Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2001


Allen, S.; Sotos, J.; Sylte, M. J.; Czuprynski, C. J. Use of hoechst 33342 staining to detect apoptotic changes in bovine mononuclear phagocytes infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. March, 2001; 8(2): 460-464. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Descriptors: cattle white cells, apoptosis in bovine monocytes, Hoechst 33342 staining, experimental infection effects, viable bacilli, effects of preincubation of monocytes with bovine growth hormone pre infection.

Atala, N.; Akcay, E.  Turkiye genelinde sgr paratuberkulozu prevalansnn ELISA ile arastrlmas.  [Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the Turkish cattle population by using absorbed ELISA.]  Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi.  2001; 12(1/2): 39-48.  ISSN:  1016-3573.  Note:  In Turkish with an English summary.
Descriptors:  8873 sera samples from cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease distribution, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, absorbed ELISA, 9 provinces, Turkey.  

Ayele, W.Y.; Machackova, M.; Pavlik, I.  The transmission and impact of paratuberculosis infection in domestic and wild ruminants.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2001; 46(7/8): 205-224.  ISSN:  0375-8427.
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  dromedary camels, deer, cattle, wild goats, wild sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, chronic course, clinical aspects, feces, milk, disease prevention and control, disease prevalence, disease transmission, productive organs, reviews, wild animals, wild goats, wild sheep.

Banasure, K.D.; Basagoudanavar, S.H.; Chaudhury, P.; Tiwari, V.; Parihar, N.S.; Goswami, P.P. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a 35-kDa protein from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Mar 15, 2001; 196(2): 195-199. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the causative agent in Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminants. A gene homologous to that of 35-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium leprae was cloned and sequenced from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The database searches revealed 82.79% and 95.67% similarities of its nucleotide sequence, with those of immunodominant 35-kDa protein of M. leprae and M. avium, respectively.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, ruminant enteritis, Mycobacterium leprae, nucleotide sequence comparison.

Bannantine, John P.; Stabel, Judith R. Identification of two Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis gene products differentially recognised by sera from rabbits immunised with live mycobacteria but not heat-killed mycobacteria. Journal of Medical Microbiology. September, 2001; 50(9): 795-804. ISSN: 0022-2615.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J62
Descriptors: Csp1 was present in infected macrophages, novel antigens, pathogenesis.

Bannantine, J. P.; Zang, Q.; Li, L.; Kapur, V. Identification of unique regions within two genetically similar mycobacterial genomes. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 703-704. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, homology of genomes, non-aligned sequences 7 and 481, mycobacteriophage, possible application for diagnostic tests.

Beard, P. M.; Stevenson, K.; Pirie, A.; Rudge, K.; Buxton, D.; Rhind, S. M.; Sinclair, M. C.; Wildblood, L. A.; Jones, D. G.; Sharp, J. M. Experimental paratuberculosis in calves following inoculation with a rabbit isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001; 39(9): 3080-3084. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: rabbits as reservoir of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Scotland, experimental infection of calves with rabbit strain, strain virulence, wildlife reservoir potential of rabbits, factors for control measures.

Beard, P. M.; Rhind, S. M.; Buxton, D.; Daniels, M. J.; Henderson, D.; Pirie, A.; Rudge, K.; Greig, A.; Hutchings, M. R.; Stevenson, K.; Sharp, J. M. Natural paratuberculosis infection in rabbits in Scotland. Journal of Comparative Pathology. May 2001; 124(4): 290-299. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: 110 rabbits tested, Oryctolagus cuniculus, pathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, histopathological lesions, granulomata, giant cells, formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues.

Beard, P.M.; Daniels, M.J.; Henderson, D.; Pirie, A.; Rudge, K.; Buxton, D.; Rhind, S.; Greig, A.; Hutchings, M.R.; McKendrick, I.  Paratuberculosis infection of nonruminant wildlife in Scotland.  Journal Clinical Microbiology.  2001; 39(4): 1517-1521.  ISSN: 0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=87963
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology wild life species, reservoir hosts, Scotland.

Belloli, Angelo; Carli, Silvano; Pravettoni, Davide; Proverbio, Daniela; Giangaspero, Massimo; Lauzi, Stefania; Bonizzi, Luigi. Case study: Attempted treatment of a cow with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis enterocolitis. Bovine Practitioner. January 2001; 35(1): 56-60. ISSN: 0524-1685. Note: In English with French and English summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF779.5.A1B6
Descriptors: Holstein-Friesian dairy cow, naturally infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, enterocolitis, oral treatment rifampin, pyrazinamide and streptomycin for 7 days, fecal sampling, effects in populations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Boor, Kathryn J. Fluid dairy product quality and safety: Looking to the future. Journal of Dairy Science. January 2001; 84(1): 1-11. ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL: http://www.ADSA.org/jds
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: milk based beverages, food safety, shelf life, control of contamination, thermal resistance characteristics, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Brugere-Picoux, J.; Maillard, R.; Douart, A.  Pathologie digestive bovine paratuberculose: quels tests de diagnostic utiliser?  [Pathology of bovine paratuberculosis: which diagnostic tests to use?]  Point Veterinaire.  2001; 32(220): 50-53.  ISSN:  0335-4997.  Note:  In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis, discussion of various diagnostic techniques.

Brugere-Picoux, J.; Maillard, R.; Douart, A.  Pathologie digestive des ruminants: etude clinique de la paratuberculose bovine.  [Digestive pathology of ruminants: clinical study of bovine paratuberculosis.]  Point Veterinaire.  2001; 32(220): 20-22.  ISSN:  0335-4997.  Note:  In French with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, lesions, clinical aspects, laboratory diagnosis, paratuberculosis.

Burton, Michael S.; Olsen, John H.; Ball, Ray L.; Dumonceaux, Genevieve A. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in an addax (Addax nasomaculatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. June 2001; 32(2): 242-244. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call No.: SF601 J6
Descriptors: Addax nasomaculatus, captive bred male addax, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal sample, serology, semen culture, tissue biopsy, ileum, jejunum, colon, mesenteric lymph node.

Caracappa, S.; Calabro, A.; Cassata, G.; Ferrantelli, V.; Dara, S.; Cascone, G.; Vullo, S.; Glorioso, N.S.  La paratubercolosi bovina: una emergenza sanitaria.  Bovine paratuberculosis as a health emergency.  Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria.  2001; 33: 119-124.  Note:  In Italian.  
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, level of disease incidence, zoonotic potential, Italy.

Chamberlin, W.; Graham, D. Y.; Hulten, K.; El Zimaity, H. M. T.; Schwartz, M. R.; Naser, S.; Shafran, I.; El Zaatari, F. A. K. Review article: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as one cause of Crohn's disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. March 2001; 15(3): 337-346. ISSN: 0269-2813.
Descriptors: etiology, zoonotic disease potential, possible cause of Crohn’s disease, review of the literature.

Cheville, N. F.; Hostetter, J.; Thomsen, B. V.; Simutis, F.; Vanloubbeeck, Y.; Steadham, E. Intracellular trafficking of Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis in macrophages. DTW Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift. June 2001; 108(6): 236-243. ISSN: 0341-6593. Note: In English with English and Germany summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, cattle, bacterial growth in macrophages, immunocytochemical markers for light, confocal and electron microscopy, bacterial attachment, phagosomal acidification, phagolysosomal degradation and apoptosis, blockage of phagosomes, nude mouse model, bacteriophorous vacuole formation.

Chi JunWook; Weersink, A.; Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Keefe, G.P.  The economics of controlling infectious diseases on dairy farms.  Working Paper Department of Agricultural Economics and Business, University of Guelph.  2001; (02/03): 36.
Descriptors:  dairy farms, cost effective disease control, theoretical model on economics of livestock disease, empirical model for optimal set of control strategies, 4 diseases, bovine viral diarrhea, enzootic bovine leucosis, Johne's disease, and neosporosis, direct production losses, control expenditures (based on Maritime provinces, new animal check, adequate vaccinations, Canada.

