, M., M. Halo, P. Kalas, and P. Cupka (1996). Mineralny profil dostihovych koni pocas treningoveho procesu. [Mineral profile of race horses during the training process]. Acta Zootechnica(51): 105-110. ISSN: 1335-258X.
NAL Call Number: S13.A28
Abstract: Change in blood serum macroelements in a group of seven race horses during training over a distance of 1,000 to 2,800 m were investigated. Blood samples were collected in order to assess Ca, inorganic P, Mg, Na and K during three training periods, including a testing period, as follows: the end of racing period (1); the end of resting period (2); the end of preparation period consisting of two phases - quantitative (3) and qualitative (4). A significant effect of the training process on blood serum levels of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and potassium was confirmed. Higher levels of inorganic P and K were observed at the end of the second and the third under a moderate physical rate of horse. Lower levels of inorganic P and K were characteristic of the higher physical activity during the racing season (1) and the qualitative phase of training (4).
Descriptors: racehorses, animal training, metabolism, blood serum macroelements, distance of training, levels of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and potassium.
Language of Text: Slovak with an English summary.

Valette, J.P., P.H. Heiles, and R. Wolter (1996). Multivariate analysis of exercise parameters measured during the training of Thoroughbred racehorses. Pferdeheilkunde 12(4): 470-473. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, early training, performance indicators, heart rate, velocity, cardiovascular system.
Language of Text: English with a German summary.
Notes: Meeting Information: Association for Equine Sports Medicine, 15th Meeting on Equine Welfare and Sports Medicine, Bonn, Germany; June 24-28, 1996.

Van Breda, E. (2006). A nonnatural head-neck position (Rollkur) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 9(1): 59-64.
Abstract: This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions.
Descriptors: training techniques, stress analysis, stress in trained recreation horses vs. trained dressage horses, biomechanics, heart rate variability analysis, equine welfare.

Vatistas, N.J., R.L. Sifferman, J. Holste, J.L. Cox, G. Pinalto, and K.T. Schultz (1999). Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration in horses in simulated race training. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 29): 40-44. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, gastrointestinal system, gastric ulceration, effects of training, stress, serum cortisol levels.

Verheyen, K.L.P., W.E. Henley, J.S. Price, and J.L.N. Wood (2005). Training-related factors associated with dorsometacarpal disease in young Thoroughbred racehorses in the UK. Equine Veterinary Journal 37(5): 442-448. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Thoroughbreds, bone disease, effects of training, risk factors.

Verheyen, K.L.P. and J.L.N. Wood (2004). Descriptive epidemiology of fractures occurring in british Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Equine Veterinary Journal 36(2): 167-173. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, Thoroughbreds, training, epidemiological studies.

Vervuert, I., M. Coenen, U. Wedemeyer, C. Chrobok, J. Harmeyer, and H.P. Sporleder (2002). Calcium homeostasis and intact plasma parathyroid hormone during exercise and training in young Standardbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(7): 713-718. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, training, calcium, endocrine system, homeostasis.

Vervuert, I., M. Coenen, U. Wedemeyer, and J. Harmeyer (2002). Biochemical markers of bone activity in young Standardbred horses during different types of exercise and training. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 49(8): 396-402. ISSN: 0931-184X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z5
Descriptors: horses, training, bone activity, evaluation methods.

Vervuert, I., M. Coenen, and J. Zamhofer (2005). Effects of draught load exercise and training on calcium homeostasis in horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89(3/6): 134-139. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Online: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jpn
Descriptors: calcium homeostasis, training regimens, treadmill training, draught load training, incline training, blood lactate, plasma total calcium, blood ionized calcium, blood pH, plasma inorganic phosphorus, plasma intact parathyroid hormone.

Vervuert, I., A. Lange, S. Winkelsett, F. Ellendorff, and M. Coenen (2005). Veranderungen von Knochenmarkern und intaktem PTH im Blut im Verlaufe eines praxisublichen Vielseitigkeitstrainings bei Warmblutpferden. [Changes in bone markers and intact PTH in blood during a common training programme for three-day eventing horses]. Pferdeheilkunde 21(5): 439-445. ISSN: 0177-7726.
Descriptors: calcium metabolism, bone metabolism, hypocalcemia, training regimens, endurance training, dressage training, incline training.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

Vieira, F.A.C., R.Y.A. Baccarin, J.A.K. Aguiar, and Y.M. Michelacci (2005). Urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in horses: changes with age, training, and osteoarthritis. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 25(9): 387-400. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: urinary glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, cartilage, age variables, gender variables, training variables, osteoarthritis, ion exchange chromatography.

Wallin, L., E. Strandberg, and J. Philipsson (2003). Genetic correlations between field test results of Swedish warmblood riding horses as 4-year-olds and lifetime performance results in dressage and show jumping. Livestock Production Science 82(1): 61-71. ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call Number: SF1.L5
Descriptors: horses, sporthorses, genetics, performance evaluation methods.

Walton, S. (1998). Beery's training method. Rural Heritage 23(3): 26-27. ISSN: 0889-2970.
NAL Call Number: SF311.E9
Descriptors: horses, training of animals, animal behavior, Ohio.

Waran, N.K. and R. Casey (2005). Horse training. In: D.S. Mills and S.M. McDonnell (Editors), The Domestic Horse: The Evolution, Development and Management of Its Behaviour, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, p. 184-195. ISBN: 0521814146 (hardback); 0521891132 (paperback).
NAL Call Number: SF281.D66 2005
Descriptors: horses, behavior, handling, training methods.

