Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2004


Ali Vehmas, T.; Moisander, A.M.; Soini, H.  Yleiskatsaus mykobakterioosien esiintymisesta ja Suomen tilanteesta.  [Mycobacteriosis - a review and survey in Finland.]  Suomen Elainlaakarilehti.  2004; 110(2): 79-84.  ISSN:  0039-5501.  Note:  In Finnish with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 F49
Descriptors:  pigs, humans, bacterial diseases, disease surveys, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, epidemiology, diagnosis, drug therapy, isoniazid, rifampicin, zoonoses, Finland.

Amemori, T.; Matlova, L.; Fischer, O.A.; Ayele, W.Y.; Machackova, M.; Gopfert, E.; Pavlik, I.  Distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract of shedding cows and its application to laparoscopic biopsy.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2004; 49(7): 225-236.  ISSN:  0375-8427.
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sampling of 10 areas of gastrointestinal tract, distribution of bacteria, jejunum mucosa, to the ileocecal valve, in the lymph nodes from jejunum to the cecum, laproscopy for sampling unsuccessful.

Amonsin, A.; Li, L.L.; Zhang, Q.; Bannantine, J.P.; Motiwala, A.S.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kapur, V.  Multilocus short sequence repeat sequencing approach for differentiating among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(4): 1694-1702.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/4/1694
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle and sheep isolates, 33 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, bacterial cattle disease, Johne’s disease, genotyping, 20 multilocus short sequence repeat (MLSSR) types, 11 polymorphic short sequence repeats (SSRs), genome analysis, genomes, genotypes, loci, molecular biology, molecular genetics, MLSSR results in easy, reproducible and high resolution subtyping.

Anderton, Matthew C.; Bhakta, Sanjib; Patrick, Anna L.; Sim, Edith.  Characterisation of the putative operon containing arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in mycobacteria.  Drug Metabolism Reviews.  2004; 36(Suppl. 1): 161.  ISSN:  0360-2532.  Note:  7th International Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics, Vancouver, BC, Canada; August 29-September 02, 2004.
NAL Call No.:  RM301.D73
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, arylamine N-acetyltransferase, operons, drug therapy.

Andrews, A.H.  Colostrum - not just for 24 hours.  Cattle Practice.  2004; 12(2): 121-124.  ISSN:  0969-1251.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  calves, nutrition colostrum feeding, intestinal lining exposed to local immunoglobulins that attach to endothelial receptors, block ability of pathogens to attach, and reproduce or cause disease, vaccination of dams for rotovirus, coronovirus, E. coli, Salmonella, Eimeria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Ayele, W.Y.; Bartos, M.; Svastova, P.; Pavlik, I.  Distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in organs of naturally infected bull-calves and breeding bulls.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 103(3-4): 209-217.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  bull calves, breeding bulls, various breeds, Holstein-Friesian, Piemonte, Hereford, Simmental, natural infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, semen derived infection, serum, fecal and tissue culture, liver, spleen, testes, sub clinically infected release Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in semen.

Bannantine, J.P.; Hansen, J.K.; Paustian, M.L.; Amonsin, A.; Li, L.L.; Stabel, J.R.; Kapur, V.  Expression and immunogenicity of proteins encoded by sequences specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(1): 106-114.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:   http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/1/106
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle, mice, rabbits, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, animal disease models, laboratory animals, immunoassay as a diagnostic technique, cloning, heterologous expression, antigenic analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific sequences in Escherichia coli, binding proteins, gene expression, nucleotide sequences.

Basagoudanavar, S.H.; Goswami, P.P.; Tiwari, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Singh, N.  Heterologous expression of a gene encoding a 35 kDa protein of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in Escherichia coli.  Veterinary Research Communications.  2004; 28(3): 209-224.  ISSN: 0165-7380.
URL:  http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0165-7380/contents
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V38
Descriptors:  gene expression, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, bacterial proteins, nucleic acid hybridization, genetically engineered microorganisms, genetic recombination, transposons, polyclonal antibodies, guinea pigs, laboratory animals, delayed hypersensitivity, cell mediated immunity, purification, cloning DNA, solubility, cross reaction, open reading frames, 35kDa protein genes, recombinant surface proteins, immune response, plasmids, insertion into Escherichia coli expression plasmid pQE32=pPMP35, was transformed into E. coli M15, expression confirmed with immunoblotting, reacted with rabbit antiserum to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, reacted with serum of infected goat, recognized as a membrane fraction, evoked skin reaction in sensitized guinea pigs, 35kDa is a membrane protein.

Basler, T.; Geffers, R.; Weiss, S.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Goethe, R.  Macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis display a specific gene expression program and activating capacity towards enterocytes.  Immunobiology.  2004; 209(4-6): 392.  ISSN:  0171-2985.  Note:  Joint Annual Meeting of the German and Dutch Societies for Immunology, Maastricht, The Netherlands; October 20-23, 2004.
NAL Call No.:  QR180.Z4
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infected macrophages, infection response, gene expression, activating capacity, response to enterocytes. 

Beyerbach, M.; Ortmann, G.; Gerlach, G.F.; Homuth, M; Strutzberg, K.; Kreienbrock, L.  Uberlegungen zu diagnostischen Sicherheiten und Cut-Off-Werten fur einen Sammelmilch-ELISA auf Paratuberkulose.  [Considerations concerning diagnostic probabilities and cut-off values for a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis bulk milk ELISA.]  DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift).  2004; 111(5): 220-225.  ISSN:  0341-6593.  Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 D482
Descriptors: dairy cows, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, bulk milk, reference works, regression analysis, mathematical models, Brandenburg, Germany.  

Boettcher, J.; Gangl, A. Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis - Combined serological testing and classification of individual animals and herds.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2004; 51(10): 443-448. ISSN:  0931-1793.
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jvb
NAL Call No.:  41.8 Z52
Descriptors:  2748 bovine sera, 119 Bavarian herds, 3 commercial tests, testing scheme proposed, individual animals, herds. 

Bowen, J.S.  Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners.  Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, January 17-21, 2004.  2004; 18: 266-269.
Descriptors:  goats, sheep, small ruminant health, small animal veterinary practice; veterinarians, animal husbandry, clinical examination drug residues, metabolic disorders, coccidiosis, enterotoxemia, pneumonia, scrapie, zoonoses, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Clostridium perfringens, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma, Johne’s disease.

Bowen, J.S.  Tough diseases of goats.  Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, January17-21, 2004.  2004; 18: 255-256.
Descriptors:  goats, small ruminants, various diseases, disease transmission, lymph nodes, lymphadenitis, lymphatic diseases, Johne’s disease, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma.

Branscum, A.J.; Gardner, I.A.; Johnson, W.O.  Bayesian modeling of animal and herd level prevalences.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 66(1/4): 101-112.  ISSN:  0167-5877. 
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  cattle, animal level based on polled sampling, herd level disease prevalence, epidemiology, Bayesian theory approach, mathematical models, WinBUGS computer software, animal diseases, Brucella abortus, Salmonella interitidis, Mycobacterterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, brucellosis, Johne’s disease, computer software, diagnostic techniques, disease surveys, California, United States.  

Brumbaugh, G.W.; Simpson, R.B.; Edwards, J.F.; Anders, D.R.; Thomson, T.D.  Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to monensin sodium or tilmicosin phosphate in vitro and resulting infectivity in a murine model.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary.  2004; 68(3): 175-181.  ISSN: 0830-9000.  Note:  In English with a French summary.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=133
NAL Call No.:  SF601.C24
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, antibacterial properties, macrolide antibiotics, cattle diseases, laboratory mice, infectious disease model.

Buergelt, C.D.; Donovan, G.A.; Williams, J.E.  Identification of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in blood and semen of a bull with clinical paratuberculosis.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 2(2): 130-134.  ISSN:  1542-2666.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
Descriptors:  cattle, Holstein breeding bulls, clinical signs of Johne’s disease, blood samples, semen samples, agar gel immunoduffusion, ELISA, 3 negative fecal cultures, no necropsy done, bacteria may disseminate via blood to reproductive tract.

Buergelt, C.D.; Williams, J.E.  Nested PCR on blood and milk for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA in clinical and subclinical bovine paratuberculosis.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(8): 497-503.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  cattle bacterial disease, clinical and subclinical infections, disease detection and diagnosis, blood sampling, milk sampling, nested PCR.

Buergelt, C.D.; Bastianello, S.S.; Michel, A.L.  Paratuberculosis.  In: Coetzer, J.A.W; Tustin, R.C. [Editors].  Infectious Diseases of Livestock.  Volume 3, 2nd Edition.  Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.  2004; 1994-2008.  ISBN:  0195761715.
NAL Call No.:  SF781.I525 2004
Descriptors:  livestock, culling infected animals, etiology, diagnostic techniques, differential diagnostic methods, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, etiology, pathogenesis, histopathology, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease control and prevention, vaccines, disease transmission, antibacterial agents, clinical aspects, Crohn's disease, drug therapy, zoonoses, public health concerns.