Christensen, J.; Dantzer, V.  Panel discussion.  In:  Elvander, M.; Lindberg, A.; Christensen, B.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum.  2001; (supp. 94): 95.  ISSN:  0065-1699.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87 Suppl.
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal diseases, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease prevention, documentation, monitoring, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, surveillance, Scandinavia.

Collett, M.G.; West, D.M.  A comparison of the injection site and draining lymph node pathology induced by an attenuated live and a killed Johne's disease vaccine in sheep.  In: Proceedings of the 5th International Sheep Veterinary Conference, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 21-25 January, 2001.  Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany.  2001; unpaginated.
Descriptors:  ewes, sheep, lambs, vaccinated with live-attenuated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine, injection site, draining lymph node, histopathology.

Collins, Michael T.; Lisby, Gorm; Moser, Claus; Chicks, Debra; Christensen, Steen; Reichelderfer, Mark; Hoiby, Niels; Harms, Bruce A.; Thomsen, Ole O.; Skibsted, Ulrik; Binder, Vibeke. Results of multiple diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in controls. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. December 2001; 38(12): 4373-4381. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: diagnostic tests compared, 5 methods routinely used on animals, PCR for IS900, etiopathogenesis of IBD.

Corn, Joseph L.; Nettles, Victor F. Health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. July 2001; 37(3): 413-426. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: elk, Cervus elaphus, restoration programs, issues of translocation, disease concerns, health status, classification of infectious agents and ectoparasites, ability to establish disease in new area, potential damage to wildlife in new area, list of many diseases and parasites, including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.  Johne's disease in cattle.  Issue Paper Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.  2001; (17): 1-10.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease control, vaccination, disease transmission, treatment. 

Coussens, P. M.; Tooker, B.; Nobis, W.; Coussens, M. J. Genetics and genomics of susceptibility to mycobacterial infection in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001; 84(Suppl. 1): 57. ISSN: 0022-0302. Note: Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001.
URL: http://www.ADSA.org/jds
NAL Call No.: SF221 A4
Descriptors: cattle, susceptibility to disease factors, breeding, genetics, genomics, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Coussens, Paul M. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the bovine immune system. Animal Health Research Reviews. December 2001; 2(2): 141-161. ISSN: 1466-2523.
NAL Call No.: SF601.A547
Descriptors: cattle, immunity, pathology, Johne's disease, immune response.

Cuteri, V.; Morgante, M.; Ranucci, S.; Valente, C.  Use of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in alpaca (Lama pacos).  In:  Gerken, M.; Renieri, C. [Editors].  Progress in South American Camelids Research.  Proceedings of the 3rd European  Symposium and SUPREME European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany, 27-29 May 1999.  Wageningen Pres, Wageningen, Netherlands.  2001; 239-242.  ISBN:  9074134912.  Note:  In English with a Spanish summary.
NAL Call No.:  49.9 EU7 no. 105
Descriptors:  alpacas, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium phlei, diagnosis, indirect ELISA, paratuberculosis.

Daniels, M.J.; Ball, N.; Hutchings, M.R.; Greig, A. The grazing response of cattle to pasture contaminated with rabbit faeces and the implications for the transmission of paratuberculosis. Veterinary Journal. May 2001; 161(3): 306-313. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis (or Johne's disease) in ruminants, occurs through the faecal-oral route. As M. a. paratuberculosis has been isolated from rabbit faeces, cattle grazing rabbit faecal contaminated pasture may thus be at risk. A herd of 57 beef cattle was monitored on a farm in Perthshire, throughout the 1999 'grazing year', to investigate whether the cattle avoided rabbit faecal contaminated pasture and thus the potential for disease transmission. Grazing was measured every two days over eight rotations by sward heights on 40 marked treatment plots (0.5 m X 0.5 m) to which 0, 10, 50 and 250 rabbit faecal pellets were added. Cattle were also monitored by an active transponder system which enabled individual animals contacting two plots per field rotation (one control and one contaminated) to be recorded. During the monitored grazing year, grazing pressure was low with a net mean sward offtake of 18% of sward height per rotation. There were no significant differences between rabbit faecal treatments (0, 10, 50 and 250 pellets) with respect to the height or proportion of sward removed, or between the numbers of contacts made by cattle on contaminated and uncontaminated plots. Over 90% of all the cattle contacted contaminated plots, indicating that the potential for disease transmission was widespread among the herd. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of a lack of avoidance by grazing cattle towards swards contaminated with faeces, and implies that the potential for transmission of paratuberculosis from rabbit contaminated pasture is high.
Descriptors: beef cattle, Johne's disease, grazing behavior, pastures, rabbit fecal droppings, microbial contamination, disease transmission, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission risk, Scotland.

Dargatz, David A.; Byrum, Beverly A.; Barber, Linda K.; Sweeney, Raymond W.; Whitlock, Robert H.; Shulaw, William P.; Jacobson, Richard H.; Stabel, Judith R. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. April 1, 2001; 218(7): 1163-1166. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: evaluate sensitivity and specificity, new ELISA for antibodies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serum samples, cattle, level of test sensitivity and reliability, interpretation of test results.

Dargatz, David A.; Byrum, Beverly A.; Hennage,r Steven G.; Barber, Linda K.; Kopral, Christine A.; Wagner, Bruce A.; Wells, Scott J. Prevalence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis among beef cow-calf herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. August 15, 2001; 219(4): 497-501. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: beef cattle, levels of infection, 380 US herds in 21 states, serum testing for antibodies, ELISA, herd management practices, rather low rate of infection.

Diego, J.V.; Benito, V.F.; Garcia, R.S.  Proyecto Caprino Entre Sierras.  Goat project in the mountains.  Medicina Veterinaria.  2001; 18(4): 382-393.  ISSN:  0212-8292.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.
Descriptors:  goats, sheep, mixed and non-mixed herds, 494 serum samples, surveyed for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, high prevalence for both diseases found.

Dimareli, Malli Z.; Sarris, K. Comparison of DNA probe test and cultivation methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in caprine and ovine faeces. Australian Veterinary Journal. January 2001; 79(1): 47-50. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: 3 detection methods compared, DNA probe, double incubation method, conventional culture method, Herrold's medium, goats, sheep, fecal sampling, levels of sensitivity, use in control measures.

Dominguez, M.C.; Chavez, G.; Trigo, F.J.; Rosales, M.L.  Concurrent cholangiocarcinoma, peritonitis, paratuberculosis, and aspergillosis in a goat.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2001; 42(11): 884-885.  ISSN:  0008-5286.  Note:  In English with a French summary.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  1 goat, case report, diagnosis, concurrent infections, organ sampling, intestines, liver, lungs, neoplasms, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, peritonitis, aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus.

Douart, A.; Maillard, R.  Etiologie et epidemiologie de la paratuberculose bovine.  [Etiology and epidemiology of bovine paratuberculosis.]  Point Veterinaire.  2001; 32(219): 38-42.  ISSN:  0335-4997.  Note:  In French with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, etiology, epidemiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Dundee, L.; Grant, I. R.; Ball, H. J.; Rowe, M. T. Comparative evaluation of four decontamination protocols for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology. September 2001; 33(3): 173-177. ISSN: 0266-8254.
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Descriptors: spiked milk, 4 chemical decontamination protocols, (1) hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC) for 5 h; (2) and (3) Cornell methods employing brain heart infusion broth containing 0.75% (w/v) and 0.9% (w/v) HPC, respectively; and (4) a C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18TM) method, evaluation of effectiveness and suitability.

