Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2000


Allworth, M.B.; Kennedy, D.J. Progress in national control and assurance programs for ovine Johne's disease in Australia. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 415-422. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Since the detection of ovine Johne's disease in Australia in 1980, 578 flocks have been diagnosed as infected, with 442 of these still infected. The disease was initially believed to be confined to the central tablelands area of NSW, but has subsequently been shown to be more widely distributed. Sheep strains of M. paratuberculosis are known to infect sheep and goats in south-eastern Australia. Although sheep strains have recently been identified in some cattle in Australia, epidemiological evidence to date supports the distinction between ovine Johne's disease, caused by sheep strains in sheep and goats, and bovine Johne's disease, caused by cattle strains in cattle, goats and alpaca, as a basis for control and eradication strategies. Four national initiatives to control and better understand OJD are outlined. The Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for sheep was launched in May 1997. By December 1998, 548 flocks had achieved an assessed negative status. Three flocks assigned a flock status have subsequently been found to be infected. National standards for State control of Johne's disease through zoning, movement controls and procedures in infected and suspect flocks have also been developed. In addition, a $40.1 m National Ovine Johne's Disease Control and Evaluation Program was agreed to in August 1998, and is currently being implemented. It is jointly funded by National and State industries, and Commonwealth and State governments. Its objectives are to deliver, through research and surveillance, a solid basis for a future decision on the most appropriate course for dealing with OJD and to maintain control of OJD nationally.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease control, detection, flock health, disease strains, geographical distribution, epidemiology, goats, cattle, disease prevalence, surveillance, Australia.

Audige, L.; Doherr, M.; Hauser, R.; Wagner, R.; Salman, M. A stochastic simulation model for the planning and quantitative assessment of herd-level testing scheme and surveys. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 198.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveys, ELISA, quantitative analysis; rhinotracheitis, risk-assessment; stochastic-models, USA.

Bakker, D.; Willemsen, P. T. J.; van Zijderveld, F. G. Paratuberculosis recognized as a problem at last: A review. Veterinary Quarterly. October 2000; 22(4): 200-204. ISSN: 0165-2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V46
Descriptors: current opinions, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, incidence of disease, cattle and sheep, role in etiology of Crohn's, issue of diagnostic tools, current status, control programs.

Bannantine, John P.; Stabel, Judith R. HspX is present within Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected macrophages and is recognized by sera from some infected cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. October 20, 2000; 76(4): 343-358. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle, rabbit antisera against recombinant protein of HspX fused to the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP/HspX), infected murine and bovine macrophages, sera testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Bannantine, J. P.; Stabel, J. R. Identification of two M. paratuberculosis gene products differentially recognized by sera from rabbits immunized with live mycobacteria but not sera raised against heat-killed mycobacteria. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000; 100: 648. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 100th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Los Angeles, California, USA, May 21-25, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: bacterial molecular genetics, gene products, heat killed and live bacteria, rabbits, Corynebacterium glutamicum protein, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genomic expression library of bacterial induced proteins, paratuberculosis antigens, polyketide synthase.

Beard, P.M.; Rhind, S.M.; Sinclair, M.C.; Wildblood, L.A.; Stevenson, K.; Mckendrick, I.J.; Sharp, J.M.; Jones, D.G. Modulation of gammadelta T cells and CD1 in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Dec 29, 2000; 77(3/4): 311-319. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: M.a. paratuberculosis is the causal agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Recent work has suggested that gammadelta T cells may play an important role in the early immunological response to mycobacterial diseases, and that CD1 may act as a non-classical MHC molecule in antigen presentation to these gammadelta T cells. Experimental infection of neonatal lambs with M.a. paratuberculosis was used to investigate the changes in gammadelta T cells and CD1 molecules in the gut associated lymphoid tissue 4 weeks after inoculation. Immunohistochemistry was used to label the gammadelta lymphocytes and CD1 molecules. An increase in the number of gammadelta T cells was noted in both the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in the gut of infected lambs, but no statistically significant change was found in the mesenteric lymph nodes. There were no obvious changes in the CD1 molecules in any tissue. This work suggests that gammadelta T cells may play a role in the initial immunological events of paratuberculosis infection.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, gammadelta T lymphocytes, CD1 molecules, lambs, experimental infections, jejunum, ileum, Peyer patches, lymph nodes.

Beard, P. M.; Henderson, D.; Daniels, M.; Pirie, A.; Buxton, D.; Greig, A.; Hutchings, M. R.; McKendrick, I.; Rhind, S.; Stevenson, K.; Sharp, J. M. Wildlife reservoirs of paratuberculosis. Research in Veterinary Science. June 2000; 68(Suppl. A): 2. ISSN: 0034-5288. Note: 54th Annual Conference of the Association of Veterinary Teachers and Research Workers on Current Topics in Veterinary Science, Scarborough, England, April 17-19, 2000.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen vectors, ruminants, Johne’s disease.

Benedictus, G.; Verhoeff, J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Hesselink, J.W. Dutch paratuberculosis programme history, principles and development. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 399-413. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Organised disease control started in the Netherlands in the 18th century with governmental attempts to eradicate cattle plague. At the beginning of the 20th century, the dairy industry and cattle breeding organisations initiated a programme to control infectious diseases by means of a complex system of rewards and penalties. This was also the reason for establishing the Animal Health Service in Friesland in 1919. The history of programmes to control paratuberculosis in sheep, goats, and cattle in various countries is described. The vaccination of young animals seems to be an effective measure in the prevention of clinical paratuberculosis, although changes in management and hygiene practices are also important. A control programme for infectious cattle diseases has a number of phases (a lifecycle) and different components. Two components are essential for success, namely: open and regular communication with farmers, veterinary practitioners, and other people involved and a good registration and identification system for cattle, herds, and veterinary practitioners. The Dutch paratuberculosis programme has 10 herd status levels: 5-10 for non-suspect herds and 1-4 for infected herds or herds of unknown status. The higher the status, the greater the chance that a herd is free of paratuberculosis. An outline is given of the Dutch paratuberculosis programme including its objectives, basis principles for eradication, communication plan, legal action, logistic considerations, and complementary research programme.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, history, disease control, government policy, vaccination, disease prevention, hygiene, animal husbandry, life cycle, infections, The Netherlands.

Bergeron, N.; Pare, J.; Fecteau, G. Le diagnostic de la paratuberculose chez les bovins. [Diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis.] Medecin Veterinaire du Quebec. 2000; 30(4): 215-219. ISSN: 0225-9591. Note: In French with English and French summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF602.M8
Descriptors: Johne’s, brief review of the disease in cattle, diagnostic methods, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Boelaert, F.; Walravens, K.; Biront, P.; Vermeersch, J.P.; Berkvens, D.; Godfroid, J. Prevalence of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in the Belgian cattle population. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000: 77(3/4): 269-281. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The national bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) seroprevalence (apparent prevalence) in the Belgian cattle population was determined by a serological survey that was conducted from December 1997 to March 1998. In a random sample of herds (N = 556, 9.5%), all adult cattle of 24 months of age or older (N = 13,317, 0.4%) were tested for the presence of antibodies using a commercially available absorbed ELISA test kit. The PTB median within-herd seroprevalence (proportion of detected animals within the seropositive herds) and the PTB individual-animal seroprevalence (proportion of detected animals) were, respectively, 2.9% (quartiles = 1.6-5.6) and 0.87% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.03). The PTB herd seroprevalence (proportion of detected herds) was 18% (95% CI = 14-21). Assuming a test sensitivity and specificity of 45 and 99% [Sweeney et al., 1995. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 7(4): 488; Sockett et al., 1992. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 30(5): 1134], respectively, the median true within-herd prevalence and the true individual-animal were estimated to be 7 and 2%, respectively. The true herd prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was first estimated according to currently accepted methodology. This calculation revealed that the specificity of the used test has a dramatic effect on the estimation; assuming a test sensitivity of 45% and a true within-herd prevalence of 7%, the true herd prevalence estimation decreased from 36 to 0.8% if the test specificity decreased from 99.9 to 99%, respectively. This sensitivity analysis showed that the practical limits of the accuracy of the used screening test jeopardize the estimation of the true herd prevalence within reasonable confidence limits, because the within-herd PTB true prevalence was low. For this reason we augmented the herd specificity for herds with larger adult herd size (>5). This was done by increasing the cut-off number of positive cattle required (greater than or equal to 2) to classify a herd truly positive and including herds with one positive test result if there was historical evidence of PTB (previous diagnosis and/or clinical signs). This approach resulted in an estimated true herd prevalence of M. paratuberculosis infection of 6%. The true herd prevalence for dairy, mixed and beef herds was, respectively, 10, 11 and 3%.
Descriptors: cattle, paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, serological surveys, herd health status, estimation, screening, livestock numbers, statistical analysis, Belgium.

Brumbaugh, G. W.; Edwards, J. F.; Roussel, A. J. Jr.; Thomson, T. D. Effect of monensin sodium on histological lesions of naturally occurring bovine paratuberculosis. Journal of Comparative Pathology. July 2000; 123(1): 22-28. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: cattle, efficacy of drug treatment, drug delivery in feed, pre- and post-lesion severity, 147.5 mg/kg, and each treated cow received 450 mg of monensin daily for 120 days, post mortem examination, positive effects on ileum, liver, rectal mucosa, no effect seen on mesenteric lymph node.

Buergelt, C.D.; Ginn, P.E. The histopathologic diagnosis of subclinical Johne's disease in North American Bison (Bison bison). Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 325-331. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The morphologic changes of subclinical Johne's disease in North American Bison (Bison bison) are characterized by microgranulomas composed of epithelioid macrophages and individual multinucleate giant cells of Langhans'-type occasionally containing individual cytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli compatible with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. The microgranulomas are best visualized in the mesenteric lymph nodes of infected subclinical animals. Macrophages that can be confused with infection-associated epithelioid macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes are pigment-carrying cells from the intestinal tract. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy may be a useful diagnostic tool for detection of mild subclinical infection in individual ruminants from herds of unknown infection status. The biopsy may also be useful for Johne's disease surveillance during test-and-cull programs.
Descriptors: Bison bison, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, histopathology, diagnosis, cytoplasm, giant cells, macrophages, lymph nodes, clinical aspects, biopsy, diagnostic techniques, test and cull programs, North America.

Bull, Tim J.; Hermon, Taylor John; Pavlik, Ivo; El Zaatari, Fouad; Tizard, Mark. Characterization of IS900 loci in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and development of multiplex PCR typing. Microbiology. September 2000; 146(9): 2185-2197. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Descriptors: genomic DNA flanking IS900 insertions characterized, homologues identified, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomes, sigma factor (sigJ) at locus 3, a nitrate reductase (nirA) at locus 4, a transcription regulator (tetR) and polyketide synthase at locus 6, and a 6-O-methylguanine methyltransferase at locus 9, DesA1 protein, isolates comparison, possible technique for identification.
Nucleotide Sequence Information: AJ011838 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250015 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250016 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250017 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250018 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250019 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250020 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250021 GenBank-, nucleotide sequence, AJ250022 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ250023 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ251434 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ251435 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ251436 GenBank nucleotide sequence, AJ251437 GenBank nucleotide sequence.