Buergelt, C.D.; Williams, J.E.; Monif, G.R.G.  Spontaneous clinical regression of Johne's disease in a Holstein cow: a case report.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 2(2): 126-129.  ISSN:  1542-2666.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
Descriptors:  Holstein cow diagnosed with Johnes’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, spontaneous regression, serologic titers decreased, fecal shedding abated, changes in environment may have triggered immune and host responses to cure the disease.

Bull, R.; Brooks, R.; Molesworth, R.; Watt, R.  Ovine Johne's Disease Interim Steering Committee Final Report 2004.  2004; 9 p.  ISBN:  0734716079.
Descriptors:  “Building Block for Ovine Johne’s Disease,” risk based training system, introduction of mandatory health declaration of all traded sheep, penalties for false information, Guidair vaccine for disease control, marker to show vaccination, Property Disease Management Programmes, New South Wales, Australia.

Burr, P.  Health schemes: are they only for the minority?  Cattle Practice.  2004; 12(4): 255-257.  ISSN:  0969-1251.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle health schemes, farmers, costs of disease control and prevention, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, resistance of farmers to benefits of higher health status, United Kingdom.  

Burriel, A.R.; Tsachev, I.; Ramantanis, S.B. Is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) a potential food-borne zoonotic agent? Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2004; 7(4): 197-208. ISSN: 1311-1477
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Crohn's disease, disease transmission, feces, food contamination, foodborne diseases, histopathology, milk, paratuberculosis, pasteurization, pathogenicity, zoonoses.

Buza, Jorarn J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Aodon Geril; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi.  Neutralization of interleukin-10 significantly enhances gamma interferon expression in peripheral blood by stimulation with Johnin purified protein derivative and by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally infected cattle with paratuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(4): 2425-2428.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, experimental infections, gene expression, immune response, interferon, interleukin-10 suppressive effects, IFN gamma secretion, monoclonal antibodies, paratuberculosis.

Caldow, G.  Biosecurity, does it have a place in the management of beef herds in the United Kingdom?  Cattle Practice.  2004; 12(2): 149-153.  ISSN:  0969-1251.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  beef cattle herds, losses due to infectious disease, cost of biosecurity systems, purchasing policies for breeding replacements, recommend and industry-wide approach, disease control programs, vaccination, salmonellosis, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, United Kingdom.

Caldow, G.; Gunn, G.; Crawshaw, M.; Rusbridge, S.; McDiarmid, J.  Can test and cull be a part of Johne's disease control?  Cattle Practice.  2004; 12(4): 249-253.  ISSN:  0969-1251.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.C37
Descriptors:  cattle, disease control program, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, test and cull strategy for infected herds, diagnostic tests, disease prevalence, disease prevention, disease transmission, Great Britain.

Carpenter, T.E.; Gardner, I.A.; Collins, M.T.; Whitlock, R.H.  Effects of prevalence and testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fecal culture on the risk of introduction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows into dairy herds.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(1): 31-38.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  dairy herd, stochastic simulation model for risk of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis introduced with female replacements, data included: effects of bacteria prevalence in source herd(s) disease status, number of females purchased, ELISA alone or ELISA and fecal culture, data varied according to disease levels of source herds.

Chacon, O.; Bermudez, L.E.; Barletta, R.G.  Johne's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.  Annual Review of Microbiology.  2004; 58: 329-363.  ISSN:  0066-4227.  Note:  A review article.
URL:  http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/loi/micro?cookieSet=1
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AN72
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, etiology of diarrheal diseases, Johne’s disease, possible agent of Crohn’s disease, microbial factors of pathogenicity, issues and controversy of pathogenic role in humans.

Chauhan, R.S.; Al Ani, F.K.  Bacterial diseases.  In:  Al Ani, F.K.  [Editor].  Camel: Management and Diseases. Published by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University.  Baghdad, Iraq.  2004; 385-408.
Descriptors:  camels, dromedaries, bacterial diseases, etiology, epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnostic techniques, disease control and prevention, drug therapies, bacterial toxins, pathogenesis, actinomycosis, anaplasmosis, anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, glanders, hemorrhagic septicemia, heartwater, Johne’s disease, leptospirosis, listeriosis, Lyme disease, melioidosis, mycoplasmosis, paratuberculosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, plague, pododermatitis, Q fever, salmonellosis, tetanus, tickborne fever.

Chavez-Gris, Gilberto; Trigo-Tavera, Francisco J.; Svastova, Petra; Pavlik, Ivo.  Identificacion del polimorfismo genetico de aislamientos de Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis de caprinos del centro de Mexico.  [Genetic polymorphism identification from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in goats in central Mexico.]  Veterinaria Mexico.  2004; 35(1): 75-82.  ISSN:  0301-5092.  Note:  In English and Spanish.  
URL:  http://www.medigraphic.com/veterinariamexico/
NAL Call No.:  SF604.V485
Descriptors:  goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genetic polymorphism, IS900 probe, BstEII restriction enzyme, C1 type, epidemiological study, disease, control, Mexico.  

Chui, Linda W.; King, Robin; Lu, Patricia; Manninen, Ken; Sim, Jeong.  Evaluation of four DNA extraction methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction.  Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  2004; 48(1): 39-45.  ISSN:  0732-8893.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5016&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a834b5d6c5e60ba3bd43424467395f82 NAL Call No.:  QR67.D53
Descriptors:  DNA extraction methods, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, rapid lysis, organic extraction, silica based and magnetic particle based technologies (MagaZorb TM), bacterial cells, spiked bovine feces, efficiency of extraction, PCR end point titration, insertion sequence IS900.

Chui, Linda W.; King, Robin; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Sim, Jeong.  Immunological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in chickens.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.  2004; 68(4): 302-308.  ISSN:  0830-9000.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=133
NAL Call No.:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  chickens, immune capture assay followed by PCR, heat and formalin inactivated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, immune response, IgY, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immune response, immunization.

Cismileanu, A.; Samarineanu, M.; Sarca, M.; Medeanu, R.  Profilul electroforetic si prin Western blot al unui antigen de tip lipoarabinomanan (LAM) de Mycobacterium avium subspecia paratuberculosis.  [The profile of a lipoarabinomannan-type antigen (LAM) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis determined by electrophoresis and Western Blot.]  Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara.  2004; 14(1): 81-88.  ISSN:  1220-3173.  Note:  In Rumanian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial antigen, lipoarabinomannan, carbohydrates, electrophoresis, Western blot, proteins, SDS-PAGE.

Coleshaw, P. Veterinary considerations of commercial goat keeping.Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2004; 20: 6-7. ISSN: 0961-2548
Descriptors: goats, kids, goat keeping, Dichelobacter nodosus, Listeria, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycoplasma, pneumonia, stress factors, foot rot, disease control, culling, therapy, veterinary services, florfenicol.

Collins, J.D.; Wall, P.G.  Food safety and animal production systems: controlling zoonoses at farm level.  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2004; 23(2): 685-700.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  ISBN:  9290446218.  Note:  In English with Spanish and French summaries.  
Descriptors:  food safety, animal production systems, disease control and prevention, epidemiology, feeds, stressors, risk assessments, selection pressure, transport of animals, tuberculosis, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, Brucella, Camplobacter, E. coli, Listeria, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, Trichinella, Yersinia, Toxoplasma, zoonotic diseases.

Collins, M.T.  Update on paratuberculosis. 3. Control and zoonotic potential.  Irish Veterinary Journal.  2004; 57(1): 49-52.  ISSN:  0368-0762.
Descriptors:  cattle, calves, humans, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease control and prevention, disease transmission, potential zoonotic disease, Crohn’s disease.

Corner, L.A.L.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Abbott, K.A.  The respiratory tract as a hypothetical route of infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(3): 170-173.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, route of infection, respiratory tract, disease infection hypothesis.