Dupont, Chris; Murray, Alan. Identification, cloning and expression of sodC from an alkaline phosphatase gene fusion library of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Microbios. 2001; 106(Suppl. 1): 7-19. ISSN: 0026-2633.
NAL Call No.: QR1 M54
Descriptors: phoA gene technology, sodC gene, copper and zinc cofactored superoxide dismutase, recombinant protein, enzymatic activity.

Eamens, G.J.; Spence, S.A.; Turner, M.J.  Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in amitraz cattle dip fluid.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2001; 79(10): 703-706.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, survival, amitraz dips, disease transmission, New South Wales, Australia.

El Zaatari, Fouad A. K.; Osato, Michael S.; Graham, David Y. Etiology of Crohn's disease: The role of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. Trends in Molecular Medicine. June 2001; 7(6): 247-252. ISSN: 1471-4914.
Descriptors: causal organism, Crohn’s disease, detection of IS900, PCR, situ hybridization in tissues, serologic immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens.

Ellingson, Jay L. E.; Stabel, Judith R. Species-specific genetic identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. [e-file] Aug. 21, 2001; 1249(3): No Pagination. ISSN: 0098-1133.
NAL Call No.: T223.A21
Abstract: An M. paratuberculosis gene referred to as hspX provides a useful target region for the construction of suitable probes and primers that are species-specific for distinguishing M. paratuberculosis from related mycobacteria in a test sample. M. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease and has been isolated from human patients with Crohn's disease.
Descriptors: hspX gene, possible target region for probes and primers, for possible diagnostic method.

Elvander, M.; Lindberg, A.; Christensen, B. [Editors]  Proceedings of the 13th Nordic Committee for Veterinary Scientific Cooperation (NKVet) Symposium on National Disease Control in Farmed Animals, Stockholm, Sweden, 1-2 October 1999.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum.  2001; (supp. 94): 102 p.  ISSN:  0065-1699.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87 Suppl
Descriptors:  cattle, mink, fish, pigs, poultry, a variety of topics on animal health and disease, disease recording, effects of industrial infrastructure, species specific surveillance strategies, diseases include Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, rabies, Salmonella, various viral diseases, Iceland, Scandinavia.

Englund, S.; Bolske, G.; Ballagi, Pordany A.; Johansson, K. E. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples by single, fluorescent and nested PCR based on the IS900 gene. Veterinary Microbiology. August 8, 2001; 81(3): 257-271. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: detection method, comparison of PCR methods, pluses and minuses of methods discussed.

Eppleston, J.; Simpson, G.  The impact of ovine Johne's disease (OJD) in an endemic area.  In:  Proceedings of the 5th International Sheep Veterinary Conference, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 21-25 January, 2001.  Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany.  2001; unpaginated.
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mortality, survival, impact on flocks, New South Wales, Australia.

Eppleston, J.; Whittington, R.J.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from the semen of rams with clinical Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2001; 79 (11): 776-777.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, rams, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolation, semen, disease transmission.

Fischer, O.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Bartl, J.; Melicharek, I.; Weston, R. T.; Pavlik, I. Diptera as vectors of mycobacterial infections in cattle and pigs. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. June 2001; 15(2): 208-211. ISSN: 0269-283X.
NAL Call No.: RA639.M44
Descriptors: 7791 adult Diptera, cattle herds and pig herds with mycobacterial infections, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (serotype 8), Mycobacterium avium ssp.avium (serotype 8), Drosophila, Musca, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium phlei, Scatophaga Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia Caesar, Stomoxys calcitrans, infected flies role in spreading disease.

Ghobrial, G.; Naser, S. A. In vitro evaluation of nicotine effect on mycobacterial growth. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 704. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: alkaloid treatment, various nicotine concentrations, effect on Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium smegamtis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strains H37Ra and ATCC 2577, potential therapeutic application.

Goethe, R.; Jeckstadt, S.; Kuehnel, M.; zur Lage, S.; Weiss, S.; Valentin, Welgand P. Modulation of macrophage functions by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Biology of the Cell. October 2001; 93(3-4): 211. ISSN: 0248-4900. Note: First Joint French-German Congress on Cell Biology, Strasbourg, France, November 07-09, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QH201.J6
Descriptors: bacterial pathogen behavior, impacts on immune system, white blood cells.

Gous, T.A.; Michel, A.L.  Johne's disease in sheep in South Africa.  In:  Proceedings of the 5th International Sheep Veterinary Conference, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 21-25 January, 2001.  Bayer AG.  Leverkusen, Germany.  2001; unpaginated.
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, incidence of disease, South Africa.

Grant, I. R.; O' Riordan, L. M.; Ball, H. J.; Rowe, M. T. Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Veterinary Microbiology. March 20, 2001; 79(2): 123-131. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: sheep and goats, milk samples, assay, Johne’s disease status, risks, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Grant, Irene R.; Rowe, Michael T.; Dundee, Louise; Hitchings, Edward. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Its incidence, heat resistance and detection in milk and dairy products. International Journal of Dairy Technology. February 2001; 54(1): 2-13. ISSN: 1364-727X.
NAL Call No.: SF221.I58
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, possible food borne disease, contaminated dairy products, pasteurized milk, need for research on milk processing and on farm prevention.

Groenendaal, H.; Nielen, M.; Hesselink, J.W. Development of the Dutch Johne's disease control programme supported by a simulation model. Proceedings of a Meeting, Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. [Great Britain]: The Society, 1983. 2001; 141-152. ISSN: 0956-7496. Note: Meeting held on March 28-30, 2001, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.
NAL Call No.: SF780.9.S63
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, control programs, simulation models, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, The Netherlands.

Gwozdz, J. M.; Thompson, K. G.; Manktelow, B. W. Lymphocytic neuritis of the ileum in sheep with naturally acquired and experimental paratuberculosis. Journal of Comparative Pathology. May 2001; 124(4): 317-320. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: sheep, mononucleate inflammatory cells, ileal submucosa, lesions, experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Harris, Janet E.; Lammerding, Anna M. Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Current issues. Journal of Food Protection. December 2001; 64(12): 2103-2110. ISSN: 0362-028X.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Descriptors: human health risks, exposure to contaminated milk, Johne’s disease, etiology of Crohn’s disease, food risk communication.

Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raul G. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in veterinary medicine. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. July 2001; 14(3): 489-512. ISSN: 0893-8512.
NAL Call No.: QR67.C54
Descriptors: bacterial disease, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, necropsy.

Hermon-Taylor, J.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: the nature of the problem.  Food Control.  2001; 12(6): 331-334.  ISSN: 0956-7135.
NAL Call No.:  TP372.7.F66
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, chronic infections, bacterial diseases, excretion, disease transmission, zoonotic diseases, human diseases, inflammation, intestinal diseases, Crohn's disease, drug resistance.

Hughes, V. M.; Stevenson, K.; Sharp, J. M. Improved preparation of high molecular weight DNA for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from mycobacteria. Journal of Microbiological Methods. April 2001; 44(3): 209-215. ISSN: 0167-7012.
NAL Call No.: QR65.J68
Descriptors: epidemiology, clonal identity of bacterial, difficulty of getting quality genomic DNA, various species in from stirred cultures tested, standardized method, typing method, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium phlei strain NCTC-8151 Mycobacterium smegmatis strain NCTC-8159, Mycobacterium terrae strain NCTC-9259, Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain NCTC-14323.

Huntley, J. F. J.; Stabel, J. R.; Bannantine, J. P. Expression library immunization of mice identified five genomic DNA clone pools that are protective against colonization with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 710. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 78 gene pools, PCR, C57BL/6J mice (6 week old, male, 20 grams), immunized, abdominal inoculation, each clone pool via gene gun delivery, live bacteria challenge, effectiveness of vaccinations.

