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Transportation



Anonymous (2004). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Transportation of Horses. Veterinary Journal 168(2): 194-203. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Descriptors: horses, transport, trailer safety, physiology, stress, animal welfare, meeting abstracts.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting held at Hartpury College, Gloucestershire, UK; July 12-13, 2003.

Anonymous (2003). Heightened security precautions may cause problems for horse transportation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(11): 1495-1496. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: bioterrorism prevention and control, horses, transportation, animal welfare, behavior, animal, security measures.

Anonymous (1999). Transporter les chevaux: synthese bibliographique. [Transport of horses: a review]. Equ'Idee Bulletin D'Information Sur Les Equides(36): 8-14.
Descriptors: horse, transportation, animal welfare, literature reviews, effects of transportation on stress.
Language of Text: French.

Aronica, V., P. Medica, F. Cusumano, and E. Fazio (2000). Effetto della lunghezza del percorso - dell' eta' e della razza sulla funzionalita' tiroidea nel cavallo dopo trasporto su strada. [Effect of transport stress and influence of distance - age and breed on thyroid function of horses]. Atti Della Societa' Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie 54: 93-94. ISSN: 0518-3588.
Abstract: Circulating levels of total and free iodothyronines in horses before and after road transport of different length have been studied. The effects of age and breed of horses on iodothyronines levels after road transport have also been studied. Results showed a significant increase of T3 after transport of 60-120 km, in 6 and 12 years old horses, and in Thoroughbred. T4 is significantly increased after transport of 60-120 and 240-300 km, in 12 years old and in Sanfratellano horses. fT3 levels increased significantly in 12 years old Standardbred horses. A significant increase of fT4 after transport of 120-180 and 180-240 km was detected.
Descriptors: stallions, transport of animals, road transport, animal welfare, breeds animals, thyroid hormones, age, evaluation, animal performance, thyroid gland, stress, animal glands, body parts, endocrine glands, hormones, horses, taxa, transport.
Language of Text: Italian with an English summary.

Australia Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management. (1998). Land Transport of Horses: Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals, SCARM Report, CSIRO: Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, 19 p. ISBN: 0643062882.
NAL Call Number: HV4890.A3A37 1998a
Descriptors: horse transport, effect of transportation on stress, animal welfare, road travel, railway travel.

Boureau, V. and E. Gaultier (2002). La phobie des transports chez le cheval: approche par l'ethologie clinique. I. Semiologie. [Transport phobias in horses: a clinical ethological approach. I. Symptomatology]. Pratique Veterinaire Equine 34(135): 13-17. ISSN: 0395-8639.
NAL Call Number: SF957.P7
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, behavior, symptomatology.
Language of Text: French with an English summary.

Boureau, V. and E. Gaultier (2002). La phobie des transports chez le cheval: approche par l'ethologie clinique. II. Therapeutique. [Transport phobias in horses: clinical ethology approach. II. Therapy]. Pratique Veterinaire Equine 34(135): 19-23. ISSN: 0395-8639.
NAL Call Number: SF957.P7
Descriptors: horses, transport, behavior, therapy.
Language of Text: French.

Cavallone, E., M. Di Giancamillo, B. Secchiero, A. Belloli, D. Pravettoni, and E.M. Rimoldi (2002). Variations of serum cortisol in Argentine horses subjected to ship transport and adaptation stress. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 22(12): 541-545. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, transportation, stress, blood composition, serum cortisol, creatine kinase.

Coerezza, U., D. Cambiaghi, G. Sella, and M. Pizzoli (1997). Air transport of competition horses. Ippologia 8(1): 41-52. ISSN: 1120-5776.
Descriptors: horses, stress management, air transport.
Language of Text: English and Italian.

Collins, M.N., T.H. Friend, F.D. Jousan, and S.C. Chen (2000). Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries, and orientation during horse transportation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(3): 169-179. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: density effects on displacement, trailer tranportation, effects of time, turns and acceleration, effects of stocking density on the number of falls and injuries.

Ellis, P.M. (1998). Pegasus joins the jet age [Transporting horses by air]. Australian Veterinary Journal 76(7): 476-477. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: air transport of horses, Japanese encephalitis, flight cages, quarantine procedure, African horse sickness, disease prevention.