Costa, E.F.; Fazzio, L.E.; Traveria, G.E.; Sanchez, R.O.; Alvarado-Pinedo, M.F.; Mattioli, G.A.; Otero, M.M.; Chialva, M.; Romero, J.R.  Causas de mortalidad y aborto en bovinos informe de 1163 casos entre 1986 y 2001 en la provincia de Buenos Aires.  [Causes of mortality and abortion in cattle.  Report of 1163 cases from 1986 to 2001 in Buenos Aires, Argentina.]  Revista de Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires.  2004; 85(1): 16-22.  ISSN:  0325-6391.  Note:  In Spanish with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, necropsies, examination, death, abortion, ranges of ages, neonates—colibacillosis, 1-8 months—pneumonia, 8-18 months—mucosal disease, anthrax, various parasitic diseases, over 18 months, nutritional deficiencies, metabolic diseases, important infectious diseases—anthrax and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Coussens, P.M.; Verman, N.; Coussens, M.A.; Elftman, M.D.; McNulty, A.M.  Cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissues of cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: evidence for an inherent proinflammatory gene expression pattern.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(3): 1409-1422.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/3/1409
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  infected cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, suppression of a proinflammatory gene expression pattern, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs, genes encoding interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha ), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-16, IL-18, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), mesenteric lymph nodes draining infection sites.

Coussens, Paul.  Development of gene expression signatures for chronic infectious diseases, a bovine model.  Tissue Antigens.  2004; 64(4): 361.  ISSN:  0001-2815.  Note:  1st International Conference on Basic and Clinical Immunogenomics, Budapest, Hungary; October 03-07, 2004.
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, gene expression, animal disease model, Crohn's disease, chronic granulomatous enteritis, EST sequence.

Coussens, Paul M.  Model for immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in cattle.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(6): 3089-3096.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:   http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/full/72/6/3089
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, simulation models, immune response.

Coussens, P.M.; Jeffers, A.; Colvin, C.  Rapid and transient activation of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Johne's disease positive cows exposed to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in vitro.  Microbial Pathogenesis.  2004; 36(2): 93-108.  ISSN: 0882-4010.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6954&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=0ce0cc81f81ede9640040947d652abf1 NAL Call No.:  QR175.M53
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, dairy cows, gene expression regulation.

Cvetnic, Z.; Ocepek, M.; Spiic, S.; Habrun, B.; Mitak, M.; Krt, B.  Usporedba razliitih metoda dijagnostike paratuberkuloze u uzgoju mlijenih goveda.  [Comparison of different diagnostic methods for paratuberculosis in dairy cattle breedings.]  Veterinarska Stanica.  2004; 35(1): 5-13.  ISSN:  0350-7149.  Note:  In Croation with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  dairy cow farm, tuberculin testing, non-specific reactions, clinical symptoms pointed to paratuberculosis, serological testing, RVC, GDP test, ELISA and gamma IFN test together were best, different levels of sensitivity found, Croatia.

Dargatz, D.A.; Byrum, B.A.; Collins, M.T.; Goyal, S.M.; Hietala, S.K.; Jacobson, R.H.; Kopral, C.A.; Martin, B.M.; McCluskey, B.J.; Tewari, D.  A multi-laboratory evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(6): 509-514.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, antibody detection, laboratories, analytical kits, testing, variance, sources of variability.

Davidson, William R.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Nettles, Victor F. Culture and serologic survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection among Southeastern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004; 40(2): 301-306.  ISSN:  0090-3558.
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors: white tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, survey of disease levels, ELISA, lymph nodes, serology, surveillance of wild populations, currently not a disease reservoir, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, United States.

Dimareli-Malli, Z.; Samarineanu, M.; Sarca, M.; Zintzaras, E.; Sarris, K.; Tsitsamis, S.  Statistical evaluation of ELISA methods for testing caprine paratuberculosis.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 2(1): 10-16.  ISSN:  1542-2666.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
NAL Call No.:  SF601.J63
Descriptors:  goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. testing of 4 ELISA assays for diagnostic value-- LAM-A, LAM-P, GP, IDEXX-ELISA, and AGIT; a comparison study testing for sensitivity and specificity, 44 infected animals, 73 clinically healthy from infected herds, 62 known negatives, results presented show AGIT has high specificity, Greece, Mediterranean regions.

Dufour, Barbara; Pouillot, Regis; Durand, Benoit.  A cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis certification in French cattle herds.  Veterinary Research.  2004; 35(1): 69-81.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis certification, cost/benefit analysis, disease control, France.

Duskin, S.L.; Eckstein, I.M.; Belisle, J.T.; Inamine, J.M. Comparative lipidomics of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis vs. subsp avium. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 637. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: comparative lipidomics, biochemical differences, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K 10, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium serovar-2.

Ellingson, J.L.E.; Koziczkowski, J.J.; Anderson, J.L.  Comparison of PCR prescreening to two cultivation procedures with PCR confirmation for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in U.S. Department of Agriculture fecal check test samples.  Journal of Food Protection.  2004; 67(10): 2310-2314.  ISSN: 0362-028X.
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J824
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent in Johne's disease in cattle and causes diarrhea, decreased milk production, emaciation, and frequently death.  The ability to detect MAP rapidly and accurately is an integral part of herd management.  However, detection of this bacterium is complicated due to its slow division time and its ability to enter dormancy.  Culture methods are considered the "gold standard", but they have their limitations.  Many enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods and conventional PCR methods have been used as diagnostic tools.  The present study compares the results of a PCR prescreen to two culture methods of detection paired with confirmatory PCR to determine the most accurate, rapid, and sensitive method using U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) fecal check samples.  This study involving two laboratories (Marshfield Clinic Laboratories, using solid culture medium [Herrold's egg yolk agar], and TREK Diagnostic Systems Research and Development, using liquid culture medium [ESP Culture System II]) showed that the PCR prescreening method used in this study lacked specificity and sensitivity as a stand-alone test in fecal samples.  However, the combination of liquid enrichment culture using the ESP II system, and PCR confirmation with the hspX primer set, was not only 100% sensitive and specific but also correlated with viable MAP and USDA culture results.
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, feces, microbial detection, methodology, polymerase chain reaction, USDA, culture media, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, pathogenesis related proteins, virulence, genes, clinical examination, rapid methods, food safety.

Emery, D.L.; Whittington, R.J.  An evaluation of mycophage therapy, chemotherapy and vaccination for control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 104(3/4): 143-155.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  sheep, ruminants, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, various treatment options reviewed, chemotherapy, vaccination, mycophages, chemotherapeutic regimes, costs, effectiveness of  live and killed mycobacterian vaccines, neonatal vaccination with defined doses of bacteria, induction of protective Th1 type immunity.

Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Peral, D.L.; Weston, R.T.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I.  Beetles as possible vectors of infections caused by Mycobacterium avium species. Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 102(3-4): 247-255.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  insect vectors, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, animal pathogenic bacteria, disease transmission, paratuberculosis, zoonoses, adult insects, isolation, Coleoptera, larvae, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas atratus, barns, bran, peat, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, disease detection, avian tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis, Slovakia, Czech Republic.

Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Bartl, J.; Weston, R.T.; Pavlik, I.  Blowflies Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata as passive vectors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, M. a. paratuberculosis and M. a. hominissuis.  Medical and Veterinary Entomology.  2004; 18(2): 116-122.  ISSN: 0269-283X.
NAL Call No.:  RA639.M44
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae) isolates of identical restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type B-C1 were isolated from: intestinal mucosa of two cows showing clinical signs of paratuberculosis, a specimen of the blowfly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) captured while perched on these cattle intestines in a waste container at the site of the slaughter, and the blowflies C. vicina and Lucilia caesar Linnaeus captured the next day at the same site when no infected cattle with paratuberculosis were slaughtered.  Subsequently, second-stage larvae of the blowflies C. vicina and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) were experimentally infected by feeding them liver from hens with avian tuberculosis caused by M. a. avium (serotype 1, genotype IS901+ and IS1245+) and small cuts of pork meat contaminated with M. a. hominissuis (serotype 8, genotype IS901- and IS1245+). Mycobacterium a. avium of identical serotype, genotype and RFLP type F-C3 was isolated from C. vicina larvae on days 4 and 11 post infection (p.i.) and from L. sericata larvae on day 4 p.i.  Identical RFLP type B-C1 of M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from adult C. vicina fed with artificially contaminated saccharose solution on day 2 p.i. Investigation of M. a. paratuberculosis distribution inside the adult C. vicina showed that the majority of Colony Forming Units (CFU) were isolated from the abdomen and head, fewer from the thorax and wings and none from the legs.  Larvae and adults may participate in spreading causal agents of mycobacterial infections and this fact should be considered during sanitation of infected herds and in slaughterhouses when materials from animals affected by mycobacterial infections are processed.
Descriptors:  cows, Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia caesar, blowflies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, insect vectors, bacterial infection, pathogen identification, restriction fragment length polymorphism, tissue distribution, cows, hens, paratuberculosis, avian tuberculosis, chicken meat, pork, food contamination, disease transmission, Czech Republic.

Fredriksen, B.; Djonne, B.; Sigurdardottir, O.; Tharaldsen, J.; Nyberg, O.; Jarp, J.  Factors affecting the herd level of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.  Veterinary Record.  2004; 154(17): 522-526.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, dairy cattle, herd health, antibodies, variable factors.