Inglis, Neil F.; Stevenson, Karen; Davies, Richard C.; Heaslip, Darragh G.; Sharp, J. Michael. Unique expression of a highly conserved mycobacterial gene in IS901+ Mycobacterium avium. Microbiology. June 2001; 147(6): 1557-1564. ISSN: 1350-0872.
NAL Call No.: QR1.J64
Nucleotide Sequence: AF247653 GenBank nucleotide sequence.
Descriptors: novel protein antigen, p40 gene, strain differences, nucleotide sequence analysis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium. bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, putative promoter region, livestock and bird strains.

Johnson, Y. J.; Kaneene, J. B.; Gardiner, J. C.; Lloyd, J. W.; Sprecher, D. J.; Coe, P. H. The effect of subclinical Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on milk production in Michigan dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. October 2001; 84(10): 2188-2194. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, subclinical diagnosis, milk, protein, fat production, fecal culture, effect of parity on milk production, Michigan, United States.

Kaba, J.  Epidemiology of caprine arthritis encephalitis, paratuberculosis and caseous lymphadenitis in goats in Poland.  Buletinul Universitatii de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj Napoca, Seria Medicina Veterinara.  2001; 55/56: 236.  ISSN:  1454-2382.
Descriptors:  goats, epidemiological surveys for diseases, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Lentivirus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, lymphatic diseases, Johne’s diseases, disease transmission, Poland.

Kalis, Cees H. J.; Hesselink, Jan Willem; Barkema, Herman W.; Collins, Michael T. Use of long-term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds. American Journal of Veterinary Research. February 2001; 62(2): 270-274. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: dairy cows, vaccination of calves with killed vaccine, level of fecal shedding after vaccination, prevention and control method, compared to culture and cull, 58 Dutch dairy herds, lack of efficacy, The Netherlands.

Katayama, Nobuya; Tanaka, Chigusa ; Fujita, Takumi; Suzuki, Takumi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Shuka. Effects of silage fermentation and ammonia treatment on activity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Grassland Science. August 2001; 47(3): 296-299. ISSN: 0447-5933. Note: In Japanese with English and Japanese summaries.
NAL Call No.: 60.9 J27
Descriptors: silo moisture and acidity, storage and survivability, moisture, ammonia treated silages, organic acid, high pH, pouched silages, alfalfa hay, grass and forage crops, feed contamination control.

Kennedy, D. J.; Benedictus, G. Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in agricultural species. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. April 2001; 20(1): 151-179. ISSN: 0253-1933. Note: In English with English, French and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: livestock, prevention and control programs, surveillance, issues and concerns of designing and implementing a program, costs of programs, epidemiology, diagnostic tools.

Kennedy, D. J.; Allworth, B. Ovine Johne's disease: Progress and challenges. Australian Veterinary Journal. July 2001; 79(7): 482-483. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, prevention and control concerns.

Kim YongHwan; Al Haddawi, M.H.; Cho HoSeong; Kang SungKwi; Cho KyoungOh; Park HyungSeon; Lee BongJoo; Park NamYong.  Multiplex PCR for differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium species from bovine clinical samples.  Korean Journal of Veterinary Research.  2001; 41(4): 535-542.  ISSN:  1225-0198.  Note:  In Korean with an English summary.
Descriptors:  field cattle, multiplex PCR, detection assay, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mybacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, blood sample, positive and negative intradermal tuberculin test, may be a rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for differential identification of mycobacterial strains, 1step assay.

Klawonn, W.; Draeger, K.; Guetler, S.; Zimmer, K.; Hess, R. G.; Baumgartner, W. Zur Eignung verschiedener kommerziell erhaeltlicher ELISA-Systeme fuer den Antikoerpernachweis bei Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-ausscheidenden Tieren. [Evaluation of various ELISA kits for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle. ] Tieraerztliche Umschau. December 1, 2001; 56(12): 648-654. ISSN: 0049-3864. Note: In German.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: cows, fecal secretors, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IDEXX/CSL ELISA, HerdCheck ELISA, Svanovir ELISA, ELISA from PourQuier Institute, antibody testing, test sensitivity and reliability, results compared, control programs.

Klijn, N.; Herrewegh, A. A. P. M.; de Jong, P. Heat inactivation data for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Implications for interpretation. Journal of Applied Microbiology. October 2001; 91(4): 697-704. ISSN: 1364-5072.
NAL Call No.: QR1 J687
Descriptors: factors for future research, calculated heat inactivation, modeling and inactivation curve of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cell clumping, food safety testing.

Koehler, H.; Gyra, H.; Zimmer, K.; Draeger, K. G.; Burkert, B.; Lemser, B.; Hausleithner, D.; Cussler, K.; Klawonn, W.; Hess, R. G. Immune reactions in cattle after immunization with a Mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine and implications for the diagnosis of M. paratuberculosis and M. bovis infections. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. April 2001; 48(3): 185-195. ISSN: 0931-1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: calves, experimental immunization, live modified Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine, shedding, tuberculin skin test, diagnostic tests, antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, interferon-gamma test, polymerase chain reaction, interferon-gamma production, check for infection.

Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; deBoer, Masja; Bakker, Douwe; Valentin, Weigand, Peter; van Eden, Willem. Differential changes in heat shock protein-, lipoarabinomannan-, and purified protein derivative-specific immunoglobulin G1 and G2 isotype responses during bovine Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Infection and Immunity. March 2001; 69(3): 1492-1498. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: cattle, changes from asymptomatic to clinical stage, serological responses, immune responsiveness, IgG1, IgG2, Hsp70, Hsp65.

Le Tallec, B.; Ponsart, C.; Marquant-Leguienne, B.; Guerin, B.  Risks of transmissible diseases in relation to embryo transfer.  Reproduction, Nutrition, Development.  2001; 41(5): 439-450.
NAL Call No.:  QL1.R35
Descriptors:  risks of disease transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, embryos, transfer of embryos process, sperm ova, preventive measures recommended.

Lee, H.; Stabel, J. R.; Kehrli, M. E. Jr. Cytokine gene expression in ileal tissues of cattle infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. September 28, 2001; 82(1-2): 73-85. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: cows, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, immune regulation impacts, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), comparison between infected and non-infected animals.

Leitch, E. Carol McWilliam; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Stanley, Karen N.; Stewart, Colin S. Dietary effects on the microbiological safety of food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. May 2001; 60(2): 247-255. ISSN: 0029-6651.
NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953
Descriptors: rumen simulating fermentors, studying survival of food borne pathogens, E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Campylobacter, Listeria.

Lin YuTing; Pan HanEn; Tsai HsiangJung.  Serological survey on the antibodies against paratuberculosis in cows and goats and bluetongue disease in goats in Taiwan.  Chung hua min kuo shou i hsueh hui tsa chih [Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science.]  2001; 27(4): 256-261.  ISSN:  0253-9179.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  SF604.C54
Descriptors:  dairy cattle testing, goats, serum ELISA kit, AGID, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bluetongue virus, antibody testing, Taiwan.

Linnabary, Robert D.  Johne's disease in cattle.  Issue Paper (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). [2001]; no. 17, 10 p. 
URL:  http://www.cast-science.org/publications
NAL Call No.:  S441.I87 no. 17
Descriptors:  livestock, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, issue paper, diagnosis, disease control. 

Liu, X.; Feng, Z.; Harris, N.B.; Cirillo, J.D.; Bercovier, H.; Barletta, R.G. Identification of a secreted superoxide dismutase in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Aug 21, 2001; 202(2): 233-238. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is an important animal pathogen that has also been implicated in human disease. The major proteins expressed by M. paratuberculosis were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and a superoxide dismutase (Sod) was identified from this protein profile. The M. paratuberculosis Sod has a molecular mass of 23 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.1. Sequence analysis of the corresponding sodA gene from M. paratuberculosis indicates that this protein is a manganese-dependent enzyme. We show that the M. paratuberculosis Sod is actively secreted, suggesting that it may elicit a protective cellular immune response in the host during infection.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, zoonoses, protein analysis, superoxide dismutase, host immune response.