Englund, L. and J. Pringle (2004). New diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum(Suppl. 100): 19-25. ISSN: 0065-1699.
Descriptors: African horse sickness, Babesiosis, disease transmission, disease vectors, dog diseases, epidemiology, European Union, horse diseases, pets, public health, risk, stray animals, transport of animals, vector borne diseases, viral diseases, zoonoses, African horse sickness virus, Borna disease virus, dogs, horses, Metastigmata, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rickettsia conorii, Leishmania infantum infantum, Babesia canis, Babesia caballi, Theileria equi.
Notes: Meeting Information: Animal Transports - Disease Risks and Welfare Aspects. Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Committee for Veterinary Scientific Cooperation (NKVet), Hanasaari, Finland, 27-28 November 2003.

Friend, T.H. (2000). Dehydration, stress, and water consumption of horses during long-distance commercial transport. Journal of Animal Science 78(10): 2568-2580. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, transport of animals, duration, distance traveled, dehydration physiological, stress, water intake, starvation, water deprivation, weight losses, environmental temperature, relative humidity, blood chemistry, chloride, blood serum, respiration rate, heart rate, hydrocortisone, osmolarity, blood protein, blood plasma, animal welfare.

Friend, T.H., M.T. Martin, D.D. Householder, and D.M. Bushong (1998). Stress responses of horses during a long period of transport in a commercial truck. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(6): 838-844. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, hydration, body weight, blood analysis, body temperature, serum electrolyte concentration, fatigue.

Gibbs, A.E. and T.H. Friend (1999). Horse preference for orientation during transport and the effect of orientation on balancing ability. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, transportation, balance, orientation preference.

Giovagnoli, G., M. Trabalza Marinucci, A. Bolla, and A. Borghese (2002). Transport stress in horses: an electromyographic study on balance preservation. Livestock Production Science 73(2/3): 247-254. ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call Number: SF1.L5
Descriptors: horses, transport of animals, stress, heart rate, muscles, muscle physiology, electromyography, gravity, posture.

Higgins, A. (2004). Transportation of horses - The vital necessity to get it right. Veterinary Journal 168(2): 109. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Descriptors: horses, transportation, animal welfare, animal safety.

Iacono, C.M., T.H. Friend, R.D. Johnson, P.D. Krawczel, and G.S. Archer (2007). A preliminary study on the utilization of an onboard watering system by horses during commercial transport. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105(1-3): 227-231 ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T48-4KGX80T-1/2/d13d4a83a432b9028563ab6a1bb1ab89
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: transportation of horses, slaughter horses, provision of an onboard watering system, drinking behavior, consumption of water, horses.

Ishida, N., S. Hobo, T. Takahashi, Y. Nanbo, F. Sato, T. Hasegawa, and H. Mukoyama (1999). Chronological changes in superoxide-scavenging ability and lipid peroxide concentration of equine serum due to stress from exercise and transport. Equine Veterinary Journal(Suppl. 30): 430-433. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, stress, superoxide production, antioxidative ability, exercise, transport.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology, Utsunomiya, Japan, 20-25 September 1998. Equine Exercise Physiology 5.

Jones, W.E. (2003). Transporting horses: Minimizing the stress. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 23(12): 543-545. ISSN: 0737-0806.
NAL Call Number: SF951.J65
Descriptors: horses, transportation, stress reduction, animal welfare, safety.

Kapron, M., I. Janczarek, R. Kolstrung, and M. Pluta (1996). Wpyw transportu w przyczepie samochodowej na zmiennosc tetna u koni w typie kuca felinskiego. [Effects of transport on the heart rate in Felin Ponies]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 52(1): 56-58. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: horses, transportation, stress, cardiovascular system, heart rate.
Language of Text: Polish with an English summary.

Kawamoto, K., H. Sato, M.A. Oikawa, T. Yoshihara, M. Kaneko, and H. Matsuda (1996). Nerve growth factor activity detected in equine peripheral blood of horses with fever after truck transportation. Journal of Equine Science 7(2): 43-46. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, long distance transport, nerve growth factor, evaluation methods, equine shipping fever, stress, pathenogenesis factors.

