Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants

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Balci, A. Tulay; Wilbey, R. Andrew. Determination of acid phosphatase activity in heat treated milks by the Fluorophos Test System. International Journal of Dairy Technology. May 1999; 52(2): 56-58. ISSN: 1364-727X.
NAL Call No.: SF221.I58
Descriptors: Fluorophos Test System(R), measurement of acid phosphatase, fruit juices and milk, enhance the destruction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Bannantine, John P.; Stabel, Judith R. Identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis antigens present within infected macrophages. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Nov. 1999; 10 (Suppl. ): 181a. ISSN: 1059-1524. Note: 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, D.C., USA, December 11-15, 1999.
NAL Call No.: QH604.C452
Descriptors: white cells, macrophages, isolation and identification of intracellar bacteria, Johne’s diseases.

Burrells, C.; Clarke, C.J.; Colston, A.; Kay, J.M.; Porter, J.; Little, D.; Sharp, J.M. Interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 release by lymphocytes derived from the blood, mesenteric lymph nodes and intestines of normal sheep and those affected with paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. May 1999; 68(2/4): 139-148. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: sheep, paratuberculosis, interferon, interleukin-2, lymphocytes, lymph nodes, intestines, cytokines, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, lesions, major histocompatibility complex, cd4+ lymphocytes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Cobb, Alison J.; Frothingham, Richard. The GroES antigens of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. June 1, 1999; 67(1): 31-35. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: similarities and differences between species, possible vaccine agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Crabb, J.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Cressman, H.; McAdams, S.; Whitlock, R.H.  New rapid diagnostic test for Johne's disease in cattle.  Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners Conference.  1999; (32): 247-249.  Note:  Meeting held Sept. 23-26, 1999, Nashville, Tennessee.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques.

Dei, R.; Tortoli, E.; Bartoloni, A.; Simonetti, M. T.; Lillini, E. HPLC does not differentiate Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from Mycobacterium avium. Veterinary Microbiology. March 12, 1999; 65(3): 209-213. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: testing of isolates, potential detection method, no significant differences.

Dotta, U.; Guglielmino, R.; Cagnasso, A.; D' Angelo, A.; Prato, S.; Bosso, M. Effects of subclinical bovine paratuberculosis on in-vitro polymorphonuclear neutrophil migration. Journal of Comparative Pathology. Nov. 1999; 121(4): 399-403. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: white blood cells, neutrophils, subclinical infection, blood picture, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Driemeier, David; Farias, Cruz Claudio Estevao; Pereira, Gomes Marcos Jose; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Colodel, Edson Moleta. Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. July-Dec. 1999; 19(3-4): 109-115. ISSN: 0100-736X. Note: In Portuguese with English and Portuguese summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF756.37.B7 P5
Descriptors: dairy herd, clinical signs, cattle, necropsy findings described, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin, many tissues cultured.

El Zaatari, Fouad A. K.; Naser, Saleh A.; Hulten, Kristina; Burch, Paula; Graham, David Y. Characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis p36 antigen and its seroreactivities in Crohn's disease. Current Microbiology. Aug. 1999; 39(2): 115-119. ISSN: 0343-8651.
NAL Call No.: QR1.C78
Descriptors: possible zoonotic relationships between Johne’s and Crohn’s, immunoblotting technique, reactivity of human sera from patients with Crohn’s indicates Mycobacteria may be involved.

Ellingson, Jay L. E.; Stabel, Judith R. Species-specific genetic identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. [e-file] Nov. 16, 1999; 1228(3): No pagination. ISSN: 0098-113.
NAL Call No.: T223.A21
Abstract: An M. paratuberculosis gene referred to as hspX provides a useful target region for the construction of suitable probes and primers that are species-specific for distinguishing M. paratuberculosis from related mycobacteria in a test sample. M. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease and has been isolated from human patients with Crohn's disease.
Descriptors: hspX gene, possible species specific probes and primers, strain differentiation, Johne’s disease agent, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Elrod, C.C.  Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: worse than the Y2K bug.  Proceedings Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers.  1999; (61): 128-132.  ISSN: 0885-7687.
NAL Call No.:  389.79 C81
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, mycobacterial diseases, disease course, disease transmission, disease control, herd health status, zoonoses, cattle, Johne’s disease. 