Lloyd, J.B.; Whittington, R.J.; Fitzgibbon, C.; Dobson, R.  Presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in suspensions of ovine trichostrongylid larvae produced in faecal cultures artificially contaminated with the bacterium.  Veterinary Record.  2001; 148 (9): 261-263.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  sheep dung, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematode larvae, irradiation, viability, cell cultures, microbial contamination.

Mahavir Singh; Siddiqui, M.Z.; Goswami, P.P.  Detection of hybridomas specific for recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by ELISA.  Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases.  2001; 22(2): 181-182.  ISSN:  0970-9320.  
Descriptors:  mice, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antibodies, B lymphocytes, clones, diagnosis, indirect ELISA to detect intraspecies mice hybridomas for recombinant 35 kDa antigen, immunological techniques, myeloma, recombinant proteins, assay standardization.

Manning, E. J. B.; Collins, M. T. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Pathogen, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. April 2001; 20(1): 133-150. ISSN: 0253-1933. Note: In English with English, French, and Spanish summaries.
NAL Call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: domestic ruminants, primates, rabbits, stoats, foxes, free ranging and captive wildlife, prevalence in Europe, United States, herd size effects, Australia infections rates, economic effects.

Manning, E.J.B.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: a review of current knowledge.  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.  2001; 32(3): 293-304.  ISSN:  1042-7260.  Note:  A review article.
URL:  http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1638%2F1042-7260%282001%29032%5B0293%3AMASPAR%5D2.0.CO%3B2
NAL Call No.:  SF601.J6
Descriptors:  wild animals, animal diseases, susceptibility, characteristics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria, virulence, heat tolerance, effects of ultraviolet radiation, photosensitivity, survival, pathogenesis, Johne’s disease transmission, bacterial antigens, immune responses, subclinical and clinical diagnosis, zoonotic diseases.

Marsh, I. B.; Whittington, R. J. Progress towards a rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnostic test for the identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces. Molecular and Cellular Probes. April 2001; 15(2): 105-118. ISSN: 0890-8508.
NAL Call No.: RB43.7.M63
Descriptors: sheep, pooled fecal samples, diagnostic test evaluation, simpler direct PCR technique using primers from the 5' region of IS900, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, hybridization capture polymerase chain reaction (HC-PCR), level of sensitivity, flock diagnosis for Johne’s.

Martinez-Magana, P.; Camacho-Vallejo, M.E.; Villalba-Montoro, E.; Gomez-Torrico, M.S.; Alferez-Callejon, B.; Gasca-Arroyo, A.  Programa sanitario caprino en el Norte de Cordoba como modelo para eludir la erosion genetica.  [Programme for the caprine health in the North of Cordoba as a model to avoid the genetic erosion.]  Archivos de Zootecnia.  2001; 50(189/190): 269-277.  ISSN:  0004-0592.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.  
URL:  http://www.uco.es/organiza/servicios/publica/az/az.htm
Descriptors:  Murciana Granadina goats, implementation of an animal health program made up of 2 subprograms, mastitis control and milk purity, protection from paratuberculosis, pseudotuberculosis and tuberculosis, genetic erosion, Cordoba Province, Spain.

Mason, O.; Marsh, I. B.; Whittington, R. J. Comparison of immunomagnetic bead separation-polymerase chain reaction and faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep faeces. Australian Veterinary Journal. July 2001; 79(7): 497-500. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: fecal culture, sheep, detection methods, comparison study.

Miao, Z.H.; Glatz, P.C.; English, A.; Ru, Y.J.  Managing fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) for animal house research.  ANZCCART News.  2001; 14(4): Insert 1-Insert 8.  ISSN:  1039-9089.  
NAL Call No.:  SF405.5.A3
Descriptors:  farmed deer industry and production, husbandry, venison, deer velvet, housing, nutrition, behavior, rutt, transport, restraint, common diseases, ticks, lice, and helminthic parasites (Dictyocaulus viviparus, Muellerius capillaris and Fasciola hepatica), protozoal diseases, Babesia, bacterial diseases, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, clostridiosis, foot and mouth disease, malignant catarrhal fever, current research, Australia.

Miltner, E.; Cirillo, J.; Bermudez, L. E. Identification of Mycobacterium avium genes associated with the ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 708. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: genes upregulated during binding and invasion of mucosal epithelial cells, L5 phage promoter, clone evaluation for increased expression, ability to invade Hep-2 epithelial cells, infection process.

Morgan, J.  Organic lambAgnote NSW Agriculture.  2001; (DAI-233 (1st Edition)): 1-7.  ISSN:  1034-6848.
Descriptors:  lamb, animal breeding, animal nutrition, bacterial diseases, Clostridia, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, farm management, treatment for internal and external parasites, helminthoses, helminthes, liver flukes, mite control, blowfly strike, ovine Johne’s disease, organic farming, certification as organic lamb, record keeping, reviews.

Mukhopadhyay, H.K.; Antony, P.X.; Pillai, R.M.  Prevalence of tuberculosis and Johne's disease in an organized cattle farm at Pondicherry.  Indian Journal of Animal Health.  2001; 40(2): 185-186.  ISSN:  0019-5057.
NAL Call No.:  SF1.I4
Descriptors:  41 cattle, Pondicherry cattle farm, TB and Johne’s disease testing, mammalian tuberculin and Johnin neck inoculation, skin fold thickness variations, disease incidence, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pondicherry, India.

Muskens, J.; Bakker, D.; de Boer, J.; van Keulen, L. Paratuberculosis in sheep: Its possible role in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. January 26, 2001; 78(2): 101-109. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: sheep, diagnosis of flock infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, shared sheep and cattle grazing, biochemistry, serology, and intradermal testing, necropsy results, epidemiology, disease transmission.

Mutwiri, G.K.; Kosecka, U.; Benjamin, M.; Rosendal, S.; Perdue, M.; Butler, D.G.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis triggers intestinal pathophysiologic changes in beige/scid mice.  Comparative Medicine.  2001; 51(6): 538-544.  ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call No.:  SF77.C65
Abstract:  We investigated whether infection of beige/scid mice with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis can induce intestinal pathophysiologic changes.  Six-week-old beige/scid mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with M. paratuberculosis, then were killed 32 weeks after inoculation when the small intestine was evaluated for physiologic and morphologic abnormalities.  All infected mice developed clinical disease.  The lamina propria of the intestine from infected mice was mildly infiltrated with mononuclear cells containing acid-fast bacteria, and had significantly increased villus width.  In vitro physiologic studies in Using chambers indicated that M. paratuberculosis infection caused significant abnormalities in intestinal transport parameters.  Baseline short circuit current and potential difference were abnormally high in tissues from infected, compared with control mice, indicative of increased ion secretion.  Baseline conductance was significantly decreased in infected mice, suggesting that intestinal tissue from infected mice was less permeable to ions.  The change in short circuit current following transmural electrical and glucose stimulation was significantly reduced in intestines from infected mice, suggesting that inflamed intestine had neural and/or epithelial cell damage.  We conclude that infection of beige/scid mice with M. paratuberculosis triggers significant intestinal pathophysiologic changes consistent with chronic inflammation.  These functional abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of the wasting syndrome seen in bovids with paratuberculosis.  This animal model provides evidence that T cell-independent mechanisms are sufficient to cause mucosal pathophysiologic changes and inflammation in response to a specific pathogen, and may be of relevance to inflammatory bowel disease in humans.
Descriptors:  mice, laboratory mammals, animal model of disease, immunocompromised hosts, experimental infections, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, small intestine, intestinal absorption, inflammation, histopathology, electrical conductance, physiopathology, weight losses.