Kusunose, R. and K. Torikai (1996). Behavior of untethered horses during vehicle transport. Journal of Equine Science 7(2): 21-26. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, behavior, transportation, posture preference, directional preference.

Leadon, D.P. (1995). Transport stress and the equine athlete. Equine Veterinary Education 7(5): 253-255. ISSN: 0957-7734.
NAL Call Number: SF951.E67
Descriptors: horses, racehorses, air temperature, relative humidity, neuroleptics, analgesics, anesthetics, respiratory diseases, diagnosis, transport of animals, stress, domestic animals, drugs, horses, neurotropic drugs, organic diseases, temperature, transport, useful animals, working animals.

Marlin, D.J. (2004). Transport of horses. In: Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery: Basic and Clinical Sciences of the Equine Athlete, p. 1239-1250.
Descriptors: blood chemistry, body weight, crates, digestive tract, hematology, heart rate, hormones, hydrocortisone, immune system, livestock transporters, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, stress, stress response, transport of animals, weight losses, horses.

Marlin, D.J., R.C. Schroter, S.L. White, P. Maykuth, G. Matthesen, P.C. Mills, N. Waran, and P. Harris (2001). Recovery from transport and acclimatisation of competition horses in a hot humid environment. Equine Veterinary Journal 33(4): 371-379. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, transportation, fitness, heat stress, acclimatisation, hydration, behavior.

Momoi, Y., H. Kato, H.Y. Youn, H. Aida, S. Takagi, T. Watari, R. Goitsuka, H. Tsujimoto, and A. Hasegawa (1996). Elevation of serum G-CSF level in horses with transportation-induced fever. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58(6): 537-541. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Descriptors: horses, trasnsportation, transportation-induced fever, pathenogenesis, blood chemistry, microbial infection, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

Mortensen, S., T. Soveri, and S. Lewerin (2004). Animal transports - disease risks and welfare aspects. Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Committee for Veterinary Scientific Cooperation (NKVet), Hanasaari, Finland, 27-28 November 2003. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum(Suppl. 100): 7-36. ISSN: 0065-1699.
Descriptors: animal welfare, disease control, disease prevention, dog diseases, horse diseases, sows, transport of animals, cattle, dogs, horses, pigs.

Nambo, Y., M.A. Oikawa, T. Yoshihara, A. Kuwano, S. Hobo, S.I. Nagata, G. Watanabe, and K. Tya (1996). Effects of transport stress on concentrations of LH and FSH in plasma of mares: a preliminary study. Journal of Equine Science 7(1): 1-5. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, mares, transportation, stress, effects of travel on the endocrine system, blood chemistry.

Oikawa, M., S. Hobo, T. Oyamada, and H. Yoshikawa (2005). Effects of orientation, intermittent rest and vehicle cleaning during transport on development of transport-related respiratory disease in horses. Journal of Comparative Pathology 132(2-3): 153-168. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, inflammatory response, respiratory system, effect of orientation, effect of rest.

Oikawa, M., S. Takagi, R. Anzai, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Yoshikawa (1995). Pathology of equine respiratory disease occurring in association with transport. Journal of Comparative Pathology 113(1): 29-43. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: horses, stress, road transport, pathology, animal diseases, bacterioses, pathogenesis, respiratory diseases, Streptococcus equi, transport of animals, bacteria, infectious diseases, organic diseases, Streptococcaceae, Streptococcus, transport, opportunistic infections, predisposition.

Oikawa, M.A., S. Takagi, and K. Yashiki (2004). Some aspects of the stress responses to road transport in Thoroughbred horses with special reference to shipping fever. Journal of Equine Science 15(4): 99-102. ISSN: 1340-3516.
NAL Call Number: SF277.J37
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, respiratory disease, respiratory system.

Parker, R., R. Watson, E. Wells, S.N. Brown, C.J. Nicol, and T.G. Knowles (2004). The effect of blindfolding horses on heart rate and behaviour during handling and loading onto transport vehicles. Animal Welfare 13(4): 433-437. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal transport, restraint of animals, animal care equipment, animal behavior, animal welfare, blinkers.