Gardner, Richard A.; Ghobrial, George; Naser, Saleh A.; Phanstiel, Otto.  Synthesis and biological evaluation of new acinetoferrin homologues for use as iron transport probes in mycobacteria.  Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.  2004; 47(20): 4933-4940.  ISSN:  0022-2623.
URL:  http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jmcmar/index.html
NAL Call No.:  RS403.A1J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, iron transport, acinetoferrin, aminohydroxamic acid motif (2 equiv) to a tert-butyl citrate derivative homologues, generated two linear and two cyclic imide derivatives, growth stimulating behavior, DCC and N-hydroxysuccinimide, siderophore from Streptomyces pilosus, deferrioxamine B.

Ghadiali, A.H.; Strother, M.; Naser, S.A.; Manning, E.J.B.; Sreevatsan, S.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains isolated from Crohn's disease patients and animal species exhibit similar polymorphic locus patterns.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(11): 5345-5348.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/11/5345
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle, goats, humans, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease strains, Crohn’s disease strains, zoonotic disease strains, United States.

Glanemann, B.; Hoelzle, L.E.; Bogli-Stuber, K.; Jemmi, T.; Wittenbrink, M.M.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy cattle by culture and serology.  Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde.  2004; 146(9): 409-415.  ISSN:  0036-7281.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 SCH9
Descriptors:  186 dairy cows, 10 commercial herds, cattle antibody testing, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, culture techniques, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, diagnostic value, ELISA, fecal sampling, immunodiagnosis, commercial ELISA with MAP lipoarabinomannan, paratuberculosis, serology, Switzerland.

Glawischnig, W.; Awad-Masalmeh, M.; Khaschabi, D.; Schonbauer, M.  Nachweis von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis im Hoden eines klinisch erkrankten Zuchtstiers.  [Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from the testicles of a clinically infected breed.]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2004; 117(3/4): 136-139.  ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  Simmental bull, post mortem examination, severe Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, testicles sampled, no gross lesions, acid fast organisms found, cultured in mycostatin culture, PCR showed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, indication of bacteremia in final stages, possible transfer with artificial insemination.

Goethe, R.  Mechanismen der Aktivierung und Deaktivierung von J774 Makrophagen durch Mycobacterium avium Subspezies paratuberculosis.  Mechanisms of activation and deactivation of J774 macrophages by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  2004; 151.  Note:  A thesis published by Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany.  In German.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistence in mononuclear phagocytes, role in pathogenesis of paratuberculosis in ruminants, murine macrophages J774, infection mechanism, mycobacterial phagosome establishment, signal cascades and transactivation of genes, cytokine mRNA expression was detected, particularly of the IL-6 gene, protein kinase C, phosphotyrosine kinases.

Granger, K.; Moore, R.J.; Davies, J.K.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Stewart, D.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.  Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the natural host for the extraction and analysis in vivo-derived RNA.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2004; 57(2): 241-249.  ISSN:  0167-7012.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T30-4BYC4F5-1&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-A-AE-MsSAYVA-UUA-AUEAEVDCVW-AUYECWYBVW-CAUDDCYAC-AE-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=11&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234932%232004%23999429997%23491206!&_cdi=4932&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=695484d1a3d13c4638c1828f8ce80b07 Descriptors:  goats, classical signs of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, small intestines removed, luminal contents washed, mucosa and submucosa harvested, insotonic lysis and differential centrifugation, RNA extracted, realtime PCR, katG mRNA, differential increased expression in in-vivo compared to in-vitro samples, stress of intra-macrophage environment.

Grant, I.R. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk during commercial HTST pasteurization. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 2004; (392): 62-67. ISSN: 0250-5118. Note: International workshop on "Revisiting heat resistance of microorganisms in milk", Kiel, Germany, 5-8 May 2003.
NAL Call No.: 44.9 In82B
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, heat tolerance of pathogen, heat treatment, inactivation, milk, sub-lethally heat-injured pathogen, commercial pasteurization, pasteurized milk, survival, susceptibility, temperature, UK, Canada.

Grant, I.R.; Rowe, M.T.  Effect of chemical decontamination and refrigerated storage on the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from heat-treated milk.  Letters in Applied Microbiology.  2004; 38(4): 283-288.  ISSN:  0266-8254.
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=lam
NAL Call No.:  QR1.L47
Descriptors:  milk contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cold storage treatment, cetylpyridinium chloride treatment not recommended, pasteurization.

Grooms, D.  Johne's disease: A brief overview.  Proceedings / Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference.  2004; 41-46. Note:  Conference held April 27-28, 2004, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
NAL Call No.:  SF203.T75
Descriptors:  dairy cows, beef cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, symptoms, economic impacts, control, United States.

Gulani, J.; Vemulapalli, R. Expression of potential protective proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Brucella abortus RB51 - a new approach to vaccine development against Johne's disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 255. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: cattle diseases,Brucella abortus RB51,Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, BALB c mouse model, protective proteins, expression system, vaccine potential, disease control.

Hacker, U.; Huttner, K.; Konow, M.  Untersuchung zur serologischen Pravalenz und zu Risikofaktoren der Paratuberkulose in Milchviehbetrieben in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.  [Investigation of serological prevalence and risk factors of paratuberculosis in dairy farms in the State of Mecklenburg-Westpommerania, Germany.]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2004; 117(3/4): 140-144.  ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German with an English summary.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors: dairy farms; 2997 serum samples; 59 pre-selected dairy farms, analyzed for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Svanovir ELISA,  herd prevalence 12.2% , need for common program to control Johne’s disease in Germany, Mecklenburg-Pomerania, Germany.

Hammer, P.; Kiesner, C.; Walte, H.G.; Knappstein, K.; Teufel, P.  Heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in raw milk tested in a pilot-plant pasteurizer. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 53-61.  ISSN:  0250-5118.
NAL Call No.:  44.9 IN82B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial contaminant in raw milk, inactivation by heat treatments, heat resistance, heat tolerance, pasteurization, pasteurizers, various heat combinations, experimental treatment with 5 treatments, factors influencing heat tolerance, cell clumps, phagocytosis, metabolic activity and heat activation.

Hanrahan, C.; Protopopova, M.; Bogatcheva, E.; Sacksteder, K.; Finck, L.; Nacy, C. A high-throughput method for screening a library of ethambutol analogs against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 627. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note; 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: ethanbutol analogs, pharmacology, nminimal inhibitory concentration, bovine pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Harp, J.A.; Stabel, J.R.; Pesch, B.A.; Goff, J.P.  Expression of adhesion molecules on milk and blood lymphocytes from periparturient dairy cattle with Johne's disease.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2004; 98(1/2): 69-76.  ISSN:  0165-2427.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776 NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  dairy cows, infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, parturition, and up to 21 days post-partum, monitoring for T lymphocytes and expression of adhesion molecules on cell in blood and milk.

Harwood, D.  Diseases of dairy goats.  In Practice.  2004; 26(5): 248-259.  ISSN:  0263-841X.  
NAL Call No.:  SF601.I4
Descriptors:  dairy goats, common infectious diseases, differences with reference to common infectious diseases, other clinical conditions, endoparasites and breeding/fertility problems, species differences with reference to common infectious diseases, other clinical conditions, metabolic diseases, endoparasites and breeding/fertility problems, disease transmission, disease prevention, disease control, includes bacterial diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, United Kingdom.

Heeb, M.; Austerman, S.R.; Hall, J.; Evans, R.  Comparison of commercial ELISA tests for Johne's disease in beef cattle herds.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 300.  ISSN:  0743-0450.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  beef cattle, beef herds, epidemiology, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, commercial ELISA kits, comparison study.

Hein, Wayne R; Barber, Ttessa; Cole, Sally Ann; Morrison, Lilian; Pernthaner, Anton.  Long-term collection and characterization of afferent lymph from the ovine small intestine.  Journal of Immunological Methods.  2004; 293(1-2): 153-168.  ISSN:  0022-1759.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=4931&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a9f24e1e7fcf9211e6517a50df2f26f4 NAL Call No.: QR180.J6
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, animal parasitic nematodes, animal disease models, experimental infections, host/parasite relationships, immune response, small intestine, lymph flow, methodology, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease.

Hellberg, H.; Mork, T.  Overvakings- og kontrollprogrammene viser fortsatt god helse hos fisk, skjell og landdyr i Norge.  [Surveillance and control programmes show continued good health in fish, shellfish and farm animals in Norway.]  Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift.  2004; 116(10): 656-658.  ISSN:  0332-5741.  Note:  In Norwegian.  
Descriptors:  18 surveillance and control programs, farm animals, fish, shellfish, new scrapie Nor98, bovine diarrhea virus—1 case, swine influenza—1 case, avian rhinotracheitis—1 flock, Salmonella—2 cattle, 1 pigs, 1 poultry, 3 goats, paratuberculosis, Norway.