Bull, T.J.; Sheridan, J.M.; Martin, H.; Sumar, N.; Tizard, M.; Hermon-Taylor, J. Further studies on the GS element a novel mycobacterial insertion sequence (IS1612), inserted into an acetylase gene (mpa) in Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum but not in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 453-463. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: We have recently described the GS element, found in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS) and some isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium serotype 2 (MAAs2), which contains a set of genes of low GC% content, putatively associated with the biosynthesis, modification and transference of fucose to cell wall glycopeptidolipids. Here we describe a further gene of low GC% content (mpa), within the GS element in MAP. mpa is a putative acetyltransferase with homology to genes directly responsible for host specificity and virulence in Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. Unlike other GS genes, strong homologues of mpa have not been found in related species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In MAP, mpa encodes an ORF of 445aa, however, in MAS and MAAs2 mpa contains a single inserted copy of a novel insertion sequence. This element (IS1612) has two sets of inverted repeats at each terminus and encodes two ORFs with good homologies to transposase and helper proteins of IS21 (E. coli) and IS1415 (R. erythropolis). Sequence comparisons between mpa in MAP and MAS indicate the target site for IS1612 is duplicated on insertion to give a direct repeat at each end of the element. Immediately, downstream of the mpa gene in both MAP and MAS are a group of three genes with good homology to the daunorubicin resistance cluster. This cluster has a high GC% content which suggests a 'border' for the GS element. A short motif present at the beginning of this cluster matches with an inverted repeat of this motif at the beginning of the first gene in the GS element. This encapsulates the whole of this group of low GC% genes in MAP and further suggests its cassette-like nature. Homologues of the GS element in MTB show a marked similarity of organisation, suggesting a parallel role for these genes in both pathogens.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis serotype 2, Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum, nucleotide sequences, genes, transposable elements, serotypes, cell wall components, fucose, host range, virulence, molecular sequence data.

Cameron, A.R.; Eamens, G.J. A simplified spreadsheet implementation of mixture population modelling to estimate test sensitivity and specificity. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 261.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mixed pathogen population modeling, computer analysis, spreadsheets, coputer software, diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, seroprevalence.

Cann, Paul Adrian; Bramble, Michael Graham. An open pilot study of antimicrobial agents in the management of resistant Crohn's Disease. Gastroenterology. April 2000; 118(4, Suppl. 2, Pt. 2): AGA A1335. ISSN: 0016-5085. Note: 101st Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association and the Digestive Disease Week, San Diego, California, USA, May 21-24, 2000.
NAL Call No.: RC799.G37
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, humans, antibiotic drug treatment, clarithromycin, clofazamine, rifabutin, Crohn’s disease.

Cavaignac, Sonia M.; White, Stefan J.; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.; Collins, Desmond M. Construction and screening of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis insertional mutant libraries. Archives of Microbiology. March 2000; 173(3): 229-231. ISSN: 0302-8933.
NAL Call No.: 442.8 AR26
Descriptors: Johne's disease, virulence mechanisms, libraries of random mutants produced in two Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains, conditionally replicating shuttle phasmid phAE94 with transposon Tn5367, 2000 mutants screened, auxotrophy, carbon source preference, altered cell wall, interrupted genes.

Cerf, O.; Griffiths, M. W.; Grant, I. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis heat resistance and reply. Letters in Applied Microbiology. April 2000; 30(4): 341-344. ISSN: 0266-8254.
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Descriptors: letter regarding previously published information, heat resistance of pathogen, bacterial characteristics, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Coetsier, Christophe; Vannuffel, Pascal; Blondeel, Nathalie; Denef, Jean Francois; Cocito, Carlo; Gala, Jean Luc. Duplex PCR for differential identification of Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. August 2000; 38(8): 3048-3054. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: DNA based assay, cattle tissues, assessment of molecular assay, conventional bacteriological and histological test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, p34 and f57 sequence amplification for differential diagnosis of tuberculosis, duplex paratuberculosis, or infections caused by other members of the Mycobacterium avium complex.

Corpa, J. M.; Garrido, J.; Marin, J. F. Garcia.; Perez, V. Classification of lesions observed in natural cases of paratuberculosis in goats. Journal of Comparative Pathology. May 2000; 122(4): 255-265. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: 68 goats, clinical or sub-clinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, post mortem pathological examination, intestinal lymphoid tissue, granulomata in the ileocaecal Peyer's patches or related lamina propria, diffuse multibacillary lesions, granulomatous enteritis of different intestinal sites, macroscopical changes in the normal gut morphology, changes in lymphocyes and macrophages.

Corpa, J.M.; Perez, V.; Sanchez, M.A.; Garcia-Marin, J.F.  Control of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in goats by vaccination of adult animals.  Veterinary Record.  2000; 146(7): 195-196.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  goats, age groups, vaccination, disease control, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Corpa, J.M.; Perez, V.; Garcia-Marin, J.F. Differences in the immune responses in lambs and kids vaccinated against paratuberculosis, according to the age of vaccination. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 475-485. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In order to evaluate and compare the peripheral immune responses induced by the vaccination against paratuberculosis in relation with the age of immunization, two groups of lambs and goat kids were vaccinated at 15 days and 5 months old, respectively. A heat-killed commercial vaccine was inoculated subcutaneously and humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by an ELISA and IFN-gamma assay, respectively, at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270 and 360 dpv in the lambs and 0, 30, 90 and 180 dpv in the caprine. IFN-gamma values did not show statistically significant differences between both groups, but when compared to the unvaccinated controls, this cytokine response tend to disappear earlier in animals vaccinated at 15 days old. The antibody response was always higher and more persistent in animals vaccinated at 5 months. The possibility of the incomplete degree of maturation of the immune system in 15 days old animals as the cause of the differences in the immune response to vaccination is suggested.
Descriptors: lambs, goat kids, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, vaccination, age differences, species differences, evaluation, vaccines, interferon, ELISA, cytokines, antibodies.

Cousins, D. V.; Williams, S. N.; Hope, A.; Eamens, G. J. DNA fingerprinting of Australian isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using IS900 RFLP. Australian Veterinary Journal. March 2000; 78(3): 184-190. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, alpacas, a rhinoceros, evaluate additional restriction enzymes, IS900 RFLP, examine the genetic diversity, 71 Australian isolates, epidemiology, Johne's disease, restrictions enzymes, Bst EII, Pvu II and Pst I, Bam Hl, Alu I, Xho I and Dra I, detection of polymorphisms, cattle and sheep strains distribution, Australia.

Cousins, D. V.; Whittington, R.; Marsh, I.; Masters, A.; Evans, R. J.; Kluver, P. Mycobacteria distinct from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from the faeces of ruminants possess IS900-like sequences detectable by IS900 polymerase chain reaction: Implications for diagnosis. Molecular and Cellular Probes. Dec. 2000; 13(6): 431-442. ISSN: 0890-8508.
NAL Call No.: RB43.7.M63
Descriptors: feces, diagnosis of Johne’s disease, IS900 PCR, 16 S rRNA, recommend the adoption of restriction endonuclease analysis of IS900 PCR product false positives.

Daniels, M. J.; Hutchings, M. R.; Henderson, D. Quantifying rabbit faecal contamination on livestock grazing pasture and the input of M. a. paratuberculosis. Research in Veterinary Science. June 2000; 68(Suppl. A): 2. ISSN: 0034-5288. Note: 54th Annual Conference of the Association of Veterinary Teachers and Research Workers on Current Topics in Veterinary Science, Scarborough, England, April 17-19, 2000.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Descriptors: fecal contamination, pastures, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, rabbit pellets, Oryctolagus cuniculus, possible disease, vector, Scotland.

Dimech, W. Automation of an absorbed enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis antibodies for an eradication program. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 351-355. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: As part of an ongoing Johne's disease eradication program by the state of Victoria, Australia, the Victorian Veterinary Pathology Services (VVPS) has been involved in testing over 150000 cattle samples per year for the presence of Johne's-specific antibodies. The Parachek kit (CSL, Victoria, Australia) has been used throughout the project. This method was automated using a Rosys 3300 and a Plato 7 (Dade/Behring Diagnostics) to pipette samples and the Behring ELISA Processor 3 (Dade/Behring Diagnostics) to wash EIA plates, add reagents, reads absorbances and perform data reduction of the results. Automation saved about 15 h of labour per day, allowing one staff member to analyse up to 2000 samples per 8 h shift compared to 800 samples using a manual protocol. Problems that were encountered include pipetting issues, the reading of the Paracheck endpoint, and excessive packaging of the kit. Maintenance, calibration and control of the analysers were an integral part of the process. VVPS, working in conjunction with CSL, suggested modification to the Parachek kit to make automation of the product more convenient. The approach resulted in a change in reagent volume and a reduction in packaging that reduced the cost of the test by 25%.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, enzyme immunoassay, antibody testing, disease control, automation, labor, evaluation, calibration, maintenance, Victoria, Australia.

Dinsmore, R. Page. Updates on Johne's Disease. Large Animal Practice. March-April 2000; 21(2): 20, 24-25. ISSN: 1092-7603.
NAL Call No.: SF601 B6
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogenicity, etiology, paratuberculosis, cattle disease, Crohn’s disease in humans, status of diagnosis and control, disease prevalence, milkborne diseases, dairy cows, beef cattle.

Eamens, G.J.; Whittington, R.J.; Marsh, I.B.; Turner, M.J.; Saunders, V.; Kemsley, P.D.; Rayward, D. Comparative sensitivity of various faecal culture methods and ELISA in dairy cattle herds with endemic Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 357-367. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In three New South Wales dairy cattle herds with endemic Johne's disease, prevalence rates by faecal culture were determined to be 12, 18 and 22%, respectively. Whole herd faecal culture was shown to detect markedly more infected cattle than whole herd testing by the EMAI absorbed ELISA, particularly in the two herds with greatest prevalence. In the three study herds, five methods for whole herd faecal culture were compared in each. These included two methods based on primary culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYM): (1) conventional decontamination with sedimentation and primary culture on HEYM; (2) Whitlock decontamination and culture on HEYM. The remaining three methods were based on radiometric (BACTEC) culture: (3) decontamination and filtration to BACTEC medium; (4) modified Whitlock decontamination to BACTEC medium and (5) Whitlock decontamination to BACTEC medium. For BACTEC cultures, two methods were compared as confirmatory tests for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: mycobactin dependence on conventional subculture to HEYM and IS900 PCR analysis of radiometric media. Among 179 cattle tested simultaneously by all five culture methods, 38 cattle were confirmed to be shedding M. paratuberculosis. In identifying shedder cattle, method 5 was the most sensitive, followed by methods 2, 4, 1, and 3 was the least sensitive. The number of BACTEC cultures confirmed by mycobactin dependence or PCR was similar.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, endemic Johne's disease, paratuberculosis, fecal cell cultures, ELISA, diagnostic techniques, evaluation, disease prevalence, infections organism shedding, detection methods, New South Wales, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Australia

Ellingson, J. L. E.; Stabel, J. R.; Bishai, W. R.; Frothingham, R.; Miller, J. M. Evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of a practical PCR panel assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies. Molecular and Cellular Probes. June 2000; 14(3): 153-161. ISSN: 0890-8508.
NAL Call No.: RB43.7.M63
Descriptors: possible diagnostic tool, specific oligonucleotides primers, 16 S rRNA (MAs) sequence, insertion elements IS901 (MAs avium), IS 1245 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), IS900 (MAs paratuberculosis), and the hspX (MAs paratuberculosis) gene sequences were synthesized and used in preassembled PCR reaction mixtures, easy to use method.

