Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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1997


Alzuherri, H. M.; Little, D.; Clarke, C. J. Altered intestinal macrophage phenotype in ovine paratuberculosis. Research in Veterinary Science. Sept.-Oct., 1997; 63(2): 139-143. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: Scottish back-faced ewes, sheep, Johne’s disease, immunohistological studies, intestinal macrophages, diseased sheep expressed MHC class II, LFA-1 and CR4 antigens weakly, comparison with normal tissues, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, MHC class II MRNA, intestinal whole tissue samples, no significant difference between control and diseased groups, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raul G.; Thoen, Charles O.; Andrews, Robert E. Jr. Identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis gene expression signals. Microbiology. 1997; 143(3): 921-928. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Descriptors: DNA library constructed in the transcriptional translational fusion vector pYUB76, eight clones were sequenced and characterized further, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Bassey, Effiong O. E.; Collins, Michael T. Study of T-lymphocyte subsets to healthy and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle. Infection and Immunity. 1997; 65(11): 4869-4872. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, host immune defenses, T lymphocyte contribution to defense, lymphoproliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production was measured in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and an Mycobacterium avium antigen preparation (A-PPD), correlation between proliferation and IFN-gamma production in response to A-PPD but not to PHA.

Begara, Mcgorum Isabel M.; Wildblood, Louise A.; Jones, Douglas G. Early immune events following experimental infection of lambs with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Biochemical Society Transactions. 1997; 25(2): 279S. ISSN: 0300-5127. Note: 660th Meeting of the Biochemical Society, Joint Congress with the British Society for Immunology, Harrogate, England, UK, December 10-13, 1996.
NAL Call No.: QD415.A1B58
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, progression of the disease in the immune system, experimental infection study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Clarke, C. J. Paratuberculosis and molecular biology. Veterinary Journal. 1997; 153(3): 245-247. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Descriptors: biochemistry, molecular, genetics, immunity, pathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Collins, Michael T. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: A potential food-borne pathogen? Journal of Dairy Science. Dec., 1997; 80 (12): 3445-3448. ISSN: 0022-0302
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract:  Mycobacterium paratuberculosis commonly infects dairy cattle, leading to Johne's disease, which is also known as paratuberculosis. The infection is chronic, progressive, and incurable. As the infection progresses, excretion of M. paratuberculosis in feces and milk occurs, and the bacterium spreads through the blood to multiple internal organs. Consequently, raw products originating from cattle may harbor M. paratuberculosis. Thermal treatments, such as pasteurization, are commonly relied on to kill food-borne bacterial pathogens that can infect humans. The small number of studies conducted to determine the thermal resistance of M. paratuberculosis suggest that it is less susceptible to destruction by heat killing than are milkborne zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Listeria spp. or Mycobacterium bovis. Published reports concerning the thermal resistance of M. paratuberculosis in milk are reviewed herein, and key issues concerning the efficacy of pasteurization for elimination of M. paratuberculosis from milk are summarized.
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, raw bovine based products, human health risks, review of literature on thermal resistance of bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Cook, W. E.; Cornish, T. E.; Shideler, S.; Lasley, B.; Collins, M. T. Radiometric culture of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis from the feces of tule elk. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1997; 33(3): 635-637. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: tule elk, Cervus elaphus nannodes, Point Reyes National Seashore, California, detection/incidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal samples, cultured on modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium, positive results in 2 groups of elk, non-invasive technique for wildlife Mycobacterium monitoring.

Davies, H. L. Ovine Johne's disease. Australian Veterinary Journal. Nov., 1997; 75(11): 799. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, human health risks, food contaminant, Australia.

De Lisle, G. W. Can Johne's disease be eradicated from sheep in Australia? Australian Veterinary Journal. 1997; 75(5): 336. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep disease, Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, control and eradication.

Doran, Tim; Tizard, Mark; Millar, Douglas; Ford, Jon; Sumar, Nazira; Loughlin, Mark; Hermon, Taylor John. IS900 targets translation initiation signals in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to facilitate expression of its hed gene. Microbiology. 1997; 143(2): 547-552. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Descriptors: microbial genetics, IS900 insertion sites, unique targeting process.

Durham, P. J. K.; Paine, G. D. Serological survey for antibodies to infectious agents in beef cattle in northern South Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 1997; 75(2): 139-140. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: cattle, disease incidence, survey, blood sera, pathogens, Chlamydia, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Australia.