Hendrick, S.H.; Duffield, T.F.; Kelton, T.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, L.K.D.; Archambault, M.  Risk factors for Johne's disease in Ontario dairy herds.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 204, 271.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, dairy herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disease prevalence, disease control, risk factors, Ontario, Canada.

Hillerton, J.E.  Control of MAP in milk.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (386): 17-19.  ISSN:  0250-5118.  
NAL Call No.: 44.9 IN82B
Descriptors:  cattle disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, precautionary approach to control milk supply contaminates should be adopted, approaches necessary at farm level, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease.

Hirst, H.L.; Garry, F.B.; Morley, P.S.; Salman, M.D.; Dinsmore, R.P.; Wagner, B.A.; McSweeney, K.D.; Goodell, G.M.  Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection among dairy cows in Colorado and herd-level risk factors for seropositivity.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2004; 225(1): 97-101.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, herd risk factors, serum testing, disease incidence, Colorado.

Holmes, I.R.L.; Jubb, T.F.; Callinan, A.P.L.  Infection rates in reactors to an absorbed ELISA used in a test and cull program for bovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(4): 233-235.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  cattle, culling of diseased animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infection rates, testing program, absorbed ELISA diagnostic test.

Holzmann, C.B.; Jorge, M.C.; Traversa, M.J.; Schettino, D.M.; Medina, L.; Bernardelli, A.  Estudio del comportamiento epidemiologico de la paratuberculosis bovina mediante series cronologicas en Tandil, provincia de Buenos Aires,Argentina.  [A study of the epidemiological behavior of bovine paratuberculosis using time series in Tandil in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.]  Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties.  2004; 23(3): 791-799.  ISSN:  0253-1933.  Note:  In Spanish with summaries in English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF781.R4
Descriptors:  cattle disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, time series data, clinical behavior of disease, diagnosis, macroscopic examination, ELISA, comparative tuberculin test, bacterial disease, epidemiology, Argentina.

Hruska, K.  Research on paratuberculosis: analysis of publications 1994-2004. Veterinarni Medicina.  2004; 49(8): 271-282.  ISSN:  0375-8427.  
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  analysis of scientific literature on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, papers, authors, institutional affiliations, journals, top 50 authors, top 50 institutions, top 50 most frequently cited articles, trends show significant increases in research, Web of Knowledge Results Analysis, OIE Reference Laboratory for Paratuberculosis.

Huda, A.; Jungersen, G.; Lind, P.  Longitudinal study of interferon-gamma, serum antibody and milk antibody responses in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 104(1-2): 43-53.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis diagnostic techniques, disease markers, antibodies, immune response, immunodiagnosis, interferon, lymphocytes, milk serum.

Humphry, R.W.; Cameron, A.; Gunn, G.J.  A practical approach to calculate sample size for herd prevalence surveys.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 65(3/4): 173-188.  ISSN:  0167-5877.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f
NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  cattle herd level prevalence testing, disease survey, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, imperfect diagnostic test, epidemiology, sampling sizes, mathematical models, benefits, costs, low numbers of herds, large number of animals per herd and exclusion of small herds, achieving high herd level sensitivity and specificity.

Hutchinson, L.J.; Weinstock, D.; Byler, L.I.  Case report - management of paratuberculosis in a dairy goat herd.  Bovine Practitioner.  2004; 38(2): 142-146.  ISSN:  0524-1685.  Note:  In English with a French summary.   
NAL Call No.:  SF779.5.A1B6
Descriptors:  mixed breed dairy goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serological screening for Johne’s, ELISA, agar gel immunodiffusion, AGID, positive animals removed, euthanized or sold for meat, necropsied, histopathology and tissues cultured, testing identified positive animals, recommended for management practices, United States.

Ibrahim, A.; El Sanousi, S.; Aradaib, I.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR).  Veterinarski Arhiv.  2004; 74(1): 27-35.  ISSN:  0372-5480.  Note:  In English with a Croatian summary.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V6416
Descriptors:  detection assay with increased sensitivity, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, nested PCR, IS1311, 1st is a 549 bp PCR (P1, P2), 2nd set of primers (P3, P4) frn IS1311 for a 260bp PCR product, useful at early stages of the infection.

Ikonomopoulos, J.; Gazouli, M.; Pavlik, I.; Bartos, M.; Zacharatos, P.; Xylouri, E.; Papalambros, E.; Gorgoulis, V.  Comparative evaluation of PCR assays for the robust molecular detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2004; 56(3): 315-321.  ISSN:  0167-7012.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T30-4B5435C-2&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-A-AE-MsSAYVW-UUA-AUYZWVUUWZ-AUYBYWUYWZ-BECBEEAUE-AE-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=2&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234932%232004%23999439996%23480150!&_cdi=4932&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f3785c183ef03e76c99e976dfc93f1bc NAL Call No.:  QR65.J68
Descriptors: detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, molecular assay method with optimum performance and cost, high reproducibility, DNA extraction, PCR assays, one-tube nested, 2 two-tube nested, and a single PCR assay, targeted different genomic regions of IS900 element, tested various samples, pure bacterial cultures, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) infected cattle tissue samples, chickens with M. avium subsp. avium, best assay was one-tube nested PCR assay combined with in-house DNA extraction, 3 laboratories collaborated, Czech Republic, Greece.

Irish Veterinary Association.  Report of the 40th winter scientific meeting of the Association of Veterinary Teachers and Research Workers (Irish region).  Irish Veterinary Journal.  2004; 57(2): 87-94.  ISSN:  0368-0762.
Descriptors:  report, list of animal diseases, livestock, pets, poultry, disease prevalence, pharmacokinetics, diagnostic techniques, many viral and bacterial diseases—transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, bovine herpesvirus 4, feline immunodeficiency virus, subclinical mastitis, Brucella abortus, E. coli, Neospora canium, Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava, Irish Republic.

Jafarzadeh, S.R.; Nowrouzian, I.; Khaki, Z.; Ghamsari, S.M.; Adibhashemi, F. The sensitivities and specificities of total plasma protein and plasma fibrinogen for the diagnosis of traumatic reticulperitonitis in cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2004 Aug 30; 65(1-2): 1-7. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, omasum, digestive system diseases, blood proteins, blood chemistry, fibrinogen, peritonitis, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques; symptoms, liver abscess, vagus indigestion.

Jessep, T.; Arnott, R.; Walker, B.  Supporting BJD zoning - guidelines for agents and saleyard operators.  Agnote NSW Agriculture.  2004; (DAI-323 (1st Edition)): 3.  ISSN:  1034-6848.
Descriptors:  beef and dairy industries, bovine Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis zoning in New South Wales, protected zone, control zone, role of agents and sale yard operators, disease prevention and control programs, guidelines, Australia.

Joardar, S.N.; Nasir, A.; Tewari, V.; Gupta, A.; Goswami, T.K.; Ram, G.C.  Cellular immunoreactivity of fractionated antigens of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 316F.  Indian Journal of Animal Health.  2004; 43(2): 127-133.  ISSN:  0019-5057. 
NAL Call No.:  SF1.I4
Descriptors:  mice, guinea pigs, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cellular immune responses, live bacteria experimental infection, affinity purified antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 316F, fractions of protein antigens, e ConA bound fraction increased invitro T lymphocyte proliferation and higher NO2 production mouse splenic macrophages, guinea pigs showed less cross reaction to related mycobacteria, delayed type hyper-sensitivity.

Jubb, T.F.; Galvin, J.W.  Effect of a test and control program for Johne's disease in Victorian beef herds 1992-2002.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(3): 164-166.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, beef cattle, herd health, testing and control programs, program evaluation, effectiveness, Victoria, Australia.

Jubb, T.F.; Galvin, J.W.  Effect of a test and control programme for bovine Johne's disease in Victorian dairy herds 1992-2002.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(4): 228-232.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  infected dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Victorian Johne’s Disease Test and Control Programme, 542 dairy herds participated, testing of 2 year and older animals, ELISA, culling of reactors, minimize infection in younger animals, 680,000 tested, 10,000 reactors, statistics on the results of the programs presented, Victoria, Australia. 

Jubb, T.F.; Sergeant, E.S.G.; Callinan, A.P.L.; Galvin, J.W.  Estimate of the sensitivity of an ELISA used to detect Johne's disease in Victorian dairy cattle herds.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(9): 569-573.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  dairy herd, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection method assessment, ELISA, Victoria, Australia.