Eppleston, J.; Simpson, G.; O'Neill, S.; Thornberry, K.; Lugton, I.; Taylor, P.; Hall, D.G. Reported levels of sheep mortalities in flocks infected with ovine Johne's disease in New South Wales. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science. July 2000; 13(suppl.): 247. ISSN: 1011-2367. Note: In the supplement: Animal Production for a Consuming World, vol. C edited by G.M. Stone. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies and 23rd Biennial Conference of the Australian Society of Animal Production held July 3-7, 2000, Sydney, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Descriptors: sheep disease, Johne's disease, mortality statistics, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Australia.

Feola, R. P.; Czuprynski, C. J. Binding of bovine growth hormone to Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. July 2000; 23(3): 153-162. ISSN: 0147-9571. Note: In English with English and French summaries.
NAL Call No.: QR180.C62
Descriptors: cultured bacterial cultures, addition of bGH (5 mug/ml) had inhibitory effect on growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisin Middlebrook 7H9 broth, first report of a mammalian hormone binding to MAP.

Ferroglio, E.; Nebbia, P.; Robino, P.; Rossi, L.; Rosati, S. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in two free-ranging Alpine ibex. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. December, 2000; 19 (3): 859-862. ISSN: 0253-1933 Note: In English with English, French, and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), free ranging, disease incidence, PCR for insertion sequence IS900, post mortem examination, tested positive to Zielh-Nielsen stain.

Fridriksdottir, V.; Gunnarsson, E.; Sigurdarson, S.; Gudmundsdottir, K.B. Paratuberculosis in Iceland: epidemiology and control measures, past and present. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 263-267. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Paratuberculosis as well as the slow virus infections maedi/visna and jaagsiekte came to Iceland in 1933 when 20 sheep of the Karakul breed were imported from Halle, Germany. At least five of these sheep were subclinical carriers of paratuberculosis. Within 16 years paratuberculosis together with the other Karakul diseases (maedi/visna and jaagsiekte) almost ruined sheep farming, the main agricultural industry in Iceland. The first clinical case of paratuberculosis in sheep was confirmed in 1938, and in cattle in 1944. The first cattle cases of paratuberculosis appeared on farms where the disease had been prevalent in sheep for years. The virulence in cattle appeared to be considerably lower than in sheep. Extensive measures were used to control the spread of paratuberculosis in sheep. Hundreds of kilometres of fences were put up and used together with natural geographic borders to restrict the movement of sheep from infected areas. Serological and other immunological tests were also used to detect and dispose of infected individuals. These measures proved inadequate and the disease could not be eradicated. Culling and restocking of uninfected sheep in endemic areas eradicated maedi/visna and jaagsiekte but not paratuberculosis. Experiments showed that vaccination against paratuberculosis could reduce mortality in sheep by 94%. Vaccination of sheep in endemic areas has been compulsory in Iceland since 1966 and as a result losses have been reduced considerably. Today, serology is used to detect and control infection in cattle herds. Furthermore, serology is used to control vaccination of sheep and screen for infection in non-endemic areas. The complement fixation (CF) test for paratuberculosis has been used until now, but recently we have started comparing the CF test with the CSL absorbed ELISA test.
Descriptors: sheep, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, epidemiology, history of introduction, diagnosis, virulence, disease transmission, fences, culling, vaccination, mortality, screening, economic impact, complement fixation tests, Iceland.

Garrido, J.M.; Cortabarria, N.; Oguiza, J.A.; Aduriz, G.; Juste, R.A. Use of a PCR method on fecal samples for diagnosis of sheep paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 379-386. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The high sensitivity of PCR compared to the difficulties of fecal culture in sheep prompted the development of PCR protocols for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA in sheep feces. Although the PCR itself is well developed, and does not pose large technical problems, concentrating the bacteria from samples that may contain low numbers of bacilli using practical methods is still the main difficulty for the use of this technique. In this study, we describe an extraction protocol for the concentration and purification of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA from fecal samples and we compare it with other methods. The diagnostic performance of the freeze-boiling method was evaluated using a reference method [Veterinary Record, 134 (1994) 95] on fecal samples from a group of selected sheep from different flocks of known individual serological, pathological, and cultural paratuberculosis status. Using, as a reference, a combination of results in those conventional methods, the freeze-boiling PCR protocol showed a sensitivity of 94.1%, and a specificity of 92.3%.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction, fecal culture, DNA, concentration and purification diagnostic technique, comparison study, reference data from known animals, sample processing.

Gasteiner, J.; Awad-Masalmeh, M.; Baumgartner, W. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle in Austria, diagnosis with culture, PCR and ELISA. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 339-349. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Serum samples from healthy, infected (n = 11) and diseased (n = 2) cattle as well as positive (n = 17) and negative (n = 41) reference sera were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with two ELISA-methods (A-ELISA, Allied Monitors, Fayette, USA; H-ELISA, Institute of Microbiology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary University Hannover). Fecal samples of these animals were examined by PCR and culture. Also field serum samples found to be positive (n = 664) or inconclusive (n = 1589) by A-ELISA during a survey done on 11028 cattle of 2757 farms at different districts in Austria were retested with H-ELISA (Gasteiner et al., 1999). In both ELISA-methods total agreement between antibody detection and shedding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (PCR, culture) in cases of diseased animals during the testing period was found. In subclinically infected animals H-ELISA showed a better correlation with the results of PCR and fecal culture. Reference serum samples of culturally negative cattle were negative in 98% by H-ELISA and in 82% by A-ELISA, and those of positive animals were positive in 59% by H-ELISA and in 82% by A-ELISA. The 664 A-ELISA positive field serum samples were positive in 20.5%, inconclusive in 32.5% and negative in 47% by H-ELISA. A-ELISA inconclusive sera gave positive reactions by H-ELISA in 5.2%, negative in 74.8% and inconclusive results in 20%. The highest prevalence of antibodies (7.9% by A- and 2.2% by H-ELISA) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were found in cattle at the age of six and seven years. Seropositive animals were found at all tested ages. The A-ELISA gave two to three times more positive reactors than the H-ELISA. Also both, tests showed the highest prevalence of reagents among Holstein Friesian (6.2% by A-ELISA, 2.5% by H-ELISA) followed by other cattle breeds. Seropositive cattle were observed in all districts of Austria in 3.3-7.1% and in 0.5-1.8% of herds according to A- and H-ELISA, respectively.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, cell cultures, polymerase chain reaction, disease diagnosis evaluation, blood serum, antibodies, infectious organism shedding, asymptomatic infections, cattle breed differences, disease prevalence, Austria.

Giese, S.B.; Ahrens, P. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 291-297. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11 animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (<100 CFU per ml). Milk samples from two cows were PCR positive (both animals were faeces culture positive, and one cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture negative on intestinal mucosa, but culture positive in milk, and two cows were negative in culture and PCR from both faeces and milk. In conclusion, the presence of M. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR, but cultivation of milk was more sensitive.
Descriptors: cows, polymerase chain reaction, detection, milk, cell culture, feces, diagnostic techniques, symptoms, clinical aspects, intestinal mucosa, evaluation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Godfroid, J.; Boelaert, F.; Heier, A.; Clavareau, C.; Wellemans, V.; Desmecht, M.; Roels, S.; Walravens, K. First evidence of Johne's disease in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Belgium. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 283-290. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In a deer farm, chronic diarrhoea was seen in a 4-year-old hind. This animal died in poor condition on the farm and Johne's disease was suspected. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the faeces of this hind were positive for the presence of clumps of small acid-fast bacilli, but faecal cultures remained negative. Direct and indirect tests were performed on 24 hinds and stags (yearlings, 2- and 4-year-old animals). The indirect tests performed were serology (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis antibody ELISA, HerdChek, Idexx), comparative cervical skin test (CCT) and lymphoproliferation test (LT) using Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and Mycobacterium avium PPD as antigens. Three positive serological results, three positive CCT and eight positive LT were observed in hinds and stags older than 2 years. No positive serological results were observed in the yearling group, whereas some sensitisation was observed in the CCT as well as in the LT for the same group of animals. The degree of concordance between these indirect tests was poor. The three seropositive animals were slaughtered and subjected to post-mortem examination. Histopathology was performed on mesenteric lymph nodes and on the terminal ileum. Visual changes in some mesenteric lymph nodes were observed, no gross lesion was seen in the intestine. Although Ziehl-Neelsen staining yielded no positive results, a catarrhal focal necrotic enteritis associated with a granulomatous lymphadenitis compatible with Johne's disease was evidenced. The mycobacterial cultures on organ samples from slaughtered animals were positive after 2 months for M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis and negative for M. bovis and M. avium. This is the first description of Johne's disease in a deer farm in Belgium.
Descriptors: Cervus elaphus, farmed red deer, paratuberculosis, incidence, diarrhea, mortality, diagnosis, feces, diagnostic techniques, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, antigens, symptoms, histopathology, lymph nodes, intestines, necrosis, Belgium.

Goodell, G.M.; Hirst, H.; Garry, F.; Dinsmore, P. Comparison of cull rates and milk production of clinically normal dairy cows grouped by ELISA Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis serum antibody results. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 579.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cows, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, culling, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, milk production, milk yield, paratuberculosis.

Goswami, T. K.; Joardar, S. N.; Ram, G. C. Antigenic analysis of M. paratuberculosis strain TEPS by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. August 2000; 70(8): 789-791. ISSN: 0367-8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: 40 polypeptide fractions, SDS-PAGE, Coommassie brillian blue staining, Schiff staining, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Goswami, Tapas Kumar; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Ram, Gulab Chandra; Banerjee, Rabin; Singh, Dhirendra Kumar. Association of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease and Johne's disease: A possible zoonotic threat. Current Science. October 25, 2000; 79(8): 1076-1081. ISSN: 0011-3891.
NAL Call No.: 475 SCI23
Descriptors: review, possible association between Johne’s and Crohn’s, isolation studies, experimental disease production, histopathological and immunological evidences, DNA sequence analysis, possible food borne disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Goswami, T. K.; Swamy, N.; Suchitra, S.; Joardar, S. N.; Ram, G. C. Electrophoretic behaviour of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis soluble protein antigens in rocket immuno-electrophoresis. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal. December, 2000; 24(4): 285-287. ISSN: 0250-5266.
Descriptors: immuno-electrophoretic behaviour, native antigens, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (strain TEPS), hyperimmune goat sera, rocket immuno-electrophoretic technique, 8 native precipitin peaks, qualitative and quantitative test, detection of antigenic proteins.

Goswami, T. K.; Joardar, S. N.; Ram, G. C. In-vitro and in-vivo detection of cross-reacting antigens of M. paratuberculosis and M. bovis. Journal of Applied Animal Research. June 2000; 17(2): 285-290. ISSN: 0971-2119. Note: In English with English and Sanskrit summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF55. I4J68
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, delayed type of hypersensitivity, ELISA, crossed immunoelectrophoretic (CIE) technique.