Waran, N., P. McGreevy and R.A. Casey (2002). Training methods and horse welfare. In: N. Waran (Editor), The Welfare of Horses, Animal Welfare, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 151-180. ISBN: 1402007663.
NAL Call Number: SF285.3.W43 2002
Descriptors: horse care, handling, natural behavior of horses, domestication, training, performance horses, conditioning to stimuli, learning processes, influence of early experience, motivational forces, prey species, development of abnormal behavior, innovative training methods.

Warren, L.K., L.M. Lawrence, and K.N. Thompson (1999). The influence of betaine on untrained and trained horses exercising to fatigue. Journal of Animal Science 77(3): 677-684. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, training levels, intense exercise, betaine.

Warren Smith, A.K., A.N. McLean, H.I. Nicol, and P.D. McGreevy (2005). Variations in the timing of reinforcement as a training technique for foals (Equus caballus). Anthrozoos 18(3): 255-272. ISSN: 0892-7936.
Online: www.thepress.purdue.edu
Descriptors: handling procedures, learning facilitation techniques, positive and negative reinforcement, training methods.
Notes: Meeting Information: The International Society for Anthrozoology (ISAZ) 13th Annual Conference, Advances in the Science and Application of Animal Training, 6 October, 2004.

Whitton, R.C., R.C. Murray, C. Buckley, A.E. Goodship, and P. Lekeux (1999). An MRI study of the effect of treadmill training on bone morphology of the central and third tarsal bones of young Thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 258-261. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, effects of training, carpus, tarsus, bone modelling, treadmill training.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

Williams, J.L., T.H. Friend, M.N. Collins, M.J. Toscano, A. Sisto Burt, and C.H. Nevill (2003). Effects of imprint training procedure at birth on the reactions of foals at age six months. Equine Veterinary Journal 35(2): 127-132. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, foals, behavior, training methodology, effects of imprint training.

Williams, J.L., T.H. Friend, M.J. Toscano, M.N. Collins, A. Sisto Burt, and C.H. Nevill (2002). The effects of early training sessions on the reactions of foals at 1, 2, and 3 months of age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 77(2): 105-114. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: foals, age differences, training of animals, imprinting, newborn animals, heart rate, stimuli, escape responses, responses, animal handling.

Wilsher, S., W.R. Allen, and J.L. Wood (2006). Factors associated with failure of Thoroughbred horses to train and race. Equine Veterinary Journal 38(2): 113-8.
Abstract: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The low productivity associated with training and racing of young Thoroughbreds (TBs) in the UK due to athletic inability, injury and disease requires further study. OBJECTIVES: To identify the time points and causes of losses during growth and training phases of a cohort of 1022 TB foals born in 1999 up to the end of their third year. METHODS: Movement and fate of 1022 Thoroughbred foals conceived in 1998 and born live in 1999 were monitored from birth to age 3 years. Those (n = 562) that entered training age 2 and/or 3 years with one of 161 registered trainers in Britain or Ireland in 2001/2 were analysed as to their subsequent performance and the incidence of 9 common injuries or infective or metabolic illnesses. RESULTS: Of the 1022 foals identified, 537 (52%) entered training at age 2 years, 289 (28%) were exported, 60 (6%) were kept as 'stores' for National Hunt (NH) racing, 58 (6%) died or were destroyed, 25 (2%) were waiting to enter training at age 3 years, 17 (2%) were never intended for racing and 36 (4%) were untraceable. Race records showed that 327 (61%) of the 2-year-olds in training competed one or more times, 95 (18%) won and 165 (31%) were placed. Only 28 (5%) earned enough prize money to cover their training fees. Sore shins and inflammatory airway disease (IAD) were the 2 ailments most commonly encountered. In 2002, 431 (80%) of the previous year's 2-year-olds remained in training aged 3 years and 25 entered training having not raced previously. Of the 456 3-year-olds in training, 347 (76%) raced one or more times 138 (30%) won, 218 (48%) were placed and 78 (17%) recouped their training fees. Joint problems and sore shins were the ailments most commonly suffered and, with the exception of rhabdomyolysis ('tying up'), colts and geldings suffered a higher rate of muscloskeletal injuries than fillies. CONCLUSION: Previous reports of high nonrun and nonplaced rates, high incidence of injury and cost-ineffectiveness of 2-year-olds in flat-race training were confirmed. Potential relevance: This study lays the basis for further studies of the facets involved in wastage.
Descriptors: racing productivity, training, Thoroughbreds, athletic performance, injury, disease, growth and training.
Notes: Comments: Comment In: Equine Veterinary Journal. 2006 Mar;38(2):98-100.

Yamano, S., D. Eto, T. Sugiura, M. Kai, A. Hiraga, M. Tokuriki, and H. Miyata (2002). Effect of growth and training on muscle adaptation in Thoroughbred horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(10): 1408-1412. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, effects of training, growth, musculoskeletal system.

Young, L.E. (1999). Cardiac responses to training in 2-year-old Thoroughbreds: an echocardiographic study. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 195-198. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, cardiovascular system, echocardiography, cardiac hypertrophy, race training, exercise.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

Young, L.E. and J.L.N. Wood (2000). Effect of age and training on murmurs of atrioventricular valvular regurgitation in young Thoroughbreds. Equine Veterinary Journal 32(3): 195-199. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, Thoroughbreds, training level variation, age variation, cardiovascular system.

Zurr, D. (2001). Tellington-Touch-Every-Animal-Method in der Tierarztpraxis. [The Tellington-Jones "Touch Every Animal" manipulation method for training horses and dogs, and its application to veterinary practice]. Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin 15(2): 80-84. ISSN: 0939-7868.
NAL Call Number: SF603.D48
Descriptors: horses, dogs, training methods, Tellington-Jones technique, clinical technique, veterinary medicine.
Language of Text: German with an English summary.

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 Last updated: October 25, 2011

 Last updated: October 25, 2011