Kalis, C.H.J.; Collins, M.T.; Barkema, H.W.; Hesselink, J.W.  Certification of herds as free of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection: actual pooled faecal results versus certification model predictions.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 65(3-4): 189-204.  ISSN: 0167-5877
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, herd health monitoring, herd certification, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, models, pooled feces, microbial detection, The Netherlands.

Kasravi, R.; Nowrouzian, I.  Clinical paratuberculosis as a cause for higher culling rate in cows with left displaced abomasum and diarrhoea in a Holstein dairy herd.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2004; 51(6): 302-303.  ISSN:  0931-1793.
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0931-1793&site=1
NAL Call No.:  41.8 Z52
Descriptors:  Holstein cattle, left-displaced abomasums, diarrhea, clinical aspects, histopathology, diagnosed with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, case reports, culling decisions.

Kasravi, R.; Nowrouzian, I.  Johne's disease as a probable cause for higher culling rate in cows with left displaced abomasum and diarrhea in a dairy herd in Iran.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor] Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 304.  ISSN:  0743-0450.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  cattle, dairy cows, rate of culling of disease animals, abomasum displacement, diarrhea, probably Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Iran.

Kataria, A.K.; Kataria, N.; Harsh, S.K.; Dadhich, H.; Lal Singh; Gahlot, A.K.  An outbreak of paratuberculosis complicated with schistosomosis in sheep.  Indian Journal of Animal Health.  2004; 43(2): 145-148.  ISSN:  0019-5057.  
NAL Call No.:  SF1.I4
Descriptors:  sheep, concurrent infections, outbreaks of schistosomiasis and Johne’s disease, Schistoma, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical signs, diagnosis, blood chemistry, diagnosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, histopathology, mortality, high mortality, paratuberculosis, postmortem examinations, Rajasthan, India. 

Katayama, Nobuya; Shibata, Masashi; Suzuki, Takumi; Ootake, Masayoshi; Kamata, Shinichi; Yokomizo, Yuichi.  Effects of ammonia treatment under various conditions on viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis inoculated in low moisture roughage.  Nihon Sōchi Gakkai shi.  [Journal of Grassland Science].  2004; 50(3): 280-284.  ISSN:  0447-5933.
NAL Call No.:  60.9 J27
Descriptors:  low moisture roughage, ammonia treatment, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen survival, animal feeds, laboratory scale experiment, NH4OH, filter paper of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, temperature and humidity variations, time trial, disinfecting hay.

Katayama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Ootake, M.; Kamata, S.; Yokomizo, Y.  Influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) on viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Nihon Sōchi Gakkai shi. [Journal of Grassland Science]. 2004; 50(4): 336-340.  ISSN:  0447-5933.  Note:  In English with a Japanese summary.  
NAL Call No.:  60.9 J27
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains BBM2201 and ATCC19851, raw, dried suspensions in distilled water, diluted slurry, irradiated with UV-B at levels 2,4,8,17,34,136,271,543, 1085 kJ/m2, viability testing, differences in inactivation due to environment, homogenized feces, slurry, raw and dried leaves of corn (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum spp.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), bacterial survival in feces and fodder grass leaves can be long periods with exposure to sunlight.

Keller, L.L.; Rae, D.O.; Harrell, C.D.; Loerzel, S.M.  Johne's Disease: seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Florida beef and dairy cattle.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor] Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 293.  ISSN:  0743-0450.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  beef cattle, dairy cattle, seroprevalence for antibodies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Florida, United States.

Khalifeh, M.S.; Stabel, J.R.  Effects of gamma interferon, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor beta on the survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in monocyte-derived macrophages from naturally infected cattle.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(4): 1974-1982.  ISSN:  0019-9567.  
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin-10,  immunity, in vivo and in vitro infection, effects on IFN gamma, TGF beta by peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC, gamma interferon macrophages, monocytes, paratuberculosis, survival, PBMCs from subclincally infected animals. 

Khalifeh, M.S.; Stabel, J.R.  Upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in cows with clinical Johne's disease.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2004; 99(1/2): 39-46.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776 NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  healthy, subclinically or clinically infected cows, clinical stage of Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dynamics of host immune response, tissue sampling of ileum, ileocecal junction, ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph nodes, expression of TGF-beta, IL-10, and IFN-gamma genes, quantitative competitive RT-PCR, TGF-beta and IL-10 mRNA are elevated in the clinical stage.

Khare, S.; Figueiredo, J.F.; Lawhon, S.; Rosetti, C.; Nunes, J.E.S.; Gull, T.; Ficht, T.A.; Rice-Ficht, A.C.; Adams, L.G. Gene expression analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected Peyer's patches in ligated bovine ileal loops. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 99. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note; 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, gene expression analysis, bovine pathogen from Peyer’s patches, ileal loops.

Khare, S.; Ficht, T.A.; Santos, R.L.; Romano, J.; Ficht, A.R.; Zhang, S.P.; Grant, I.R.; Libal, M.; Hunter, D.; Adams, L.G.  Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine milk and feces by a combination of immunomagnetic bead separation-conventional PCR and real-time PCR.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(3): 1075-1081.  ISSN:  0095-1137.  
URL:   http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/3/1075
Descriptors:  Bison bison, buffalo, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection, immunomagnetic bead separation, diagnostic techniques, DNA replication, fecal sampling, milk, nucleotide sequences, PCR.

Kim, S.G.; Kim, E.H.; Lafferty, C.J.; Miller, L.J.; Koo, H.J.; Stehman, S.M.; Shin, S.J.  Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a broth-based culture system ESP II.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(5): 448-453.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  ESP II Culture System, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured from feces, realtime PCR assays, IS900 sequence, diagnostic techniques, detection methods.  

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George M.; Davies, Christopher J.; Kim, Jong Bae; Dahl, John L.; Waters, W. Ray; Davis, William C.  Analysis of the immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally infected calves.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(12): 6870-6883.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  cattle, young animals, experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, bacterial antigens, T lymphocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, CD8+ lymphocytes, flow cytometry, immune response, immunity, cell proliferation.

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Ahn, Jongsam; Waters, W. Ray; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George; Mosaad, Abdelaziz A.; Palmer, Mitch V.; Shin, Sang; Davis, William C.  New latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Myobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2004; 11(6): 1070-1074.  ISSN:  1556-6811.  URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=84.
Descriptors:  cattle, infected cows, assays, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnostic techniques, differential diagnosis, ELISA, immunodominant epitope ESAT6-p, latex agglutination test, peptides, enzyme immuno assay. 

Kudahl, A.; Nielsen, S.S.; Sorensen, J.T.  Relationship between antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and shape of lactation curves.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 62(2): 119-134.  ISSN: 0167-5877.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  dairy cows, heifers, lactation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, lactation, milk yield, lactation curve, milk, optical properties, parity reproduction, lactation stage, mathematical models, antibody detection, antibodies, Denmark.

Kurade, N.P.; Tripathi, B.N.; Rajukumar, K.; Parihar, N.S.  Sequential development of histologic lesions and their relationship with bacterial isolation, fecal shedding, and immune responses during progressive stages of experimental infection of lambs with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Pathology.  2004; 41(4): 378-387.  ISSN:  0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/content/by/year
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Descriptors:  20 crossbred lambs, oral experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infection stages 10-330 days post infection, diagnostic tests used, bacterial culture, lymphocyte stimulation test (LST), ELISA, locations and patterns of granulomatous lesions of intestines, intestinal lymphoid tissue, cellular infiltration, presence of acid fast bacilli, first establishes in lymphoid tissue of small intesting producing segmental lesions, the lamina propria and local lymph nodes, histopathology, Peyer’s patches.

Lambeth, C.; Reddacliff, L.A.; Windsor, P.; Abbott, K.A.; McGregor, H.; Whittington, R.J.  Intrauterine and transmammary transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in sheep.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(8): 504-508.  ISSN: 0005-0423.  
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease transmission, in utero transmission, mammary glands, nursing milk transmission.

Lanigan, M.D.; Vaughan, J.A.; Shiell, B.J.; Beddome, G.J.; Michalski, W.P. Mycobacterial proteome extraction: comparison of disruption methods.  Proteomics.  2004; 4(4): 1094-1100.  ISSN:  1615-9853.
URL:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/107629550/ABSTRACT
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, proteome extraction, comparison study, disruption methods, bead beating sonication, lysates, broad and narrow range 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis, similar results.

Lombard, J.E.; Hirst, H.L.; Antognoli, M.C.; Salman, M.D.; Garry, F.B.  Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Johne's disease using detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissues to classify infection status of dairy cows.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 205, 272-273.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, dairy cows, fecal sampling, diagnostic techniques for infection status, ELISA, postmortem examinations, histopathology.  

Lugton, I.W.  Cross-sectional study of risk factors for the clinical expression of ovine Johne's disease on New South Wales farms.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(6): 355-365.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, clinical level disease, cross sectional risk factors, New South Wales, Australia. 