El Zaatari, Fouad A. K.; Naser, Saleh A.; Graham, David Y. Characterization of a specific Mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical Johne's disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1997; 35(7): 1794-1799. ISSN: 0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?iid=7098
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, recombinant clone expressing a 35,000 molecular weight Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen (p35 antigen), constructed expression library of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Escherichia coli, immunoblotting, possible diagnostic method for serodiagnosis of all ages of animals.

Ellingson, J. L. E.; Bolin, C. A.; Stabel, J. R. Identification of a new genetic element unique to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and application to diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 550. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: genetics, specificity, cattle strain, possible diagnostic test, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Feizabadi, M. M.; Robertson, I. D.; Hope, A.; Cousins, D. V.; Hampson, D. J. Differentiation of Australian isolates of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Australian Veterinary Journal. Dec., 1997; 75(12): 887-889. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: strain variations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, typing technique, 35 Australian isolates and 1 United Kingdom reference strain, banding patterns from endonuclease digested material, 2 groupings, strain transmission studies, Australia.

Feizabadi, Mohammad M.; Robertson, Ian D.; Cousins, Debby V.; Dawson, David J.; Hampson, David J. Use of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to examine genetic relationships amongst isolates of Mycobacterium intracellulare and related species. Microbiology. 1997; 143(4): 1461-1469. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Descriptors: diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium spp., Australia, genetic relationships at 17 enzyme loci amongst a collection of reference strains and isolates, initially identified Mycobacterium. intracellulare ,'X' mycobacteria, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, difficulties in differentiation.

Felix, J. L.; Huang, L.; Walsh, A. F.; Safranek, B. W.; Naser, N. A.; Naser, S. A. PCR detection of the IS900 gene is Mycobacterium avium strains isolated from HIV patients. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 553. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: PCR, genetics, IS900 gene detection methods, humans.

Francois, B.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Elion, J. Comparative study of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains isolated from Crohn's disease and Johne's disease using restriction fragment length polymorphism and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. Epidemiology and Infection. 1997; 118(3): 227-233. ISSN: 0950-2688.
NAL Call No.: RA651.A1E74
Descriptors: pathogenicity mechanisms study, Crohn’s disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, human, sheep and cattle strains, DNA, RFLP, IS900, arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR).

Garry, Franklyn.  Johne's disease: what do I need to know?.  USDA, APHIS, VS, CEAH, [1997?]
URL:  http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cahm/Beef%5FCow-Calf/bf97john.htm
NAL Call No.:  aSF967.P33J66 1997
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, economic aspects of the disease, control, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, United States.

Gormley, Eamonn; Sandall, Laurie; Hong, Cai; Lawton, David; Murray, Alan. Identification and differentiation of mycobacteria using the P-AN promoter sequence from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis as a DNA probe. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 1997; 147(1): 63-68. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
Descriptors: 165 bp DNA fragment containing the P-AN promoter from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, probe in Southern blots, detection of related sequences in other species of mycobacteria.

Gupta, V. K.; Singh, Nem; Singh, S. V.; Shankar, Hari. Adoption of M. paratuberculosis (isolated from goat and sheep) into liquid medium from solid medium. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal. 1997; 21(1): 14-17. ISSN: 0250-5266.
Descriptors: goat and sheep isolates, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J, modified Watson & Raid liquid medium, aeration requirement, 2 pH levels, limited success in liquid medium.

Gwozdz, J. M.; Reichel, M. P.; Murray, A.; Manktelow, W.; West, D. M.; Thompson, K. G. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ovine tissues and blood by the polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Microbiology. 1997; 57(2-3): 233-244. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: 12 ewes sheep, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, DNA extractions, blood, liver, ileocecal lymph node, ileum, assay comparison study, serological tests: complement fixation test (CFT), gel diffusion test (AGID), two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Higgs, T.  Sheep Johne's disease--keeping it out of WA.  Journal of Agriculture. 1997; 38 (3): 77-80.  ISSN:  0021-8618.
NAL Call No.:  23 W52J
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevention, Western Australia.