Englund, Stina; Ballagi, Pordany, Andras; Bolske, Goran; Johansson, Karl Erik. Single PCR and nested PCR with a mimic molecule for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. March 1999; 33(3): 163-171. ISSN: 0732-8893.
Descriptors: detection method, nested PCR based on IS900 plus an internal control molecule, to confirm growth, bovine tissues, primary bacterial cultures, considered a useful screening tool.

Feola, R. P.; Collins, M. T.; Czuprynski, C. J. Hormonal modulation of phagocytosis and intracellular growth of Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis in bovine peripheral blood monocytes. Microbial Pathogenesis. Jan. 1999; 26(1): 1-11. ISSN: 0882-4010.
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Descriptors: growth hormone, prolactin, vitamin D3, luteinizing hormone, oxytocin, hormone effects on phagocytosis and intracellular survival, bovine peripheral blood monocytes, intracellular bacillary growth, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Freeman, Roger; Magee, John; Barratt, Anne; Wheeler, Janice; Steward, Michael; Lee, Maureen; Piggott, Nigel; Grobusch, Martin P. Rapid immunochromatographic assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis: Antibodies detected may not be specific. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. June 1999; 37(6): 2111-2112. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 38 kilodalton antigen.

Garry, F.  Producers need to know facts about Johne's disease.  Feedstuffs.  1999; 71(19): 12-15.  ISSN: 0014-9624.
NAL Call No.:  286.81 F322
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevention.

Gasteiner, J.; Wenzl, H.; Fuchs, K.; Jark, U.; Baumgartner, W. Serological cross-sectional study of paratuberculosis in cattle in Austria. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. Sept. 1999; 46(7): 457-466. ISSN: 0931-1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: 11,028 cattle, 2757 farms, prevalence of serum antibodies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiological study, ELISA (Allied Monitors), 6 year old Holstein Frisian cattle, various regional differences, Austria.

Gilot, Philippe; Coetsier, C. Specificity of the 34-kilodalton immunodominant protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (and reply). Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. Jan. 1999; 6(1): 146-148. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Descriptors: bacterial protein, specificity, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Grant, I. R.; Ball, H. J.; Rowe, M. T. Effect of higher pasteurization temperatures, and longer holding times at 72 degree C, on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology. June 1999; 28(6): 461-465. ISSN: 0266-8254.
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Descriptors: raw milk, inoculated with 3 strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, NCTC 8578, B2 and DVL 943 various heat treatments, survivability.

Greig, Alastair; Stevenson, Karen; Henderson, Dennis; Perez, Valentin; Hughes, Valerie; Pavlik, Ivo; Hines, Murray E. II; McKendrick, Iain; Sharp, J. Michael. Epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in Scotland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. June 1999; 37(6): 1746-1751. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: prevalence, 22 farms, rabbits as vectors, cattle and rabbit disease interactions, molecular genetic typing looking for strain differences, interspecies transmission, epidemiology, wildlife a reservoirs and vectors.

Gyimesi, Zoltan S.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Miller, Janice M.; Thoen, Charles O. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of captive exotic birds using polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. Sept. 1999; 30(3): 348-353. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call No.: SF601 J6
Descriptors: methods, techniques, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, avian tuberculosis, diagnostic study, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded archival avian tissues, testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reliability, diagnostic value of test.

Hajtos, Istvan; Glavits, Robert; Malik, Galal. Paratuberculosis in Northern Hungarian sheep flocks. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. July 1999; 121(7): 383-390. ISSN: 0025-004X. Note: In Hungarian with English and Hungarian summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V644
Descriptors: Hungarian Merino sheep, 5 flocks, occurrence of Johne’s disease, clinical and on the spot examinations, clinical signs, histology findings, ileum, mesenterial lymph nodes, smear samples of ileal mucosa, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, etiology, pathology.

Harris, N. Beth; Feng, Zhengyu; Liu, Xiaofei; Cirillo, Suat L. G.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Barletta, Raul G. Development of a transposon mutagenesis system for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. FEMS Microbiology Letters. June 1, 1999; 175(1): 21-26. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, a slow-growing Mycobacterium, is the causative agent of Johne's disease. Although M. paratuberculosis is difficult to manipulate genetically, our laboratory has recently demonstrated the ability to introduce DNA into these bacteria by transformation and phage infection. In the current study we develop the first transposon mutagenesis system for M. paratuberculosis using the conditionally replicating mycobacteriophage phAE94 to introduce the mycobacterial transposon Tn5367. Southern blotting and sequence analysis demonstrated that the transposon insertion sites are distributed relatively randomly throughout the M. paratuberculosis genome. We constructed a comprehensive bank of 5620 insertion mutants using this transposon. The transposition frequency obtained using this delivery system was 1.0 x 10(-6) transposition events per recipient cell. Auxotrophic mutants were observed in this library at a frequency of 0.3%.
Descriptors: methods to introduce DNA into bacteria, transformation and phage infection, first transposon mutagenesis system, conditionally replicating mycobacteriophage phAE94, insertion sites, 5620 insertion mutants.