Lugton, I.W.  Review of possible links between the clinical expression of paratuberculosis and deficiency of macro and micro-nutrients.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(8): 490-496.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, macro nutrients, micro nutrients, trace element deficiencies, copper, iron, selenium, molybdenum, nutrient balance, pastures, soil types, soil acidity, pH, liming, disease prevention, environmental factors, epidemiology, reviews.

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Chen, S.; Turcotte, C.  Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2003.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 45(11): 915-916.  ISSN:  0008-5286.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  bison, cattle, wild animals, zoo animals, Cervus elaphus Canadensis, fallow deer, white tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, pigs, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium triviale, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, Alberta, Quebec, Ontario, Prince, Edward Island, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.

Machackova, M.; Svastova, P.; Lamka, J.; Parmova, I.; Liska, V.; Smolik, J.; Fischer, O.A.; Pavlik, I.  Paratuberculosis in farmed and free-living wild ruminants in the Czech Republic (1999-2001).  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 101(4): 225-234.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal, pathogenic bacteria, disease vectors, wild animals, disease reservoirs, disease transmission, risk factors, Cervus dama, Capreolus capreolus, Mouflo, Cervus elaphus, game animals, livestock and meat industry, disease prevalence, disease diagnosis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, livestock, epidemiological surveys, farmed deer industry, game parks, Czech Republic.

Mackintosh, C.G.; de Lisle, G.W.; Collins, D.M.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Mycobacterial diseases of deer.  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2004; 52(4): 163-174.  ISSN:  0048-0169.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  deer, captive, farmed, wild, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium bovis, culling for slaughter as control after skin and blood testing, movement control and vector control, factors affecting susceptibility—age, environment, population density, exposure to pathogens, and genetics, difficulty in diagnosing subspecies of Mycobacterium avium with specificity, New Zealand.

Martini, A.; Marconi, P.; Ponzetta, M.P.; Giorgetti, A.; Viliani, M.  Sanitary monitoring models for wild ungulate stock farms in Tuscany.  Veterinary Research Communications.  2005; 29(Suppl. 2): 77-82.  ISSN:  0165-7380.  
URL:  http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0165-7380/contents
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V38
Descriptors:  farmed game animals, red deer, Cervus elaphus, fallow deer, wild pigs, Sus scrofa, animal diseases, disease prevalence, disease surveys, seroprevalence, etiology, animal pathogens, clinical aspects, diagnosis, antibodies, postmortem examinations, microbial contamination of feeds, sanitation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ascaridiosis, coccidiosis, leptospirosis, parasitoses, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, trichuriasis, Acanthocephala, Aujeszky virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, encephalomyocarditis virus, Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava, Nematoda, Protozoa, Yersinia enterocolitica, Tuscany, Italy.

Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Bartos, M.; Docekal, J.; Trckova, M.; Pavlik, I.  Tuberculous lesions in pig lymph nodes caused by kaolin fed as a supplement.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2004; 49(10): 379-388.  ISSN:  0375-8427.
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors:  slaughtered pigs, 2 farms, tuberculous lesions, head, mesenteric lymph nodes, sources of infection, piglets feed contaminated kaolin as a supplement, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, kaolin contaminated by surface water used in levigation, Czech Republic.

McClure, P.; Stewart, C.; Collins, M.; Condron, R.; Dumon, I.; Eberhard, P.; Grant, I.; Komorowski, E.; Lodi, R.; Paris, M.; Snyder, D.; Tomasula, P.; Varga, F.; Zecconi, A.  Working Group 2: Experimental designs.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 120-123.  ISSN:  0250-5118.
NAL Call No.:  44.9 IN82B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, experimental contamination of milk, experimental design, heating methodologies, decontamination procedures, pasteurization. 

McConnel, C.S.; Churchill, R.C.; Richard, M.M.; Corkhill, C.M.; Reddacliff, L.A.; Whittington, R.J.  Surgical method for biopsy of terminal ileum and mesenteric lymph node of sheep for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(3):149-151.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, bacterial detection, surgical method, intestinal biopsy, ileum, mesenteric lymph node.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Barkema, H.W.; McClure, J.; Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Hanna, P.; Sockett, D.C.  Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2004; 87(11): 3770-3777.  ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  dairy cows, culling animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, body condition scoring, disease detection, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Maine.

Mendes, S.; Boinas, F.; Albuquerque, T.; Fernandes, L.; Afonso, A.; Amado, A.  Epidemiological studies on paratuberculosis in small ruminants in Portugal.  Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2004; (45): 61-71.  ISSN:  0754-2186.  Note:  In English with a French summary.  
Descriptors:  66 sheep and goat flocks, seropositive testing of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, high incidence in milk versus meat producers, intestinal lesions, disease prevention and control measures, Lisbon, Portugal.

Miciora, R.  Boala Crohn etiologie controversata.  [Crohn's disease - controversial etiology.]  Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara.  2004; 14(1): 37-44.  ISSN:  1220-3173.  Note:  In Romanian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  humans, cattle, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, etiology, clinical aspects, disease transmission, zoonotic disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

Mortensen, H.; Nielsen, S.S.; Berg, P.  Genetic variation and heritability of the antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Danish Holstein cows.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2004; 87(7): 2108-2113.  ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic variation and the heritability of the ability to establish an immune response by producing antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Antibody levels were determined using an ELISA and measuring optical density (OD) values from milk samples of 11,535 cows from 99 herds.  The pedigree of the 11,535 cows and information about days in milk, parity, milk yield, and others were obtained from the Danish Cattle database.  The statistical analyses were made using a bivariate mixed animal model.  The bivariate model with daily milk yield and OD as dependent variables showed a significant heritability of the ability to produce Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies of 0.102 (genetic variance = 0.054) and a nonsignificant genetic correlation of -0.037 between daily milk yield and OD.  When a sire model was used, the estimated heritability was 0.091.  To evaluate whether intrauterine infection could be reflected in the OD, variation among 2715 dam-daughter or maternal sister groups was also estimated.  Variation in this data was nonsignificant, possibly because only very few clinical cases or end-stage cows, i.e., heavy bacterial shedders may have been represented among the cows sampled.  It does not appear that intrauterine transmission is of major importance in the transmission of paratuberculosis.
Descriptors:  dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, antibody formation, genetic resistance, disease resistance, heritability, immunoglobulin G, gene expression, milk yield, animal age, calving, genotype, genetic variation, genetic correlation, Denmark.  

Motiwala, A.S.; Amonsin, A.; Strother, M.; Manning, E.J.B.; Kapur, V.; Sreevatsan, S.  Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from wild animal species.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(4): 1703-1712.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/4/1703
Descriptors:  wild animal species, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, molecular epidemiology, alleles, genetic markers, loci, molecular epidemiology, PCR, United States.

Muhlherr, J.; Stephan, R.  Mikrobiologische Qualitat von roher Ziegen- und Schafmilch in der Schweiz.  [The microbiological quality of raw goat and ewe milk in Switzerland.]  Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants.  2004; (1/2): 6-15.  Note:  In German and French.
Descriptors:  goat milk, ewe milk, 344 goat herds, 63 sheep flocks, average bacterial count, incidence of enterobacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Switzerland.

Munjal, S K.; Boehmer, J.; Beyerbach, M.; Strutzberg-Minder, K.; Homuth, M.  Evaluation of a LAM ELISA for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 103(1-2): 107-114.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  goats, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, lipoarabinomanan (LAM) antigen, blood serum, milk samples, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion, immunological techniques, lymph nodes, paratuberculosis, PCR.

NSW Department of Primary Industires, OJD prevalence areas.  OJD prevalence areas.  2004; 1.
URL:  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/sheep/ojd/about/ojd-prevalence-areas-jan2011
Descriptors:  sheep, ovine Johne’s disease, prevalence of disease, area maps, surveillance data, 2 year collection period, Australia.

Naugle, A.L.; Saville, W.J.A.; Shulaw, W.P.; Wittum, T.E.; Love, B.C.; Dodaro, S.J.; McPhail, I.L.  Comparison of management practices between Ohio, USA dairy farms participating in whole-herd Johne's disease testing programs and those not participating.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 65(1-2): 77-92.  ISSN: 0167-5877.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  dairy farms, herd health, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, comparison of herd management practices, testers and non-testers, Ohio, United States.

Nielsen, S.S.; Kolmos, B.; Christoffersen, A.B.  Comparison of contamination and growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on two different media.  Journal of Applied Microbiology.  2004; 96(1): 149-153.  ISSN:  1364-5072.
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1364-5072
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, comparison study, growth and degree of contamination, Herrold’s egg yolk medium (HEYM) and modified Lowenstein-Jensen medium, culture of 2513 fecal sample from dairy cows, read at 5, 8 and 12 weeks, HEYM was better growth medium.