Grant, I.R.; Pope, C.M.; O'Riordan, L.M.; Ball, H.J.; Rowe, M.T. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk by immunomagnetic PCR. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 69-378. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The potential use of a novel immunomagnetic PCR (IMS-PCR) technique as a rapid method to screen milk samples for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb) was assessed. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for M. ptb, developed at Queen's University, Belfast, was applied to milk samples prior to IS900 PCR in order to selectively concentrate any M. ptb cells present and, at the same time, separate the cells from constituents of milk likely to inhibit subsequent PCR. This increased the sensitivity of IS900 PCR. IMS-PCR sensitivity could be further increased by initial centrifugation (2500 g for 20 min) of larger volumes of milk (10 and 50 ml), and resuspension of the sediment into a 1 ml volume appropriate for IMS treatment. Following IMS, template DNA for IS900 PCR was obtained by heating the bead-cell suspension in a thermal cycler at 100 degrees C for 15 min. It was estimated that the IMS-PCR assay could detect approximately 10(3) CFU of M. ptb per 50 ml of milk (equivalent to 20 CFU/ml), whereas the minimum detection limit of direct IS900 PCR was estimated at 10(5) CFU of M. ptb per 50 ml (equivalent to 2000 CFU/ml). A blind trial was carried out in which a total of 40 spiked (10(6) CFU M. ptb) and unspiked, raw and laboratory-pasteurised milk samples were independently tested by IMS-PCR and conventional IS900 PCR. IMS-PCR correctly identified 97.5% of milk samples (sensitivity 100%, specificity 95%), including spiked milk samples before and after laboratory-pasteurisation. One false positive result was obtained which may have resulted from carryover between samples during the IMS procedure. Conventional IS900 PCR correctly identified only 72.5% of the same 40 milk samples (sensitivity 23%, specificity 100%). IMS-PCR was also shown to be capable of detecting natural M. ptb infection in raw sheep's milk, and raw and commercially pasteurised cows' milk.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection in milk, immunomagnetic polymerase chain reaction assay, diagnostic techniques, evaluation, screening method, inhibition, raw sheep milk, pasteurized cow's milk.

Greig, A. Johne's disease in sheep and goats. In Practice. Mar 2000; 22(3): 146-151. ISSN: 0263841X.
NAL Call No.: SF601. I4
Descriptors: sheep, goats, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, chronic course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, species differences, disease control.

Groenendaal, H.; Jalvingh, A.W.; Nielen, M.; Horst, H.S. A simulation model to study the epidemiological and economic consequences of Johne's disease control programs. . In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 219.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, heifers, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial infection, fecal testing, epidemiology, disease control programs, computer simulation, economic impact, losses, milk production, reproductive consequences, fetuses, culling of infected animals, simulation models, stochastic models.

Gwozdz, J. M.; Thompson, K. G.; Murray, A.; Reichel, M. P.; Manktelow, B. W.; West, D. M. Comparison of three serological tests and an interferon-gamma assay for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in experimentally infected sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal. November 2000; 78(11): 779-783. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: 14 sheep, experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, comparison study, complement fixation test, an agar gel immunodiffusion test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whole blood interferon-gamma assay for paratuberculosis.

Gwozdz, J. M.; Thompson, K. G.; Murray, A.; West, D. M.; Manktelow, B. W. Use of the polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in blood and liver biopsies from experimentally infected sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal. September 2000; 78(9): 622-624. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep diagnostic evaluation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR assay, 14 animals, experimental infection, sampled over 53 weeks, not a useful and reliable method.

Gwozdz, J. M.; Thompson, K. G.; Manktelow, B. W.; Murray, A.; West, D. M. Vaccination against paratuberculosis of lambs already infected experimentally with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Australian Veterinary Journal. August 2000; 78(8): 560-566. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep, protective value, live-attenuated vaccine effects, sheep, exposed, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, investigation, progression, systemic immune response, experimental infection, 28-1 month old lambs, vaccine effectiveness, IFN-gamma in blood, antibody concentration of sera, sequential monitoring, IS900-baced PCR, ileum, ileocaecal lymph nodes, histological examination.

Hirst, H.; Garry, F.; Goodell, G.; Dinsmore, R.P. Findings from repeat testing for Johne's disease in Colorado dairy cattle utilizing the IDEXX ELISA. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 584.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, Colorado, USA.

Hirst, H.; Garry, F.; Dinsmore, R.P.; Goodell, G.; McSweeney, K. Serologic survey for Johne's disease in Colorado dairies: relationship of seropositivity to herd characteristics. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 583.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, enteritis, histopathology, livestock numbers, paratuberculosis, serological surveys, seroprevalence,disease prevalence, disease surveys, Colorado, USA.

Hope, A. F.; Kluver, P. F.; Jones, S. L.; Condron, R. J. Sensitivity and specificity of two serological tests for the detection of ovine paratuberculosis. Australian Veterinary Journal. December 2000; 78(12): 850-856. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: 1257 sheep, serum samples, testing sensitivity and specificity, absorbed ELISA and an AGID test, detection of clinical and subclinical paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease detection tests considered useful, test differences.

Hulten, K.; El Zimaity, H. M.; Collins, M. T.; Graham, D. Y.; El Zaatari, F. A. K. Cell wall deficient forms of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis found in tissues from animals with Johne's disease by in situ hybridization. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000; 100: 656. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 100th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Los Angeles, California, USA, May 21-25, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: cattle, digoxigenin stain, Johne’s disease, bacterial forms isolation.

Hulten, K.; Karttunen, T. J.; El Zimaity, H. M. T.; Naser, S. A.; Collins, M. T.; Graham, D. Y.; El Zaatari, F. A. K. Identification of cell wall deficient forms of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in paraffin embedded tissues from animals with Johne's disease by in situ hybridization. Journal of Microbiological Methods. October 2000; 42(2): 185-195. ISSN: 0167-7012.
NAL Call No.: QR65.J68
Descriptors: subclinical stage, Johne’s disease, possible zoonotic disease, sarcoidosis, Crohn’s, spiked beef cubes, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, IS900 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific probe labeled with digoxigenin, distinguish between the acid-fast and CWD forms of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, localized in tissue sections.

Hulten, K.; Karttunen, T.J.; El Zimaity, H.M.T.; Naser, S.A.; Almashhrawi, A.; Graham, D.Y.; El Zaatari, F.A.K. In situ hybridization method for studies of cell wall deficient M. paratuberculosis in tissue samples. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 513-518. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Cell wall deficient forms of mycobacteria may be important in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis. However, no method has been available to localize this type of organisms in tissue sections. We developed an in situ hybridization method for the demonstration of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis spheroplasts (cell wall deficient forms) in paraffin embedded tissue sections. M. paratuberculosis spheroplasts were prepared by treatment with glycine and lysozyme. Pieces of beef were injected with the prepared spheroplasts. The samples were fixed in buffered formalin and paraffin embedded. A M. paratuberculosis-specific probe derived from the IS900 gene was used. Specificity was controlled by using an irrelevant probe and by hybridizing sections with spheroplasts from other bacteria. Beef samples injected with M. paratuberculosis spheroplasts were the only samples that hybridized with the probe. Beef samples containing acid-fast or spheroplast forms of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis as well as the acid-fast forms of M. paratuberculosis did not hybridize with the probe. Unrelated bacterial controls, i.e. Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli were also negative in the assay. In situ hybridization with the IS900 probe provides a specific way to localize M. paratuberculosis spheroplasts in tissue sections and may be useful for studies of the connection between M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis. The assay may also be valuable for studies on Johne's diseased animals.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cell walls deficient forms, spheroplasts, pathogenesis, DNA hybridization, tissues, genes, identification, beef, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, diagnostic techniques, Crohn's disease, paratuberculosis, sarcoidosis, assay, Johne's disease.

Ikonomopoulos, John A.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Kastrinakis, Nikos G.; Zacharatos, Panayotis V.; Kokotas, Stavros N.; Evangelou, Kostas; Kotsinas, Athanassios G.; Tsakris, Athanassios G.; Manolis, Evangelos N.; Kittas, Christos N. Sensitive differential detection of genetically related mycobacterial pathogens in archival material. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. December 2000; 114(6): 940-950. ISSN: 0002-9173.
NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am34
Descriptors: humans, PCR assay, immunogenic protein MPB64 gene, outward-primed PCR (OPPCR), IS6110 element, amplification of IS1110 and 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, dot blotting assay, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from patients with tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

Jadhav, K.M.; Dave, M.R.  Haematological and biochemical changes in Johnes disease in sheep.  Intas Polivet.  2000; 1(2): 193-194.  ISSN:  0972-1738.
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, calcium, erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin levels, hematology, biochemicals, magnesium, Mg, phosphates salts, potassium, P, sodium, Na.

Jakobsen, M. B.; Alban, L.; Nielsen, S. S. A cross-sectional study of paratuberculosis in 1155 Danish dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. July 3, 2000; 46(1): 15-27. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: milk samples, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 1155 cows, 22 dairy farms, risk factors, ELISA, multiple logistic regression analysis, Jersey vs. large breeds, high parity vs. low parity, the first month after calving vs. other months of lactation, large herd size vs. small herd size, Denmark.

Johnson, Ifearulundu Y. J.; Kaneene, J. B.; Sprecher, D. J.; Gardiner, J. C.; Lloyd, J. W. The effect of subclinical Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on days open in Michigan, USA, dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. August 10, 2000; 46(3): 171-181. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, prospective cohort study design, dairy cattle, usefulness of ELISA and fecal culture as diagnostic tools, reproduction records, 18 month monitoring period, increase in days open, suggested impact of negative energy balance in subclinical infected cows, Michigan.

Jones, P.H.; Farver, T.B.; Beaman, B.L.; Cetinkaya, B.; Morgan, K.L. Chronic gastrointestinal diseases in dairy farmers in England and the welsh borders: is there an association between Crohn's disease and bovine paratuberculosis? In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 385.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cattle, dairy farms, farmers, irritable colon, stomach ulcers, ulcerative colitis, chronic course, Crohn's disease, gastrointestinal diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, occupational disease hazards, risk factors, zoonotic diseases, zoonoses.

Jubb, T.; Galvin, J. Herd testing to control bovine Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 423-428. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In 1996, the cattle industries and government in the Australian state of Victoria established a Johne's disease (JD) test and control program under which participating farmers are provided with an annual ELISA test of their adult herd and advice on disease control that is tailored to their farm. The program is delivered through private veterinarians under contract with the government. There are over 600 herds enrolled in the program and about one third of these have had three or more whole herd tests. This paper provides a review of the program to date. It describes changes in ELISA reactor rates and numbers of clinical cases, and provides evidence for progress in the program.
Descriptors: cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disease control, Australian government policy, diagnostic text, ELISA, veterinarians role, disease incidence, surveillance, program review, Victoria, Australia.