New South Wales Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's Disease in New South Wales Quarterly Disease Surveillance Report.  2001; (July/September): 7.  NSW Agriculture.  Orange, Australia.
URL:  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture
Descriptors:  sheep flocks, seroprevalence, post mortem examination, fecal sampling, seroprevalence, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, disease control programs, testing, diagnostic techniques, histopathology, New South Wales, Australia.  

Nielsen, S.S.; Houe, H.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Bitsch, V. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serologic diagnosis of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle using different subspecies strains of Mycobacterium avium. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Mar 2001; 13(2): 164-166. ISSN:1040-6387.
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, antibody testing accuracy.

Norstrom, M.  Geographical Information System (GIS) as a tool in surveillance and monitoring of animal diseases.  In:  Elvander, M.; Lindberg, A.; Christensen, B.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum.  2001; (supp. 94): 79-85.  ISSN:  0065-1699.  Note:  In English with a Swedish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87 Suppl.
Descriptors:  cattle, goats, pigs, animal diseases, epidemiology, disease control, disease prevention, geographical information systems, mapping,  monitoring, outbreaks, Johne’s disease,  paratuberculosis, simulation models, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Norway.

Odumeru, Joseph; Gao, Anli; Chen, Shu; Raymond, Melinda; Mutharia, Lucy. Use of the bead beater for preparation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis template DNA in milk. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. October, 2001; 65(4): 201-205. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL Call No.: SF601.C24
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection in milk samples, PCR, lysing bacteria, bead beater, freeze-thaw, InstaGene Matrix, QIAamp Tissue Kit, sensitivity levels.

Olsen, Ingrid; Tryland, Morten; Wiker, Harald G.; Reitan, Liv J. AhpC, AhpD, and a secreted 14-kilodalton antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis distinguish between paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. July 2001; 8(4): 797-801. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Descriptors: cattle, sera, natural and experimental infections, antibody testing, ELISA, experimental TB, responses compared, AhpC and AhpD, purified antigens needed to differentiate species of Mycobacterium.

Olsen, Ingrid; Reitan, Liv J.; Wiker, Harald G. Distinct differences in repertoires of low-molecular-mass secreted antigens of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. December 2001; 38(12): 4453-4458. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: antigens, culture filtrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot, homologous gene, differential expression.

Olsen, I.; Storset, A. K. Innate IFN-gamma production in cattle in response to MPP14, a secreted protein from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. September 2001; 54(3): 306-313. ISSN: 0300-9475.
Descriptors: cattle, calves, experimental infection, testing infected and non-infected for interferon (IFN)-gamma production, MPP14, CD8+ cells, CD4+ cells, protein derivative, interference with diagnostic tests.

Paisley, L.G.  Economic aspects of disease monitoring with special reference to bovine paratuberculosis.  In:  Elvander, M.; Lindberg, A.; Christensen, B.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum.  2001; (Suppl. 94): 17-25.  ISSN:  0065-1699.  Note:  In English with a Swedish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87 Suppl.
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, 6000 dairy herds, Monte Carlo simulation models, evaluating feasibility and potential results of a national survey for Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, classification of true positive and false positive herds, low sensitivity of ELISA, low levels of herd prevalence, low within herd prevalence were analytical problems, national survey would not be feasible, Norway.

Paolicchi, F. A.; Vagnozzi, A; Morsella, C. G.; Verna, A. E.; Massone, A. R.; Portiansky, E. L.; Gimeno, E. J. Paratuberculosis in red deer (Cervus elaphus): An immunohistochemical study. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. May 2001; 48(4): 313-320. ISSN: 0931-1793.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, methods comparison study, immunohistochemistry, serological results, histological results, tissue samples from intestinge, mesemteric lymph nodes, bacterial isolation, Ziehl-Neelsen stained bacteria, macrophages, Langhans type giant cells.

Parrish, Nikki M.; Houston, Todd; Jones, Paul B.; Townsend, Craig; Dick, James D. In vitro activity of a novel antimycobacterial compound, N-octanesulfonylacetamide, and its effects on lipid and mycolic acid synthesis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. April 2001; 45(4): 1143-1150. ISSN: 0066-4804.
NAL Call No.: RM265.A5132
Descriptors: N-octanesulfonylacetamide (OSA), possible inhibitor of fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis, Mycobacterium, comparative study of species and strains, slow and rapid growing species effects compared, disruption of cell wall synthesis, incomplete septum formation, OSA inhibition in growth in both isoniazid-resistant and multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro activity, mycolic acid.

Pearce, Lindsay E.; Truong, H. Tuan; Crawford, Robert A.; Yates, Gary F.; Cavaignac, Sonia; de Lisle, Geoffrey W. Effect of turbulent-flow pasteurization on survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis added to raw milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. September 2001; 67(9): 3964-3969. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: heat sensitivity, experimentally infected raw milk, ATCC 19698 and ATCC 43015 strains, 3 bovine isolates, contaminated fecal material, treatments of 65,66,69 and 72 degrees C, survival rates.

Petit, E.  Enquete serologique sur la paratuberculose bovine menee dans l'Yonne lors de la campagne 98-99.  [Serological study of bovine paratuberculosis in Yonne in 1998/1999.]  Epidemiologie et Sante Animale.  2001; (40): 23-39.  ISSN:  0754-2186.  Note:  In French with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  155 herds of dairy and lactating cows, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, serum testing, sex differences, age differences, breed differences, management, heredity location, prevalence of disease, test reagents, Yonne region, France. 

Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.; Gummo, Jennifer D.; Hue, Eric C. Jr.; Tiwari, Deepanker; Stabel, Judith R.; Whitlock, Robert H. Identification and sub-typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Veterinary Microbiology. April 2, 2001; 79(3): 275-284. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: commercial kit, identification and sub-typing, selection of a suitable primer that would permit identification and sub-typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, primer OPE-20 (5'-AAC-GGT-GAC-C-3'), fingerprint patterns, fragments, cattle, sheep and human isolates, ATCC strains.

Plant, J.W.  Ovine Johne's disease in New South Wales-the present situation.  In:  Proceedings of the 5th International Sheep Veterinary Conference, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 21-25 January, 2001.  Bayer AG.  Leverkusen, Germany.  2001; unpaginated.
Descriptors:  sheep, goats, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, serological disease surveys, disease distribution, disease transmission, disease prevention and control programs, diagnostic techniques, cost of disease, regulations, vaccination, vaccines, New South Wales, Australia.

Rajeev Singh; Sinha, D. K.; Hari Shankar; Arora, B.M.; Krishna Lal.  A note on mortality pattern in crossbred cattle at an organised farm.  Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases.  2001; 22(1): 98-99.  ISSN:  0970-9320.
Descriptors:  crossbred cows, calves, mortality data, calf sex differences, calf mortality higher in summer, calf diseases enteritis, pneumonia, malnutrition, cows malnutrition, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bloat, Trypanosoma evansi, heat stroke, pneumonia, Allahabad, India.

Rajukumar, K.; Tripathi, B. N.; Kurade, N. P.; Parihar, N. S. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using immunoaffinity-purified antigen in the diagnosis of caprine paratuberculosis and its comparison with conventional ELISAs. Veterinary Research Communications. October 2001; 25(7): 539-553. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL Call No.: SF601.38
Descriptors: APA ELISA, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection of antibodies in goat sera, fecal cultures, histopathology for disease confirmation, test evaluation.

Rossiter, C. A.; Henning, W. R. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. ptb) from thin market cows at slaughter. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001; 84(Suppl. 1): 113-114. ISSN: 0022-0302. Note: Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001.
URL: http://www.ADSA.org/jds
NAL Call No.: SF221 A4
Descriptors: cattle, disease testing, slaughter, incidence of disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Rowan, Neil J.; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Cameron, Douglas; Farish, Owen. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by pulsed electric fields. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. June 2001; 67(6): 2833-2836. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: viability testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells, peptone water and sterilized cow’s milk, cellular damage.