Harris, N. B.; Liu, X.; Cirillo, J. D.; Barletta, R. G. Transposon mutagenesis of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1999; 99: 650. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 99th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 30-June 3, 1999.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Tn5367 transposon, bacteriophage mediated delivery, aph gene mutation.

Hermon, Taylor J.; Cheng, J.; Bull, T. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk: An animal and human pathogen. Journal of Microbiological Methods. Nov. 1999; 38(3): 217. ISSN: 0167-7012. Note: European Meeting on Molecular Diagnostics, Scheveningen, The Hague, Netherlands, October 13-16, 1999.
NAL Call No.: QR65.J68
Descriptors: milk, dairy products, zoonotic disease, food contaminant, description of biology, issues and concerns.

Higgins, R. Infections of uncertain zoonotic origin. Medecin Veterinaire du Quebec. 1999; 29(1): 29-35. ISSN: 0225-9591. Note: In French.
NAL Call No.: SF602.M8
Descriptors: dogs, humans, pigs, various diseases including, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

Hubbard, James; Surawicz, Christina M. Etiological role of Mycobacterium in Crohn's disease: An assessment of the literature. Digestive Diseases. 1999; 17(1): 6-13. ISSN: 0257-2753.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, etiological role, pathogens, humans, possible zoonotic disease.

Johnson, Ifearulundu Yvette; Kaneene, John B. Distribution and environmental risk factors for paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds in Michigan. American Journal of Veterinary Research. May 1999; 60(5): 589-596. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: 3,886 dairy cattle tested, herds, soil risk factors, epidemiology of infection, pH, iron content, lime addition, pastures, exercise lots, questionnaire on management practices, productivity levels, Michigan.

Johnson, Ifearulundu Yvette; Kaneene, John B.; Lloyd, James W. Herd-level economic analysis of the impact of paratuberculosis on dairy herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. March 15, 1999; 214(6): 822-825. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: herd level analysis, economic losses, dairy cattle, herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cross-sectional study design, sample population, a multistage stratified random sample of 121 dairy herds, questionnaires were filled out regarding management practices, herd productivity, labor use, expenditures, blood sampling, Michigan.

Marsh, I.; Whittington R.; Cousins, D. PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis for identification and strain typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium based on polymorphisms in IS1311. Molecular and Cellular Probes. April 1999; 13(2): 115-126. ISSN: 0890-8508.
NAL Call No.: RB43.7.M63
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, DNA, Mycobacterium avium, IS1311 gene, IS900 gene, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, possible diagnostic agent, restriction endonuclease analysis products interpretation.

McDonald, W. L.; Ridge, S. E.; Hope, A. F.; Condron, R. J. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Johne's disease in young cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal. Feb. 1999; 77(2): 113-119. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: development of immune responses, calves, oral dosing for experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, natural infection, evaluation of potential diagnostic tests, testing fecal shedding, Johne’s disease, difficulties in diagnosis.

Moreira, Ana Rita; Paolicchi, Fernando; Morsella, Claudia; Zumarraga, Martin; Cataldi, Angel; Fabiana, Bigi; Alicia, Alito; Piet, Overduin; van Soolingen, Dick; Maria, Isabel Romano. Distribution of IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism types among animal Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from Argentina and Europe. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec. 1999; 70(3-4): 251-259. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle and deer isolates, 61 isolates, 4 different patterns, BstII digests of genomic DNA, patterns described, Argentina.

Murray, Alan; Gheorghiu, Marin; Gicquel, Brigitte. Promoter of M. paratuberculosis and its use for the expression of immunogenic sequences. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. [e-file] Oct. 19, 1999; 1227(3): No pagination. ISSN: 0098-1133.
NAL Call No.: T223.A21
Abstract: The invention relates to a nucleotide sequence which is present at a position adjacent to the 5' end of the reverse sequence complementary to the open reading frame coding for a potential transposase contained in the insertion element IS900 in Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The nucleotide sequence has promoter functions and contains important signals for the regulation of transcription and translation. The invention also relates to methods for cloning and expressing heterologous proteins using such regulatory sequences, to vectors and transformed host cells containing these sequences, and to immunogenic compositions prepared by expression of nucleotide sequences placed under control of these regulatory sequences.
Descriptors: bacterial genetics, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, promoter functions, regulation of transcription and translation.