Juste, R.A.; Garrido, J.M.; Aduriz, G.  Un siglo de progreso y controversia sobre la paratuberculosis. I. La situacion actual del conocimiento sobre la infeccion[A century of progress and controversy of paratuberculosis. I. The current situation of knowledge of the infection.]  Medicina Veterinaria.  2000; 17(5): 88-101.  ISSN:  0212-8292.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease is a well known disease entity since the end of the 19th century, review of etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.

Kalis, C.H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Hesselink, J.W.; Maanen, C. van; Collins, M.T. Comparison of two absorbed ELISA's and a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. . In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 178.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques; ELISA, immunodiagnosis, complement fixation tests; paratuberculosis, serological diagnostic tests, Netherlands.

Kalis, C.H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Hesselink, J.W. Certification of dairy herds as free of paratuberculosis using culture of strategically pooled fecal samples. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 177.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control programs, fecal sampling, ELISA testing certification of Johne’s free herds.

Kennedy, D.J.; Allworth, M.B. Accepting the challenge of controlling Johne's disease in Australia. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 81.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, control programs, disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease prevention, epidemiology, control programs, Australia.

Kennedy, D.J.; Allworth, M.B. Progress in national control and assurance programs for bovine Johne's disease in Australia. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 443-451. ISSN: 03789-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Cattle strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis are known to infect cattle, goats and alpaca in southeastern Australia, where there are also significant numbers of farmed deer. Although sheep strains have recently been identified in some cattle in Australia, epidemiological evidence to date supports the distinction (between bovine Johne's disease (JD), caused by cattle strains in cattle, goats and alpaca, and ovine JD, caused by sheep strains in sheep and goats) for the purposes of control and assurance programs. The National Johne's Disease Control Program is coordinated by the Australian Animal Health Council, working with the livestock industries and with the Commonwealth, state and territory governments. The council also brokers industry and government funding for the program. The National Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle was launched in 1996 as the first of a suite of voluntary national market assurance programs (MAPs) to assess and certify herds as negative for JD. By December 1998, over 550 herds had achieved an assessed negative status. A MAP was also launched for alpaca in 1998 and a program for goats should be finalised in early 1999. National standards for state control of JD through zoning, movement controls and procedures in infected and suspect herds have also been developed. The paper covers factors affecting development and implementation, uptake of and improvements to national control and assurance programs for bovine JD in Australia.
Descriptors: Johne's disease, cattle, paratuberculosis, disease control, government policy, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, goats, alpacas, deer, sheep, epidemiology, certification, disease incidence, Australia.

Koets, A. P.; Adugna, G.; Janss, L. L. G.; van Weering, H. J.; Kalis, C. H. J.; Wentink, G. H.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.; Schukken, Y. H. Genetic variation of susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. November 2000; 83(11): 2702-2708. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: Dutch dairy cattle, 3020 cows, infection status at slaughter, standard polygenic statistical probit model was used to estimate heritabilities, vaccination trial data, variable susceptibilities, genetic selection as a control measure.

Koets, A.P.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Bakker, D.; van der. Hage, M.H.; van Eden, W. Lewis rats are not susceptible to oral infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 487-495. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Pathogenesis studies of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ruminants are hampered by the long incubation time of the disease. A laboratory animal model with a shorter incubation time would facilitate research in this field. Although small rodents are usually considered to be resistant to M.a. paratuberculosis infection, several susceptible murine strains have been found. To our knowledge, there are no detailed reports with regard to susceptibility in rats. The Lewis rat is a valuable model for inflammatory bowel disease studies as well as autoimmune diseases involving mycobacteria as inducing agents. In this study Lewis rats were used to investigate their potential as a small laboratory animal model for paratuberculosis. In total 28 female Lewis rats were orally inoculated with M.a. paratuberculosis. The rats were first inoculated at 3 weeks of age, and 12 more inoculations followed in increasing intervals during the 3 months to follow. Eight control rats received a sham inoculation. Over 9 months, two rats from each group were sacrificed at regular intervals and immunological and histopathological examinations were performed on the gastrointestinal tract, the liver and the spleen. None of the rats developed lesions which were indicative of mycobacterial infection as determined by histology with HE and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The bacteria could not be recultured from samples taken from the gut, the liver or the spleen. The immunological tests however, showed that bacteria had entered via the intestinal tract. From this study it appears that Lewis rats are resistant to oral inoculation with M.a. paratuberculosis, and not suitable as a model to study the immunopathogenesis of paratuberculosis as it occurs in ruminants.
Descriptors: rats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, oral administration, infection, susceptibility, pathogenesis, animal models, experimental infections, histopathology, digestive tract, liver, spleen, postmortem examinations, lesions.

Kramsky, J.A.; Miller, D.S.; Hope, A.; Collins, M.T. Modification of a bovine ELISA to detect camelid antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 333-337. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, or Johne's disease, reportedly has a low prevalence in South American camelid populations. Recently, however, single cases in the United States as well as an outbreak of the disease in Australian alpacas (Lama pacos) have been described. To provide a rapid and cost-effective method of diagnosing Johne's disease in this species, the bovine Parachek Johne's Absorbed EIA (CSL, Vic., Australia) was modified to create a camelid-specific serum antibody assay. An anti-llama IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase replaced the anti-bovine immunoglobulin. Checkerboard titration of principal reagents was performed using serum from nine tissue and/or fecal culture-positive camelids. Optimal dilutions of key components were determined in order to provide clear discrimination between positive and negative controls. Completion of a kinetic assay determined the optical density at which the enzyme-substrate reaction should be stopped. A herd of 100 camelids with no history of disease or exposure to M. a. paratuberculosis, a subset of which were tissue and/or fecal culture-negative, was tested to establish a cut-off value. Sample results were expressed as a percentage of the results for control sera by transforming optical density values to ELISA values (EV%). A preliminary EV% cut-off of 20 was established. Using this prototype assay, culture-positive animals showed significantly different antibody responses from culture-negative animals. These results indicate that this camelid-specific ELISA, once refined, may be a useful tool for screening camelid herds for M. a. paratuberculosis infection.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection methods, ELISA, diagnosis disease outbreaks, IgG, herds, assays.

Lawlor, H. A.; Mutharia, L. M. Characterization of the thioredoxin system of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000; 100: 649. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 100th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Los Angeles, California, USA, May 21-25, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: pET expression system, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, thioredoxin system; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genome, gentamycin, recombinant his tagged proteins, thioredoxin system characterization, antibodies, reductase, redox-cycling system, thioredoxin reductase gene.

Lund, B. M.; Donnelly, C. W.; Rampling, A. Heat resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Letters in Applied Microbiology. August 2000; 31(2): 184-185. ISSN: 0266-8254.
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Descriptors: bacterial characteristics, temperature tolerance, viability testing, Crohn’s disease, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Marsh, I.; Whittington, R.; Millar, D. Quality control and optimized procedure of hybridization capture-PCR for the identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces. Molecular and Cellular Probes. August 2000; 14(4): 219-232. ISSN: 0890-8508.
NAL Call No.: RB43.7.M63
Descriptors: fecal samples, cattle, Johne’s disease, sheep, capture and washing of magnetic beads, low cost method, diagnostic method, pooled samples.

Martin, P.A.J.; Hawkins, C.D.; Higgs, A.R.B. Risk analysis to support disease freedom in Western Australia. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 211.
Descriptors: dairy cows, sheep, disease prevention, imported infections, quarantine programs, risk assessment, trade policy, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, foot rot, liver flukes Fasciola hepatica, Australia.

Michel, A.L.; Bastianello, S.S. Paratuberculosis in sheep: an emerging disease in South Africa. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 299-307. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: During a serological survey for ovine paratuberculosis a total of 145934 ovine serum samples from 2019 farms throughout South Africa were tested by means of the AGID assay. Fifty-two infected farms were identified in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces. Links between infected farms in the two provinces were established. Examination of the distribution of infected farms in the Western Cape indicated a positive correlation between acid soils and occurrence of infection. In an attempt to increase the sensitivity and facilitate screening of large numbers of sera two commercial ELISA systems were evaluated for their potential use in a future monitoring program. Sera from histologically positive sheep and known negative sheep flocks were used. The highest sensitivity (50.9%) was found if both ELISA systems were run concurrently and the results of both systems combined.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serological surveys, bioassays, farms, geographical distribution, acid soils, screening for disease, ELISA, monitoring, South Africa.

Miller, D.S.; Collins, M.T.; Smith, B.B.; Anderson, P.R.; Kramsky, J.; Wilder, G.; Hope, A.  Specificity of four serologic assays for Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas: a single herd study.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2000; 12 (4): 345-353.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  llamas, alpacas, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serology, ELISA, immunodiffusion tests, antibody testing, diagnostic value, accuracy.

Momotani, E.; Miyama, M.; To, T. L.; Yoshihara, K.; Gotoh, H. Adhesion molecules and chemokines in granulomas by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in TNF alpha deficient mice. Immunology Letters. September 2000; 73(2-3): 194. ISSN: 0165-2478. Note: 24th European Immunology Meeting of the European Federation of Immunological Societies (EFIS), Poznan, Poland, September 23-26, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR180. I53
Descriptors: C57BL/6 mouse model, tumor necrosis factor alpha deficiency, wild type, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fibronectin, RANTES, epithelioid granuloma cell border expression, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, macrophage chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage chemoattractant protein 3, granuloma expression.

Muskens, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Russchen, E.; van Maanen, K.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bakker, D. Prevalence and regional distribution of paratuberculosis in dairy herds in the Netherlands. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 253-261. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In the Netherlands a survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. In total 15822 cows of at least 3 years of age, belonging to 378 herds were tested using an absorbed ELISA. Of these herds, 55% (n = 207) had one or more serologically positive cows. Of the positive non-vaccinated herds, most had one (n = 98) or two (n = 49) positive cows. The percentage positive cows per herd was 2.5 +/- 3.2%. The true prevalences on cow and herd levels, based on a test sensitivity that ranged from 0.3 to 0.4 and a specificity that ranged from 0.985 and 0.995, were estimated at 2.7-6.9% and 31-71%. Seven herds had been vaccinated against paratuberculosis and these herds had a significantly higher percentage of serologically positive cows (23%) than the non-vaccinated herds (2.5%). In conclusion, a small percentage of the dairy cows and a high percentage of the dairy herds in the Netherlands is serologically positive. The percentages true infected cows and herds are difficult to estimate precisely due to uncertainties in test sensitivity and specificity.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, geographical distribution, surveys, ELISA, vaccination, seroprevalence.