Holsinger, V. H.; Rajkowski, K. T.; Stabel, J. R. Milk pasteurisation and safety: A brief history and update. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. Aug., 1997; 16(2): 441-451. ISSN: 0253-1933. Note: In English with English, French, and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: food safety, milk processing, efficiency of current pasteurization methods in regard to pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O257:H7, Bacillus cereus endospores.

Huang, L.; Naser, N. A.; Naser, S. A. Cloning of a Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 32K-encoding gene: A possible fibronectin attachment protein-encoding gene. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 561. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: genetics, cloning of specific genes, fibronectin, proteins, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Hveem, Eli. Importation of cattle: An evaluation of the risk of the importation and spread of paratuberculosis infections. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift. 1997; 109(11): 669-671. ISSN: 0332-5741. Note: In Norwegian.
Descriptors: epidemiology, cattle, disease introduction risks, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Hwang, Eui Kyung; Jean, Young Hwa; Son, Hyun Joo; Moon, Oun Kyong; Kim, Jae Hoon; Bae, You Chan; Park, Jung Won; Choi, Sang Ho; Yoon, Sang Bo. A case report of Johne's disease in a Korean native cow. RDA Journal of Veterinary Science. Dec., 1997; 39(2): 33-41. ISSN: 1226-5675. Note: In Korean with Korean and English summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF604 R33
Descriptors: Korean native cow, case study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, necropsy, classical clinical signs, gross and histopathologic lesions, results of the acid-fast tissue staining, immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy.

Jark, Uwe; Ringena, Ibeling; Franz, Beate; Gerlach, Gerald F.; Beyerbach, Martin; Franz, Burkart. Development of an ELISA technique for serodiagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. 1997; 57(2-3): 189-198. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate, large-scale culture, efficient preparation of a lipoarabinomannan containing antigen was developed and standardized, ileocaecal lymphnodes cultured to isolate viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis ELISA.

Johnson, Ifearulundu Yvette J.; Kaneene, John B. Relationship between soil types and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1997; 210(12): 1735-1740. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: cattle, soils, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis relationship.

Klausen, J.; Perez, V.; Giese, S. B.; Garcia, Marin J. F.; Ahrens, P. Immunological detection of sheep experimentally infected with strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies containing insertion sequence IS901/IS902 and a 40 kDa protein. Veterinary Microbiology. 1997; 57(2-3): 181-187. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: monoclonal antibody, 40 kDa protein, Mycobacterium avium strains (IS901/IS902 positive), developed a blocking ELISA, experimentally infected sheep sera, diagnostic value, indirect ELISA, AGID and blocking ELISA compared.

Mason, O.; Rowe, M. T.; Ball, H. J. Is Mycobacterium paratuberculosis a possible agent in Crohn's disease? Implications for the dairy industry. Milchwissenschaft. 1997; 52(6): 311-316. ISSN: 0026-3788. Note: In English with summaries in English and German.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 M5933
Descriptors: dairy products, milk, ice cream, cheese, human health risks, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamined milk, possible zoonotic agent, potential impacts on dairy industry, recommendations for future research.

McDowell, R. M.; McElvaine, M. D. Long-term sequelae to foodborne disease. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. Aug., 1997; 16(2): 337-341. ISSN: 0253-1933. Note: In English with English, French, and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: possible relationship between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease, descriptions of syndromes, epidemiology, economic information, reduction in food borne diseases.

Morgan, K.L.; Cetinkaya, B.; Egan, K. Johne's and Crohn's: Inflammatory bowel diseases with a similar aetiology? In Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Edited by Goodall, E.A.; Thrusfield, M.V. The Society, England, UK, 1997; p. 47-56. ISBN: 0948073292. Note: From a meeting held in Chester, England, UK, April 9-11, 1997.
Descriptors: intestinal diseases, humans, cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, possible cause of Crohn’s disease.

Mulder, M. A.; Zappe, H.; Steyn, L. M. Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG promoter and regulation of expression. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 566. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: genetics, promoter, physiology, bacterial genetics, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mutharia, L. M.; Moreno, W.; Raymond, M. Analysis of culture filtrate and cell wall-associated antigens of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis with monoclonal antibodies. Infection and Immunity. 1997; 65(2): 387-394. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: specific antigens, release of antigens and distribubion of specific epitopes in Mycobacterium species, immunoblot analysis, monoclonial antibodies, Mab B6A.