Naser, S.; Fenster, W.; Romero, C.; Schwartz, D.; Campbell, D.; Piromalli, C.; Shafran, I. In vitro evaluation of anti-tuberculosis drugs against Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis for treatment of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. April 1999; 116(4 Pt. 2): A783. ISSN: 0016-5085. Note: Digestive Disease Week and the 100th Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, Orlando, Florida, USA, May 16-19, 1999.
NAL Call No.: RC799.G37
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, susceptibility to antibiotics, clarithromycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, streptomycin.

Naser, Saleh; Shafran, Ira; El Zaatari, Fouad. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease is serologically positive. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. March 1999; 6(2): 282. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Descriptors: human, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, detection.

Ott, Stephen L.; Wells, Scott J.; Wagner, Bruce A. Herd-level economic losses associated with Johne's disease on US dairy operations. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. June 11, 1999; 40(3-4): 179-192. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS), dairy cattle study, economic losses, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, high prevalence herds, milk reductions, culling cows, losses of $200-250 million annually.

Pavlik, Ivo; Horvathova, Alica; Dvorska, Lenka; Bartl, Jiri; Svastova, Petra; du Maine, Robin; Rychlik, Ivan. Standardisation of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Microbiological Methods. Oct. 1999; 38(1-2): 155-167. ISSN: 0167-7012.
NAL Call No.: QR65.J68
Descriptors: DNA, 1008 strains, digestion with PstI and BstII, hybridized with standard IS900 probe, DNA fingerprints, GelCompar, 13 fragment length polymorphisms.

Puyang, Xiaoling; Lee, Karen; Pawlichuk, Corey; Kunimoto, Dennis Y. IS1626, a new IS900-related Mycobacterium avium insertion sequence. Microbiology. Nov. 1999; 145(11): 3163-3168. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Nucleotide Sequence: AF071067 GenBank, amino acid nucleotide sequence.
Descriptors: bacterial identifying genetics, high-stringency hybridization with the pMB22/S12 probe from IS900 of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 3 clones.

Reichel, Michael P.; Kittelberger, Reinhold; Penrose, Mary E.; Meynell, Robyn M.; Cousins, Debby; Ellis, Trevor; Mutharia, Lucy M.; Sugden, Edward A.; Johns, Andrea H.; de Lisle, Geoffrey W. Comparison of serological tests and faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and analysis of the antigens involved. Veterinary Microbiology. April 1, 1999; 66(2): 135-150. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle, 341 sera samples,106 fecal samples, assay evaluation, ELISA, complement fixation test, detection assay, comparison study.

Sinclair, M. C.; Wildblood, L. A.; Stevenson, K.; Jones, D. G. Cytokine mRNA production in ovine alveolar macrophages infected with mycobacteria. Immunology. Dec. 1999; 98 (Suppl. 1): 52. ISSN: 0019-2805. Note: Joint Congress of the British Society for Immunology and the British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Harrogate, England, UK, November 30-December 03, 1999.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Im6 Suppl.
Descriptors: infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cytokines.

Sinclair, M. C.; Wildblood, L. A.; Stevenson, K.; Beard, P.; Sharp, J. M.; Hopkins, J.; Jones, D. G. The initial T-cell and cytokine profile of lambs experimentally infected with mycobacteria. Immunology. Dec. 1999; 98(Suppl. 1): 52. ISSN: 0019-2805. Note: Joint Congress of the British Society for Immunology and the British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Harrogate, England, UK, November 30-December 03, 1999.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Im6 Suppl.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium infection, cytokines, white cell profiles, experimental infection.

Suenaga, Kensuke; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Nishimori, Isao; Sano, Shuichi; Morita, Masanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Onishi, Saburo. Serum antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. June 1999; 44(6): 1202-1207. ISSN: 0163-2116.
NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am324
Descriptors: immunology, humans with Crohn’s disease, serum antibodies, IgG, IgA, IgM, ELISA assay on sera, unique response to immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn’s.

United States.  Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health.  National Animal Health Monitoring System (U.S.).  What Do I Need to Know About Johne's Disease in Beef Cattle.  APHIS Veterinary Services Info Sheet.  [1999]; 1 folded sheet (4 p.), ill.  Note:  Caption title.  "Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, USDA:APHIS:VS, attn. NAHMS" p. [4]. "August 1999."  "N309.899" p. [4].
NAL Call No.:  aSF967.P33 W43 1999
Descriptors:  overview of the disease, symptoms, control factors, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, United States.