Naser, S.A.; Hulten, K.; Shafran, I.; Graham, D.Y.; El Zaatari, F.A.K. Specific seroreactivity of Crohn's disease patients against p35 and p36 antigens of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 497-504. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is similar to Johne's disease in ruminants. Recent data have strengthened the association of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) with CD. To provide more evidence of an etiological association, antibody reactivities from CD patients were tested by immunoblotting against recombinant antigens that were identified previously from our M. paratuberculosis genomic library. Two clones (designated pMptb#40 (3.2-kb insert) and #48 (1.4-kb insert) expressing a 35K (p35)- and 36K (p36)-antigens showed specific reactivities with serum samples from CD patients. Serum samples from 75% of 53 CD patients, 14% of 35 normal individuals and 10% of 10 ulcerative colitis patients reacted to p35 antigen. Reactivities were also observed with serum samples from 89% of 89 CD patients, 14% of 50 normal controls and 15% of 29 ulcerative colitis patients reacted with p36 antigen. When the reactivity results from p35 and p36 were combined, the background from the controls was eliminated, i.e. only the CD patients reacted to both p35 and p36. The positive predictive value was 98% with specificity of 98% and the negative predictive value was 76% with sensitivity of 74% (39 positive out of 53). A statistical significance (p < 0.0001) was observed when the results from CD serum samples reacting with either or both antigens were compared to the controls. The reactivity of anti-M. paratuberculosis (specifically against p35 and p36 antigens) antibodies in a significant proportion of CD patients would suggest a causal role for the organism in CD.
Descriptors: humans, Crohn's disease Mycobacterium avium, immune response, antigens, infections, etiology, immunoblotting, recombinant antigens, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, blood serum.

Nebbia, P.; Robino, P.; Ferroglio, E.; Rossi, L.; Meneguz, G.; Rosati, S. Paratuberculosis in red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in the western Alps. Veterinary Research Communications. November 2000; 24(7): 435-443. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL Call No.: SF601.38
Descriptors: 19 red deer, Cottain Alps, DNA amplification on mesenteric lymph nodes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, detected, strain similar to bovine strains, in ability of serological tests for monitoring, serum antibodies by the AGID and ELISA tests.

Nielsen, S.S.; Agger, J.F.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Houe, H.; Bitsch, V. Three approaches to evaluate three diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 514.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, diagnostic testing, comparison of 3 techniques, ELISA, risk factors, research approach.

Nielsen, S.S.; Agger, J.F. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 513.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease surveillance, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Denmark.

Nielsen, S. S.; Thamsborg, S. M.; Houe, H.; Bitsch, V. Bulk-tank milk ELISA antibodies for estimating the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. March 29, 2000; 44(1-2): 1-7. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: Johne’s disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, regional differences, ELISA to test antibodies in bulk milk testing, 6 milk collection centers, 900 herds examined, Denmark.

O'Doherty, A.; O' Grady, D.; Smith, T.; O' Farrell, K. J.; Egan, J. A survey of Johne's disease in imported animals in the Republic of Ireland. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. December 2000; 39(3): 486. ISSN: 0791-6833. Note: 6th Annual Agricultural Research Forum, March 14-15, 2000.
NAL Call No.: S539.5.I74
Descriptors: infection rates, surveillance, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, imported cattle.

Oikawa, Shin; Katoh, Norio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nishi, Hideki; Kurosawa, Takashi; Satoh, Hiroshi. Serum apolipoprotein A-I evaluated as a possible marker in cows with Johne's disease. Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University Natural Science. October 2000; 25(1): 37-42. Note: In Japanese with English summary.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, serum levels of apolipoprotein A-I as a disease indicator, protein levels, cholesterol serum concentration, phospholipids levels, albumin serum concentrations, symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle, reliable marker in evaluating the pathogenesis, intestinal dysfunction, Johne's disease.

Olsen, Ingrid; Reitan, Liv J.; Holstad, Gudmund; Wiker, Harald G. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductases C and D are major antigens constitutively expressed by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Infection and Immunity. Feb. 2000; 68(2): 801-808. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C and D antigens, gamma-interferon, polyclonal and polyvalent antiserum, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, species differentiation.

Paisley , L.G. Assessment of the risks and uncertainties associated with a proposed national prevalence survey for Johnes disease in Norway. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 67.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, national disease survey program, serological surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, mathematical models, Monte Carlo method, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, Norway.

Paisley, Larry G.; Tharaldsen, Jorun; Jarp, Jorun. A simulated surveillance program for bovine paratuberculosis in dairy herds in Norway. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. April 28, 2000; 44(3-4): 141-151. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: Monte Carlo simulation models, prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, feasibility and potential results of a proposed national survey, low probability of detection, study not recommended, epidemiology.

Parrish, N. M.; Townsend, C. A.; Dick, J. D. N-octanesulphonylacetamide (OSA), an inhibitor of mycolic acid synthesis, inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and is potentiated by the addition of short chain alcohols. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000; 100: 655. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 100th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Los Angeles, California, USA, May 21-25, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: bacterial infection, humans, antibacterial drug effects, butanol, ciproflozacin, ethanol, isoprppanol, mycobactin J, streptomycin.

Pavlik, I.; Bartl, J.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Du Maine, R.; Machackova, M.; Ayle, W.Y.; Horvathova, A. Epidemiology of paratuberculosis in wild ruminants studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Czech Republic during the period 1995-1998. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 231-251. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: In two studies carried out during the period 1995-1998, paratuberculosis was diagnosed in domestic and wild ruminants in the Czech Republic. The isolated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains were analysed by standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) [Pavlik, I., Horvathova, A., Dvorska, L., Bartl, J., Svastova, P., du Maine, R., Rychlik, I., 1999. Journal of Microbiological Methods 38, 155-167]. In December 1992, 19 late pregnant Charolais heifers were imported to the Czech Republic from Hungary (original import from France to Hungary). One 11-month-old heifer roamed in the wild in a range of approximately 15-20 km for 7 months from November 1993 to May 1994. Upon capture, the animal showed clinical signs of paratuberculosis (emaciation and diarrhoea). Seven other animals from the same herd were infected with the identical RFLP type B-C1 of M. paratuberculosis. During the period 1995-1996, samples were taken and examined from the small intestine and corresponding lymph nodes of 84 wild ruminants: 19 red deers (Cervus elaphus) and 65 roe-deers (Capreolus capreolus). These wild ruminants originated from 44 different locations within the same district from as the infected escaped heifer. Five M. paratuberculosis strains were isolated: one strain of RFLP type B-C1 from a stag and three strains of RFLP type B-C1 and one strain of RFLP type B-C9 from roe-deer. The three wild ruminants (one stag and two roe-deer) infected with the same RFLP type B-C1 were detected in the same area as the heifer, suggesting that this was the likely infection source. However, the infection source of the roe-deer infected with strain of RFLP type B-C9 was obviously different, and the stags that escaped from the farm were purchased from an area infected with this RFLP type. In the second study carried out during 1997-1998 in the whole Czech Republic (divided into 76 districts), 718 wild ruminants were examined from 90% of the districts. M. paratuberculosis was isolated from 25 (3.5%) animals from the wild, from farms and from game parks: 7.1% of 132 red deers, 1.5% of 336 roe-deers, 3.9% of 178 fallow deers (Dama dama), and 4.2% of 48 moufflons (Ovis musimon). This study discovered three RFLP types (B-C1, D-C12 and M-C16). A surprising finding was that of M. paratuberculosis (RFLP type B-C1) infection in roe-deer and a fallow deer in their natural habitat. The infection source was determined to have originated from two imported Holstein and Limousine cattle herds infected with the same strain. In the case of a mother and daughter roe-deer infected with RFLP type M-C16 and a fallow deer infected with RFLP type D-C12, all roaming in their natural habitat, the infection source was not discovered. The highest incidence of clinically ill wild ruminants was found in farmed red deer, and no relationship was found between the RFLP type or ruminant species and clinical status of animal.
Descriptors: heifers, Cervus elaphus, red deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, restriction fragment length polymorphism, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium, disease symptoms, diarrhea, disease transmission, herds, lymph nodes, small intestine, fallow deer, mouflon, habitats, Czech Republic.

Pavlik, I.; Matlova, L.; Bartl, J.; Svastova, P.; Dvorska, L.; Whitlock, R. Parallel faecal and organ Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis culture of different productivity types of cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 309-342. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Faecal (at least 3 months before slaughtering) and organ examinations were carried out in 611 animals (497 dairy, 69 dual-purpose and 44 beef cattle) originating from eight paratuberculosis infected cattle herds. The diagnosis in cattle was established by routine intestinal culture (ileum and the adjacent lymph nodes) after slaughter. In selected 132 animals, post-mortem intensive culture was performed on tissue samples collected from the gastrointestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve, caecum, rectum) and the corresponding lymph nodes, submandibular, retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, liver and supramammary lymph nodes, kidney, liver and spleen. In 251 (41.1%) of all 611 animals, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis could be isolated from the faeces; in 164 (65.7%) out of 251 shedding animals the infection was detected in the ileum and adjacent lymph nodes. The detection of M. paratuberculosis by routine intestinal culture of faecal culture positive animals varied from 46.0% in animals shedding 1 CFU (colony forming unit), to 94.7% in massive shedders. On the contrary, M. paratuberculosis was detected by routine intestinal culture in 92 (25.5%) of the 360 faecal culture negative animals. Shedding animals had significantly higher (P < 0.01) number of organisms in their organs than non-shedding animals. During the intensive tissue cultivation from selected 132 animals, 72 (54.5%) of them were positive. For the negative animals, no significant difference was found between the detection rate in organs examined after slaughter with routine and intensive method. However, in the subgroup of tissue culture positive animals a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) was found by intensive examination (83.0%) compared with the routine examination (60.4%). Out of 72 tissue culture positive animals 73.6% of them harboured M. paratuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract, 16.7% in the gastrointestinal tract and the parenchymatous organs, tracheobronchial and mandibular lymph nodes. The rest of the 9.7% of the infection was detected in the lymph nodes of head and lungs. Our study concerning the distribution of M. paratuberculosis by intensive examinations revealed a minimum effect of breed and production type on localisation of the agent. Thus, the results suggest that in case of an active infection, M. paratuberculosis can be localised in different organs of animals irrespective of their breed or production type.
Descriptors: dairy and beef cattle, dual purpose cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, feces and various organs examinations, organ distribution, pre-slaughter diagnosis, post slaughter, intestines, fecal culture, lymph nodes, postmortem examinations, digestive tract, kidneys, liver, spleen, shedding, in vitro culture.

Pym, Alexander S.; Brosch, Roland. Tools for the population genomics of the tubercle bacilli. Genome Research. December 2000; 10(12): 1837-1839. ISSN: 1088-9051.
Descriptors: molecular genetics, methods and techniques, genomics, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacteriaceae, DNA, amplification, sequencing.

Rastogi, Nalin; Goh, Khye Seng; Berchel, Mylene; Bryskier, Andre. In vitro activities of the ketolides telithromycin (HMR 3647) and HMR 3004 compared to those of clarithromycin against slowly growing mycobacteria at pHs 6.8 and 7.4. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. October 2000; 44(10): 2848-2852. ISSN: 0066-4804.
NAL Call No.: RM265.A5132
Descriptors: 34 strains tested, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium simiae, semisynthetic ketolides, in vitro testing, anti-bacterial agents.

Reviriego, Francisco J.; Moreno, Miguel A.; Dominguez, Lucas. Soil type as a putative risk factor of ovine and caprine paratuberculosis seropositivity in Spain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Jan. 5, 2000; 43(1): 43-51. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: bacterial pathogen distribution, cross-sectional study, questionnaire date, 61 herds, goats, sheep, serum testing, agar-gel immunodiffusion, effects of soil types and herd size, Spain.

Roermund, H.J.W. van; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, M.C.M. de. Transmission of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 75.
Descriptors: dairy cattle; dairy herds, disease control, disease prevention, disease transmission, culling infected animals, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Netherlands.