Obasanjo, Iyabo O.; Grohn, Yrjo T.; Mohammed, Hussni O. Firm factors associated with the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds on the New York State Paratuberculosis Control Program. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Oct., 1997; 32(3-4): 243-251. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: extensive questionnaire, data from 33 herds, New York State Paratuberculosis Control Program, farm factors Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds, 31 continuous and 67 categorical risk factors, univariable logistic regression, 10 factors: the type of farm operation (commercial/registered or both), earlier diagnosis of the disease before entering the control program; number of clinical cases in the previous year, clinical cases farm or purchased animals, typical signs in clinical cases, fecal exposure of calves 0-6 weeks of age, contact with adult animal feces due to shared cleaning equipment, spreading feces on fields that contaminated forage, treatment and handling of those suspected of having Johne’s, frequency of barn cleaning, New York State.

Ollis, G.W.  Johne's disease: a cloud on the horizon.  Advances in Dairy Technology.  1997; 9: 151-162.  ISSN:  1184-0684.
URL:  http://www.wcds.afns.ualberta.ca/
NAL Call No.:  SF223.W478
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, possible economic impact of the disease, control concerns.

Onet, George E. Current paratuberculosis diagnosis in cattle. Large Animal Practice. July-Aug., 1997; 18(4): 18-22. ISSN: 1092-7603.
NAL Call No.: SF601 B6
Descriptors: diagnosis, methods, cattle, mycobacteria, issues, concerns regarding testing methods.

Pell, Alice N. Manure and microbes: Public and animal health problem? Journal of Dairy Science. Oct., 1997; 80(10): 2673-2681. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: microbial contamination in the environment, waste management, human health risks, control and remediation, pathogen contaminants, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, enteric viruses, clinical symptoms, control methods, recommendations for control.

Perez, V.; Tellechea, J.; Badiola, J. J.; Gutierrez, M.; Garcia, Martin J. F. Relation between serologic response and pathologic findings in sheep with naturally acquired paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1997; 58(8): 799-803. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: 134 adult sheep, culled for illness, tested blood, sera testing, correlations between lesions and serologic response, sheep, natural infection, intestinal lesions, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, efficacy of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and ELISA as diagnostic tests.

Rainsford, K. D. Emerging research in gastrointestinal diseases. In: Cell Injury and Protection in the Gastrointestinal Tract: From Basic Sciences to Clinical Perspectives 1996 edited by Mozsik, G.; Nagy, L.; Par, A.; Rainsford, K. D. Kluwer Academic Publishers, AZ Dordrecht, Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers, MA 1997; p. 1-7. ISBN: 0792387201. Note: Fourth International Symposium, Pecs, Hungary, October 8-11, 1995.
Descriptors: Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, research.

Reichelderfer, M.; Cherney, T. M.; Chicks, D. S.; Harms, B. A.; Manning, E. B.; Collins, M. T. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mptb) antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and two populations at risk of exposure to this pathogen. Gastroenterology. 1997; 112(4 Suppl.): A1069. ISSN: 0016-5085. Note: Digestive Disease Week and the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, Washington, D.C., USA, May 11-14, 1997.
NAL Call No.: RC799.G37
Descriptors: possible zoonotic bacteria, pathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Rowe, Michael T.; Fearon, Anna M.; Johnston, Donald E.; Early, John. Dairy research in the Food Science Division, Belfast. International Journal of Dairy Technology. May, 1997; 50(2): 61-63. ISSN: 1364-727X.
NAL Call No.: SF221.I58
Descriptors: dairy related, heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, raw milk, shelf life of pasteurized milk, high pressure processing of dairy products, Ireland.

Sacco, T.; Gennero, M.S. Indagine sierologica in allevamenti problema sul territorio regionale per la paratubercolosi.  [Johne's disease serological investigation on suspected infected herds in Piedmont.]  Veterinaria Italiana.  1997; 33(26): 16-18.  ISSN:  0505-401X.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  Piedmont cattle, infected herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium phlei, paratuberculosis, serological survey, Piedmont, Italy.

Scheibl, Peter; Gerlach, Gerald F. Differentiation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolates by rDNA-spacer analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. Veterinary Microbiology. 1997; 57(2-3): 151-158. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: strain identification, methods, molecular techniques, 16 isolates, nucleotide sequence analysis of rDNA-spacer, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using decamer primers with GC contents of 60 to 70%, evaluation of assay, potential use as a method to differentiate strains.