Valentin, Weigand Peter; Goethe, Ralph. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in ruminants: Still more questions than answers. Microbes and Infection. Nov. 1999; 1(13): 1121-1127. ISSN: 1286-4579. Note: A review.
NAL Call No.: QR180 M53
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, pathogenesis, chronic enteritis of ruminants, biology of infection and host interaction are unknown.

Waters, W. R.; Stabel, J. R.; Sacco, R. E.; Harp, J. A.; Pesch, B. A.; Wannemuehler, M. J. Antigen-specific B-cell unresponsiveness induced by chronic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle. Infection and Immunity. April 1999; 67(4): 1593-1598. ISSN: 0019-9567
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle results in a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Clinical disease (i.e. cachexia, diarrhea and high fecal bacterial counts) is preceded by a lengthy subclinical stage of disease. The immunologic mechanisms associated with the progression of infected cattle from subclinical to clinical disease are unclear. In this study, a cell proliferation assay was used in combination with flow cytometry to compare peripheral blood lymphocyte responses of cattle with subclinical paratuberculosis to responses of cattle with clinical paratuberculosis. B cells from cattle with subclinical disease proliferated vigorously upon stimulation with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen, with up to 12.4% of the total B cells responding. However, B cells from cattle with clinical disease did not proliferate upon antigen stimulation despite good proliferation in response to concanavalin A stimulation. In addition, these animals had high percentages of peripheral blood B cells. B cells from noninfected animals did not proliferate upon M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen stimulation. Thus, it appears that B-cell proliferation is a sensitive indicator of subclinical Johne's disease. Furthermore, the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the antigen-specific unresponsiveness of peripheral blood B cells may be significant in the eventual progression from subclinical to clinical Johne's disease in cattle.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, description of progression of disease from subclinical to clinical states, immunology associated with progression, cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, peripheral blood lymphocyte responses, B cells, antigen stimulation.

Whittington, R. J.; Reddacliff, L.; Marsh, I.; Saunders, V. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue by IS900 polymerase chain reaction. Australian Veterinary Journal. June 1999; 77(6): 392-397. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: evaluation, comparison study, DNA extraction methods, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR, disease confirmation, ruminants, experimental laboratory study, three DNA extraction methods used.

Whittington, R. J.; Marsh, I.; McAllister, S.; Turner, M. J.; Marshall, D. J.; Fraser, C. A. Evaluation of modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium and solid media for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from sheep. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. April 1999; 37(4): 1077-1083. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: diagnosis, evaluate the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sheep, modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium, sensitivity of culture, histopathology, evaluate a range of solid media.

Williams, Stephanie L.; Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raul G. Development of a firefly luciferase-based assay for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Feb. 1999; 37(2): 304-309. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: evaluation of antimicrobial agents, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, firefly luciferase-based assay, determining drug susceptibilities, amikacin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifabutin, D-cycloserine, suggested drug therapy combinations.

Zhao, Ben Yang; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Collins, Michael T. Intracellular fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in monocytes from normal and infected, interferon-responsive cows as determined by a radiometric method. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. Jan. 1999; 63(1): 56-61. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with English and French summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF601.C24
Descriptors: comparison study, bovine monocytes, normal and infected cows, strong Th1-like cellular immune response to ingest and inhibit the intracellular growth, radiometric (BACTEC) culture, standard plate counting, microscopic counting of acid-fast stained monocyte monolayers.

Zimmer, K.; Drager, K.G.; Klawonn, W.; Hess, R.G. Contribution to the diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle. Comparative studies on the validity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining, faecal culture and a commercially available DNA-probe test in detecting Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in faeces from cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Mar 1999; 46(2): 137-140. ISSN: 0931-1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, feces, diagnosis, paratuberculosis, experimental infection, diagnostic techniques, asymptomatic infections.

Zimpernik, I.; Awad, Masalmeh M.; Baumgartner, W. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains isolated from ruminants in Austria. Tieraerztliche Umschau. June 1, 1999; 54(6): 335-338. ISSN: 0049-3864. Note: In German with English and German summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: pathogen survey, intestinal contents, intestines, lymph nodes, cattle, sheep, ruminants, 10 base oligonucleotides, 5 different DNA fingerprints, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Austria.

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