Rowe, M. T.; Grant, I. R.; Dundee, L.; Ball, H. J. Heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. June 2000; 39(2): 203-208. ISSN: 0791-6833.
NAL Call No.: S539.5.I74
Descriptors: milk, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, heat resistance investigated, (1) combined acid fast/viability stain to visualise viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at different stages during pasteurisation; (2) comparison of thermal resistance of clumped and declumped Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells, (3) assessing the lethality of a range of time/temperature heat treatments, effect of clumping.

Sanderson, Michael W.; Dargatz, David A.; Garry, Franklyn B. Biosecurity practices of beef cow-calf producers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. July 15, 2000; 217(2): 185-189. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: biosecurity practices, beef cattle, 2 phase study, cross-sectional survey, 2,713 cow/calf operations (phase 1), 1,190 cow/calf operations (phase 2), interview study, management practices, level of risky management practices, vaccines given, quarantine time, proportion of imported animals quarantined, testing for various diseases in imported animals, need for development of rational and cost effective biosafety plans.

Sanna, E.; Woodall, C. J.; Watt, N. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Pittau, M.; Leoni, A.; Nieddu, A. M. In situ-PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in paraffin-embedded tissues. European Journal of Histochemistry. 2000; 44(2): 179-184. ISSN: 1121-760X.
Descriptors: sheep gut tissues, classical lesions of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, negative control samples, 413 bp fragment of the IS900 sequence was amplified in-situ, hybridised to an internal PCR synthesised digoxygenin labelled probe, diagnostic and path of genesis potential.

Sergeant, E.S.G.; Whittington, R.J. Evaluation of pooled faecal culture as a flock test for the diagnosis of ovine Johne's disease. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 140.
Descriptors: sheep, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, pooled feces, flock test, histopathology, serology, Australia.

Sergeant,-E.S.G.; Marshall, D.J. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the agid test for ovine Johne's disease using Monte Carlo simulation. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 139.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease screening tests, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, flocks, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion tests, Monte Carlo method, screening, Johne's disease, serological diagnosis, New South Wales, Australia.

Sergeant, E.S.G.; Whittington, R.J. A modified reed-frost model for the spread of ovine Johne's disease within a recently infected flock. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 138.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep flocks, bacterial diseases, Johne's disease diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease models, disease transmission, disease spread, mathematical models, reed-frost model, surveillance.

VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Keefe, G.P.; Tremblay, R.; Power, C.; Wichtel, J.J. Seroprevalence, spatial distribution and productivity effects of infection with Johne's disease and bovine leukosis in maritime Canadian dairy cattle. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 547.
Descriptors: diary cattle, cattle diseases, bovine leukosis, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, adult bovine lymphosarcoma, adult lymphosarcoma, bovine lymphosarcoma, disease surveillance, EBL, enzootic bovine leukosis, Johne's, disease, seroepidemiology, disease surveys, epidemiology, serological surveys, seroprevalence, spatial distribution, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Selby, W.Pathogenesis and therapeutic aspects of Crohn's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 505-511. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Crohn's disease is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition affecting any part of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by transmural inflammation with deep ulceration, thickening of the bowel wall and fistula formation. The hallmark is the non-caseating granuloma. Clinical presentation depends upon the site of the inflammation. Pain and diarrhoea are frequent. Extraintestinal manifestations develop in up to 25% of patients and perianal disease is also frequent. The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown. On the host side, genetic factors are important and the immune system is central to the development of the inflammation. Several environmental factors also play a role, in particular smoking. The presence of intestinal luminal contents appears to be essential for the development of Crohn's disease. A number of specific infectious causes have also been proposed, most recently measles virus and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The latter has been considered because of the similarity between BJD and Crohn's disease, although there are also important differences. Evidence suggesting that this agent plays a role includes isolation of the organism from some patients, clustering, and identification by PCR of M.a. paratuberculosis DNA in tissue. However, many other workers have been unable to reproduce these findings. Treatment of Crohn's disease is generally with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and antibiotics. The majority of patients with active disease will respond to one or a combination of the therapies. Recently, broad-spectrum antibiotics have been shown to be as effective as oral corticosteroids. The challenge in Crohn's disease remains the prevention of relapse once remission has been achieved. Oral 5-ASA preparations can be beneficial, particularly after surgery. Immunosuppression, particularly with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine, is helpful in patients with resistant inflammation. Antibiotics may delay the time to relapse when used for active disease. The use of antimycobacterial therapy directed against M.a. paratuberculosis shows promising results but needs further evaluation. Up to 80% of patients with Crohn's disease will require surgery at some stage in the course of their illness. The challenge remains to try and prevent resection of inflamed intestine and to improve the quality of life of those affected by this disorder.
Descriptors: humans, Crohn's disease, pathogenesis, treatment, digestive tract inflammation, clinical aspects, etiology, hosts, Mycobacterium avium, measles virus, paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction, aminosalicylic acid, corticoids, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics.

Sheridan, Joe M.; Bull, Tim; Sumar, Nazira; Cheng, Jun; Stellakis, Michael; Hermon, Taylor John. Prediction of the structure, function and cellular location of proteins encoded by the GS element, a 'pathogenicity island' in MAP Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Biochemical Society Transactions. 2000; 28(3): A76. ISSN: 0300-5127. Note: 671st Meeting of the Biochemical Society, England, UK, April 11-13, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QD415.A1B58
Descriptors: bacterial genetics, proteins, cellular locations, functions, vaccines.

Sheridan, Joe M.; Bull, Tim; Sumar, Nazira; Cheng, Jun; Stellakis, Michael; Ford, Jon; Hermon, Taylor John. Prediction of the structure, function and cellular location of proteins encoded by the GS element, a 'pathogenicity island' in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Biochemical Society Transactions. October 2000; 28(5): A234. ISSN: 0300-5127. Note: 18th International Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Birmingham, UK, July 16-20, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QD415.A1B58
Descriptors: protein genetics, GS encoded protein, systhesis, immune process, infection, bacterial pathogen.

Singh, N.; Singh, S.V.; Vihan, V.S.; Sood, S.B.  Management practices and Johne's disease incidence in goat herds.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2000; 70(3): 263-264.  ISSN:  0367-8318.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  village goats, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Barbary breed more susceptible, Jamunapari breed more resistant, prevalence factors, age differences, sex differences, size of herd, culling weak and unthrifty animals as a control measure, Uttar Pradesh, India

Singh, S. V.; Singh, P. P.; Singh, N.; Gupta, V. K. Characterization of lipid pattern of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolates from goats and sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. September 2000; 70(9): 899-903. ISSN: 0367-8318.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: sheep, goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, strain comparison study, patterns, alpha and ketomycolates, methoxy mycolate.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, N.  Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in goats and its diagnosis in India in the new millennium.  Intas Polivet.  2000; 1(2): 190-192.  ISSN:  0972-1738.
Descriptors:  goats, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, characterization, DNA sequences, strain identification, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, India.

Sockett, D.C. Johne's disease diagnosis and control. Advances in Dairy Technology. 2000; 12: 73-84. ISSN: 1184-0684. Note: Paper presented at the 18th Annual Western Canadian Dairy Seminar held March 7-10, 2000, Red Deer, Alberta.
URL: http://www.afns.ualberta.ca
NAL Call No.: SF223.W478
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johnes' disease, diagnosis and control.

Stabel, J. R.; Lee, Haa Yung; Kehrli, M. E. Jr. Cytokine secretion and expression in cows infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. FASEB Journal. April 20, 2000; 14(6): A1111. ISSN: 0892-6638. Note: Joint Annual Meeting of the American Association of Immunologists and the Clinical Immunology Society, Seattle, Washington, USA, May 12-16, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QH301.F3
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IL-1 [interleukin-1], IL-2 [interleukin-2], concanavalin A, cytokine expression and secretion, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor.

Stabel, Judith R. Cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cows infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research. July 2000; 61(7): 754-760. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cytokine levels, comparison between healthy, subclinical infected and clinically infected cattle, interleukin (IL) IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), post in vitro stimulation of cells with concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a whole cell sonicate of M paratuberculosis (MpS), proliferative responses of PBMC post ConA, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or MpS, activated T cells may delay the progression of paratuberculosis.

Stabel, J.R. Johne's disease and milk: do consumers need to worry. Journal of Dairy Science. July 2000; 83(7): 1659-1663. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus that causes enteritis in ruminants, has been suggested as an etiological agent of Crohn's disease in humans. The mode of transmission is unclear; however, some evidence suggests that humans may become infected via contaminated milk. Currently, it is not known whether commercial pasteurization effectively kills M. paratuberculosis in contaminated raw milk. Using a laboratory-scale pasteurizer unit designed to simulate the high-temperature, short-time method (72 degrees C, 15 sec) currently used by commercial dairies, we previously demonstrated that treatment of raw milk inoculated with 10(4) to 10(6) cfu of M. paratuberculosis/ml reduced numbers to an undetectable level. However, M. paratuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that resides within the macrophages of the host and evades destruction. We subsequently performed further experiments examining heat treatment of milk inoculated with mammary gland macrophages containing ingested M. paratuberculosis. Heat treatment of these samples under high-temperature, short-time conditions demonstrated that the macrophage does not protect the organism because we were unable to recover any viable M. paratuberculosis from the samples. Conversely, other researchers have demonstrated that a residual population of M. paratuberculosis may survive heat treatment of milk. In addition, a recent news report stated that viable M. paratuberculosis organisms have been cultured from retail-ready milk in Ireland. A summary of past and current studies concerning this issue along with a discussion of methodologies used to recover M. paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated milk will be presented in this paper.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cows, paratuberculosis, contaminated milk, bacterial count, pasteurization processing temperature and duration, milkborne diseases, Crohn's disease, culture media and techniques, disease control, food safety concerns.

Stabel, J.R. Transitions in immune responses to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 465-473. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The host immune response to infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is paradoxical, with strong cell-mediated immune responses during the early, subclinical stages of infection and strong humoral responses during the late clinical stages of the disease. Cell-mediated immune responses modulated by various T cell subsets are essential to provide protective immunity and prevent progression of the disease. Secretion of cytokines by T cell populations serves to activate macrophages to kill ingested M. paratuberculosis as well as activate other T cell subsets to contain the infection. This paper reviews the current knowledge of T cell immune responses in M. paratuberculosis infection based upon clinical studies and research using mouse models.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, host immune response, latent infections, disease course, clinical aspects, T lymphocytes, cytokines, secretion, macrophages, Johne's disease.

Step, D. L.; Streeter, Robert N.; Kirkpatrick, John G. Johne's disease update. Bovine Practitioner. January 2000; 34(1): 6-12. ISSN: 0524-1685.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Descriptors: cattle, description of the disease, availability of diagnostic tests, control, eradication, reduction of exposure, pathogenesis.

Storset, A. K.; Berntsen, G.; Larsen, H. J. S. Kinetics of IL-2 receptor expression on lymphocyte subsets from goats infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after specific in vitro stimulation. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. November 23, 2000; 77(1-2): 43-54. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: goats, quantification of surface IL-2R expression on activated lymphocytes, flow cytometry, cellular immunity, stimulation with purified protein derivate from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, gammadelta T cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+ T cells, immune responses.