Smith, B.L., J.H. Jones, W.J. Hornof, J.A. Miles, K.E. Longworth, and N.H. Willits (1996). Effects of road transport on indices of stress in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 28(6): 446-454. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, transport, stress, respiratory system, post transport respiratory disease, hematology.

Stefancic, I. and D. Martin (2005). Influence of transport conditions on animal welfare. In: Animals and Environment. Proceedings of the XIIth ISAH Congress on Animal Hygiene, September 4, 2005-September 8, 2005, Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw, Poland, Vol. 2, p. 148-152.
Descriptors: transportation, European Union, animal welfare.

Stewart, M., T.M. Foster, and J.R. Waas (2003). The effects of air transport on the behaviour and heart rate of horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 80(2): 143-160. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, animal transport, air transportation, animal stress, animal behavior, animal physiology, posture, heart rate, physical activity, body temperature, animal welfare, balancing.

Stull, C.L. (1999). Responses of horses to trailer design, duration, and floor area during commercial transportation to slaughter. Journal of Animal Science 77(11): 2925-2933. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Abstract: Nine trailer loads of horses (n = 306) transported to slaughter facilities with distances ranging 596 to 2,496 km were studied to characterize the type of horses used in commercial markets and the physiological responses and number of injuries due to transportation under summer environmental conditions. Slaughter horse candidates were middle-aged (11.4 +/- .4 yr), possessed moderately fleshy body condition, weighed 432 +/- 3.3 kg, and were of Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred breeding. The mean weight loss during commercial transport was 4%. The percentage of injured horses was greater (P < .05) for two-tiered "potbelly" (29.2%) compared with straight-deck (8.0%) trailers; however, the stress indicators of cortisol and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and rectal temperature showed greater (P < .05) responses following transport in straight-deck trailers. As trip duration increased from 5 h 45 min to 30 h, muscle fatigue (lactate concentration) and dehydration (hematocrit and total protein concentration) were the major physiological considerations, especially in durations over 27 h. The percentage of horses injured was less (P < .05) in trailers with 1.14 to 1.31 m(2) of floor area per horse than in trailers with 1.40 to 1.54 m(2) of floor area per horse. However, most physiological responses (white blood cell count, total protein concentration, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio) to transportation were less (P < .05) in horses provided with the greater floor area.
Descriptors: horses, slaughter, transport of animals, animal welfare, handling, stress, livestock transporters, long distance transport, duration, area, wounds, body condition, weight losses, body temperature, hydrocortisone, biochemical markers, neutrophils, lymphocytes, dehydration, hematocrit, lactic acid, protein content, blood chemistry.

Stull, C.L. and A.V. Rodiek (2002). Effects of cross-tying horses during 24 h of road transport. Equine Veterinary Journal 34(6): 550-555. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, transport, cross tying, stress, respiratory disease, blood chemistry.

Stull, C.L. and A.V. Rodiek (2000). Physiological responses of horses to 24 hours of transportation using a commercial van during summer conditions. Journal of Animal Science 78(6): 1458-1466. ISSN: 0021-8812.
NAL Call Number: 49 J82
Descriptors: horses, weight losses, transport of animals, stress, summer, leukocyte count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, ratios, blood chemistry, hematocrit, blood protein, blood sugar, lactic acid, hydrocortisone, creatine kinase, enzyme activity, animal welfare.

Stull, C.L., S.J. Spier, B.M. Aldridge, M. Blanchard, and J.L. Stott (2004). Immunological response to long-term transport stress in mature horses and effects of adaptogenic dietary supplementation as an immunomodulator. Equine Veterinary Journal ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: horses, transport, prolonged stress, immune system, nutrition, supplements.

Tischner, M.J. and J. Niezgoda (2004). The effect of transport on the intensity of stress reaction in the mares in early and late pregnancy. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39(4): 284. ISSN: 0936-6768.
NAL Call Number: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: horses, mares, pregnancy, transport, stress, endocrine system.
Notes: Meeting Information: 8th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Warsaw, Poland; September 23-25, 2004.