Ryan, Paul; Bennett, Michael W.; Aarons, Simon; Lee, Gary; O' Connell, Joe; Collins, John K.; O' Sullivan, Gerald C.; Shanahan, Fergus. A search for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by PCR in Crohn's granulomas isolated laser capture microdissection. Gastroenterology. April 2001; 120(5 Suppl. 1): A.325. ISSN: 0016-5085. Note: 102nd Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association and Digestive Disease Week, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, May 20-23, 2001.
URL: http://www.gastrojournal.org/
NAL Call No.: RC799.G37
Descriptors: diagnostic method, cattle, humans, Johne’s, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Sasahara, K. C.; Boor, K. Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using luciferase reporter systems. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 576. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, rapid detection methods, contamination of milk, mycobacterial luciferase reporter system, pathogen survivability.

Schwartz, Brett D.; De Voss, James J. Structure and absolute configuration of mycobactin J. Tetrahedron Letters. May 21, 2001; 42(21): 3653-3655. ISSN: 0040-4039.
NAL Call No.: 385 T29
Descriptors: siderophore, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, stereochemistry, methods, applications to other mycobactins.

Sechi, Leonardo A.; Manuela, Mura; Francesco, Tanda; Amelia, Lissia; Antonello, Solinas; Giovanni, Fadda; Stefania, Zanetti. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease identified by in situ hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. December 2001; 39(12): 4514-4517. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: Crohn’s disease, cell wall deficient Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, humans.

Secott, T.E.; Lin, T.L.; Wu, C.C. Fibronectin attachment protein homologue mediates fibronectin binding by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Infection and Immunity. Apr 2001; 69(4): 2075-2082. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to host tissue and penetration of mucosal surfaces are pivotal events in the pathogenesis of Johne's disease. Fibronectin (FN) binding is required for attachment and internalization of several mycobacteria by epithelial cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to further characterize the FN binding activity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Although the bacteria bound FN poorly at pH above 7, brief acid pretreatment greatly enhanced FN binding within the pH range (3 to 10) studied. A 4.6-kbp fragment from an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic library was found to contain a 1,107-bp open reading frame that shows very high nucleotide sequence identity with that of the FN attachment protein (FAP) gene of M. avium subsp. avium. Pretreatment of FN with an FN-binding peptide from M. avium subsp. avium FAP abolished FN binding, indicating that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis binds FN in a FAP-dependent manner. Pretreatment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with anti-FAP immunoglobulin G did not abrogate FN binding; blocking occurred only when anti-FAP was added together with FN. FAP was detected by immunofluorescence only in lipid-extracted M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that FAP is located near the interior of the cell envelope of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The results indicate that a FAP homologue mediates the attachment of FN to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Further, given the subcellular location of FAP, it is considered that this protein operates at the terminus of a coordinated FN binding system in the cell envelope of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis binding proteins, bacterial proteins, nucleotide sequences, genes, molecular sequence data.

Sergeant, E. S. G. Ovine Johne's disease in Australia: The first 20 years. Australian Veterinary Journal. July 2001; 79(7): 484-491. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: sheep, historical review of the disease in Australia, introduction information dates, movement of the disease, economic impact, control, diagnostic techniques, surveillance strategies, distribution and prevalence.

Singh, S.V.; Vihan, V.S.  Diagnosis of Johne's disease.  In:  Chauhan, R.S.; Singh, G.K.; Agrawal, D.K.  Advances in Immunology and Immunopathology Proceedings of a National Symposium on Immunomodulation in Health and Disease.  2001; 140-154.  
Descriptors:  goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, histology, immunological techniques, PCR.

Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss hard and semihard cheese manufactured from raw milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. September 2001; 67(9): 4199-4205. ISSN: 0099-2240.
NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: experimentally contaminated cheese, declumped cells, Swiss Emmentaler, semi-hard Swiss Tisliter, bacterial cell survival, 7H10-PANTA agar plating media, factors affecting ripening were temperature, low pH, and time of 90-120 days.

Stabel, J. R.; Whitlock, R. H. An evaluation of a modified interferon-gamma assay for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. May 10, 2001; 79(1-2): 69-81. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: dairy cattle, blood sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, infected herds, Johne’s disease, fecal culture, concanavalin A (ConA), IFN gamma, commercial ELISA antibody test, test accuracy, subclinical infection, useful for culling decisions.

Stabel, Judith R.; Harp, James A.; Pesch, Bruce. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on immune cell phenotype. FASEB Journal. March 7, 2001; 15(4): A309. ISSN: 0892-6638. Note: Annual Meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology on Experimental Biology 2001, Orlando, Florida, USA, March 31-April 04, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QH301.F3
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, ruminant bacterial disease, gammadelta-TCR subset of T cells, role in containing the infection, subclinically infected cows, brogation of gammadelta-TCR T cell response may be responsible for the shift between subclinical and clinical disease states for paratuberculosis.

Stabel, Judith; Waldren, Charles; Garry, Frank. Ionizing radiation effectively destroys Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001; 84(Suppl. 1): 27. ISSN: 0022-0302. Note: Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001.
URL: http://www.ADSA.org/jds
NAL Call No.: SF221 A4
Descriptors: milk, sterilization with ionizing radiation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, public health, disease control.

Stabel, J.R. On-farm batch pasteurization destroys Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in waste milk. Journal of Dairy Science. Feb 2001; 84(2): 524-527. ISSN: 0022-0302.
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: A recent dairy survey conducted in 1996 by the National Animal Health Monitoring System suggests between 20 and 40% of dairy herds in the United States have some level of Johne's disease. This figure will continue to increase unless producers implement management regimes that will help control the spread of this disease within their herds. The neonatal calf is the target for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease. Calves become infected via exposure to the bacterium through contaminated feces, bedding, colostrum, and milk. Shedding of viable M. paratuberculosis has been documented in the colostrum and milk of infected dams. This study evaluated the efficacy of on-farm pasteurization to destroy M. paratuberculosis in waste milk fed to calves to circumvent this mode of transmission. In three replicate experiments, waste milk was experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis and heated at 65.5 degrees C for 30 min. No viable bacteria were recovered after 28 wk of incubation. These results suggest that batch pasteurization of waste milk contaminated with M. paratuberculosis was effective at generating a clean product to feed to young calves.
Descriptors: calves, calf feeding, disease survey, pasteurization, efficacy of on-farm pasteurization of waste milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial count, milk quality, disease control, Johne's disease, United States.

Stabel, J. On-farm batch pasteurization destroys Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in waste milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001; 84(Suppl. 1): 187. ISSN: 0022-0302. Note: Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001.
URL: http://www.ADSA.org/jds
NAL Call No.: SF221 A4
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, on the farm disease prevention and control, sanitation, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Stoltenow, Charles L.; Lardy, Greg; Schroeder, J.W. and NDSU Extension Service.  Johne's disease in beef and dairy herds.  NDSU Extension Service [publication][2001];  V-1209, 1 folded sheet (4 p.).  Note:  Caption title has June 2001.
NAL Call No.:  S544.3.N9C46 no. 1209
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, symptoms, control strategies, beef cattle, dairy cattle, North Dakota.

Storset, A. K.; Hasvold, H. J.; Valheim, M.; Brun, Hansen H.; Berntsen, G.; Whist, S. K.; Djonne, B.; Press, C. McL.; Holstad, G.; Larsen, H. J. S. Subclinical paratuberculosis in goats following experimental infection: An immunological and microbiological study. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. August 10, 2001; 80(3-4): 271-287. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: goats, experimental infection of kids, caprine isolate, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial suspension in milk replacement, cellular responses monitored, lesions, pathology.