Stringfellow, D. A.; Givens, M. D. Infectious agents in bovine embryo production: Hazards and solutions. Theriogenology. January 1, 2000; 53(1): 85-94. ISSN: 0093-691X. Note: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Maastricht, The Netherlands, January 09-11, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: infectious organisms, Haemophilus somnus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma bovis, Ureaplasma diversum, bovine embryos, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 4, rinderpest virus.

Sung, Nackmoon; Collins, Michael T. Effect of three factors in cheese production (pH, salt, and heat) on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. April 2000; 66(4): 1334-1339. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: kinetics of bacterial pathogen inactivation, 60 day cheese curing process, ATCC strain 19698, Dominic, low pH and NaCl are two factors contributing to the inactivation, the radiometric culture method, heat treatment of raw milk, 60 day curing period will inactivate about 103 cells/ml.

Thorne, S. H.; Norman, E.; McFadden, J. Approaches to genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000; 100: 96. ISSN: 1060-2011 Note: 100th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Los Angeles, California, USA, May 21-25, 2000.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: molecular genetics, biotechnology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Vasavada, P.C.  Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: a potential milkborne pathogen of concern.  Food Testing & Analysis.  2000; 6(2): 20-22.  ISSN: 1084-5984.
NAL Call No.:  TX541.F665
Descriptors:  cattle diseases, Johne’s disease, milkborne diseases, food safety, food contamination, microbial contamination, Crohn's disease, enteritis, disease transmission, pasteurization.

Victoria. Environment and Natural Resources Committee.  Inquiry into the Control of Ovine Johne's Disease in Victoria: Report.  Other title: Control of Ovine Johne's Disease in Victoria Inquiry Report.  The Committee.  Melburne, Vic. [2000]; vi, 348 p., ill., maps.  ISBN: 0731155149.
NAL Call No.:  SF809.P375 I57 2000
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, prevention, treatment, sheep diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Victoria, Australia.

Vitale, F.; Reale, S.; Oliveri, F.; Caracappa, S.  Mutagenesi sito specifica per la generazione di un frammento deleto di IS900 mediante "SOEing-PCR".  [SOEing-PCR, application to generate a delete IS900 fragment.]  Selezione Veterinaria.  2000; (Supp): 1347-1353.  ISSN:  0037-1521.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine fecal samples, amplification of 413 bp ifragment inner to IS900 insertion element, PCR techniques, enzyme inhibitors.

Wards, Barry J.; Collins, Desmond M. Slow-growing mycobacteria. Eynard, Natalie; Teissie, Justin [Editors]. Springer Lab Manuals. Electroformation of Bacteria. Springer-Verlag. 2000; 168-174. ISBN: 354066680X.
Descriptors: bacterial pathogen, infection; methods, techniques, molecular genetics, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, microbiology of the listed species.

Weber, A.; Shaefer, Schmidt R.; Fuchs, D.; Weigl, U. Occurrence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in faecal samples of cattle in Bavaria. Tieraerztliche Umschau. Feb. 1, 2000; 55(2): 97-99. ISSN: 0049-3864. Note: In German with English and German summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: fecal samples, 1116 cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, incidence of disease in Austria.

Webster, S.R. The financial consequences of ovine Johne's disease for New South Wales sheep producers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science. July 2000; 13(Suppl.): 465-468. ISSN: 1011-2367. Note: In the supplement: Animal Production for a Consuming World, vol. C edited by G.M. Stone. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies and 23rd Biennial Conference of the Australian Society of Animal Production held July 3-7, 2000, Sydney, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sheep disease, economic impact, Johne's disease, Australia.

Wells, S.J. Biosecurity on dairy operations: hazards and risks. Journal of Dairy Science. Oct 2000; 83(10); 2380-2386. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: dairy herds, biosafety, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, disease transmission, disease control, maternal transmission, calves, hygiene, cattle manure, waste disposal, bovine diarrhea virus, disease prevalence, Johne's disease, hazard analysis and critical control point, human heath risks.

Wells, Scott J.; Wagner, Bruce A. Herd-level risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in US dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive measures. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. May 1, 2000; 216(9): 1450-1457. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: herd infection status, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, management practices, knowledge of herd manager, Johne’s disease, population bases cross-sectional study, 1,004 US dairy operations, questionnaires, blood samples, antibody status, commercial ELISA for testing, multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors associated with infection, some recommendations.

Wells, S.J.; Whitlock, R.H.; Stabel, J.R. Descriptive epidemiology of Johne's disease in an infected dairy herd. In: Salman, M.D.; Morley, P.S.; Ruch-Gallie, R. [Editors]. Proceedings of the 9 th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA, August 6-11, 2000. Published by the Society. 2000: ld 243.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, calves, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial diseases, clinical aspects, clinical picture, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, seroprevalence.

Wentink, G. H.; Frankena, K.; Bosch, J. C.; Vandehoek, J. E. D.; van den Berg, Th. Prevention of disease transmission by semen in cattle. Livestock Production Science. Feb. 2000; 62(3): 207-220. ISSN: 0301-6226.
NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Descriptors: semen production, bulls, disease surveillance, EU Directive 88/407 prescribes monitoring of bulls in AI stations, screening for many diseases including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, programs.

Whist, S. K.; Storset, A. K.; Larsen, H. J. S. The use of interleukin-2 receptor expression as a marker of cell-mediated immunity in goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. March 15, 2000; 73(3-4): 207-218. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: whole blood, method and technique refinement, cell-mediated immune response to paratuberculosis, experimentally infected animals, quantification of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, activated lymphocytes, in vitro stimulation with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived purified protein derivative (PPDp).

Whitlock, R.H.; Wells, S.J.; Sweeney, R.W.; Van Tiem, J. ELISA and fecal culture for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease): sensitivity and specificity of each method. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 387-398. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA and fecal culture tests for paratuberculosis in dairy cattle are examined. ELISA and fecal culture data from seven dairy herds where both fecal cultures and ELISA testing was done concurrently are included. A cohort of 954 cattle including 697 parturient adults, cultured every 6 months from 10 herds followed over 4 years served as the basis to determine fecal culture sensitivity. The fecal culture technique utilized a 2 g sample with centrifugation and double incubation. Of the 954 cattle cohort of all ages (calf to adult) that were fecal sampled on the first herd visit, 79 were culture positive. An additional 131 animals were detected as culture positive over the next seven tests at 6-month intervals. The sensitivity of fecal culture to detect infected cattle on the first sampling was 38%. Of the 697 parturient cattle cohort, 67 were positive on the first fecal culture, while an additional 91 adult cattle were culture positive over the next seven tests, resulting in a sensitivity of 42% on the first culture of the total animals identified as culture positive. Animals culled from the herds prior to being detected as infected and animals always fecal culture negative with culture positive tissues at slaughter are not included in the calculations. Both groups of infected cattle will lower the apparent sensitivity of fecal culture. Infected dairy herds tested concurrently with both fecal culture and ELISA usually resulted in more than twofold positive animals by culture compared to ELISA. The classification of infected cattle by the extent of shedding of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the feces helps define the relative proportion of cattle in each group and therefore the likelihood of detection by the ELISA test. ELISA has a higher sensitivity in animals with a heavier bacterial load, i.e. high shedders (75%) compared to low shedders (15%). Repeated testing of infected herds identifies a higher proportion of low shedders which are more likely to be ELISA negative. Thus, the sensitivity of the ELISA test decreases with repeated herd testing over time, since heavy shedders will be culled first from the herds.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, ELISA, paratuberculosis, diagnosis, evaluation, feces, cell cultures, age, disease prevalence, diagnostic techniques, shedding of Mycobacterium, detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Whittington, R. J.; Hope, A. F.; Marshall, D. J.; Taragel, C. A.; Marsh, I. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism and IS1311 polymorphism analyses of isolates from animals and a human in Australia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. September 2000; 38(9): 3240-3248. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: strain distribution and prevalence, 328 isolates, sheep, dairy and beef cattle, goats, alpacas, rhinoceros, humans, Johne’s disease, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, genomic DNA, BstEII, 12 IS900 types found, sheep and cattle specific strains, tracing strain dispersion, Australia.

Whittington, R. J.; Reddacliff, L. A.; Marsh, I.; McAllister, S.; Saunders, V. Temporal patterns and quantification of excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep with Johne's disease. Australian Veterinary Journal. Jan. 2000; 78(1): 34-37. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: Merino sheep, excretion frequency, Johne’s disease, fecal culture for 7 sheep, pen and lab experiments, excretion patterns, possible impact on environmental contamination, multibacillary and paucibacillary cases.

Whittington, R. J.; Fell,S.; Walker, D.; McAllister, S.; Marsh, I.; Sergeant, E.; Taragel, C. A.; Marshall, D. J.; Links, I. J. Use of pooled fecal culture for sensitive and economic detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in flocks of sheep. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. July 2000; 38(7): 2550-2556. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: sheep, culturing pooled fecal samples, test sensitivity, multibacillary paratuberculosis, with paucibacillary paratuberculosis, compared to serologic and histopathic examinations, 335 farms, test costs, flock testing.

Wildblood, L. A.; Sinclair, M. C.; Stevenson, K.; Jones, D. G. Effects of in vitro infection with mycobacteria on oxidative metabolism of macrophages. Immunology. December 2000; 101 (Suppl. 1): 125. ISSN: 0019-2805. Note: Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology, Harrogate, UK, December 05-08, 2000.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Im6 Suppl.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen, Mycobacterium smegmatis, effects on superoxide.

Wraight, M.D.; McNeil, J.; Beggs, D.S.; Greenall, R.K.; Humphris, T.B.; Irwin, R.J.; Jagoe, S.P.; Jemmeson, A.; Morgan, W.F.; Brightling, P.; Anderson, G.A.; Mansell, P.D. Compliance of Victorian dairy farmers with current calf rearing recommendations for control of Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. Dec 20, 2000; 77(3/4): 429-442. ISSN: 0378-1135. Note: In the special issue: Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) edited by R. Chiodini. Paper presented at a colloquium held February 14-18, 1999, Melbourne, Australia.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Questionnaires were posted to 800 randomly selected registered Victorian dairy farmers in 1996. Five hundred and thirty-four responses were received and analysed. Johne's disease (JD) had been diagnosed on the farm of 13.2% of respondents in the last 5 years. JD was rated second only to neonatal diarrhoea in importance as a disease of calves, even though other diseases occurred more frequently. However, there was a low level of compliance with JD control recommendations by the respondents. There was no significant difference in the number of JD control recommendations adopted by farmers between the three major Victorian regions. There was a significant difference in compliance between farms having had a diagnosed case of JD and those that had not. Although there is awareness among dairy farmers of the importance of JD, there appears to be a poor implementation of measures by farmers to prevent the spread of the disease. Current JD control recommendations and the method of information transfer to Victorian dairy farms should be reassessed to ensure that dairy heifers are reared with minimal risk of transmission of JD.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, calves, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy farms, farmers' attitudes, animal rearing techniques, disease control measures, diagnosis, neonatal diarrhea, geographical variation, incidence, diffusion of information, Victoria, Australia.


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