Tischner, M., J. Niezgoda, and D. Wronska Fortuna (2005). Wplyw krotkotrwalego transportu na natezenie reakcji stsresowych u klaczy i zrebiat. [Influence of short term transportation on the intensity of stress reactions in mares and their foals]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 61(4): 451-454. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: horses, mares, foals, transport, stress, endocrine system.
Language of Text: Polish.

Toscano, M.J. and T.H. Friend (2001). A note on the effects of forward and rear-facing orientations on movement of horses during transport. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(4): 281-287. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, transport, orientation, balance, behavior, stress.

Van den Berg, J.S., A.J. Guthrie, R.A. Meintjes, J.P. Nurton, D.A. Adamson, C.W. Travers, R.J. Lund, and H.J. Mostert (1998). Water and electrolyte intake and output in conditioned Thoroughbred horses transported by road. Equine Veterinary Journal 30(4): 316-323. ISSN: 0425-1644.
NAL Call Number: SF955.E6
Descriptors: transport of animals, homeostasis, water balance, electrolytes, feed intake, water uptake, breeds animals, drinking habits, body weight, urine, feces, excretion, sodium, potassium, alkali metals, behavior, body fluids, feeding habits, nutrient uptake, Thoroughbreds, dehydration.

Wagener, A. (1996). Uebersicht ueber die Wirkung des Transportes auf Pferde. [Review of the effects of transport on horses]. Tieraerztliche Umschau 51(10): 633-641. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: racehorses, saddle horses, stress associated with travel, animal health, transport of horses.
Language of Text: German with German and English summaries.

Waran, N.K. and D. Cuddeford (1995). Effects of loading and transport on the heart rate and behaviour of horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 43(2): 71-81. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: horses, transport of animals, road transport, heart rate, animal behavior, stress.

Waran, N., D. Leadon and T. Friend (2002). The effects of transportation on the welfare of horses. In: N. Waran (Editor), The Welfare of Horses, Animal Welfare, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 125-150. ISBN: 1402007663.
NAL Call Number: SF285.3.W43 2002
Descriptors: transporting horses, methods of transport, potential stressors, animal welfare, air transportation, trailering.

Waran, N.K., V. Robertson, D. Cuddeford, A. Kokoszko, and D.J. Marlin (1996). Effects of transporting horses facing either forwards or backwards on their behaviour and heart rate. The Veterinary Record 139(1): 7-11. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: behavior, stress, animal welfare, transport of animals, horses, heart rate, blood circulation, physiological functions, transport, vocalization, heart rate.

Western Australia. Dept. of Local Government and Regional Development. (2003). Horse Transportation: Code of Practice for the Transportation of Horses in Western Australia, Dept. of Local Government and Regional Development: Western Australia, 28 p.
NAL Call Number: HV4733.W472 2003
Descriptors: horses, transportation, Australia, Western Australia, horse handling, animal welfare.


Transportation -- Web Resources

 

Horse Trailer Maintenance and Trailering Safety. Margentino, M.R.
Online: http://nasdonline.org/document/1047/d000842/horse-trailer-maintenance-and-trailering-safety.html
Description: On the web site of the National Ag Safety Database, this page provides links to an article and fact sheets on trailer safety and transporting of horses.

Trailer Safety. Lamm, W.
Online: http://www.whmentors.org/saf/trailer.html
Description: Winter maintenance of trailer electrical system, undercarriage, interior and exterior body. Also provides a list of items to include in a First Aid kit.

Trailer Safety. Rietveld, G.
Online: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/horses/facts/info_trailering.htm
Description: How to determine safety and suitability of tow vehicle as well as trailer undercarriage, lights, hitch, tires, brakes, doors, ramps, and floorboards. Also lists items to include in a trailer emergency kit.

Horse Trailering. Rietveld, G. and B. Wright.
Online: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/horses/facts/info_trailering.htm
Description: Explains factors that can affect horses during transport and includes tips for minimizing stress as well as items to include in an emergency kit.

Physiology, Balance, and Management of Horses During Transportation. Stull, C.L.
Online: http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-AN/INF-AN_HORSTRANSPT.HTML
Description: How to assess and control equine stress during travel. Explains how to prepare your horse for travel as well as the elements of orientation and balance during transport and the effect of transport on metabolic and energy pathways. Also includes health issues and diseases associated with travel.

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