Strommenger, Birgit; Stevenson, Karen; Gerlach, Gerald F. Isolation and diagnostic potential of ISMav2, a novel insertion sequence-like element from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. FEMS Microbiology Letters. March 1, 2001; 196(1): 31-37. ISSN: 0378-1097.
NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
Descriptors: mycobacterial IS elements, ISMav2, 50% identity to a non-composite transposon of Streptomyces coelicolor at the DNA and protein level, potential diagnostic tool.

Tessema, M. Z.; Koets, A. P.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.; Gruys, E. How does Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis resist intracellular degradation? Veterinary Quarterly. November 2001; 23(4): 153-162. ISSN: 0165-2176.
NAL Call No.: SF601 V46
Descriptors: microbial resistance, thick, lipid-rich cell envelope, 3 level survival strategies, safe entry, intracellular trafficking of mycobacteria containing phagosomes, modulation of the immune process, implications, epidemiology, diagnosis, control.

Thomsen, B. V.; Steadham, E. M.; Gallup, J. M.; Ackermann, M. R.; Brees, D. J.; Cheville, N. F. T cell-dependent inducible nitric oxide synthase production and ultrastructural morphology in BALB/c mice infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Comparative Pathology. August-October 2001; 125(2-3): 137-144. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: euthymic BALB/c mice, athymic nude BALB/c mice, intraperitoneal injection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (ATCC strain 19698), hepatic granuloma evaluation, morphometric analysis of digital images, light microscopy sections, electron microscopy, immunohistochemical methods, responses compared.

Tripathi, B.N.  Recent advances in pathogenesis and diagnosis of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in animals.  In: Chauhan R.S.; Singh, G.K.; Agrawal, D.K.  Advances in Immunology and Immunopathology Proceedings of a National Symposium on Immunomodulation in Health and Disease.  2001; 288-294.  
Descriptors:  animal disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacteriology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, paratuberculosis.

Valsson, O.; Alenius, S.; Nielsen, T.K.; Nyberg, O.; Salmela, P.  Surveillance of ruminant diseases in the Nordic countries.  In:  Elvander, M.; Lindberg, A.; Christensen, B.  [Editors]  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum.  2001; (supp. 94): 27-28.  ISSN:  0065-1699.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87 suppl
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, goats, animal health, disease control programs, disease prevention, disease surveillance, bovine leucosis. bovine spongiform encephalopathy, brucellosis, paratuberculosis, salmonellosis, scrapie, tuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, visna maedi virus, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland.

Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Keefe, G.P.; Tremblay, R.; Power, C.; Wichtel, J.J.  Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in Maritime Canada dairy cattle.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2001; 42(3): 193-198.  ISSN: 0008-5286.  Note:  In English with a French summary.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  dairy cows, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, seroprevalence, bovine leukemia virus, bovine diarrhea virus, geographical variation, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island.

Veerabadran, D. Cloning and characterization of the genes coding for antigen 85A, 85B and 85C of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001; 101: 740. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA, May 20-24, 2001.
NAL Call No.: QR1.A5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antigen 85-A, B, and C genes, homology with other species.

Vidic, Branka; Grgic, Z.; Bjelajac, B.; Trkulja, R. Ispitivanje rasprostranjenosti paratuberkuloze kod goveda i ovaca. [Investigations of spread of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep.] Veterinarski Glasnik. 2001; 55(1-2): 9-16. ISSN: 0350-2457. Note: In Serbian with English, Serbian and Russian summaries.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J93
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, epidemiology, serum sampling, AGID and CBR diagnostic tests, antibody titers, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, survey, Backa.

Weber, M. F.; Verhoeff, J. Integrale dierziektebestrijding op melkveebedrijven: Visie van rundveedierenartsen op een casus. [Integrated disease control in dairy herds: A case study from the veterinarians' viewpoint.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. Mei 15, 2001; 126(10): 340-345. ISSN: 0040-7453. Note: In Dutch with summaries in English and Dutch.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: control of intestinal diseases, dairy cattle, bovine virus diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella Dublin, sequential ranking for disease control, voluntary culling infected cattle, The Netherlands.

Weiss, Douglas J.; Evanson, Oral A.; McClenahan, David J.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Walcheck, Bruce K. Regulation of expression of major histocompatibility antigens by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Infection and Immunity. February 2001; 69(2): 1002-1008. ISSN: 0019-9567.
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Descriptors: cattle, bovine macrophages, histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on their surface and interaction with primed autologous lymphocytes, changes over 24 and 12 hours, differences in virulence, suppression of mycobacteria antigen presentation to T lymphocytes.

Whan, L. B.; Grant, I. R.; Ball, H. J.; Scott, R.; Rowe, M. T. Bactericidal effect of chlorine on Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in drinking water. Letters in Applied Microbiology. September 2001; 33(3): 227-231. ISSN: 0266-8254.
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Descriptors: transmission, contaminated drinking water, effects of standard water treatment processes, strains MAP NCTC 8578, human strain Linda, ATCC 43015, chlorine treatments, effects of level of populations and time of exposure.

Whittington, R. J.; Taragel, C. A.; Ottaway, S.; Marsh, I.; Seaman, J.; Fridriksdottir, V. Molecular epidemiological confirmation and circumstances of occurrence of sheep (S) strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cases of paratuberculosis in cattle in Australia and sheep and cattle in Iceland. Veterinary Microbiology. April 19, 2001; 79(4): 311-322. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: polymorphism in IS1311, sheep and cattle strains of bacteria, history of strain introductions, effects of different husbandry practices, Australia, Iceland, imported animals, survey of imported animals.

Whittington, R. J.; Sergeant, E. S. G. Progress towards understanding the spread, detection and control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in animal populations. Australian Veterinary Journal. April 2001; 79(4): 267-278. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: pathogenesis, epidemiology, information review, aspects of the disease, infection, transmission, incubation period, detection.

Whittington, R.J.; Lloyd, J.B.; Reddacliff, L.A. Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from nematode larvae cultured from the faeces of sheep with Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. Aug 8, 2001; 81(3): 273-279. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether trichostrongylid nematode larvae become contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis when they develop in the faeces of sheep with Johne's disease. Nematode larvae were hatched from ova in the faecal samples of affected sheep. Larval sheaths were removed and these as well as exsheathed larvae were subjected to radiometric culture for M. paratuberculosis. The organism was recovered from washing water used to prepare the larvae, third stage larvae and larval sheaths, but not from exsheathed larvae. The recovery of M. paratuberculosis from larvae was associated with the severity of the histological lesions in affected sheep and with the results of culture of the organism from intestinal tissues and faeces. Nematode parasites of sheep might be able to act as mechanical vectors for M. paratuberculosis as the organism associates with infective third stage larvae when these develop in the faeces of sheep with Johne's disease.
Descriptors: sheep, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, nematode larvae, intestinal tissue and feces, Trichostrongylidae, contamination, ova, histology, disease vectors, infectivity.

Worthington, R.W.; Bigalke, R.D.  A review of the infectious diseases of African wild ruminants.  Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research.  2001; 68(4): 291-323.  ISSN:  0030-2465.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 ON1
Descriptors:  wild ruminants, many infectious diseases, epidemiology, clinical aspects, disease transmission, many bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases reviewed including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis.

Zhang XiYue; Gao YunHang; He ZhaoYang.  Comparison study of several agar diffusion antigen of bovine paratuberculosis.  Chi lin nung yeh ta hsüeh hsüeh pao. [Journal of Jilin Agricultural University.]  2001; 23(1): 88-90.  ISSN:  1000-5684.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  S19.C55
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antigen prepared from cytoplasm, cell wall, Sephadex G200 and through Mycobacterium phlei absorption methods, diagnostic methods.


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