Secott, T. E.; Ohme, A. M.; Barton, K. S.; Rommel, F. A. Comparison of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis detection methods: Standard culture vs. accelerated culture. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 550-551. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: detection methods comparison, cattle strains, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Stabel, J. R.; Steadham, E. M.; Bolin, C. A. Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk: Are current pasteurization conditions effective? Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Dec., 1997; 63(12): 4975-4977. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: current commercial pasteurization methods, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis contaminated raw milk, in vitro experiments, pasteurization regimes, viability, 65, 72, 74, or 76 degree C, 0 to 30 min, 72 degrees, was effective.

Stabel, J. R.; Steadham, E.; Bolin, C. A. Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk by the holder test-tube method and laboratory-scale pasteurizer method. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 183. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: raw milk, in vitro study, heat tolerance, survival after various pasteurization treatments, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Stabel, J. R. Johne's disease: A hidden threat. Journal of Animal Science. 1997; 75(Suppl. 1): 48. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 89th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science, Midwestern Section.
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, economic impact, animal health protection and safety, possible zoonotic disease.

Staerk, K. D. C.; Frei, Staeheli C.; Frei, P. P.; Pfeiffer, D. U.; Danuser, J.; Audige, L.; Nicolet, J.; Strasser, M.; Gottstein, B.; Kihm, U. Incidence and costs of health problems in Swiss dairy cattle and their calves (1993-1994). Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde. 1997; 139(8): 343-353. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with German, English, French, and Italian summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 SCH9
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 13 dairy herds, blood and feces collected, pathogenicity, pathogens identified included Leptospira hardjo, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Steele, Marina L.; McNab, W. Bruce; Poppe, Case; Griffiths, Mansel W.; Chen, Shu; Degrandis, Stephanie A.; Fruhner, Lynne C.; Larkin, Carolyn A.; Lynch, John A.; Odumeru, Joseph A. Survey of Ontario bulk tank raw milk for food-borne pathogens. Journal of Food Protection. Nov., 1997; 60(11): 1341-1346. ISSN: 0362-028X.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Descriptors: proportion, raw milk, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and/or verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), 1,720 pick ups, food borne pathogens, Ontario, Canada.

Stevenson, K.; Sharp, J. M. The contribution of molecular biology to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis research. Veterinary Journal. 1997; 153(3): 269-286. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V484
Descriptors: discussion of research into molecular aspects of the bacteria.

Stitt, D. T.; Sturm, K. M. Preliminary growth requirements of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the BBL MGIT mycobacteria growth indicator tube. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 570. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: methodologies, physiology, growth factors, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Sung, N.; Collins, M. T. Heat resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997; 97(0): 443. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 4-8, 1997.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: bacterial characteristics, heat tolerance, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Thorne, J. G.; Hardin, L. E. Estimated prevalence of paratuberculosis in Missouri, USA cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1997; 31(1-2): 51-57. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: disease incidence, cattle, 89 herds, seroprevalance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis absorbed ELISA for detection of antibodies.

United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services National Animal Health Monitoring System (U.S.).  Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services,  Fort Collins, Colorado  [1997]; 52 p. : ill., maps. 
NAL Call No.:   aSF967.P33J64 1997
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, dairy farms, status of the disease, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, United States.

Valente, C.; Cuteri, V.; Giandomenico, R. Quondam; Gialletti, L.; Franciosini, M. P. Use of an experimental chicks model for paratuberculosis enteritis (Johne's disease). Veterinary Research. 1997; 28(3): 239-246. ISSN: 0928-4249. Note: In English with summaries in English and French.
NAL Call No.: SF602 A5
Descriptors: animal disease model, conventional chicks immunodepressed by a Cyclophosphamide injection and concurrent inoculation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 4 month study, shedding of bacteria, intestinal lesions, aggregation of macrophages with monocytes and lymphocytes, no diarrhea, possible useful model to study the disease.

Zhao, Benyang; Collins, Michael T.; Czuprynski, Charles J. Effects of gamma interferon and nitric oxide on the interaction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with bovine monocytes. Infection and Immunity. 1997; 65(5): 1761-1766. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: cattle, while blood cells, recombinant bovine gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma), NO, interaction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.


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