Olsen, I.; Johansen, T.B.; Billman-Jacobe, H.; Nilsen, S.F.; Djonne, B.  A novel IS element, ISMpa1, in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 98(3/4): 297-306.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, IS110 family, ISMpal of 1500 bp and 1 ORE encoding a putative transposase, detected in 11 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains but not in most other Mycobacterium strains examined including 10 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates of human, avian and porcine origins, 2 porcine Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates and reference strain IWGMT49 did have ISMpa1, other molecular information explored, potentially useful to differentiate strains when used with IS900, cytochrome P-450, open reading frames, oxygenases, transposable elements.

O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin.  Rapid real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA in artificially contaminated milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2004; 70(8): 4561-4568.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, spiked milk, PCR based rapid detection assay, primers, probes, IS900, highly sensitive, reproducible, DNA isolation method, 3 hr time period.  

O' Shea, B.; Khare, S.; Bliss, K.; Klein, P.; Ficht, T.A.; Adams, L.G.; Rice-Ficht, A.C. Amplified fragment length polymorphism reveals genomic variability among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004; 42(8): 3600-3606.
URL:http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/8/3600
DOI: doi:10.1128/JCM.42.8.3600-3606.2004
Abstract: Ninety-six primer sets were used for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to characterize the genomes of 20 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates, 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ATCC 19698), and 2 M. avium subsp. avium isolates (ATCC 35716 and Mac 104). AFLP analysis revealed a high degree of genomic polymorphism among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates that may be used to establish diagnostic patterns useful for the epidemiological tracking of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions revealed by AFLP were cloned and sequenced. Primers were generated internal to these regions for use in PCR analysis and applied to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates. An appropriate PCR product was obtained in 79 of 80 reactions, while the M. avium subsp. avium isolates failed to act as templates for PCR amplification in seven of eight reactions. This work revealed the presence of extensive polymorphisms in the genomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, many of which are based on deletions. Of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequences studied, one revealed a 5,145-bp region with no homologue in the M. avium subsp. avium genome. Within this region are genes responsible for integrase-recombinase function. Three additional M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions were cloned, revealing a number of housekeeping genes; all were evaluated for their diagnostic and epidemiological value..
Descriptors: genes, genetic polymorphism, genetic variation, genome analysis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium amplified fragment length polymorphism, genetic variability, genotypic variability.

Parimal Roy; Edwin, P.G.; Vajiravel-Jayakumar; Hemalatha, S.; Purushothaman, V.  An outbreak of Johne's disease among sheep in an organized farm.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2004; 74(11): 1118-1119.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne’s disease diagnosed, rectal pinch and lymph samples, antibody detection via AGID tests, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, Tamil Nadu, India.

Paustian, M.L.; Amonsin, A.; Kapur, V.; Bannantine, J.P.  Characterization of novel coding sequences specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: implications for diagnosis of Johne's Disease.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(6): 2675-2681.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/2675
Descriptors:  rabbits, mice, cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, subspecies differentiation, sera testing from infected animals, diagnostic techniques, recombinant proteins, potential for diagnostic gene sequences, PCR, open reading frames, paratuberculosis.

Paustian, M.L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Kapur, V. Whole-genome transcriptional response of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis to mycobactin j. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 40. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, molecular genetics, livestock pathogen, genomics, pathogen response to mycobactin J.

Pavlik, I.; Jahn, P.; Dvorska, L.; Bartos, M.; Novotny, L.; Halouzka, R.  Mycobacterial infections in horses: a review of the literature.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2004; 49(11): 427-440.  ISSN:  0375-8427.  Note:  Literature review.
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  horses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti, disease prevalence, disease transmission, disease reservoir, epidemiology, atypical course of infection, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, histopathology, molecular genetics, risk factors, zoonoses.

Pearce, L.E.; Truong, H.T.; Crawford, R.A.; de Lisle, G.W.  Kinetic studies on the heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) during turbulent-flow pasteurization.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 49-52.  ISSN:  0250-5118.  
NAL Call No.:  44.9 IN82B
Descriptors:  treatment of milk contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, raw milk, milk spiked with fecal material from Johne’s positive animal, different pathogenic strains, heat tolerance, heat treatment, pasteurization, pasteurizers, kinetics, strains, 9 temperature treatments, susceptibility, UHT milk.

Pearce, L.E. Survey of data on heat resistance of dairy pathogens. Bulletin-of the International Dairy Federation. 2004; (392): 37-41. Note: International workshop on "Revisiting heat resistance of microorganisms in milk", Kiel, Germany, 5-8 May 2003. ISSN: 0250-5118
NAL Call No.: 44.9 In82B
Descriptors : Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, cheeses, food safety, pathogen heat resistance, milk pasteurization, literature review.

Pence, M.; Thomson, J.U.; Cole, D.  Important elements of the HACCP process to control Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and bovine leukaemia virus (BLV).  Bovine Practitioner.  2004; 38(2): 126-132.  ISSN:  0524-1685.  Note:  In English with a French summary.  
NAL Call No.:  SF779.5.A1B6
Descriptors:  cattle diseases control programs, HACCP, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, adaptable for on farm production problems, disease risk, critical control points for a specific disease, leads to best practices, corrective action when needed, meat and milk production.

Picoux, J.B.; Maillard, R.; Douart, A.  Studio clinico della paratubercolosi bovina.  [Clinical study of bovine paratuberculosis.]  Summa.  2004; 21(6): 23-26.  Note:  In Italian.  Review article.
Descriptors:  cattle disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical picture, diagnosis, pathology.

Pouillot, Regis; Dufour, Barbara; Durand, Benoit.  A deterministic and stochastic simulation model for intra-herd paratuberculosis transmission.  Veterinary Research.  2004; 35(1): 53-68.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, herd level certification procedure, cost/benefit analysis, deterministic and stochastic simulation model for intra-herd transmission, economic impact, single infected heifer, model difficult to validate.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Jordan, P.A.  Can Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis be transmitted from cattle to deer and rabbits, and vice versa?  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor] Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 206-207, 273-274.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, wild deer, wild rabbits, dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease transmission, wild animal feces as reservoirs, Minnesota, United States.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.  Distribution of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in Minnesota dairy farms using bacterial culture of fecal pools.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 203, 270.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease prevalence, pooled fecal sampling, ELISA, Minnesota, United States

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Bey, R.F.; Oakes, M.J.; Bentley, D.C.; Olsen, K.E.  The distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in the environment surrounding Minnesota dairy farms.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2004; 87(9): 2959-2966.  ISSN:  0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  dairy farms, 208 dairy herds, environmental reservoir, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal sampling, 5 cow pools, cow alley ways, manure storage, calving area, sick cow pen, water runoff, postweaned calves areas, alternative screening areas, Minnesota.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Bey, R.F.; Oakes, M.J.; Bentley, D.C.; Olsen, K. E.  Use of environmental sampling as a herd screening diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on Minnesota dairy farms.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 199-200, 265-266.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy cows, herd health screening, environmental sampling, disease prevalence, diagnostic approach for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease detection, Minnesota, United States.

Reddacliff, L.A.; McGregor, H.; Abbott, K.; Whittington, R.J.  Field evaluation of tracer sheep for the detection of early natural infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(7): 426-433.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  tracer sheep, sentinels for natural infection, field trial, early detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Australia.

Reddacliff, L.A.; McClure, S.J.; Whittington, R.J.  Immunoperoxidase studies of cell mediated immune effector cell populations in early Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2004; 97(3/4): 149-162.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776 NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, experimental infection, Peyer’s patches, lymph nodes, antibodies, cell mediated immunity, immunoperoxidase technique, lysozyme.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Thomson, J.U.; Pence, M.; Smith, P.  Survey of veterinarians and producers on Johne's disease in Iowa cattle.  Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 2(4): 235-251.  ISSN:  1542-2666.
URL:  http://www.jarvm.com/
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease control program of Iowa, cattle veterinarians, cattle producers, diagnosis, survey state, need for continuing eduation, use and interpretation of diagnostic test, disease control program, potential support for a United States Federal control program, vaccination, results of survey, Iowa, United States.

Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Lloyd, Joy; Herrewegh, Arnold; Ikonomopoulos, John; D'Agostino, Martin; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel.  A molecular beacon-based real-time NASBA assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water and milk.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2004; 237(1): 119-126.  ISSN:  0378-1097.
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=fml
NAL Call No.:  QR1.F44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, assays, water, milk, strain detection methods, gene amplification, gene sequences, isolates.

Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; D'Agostino, M.; Pla, M.; Cook, N.  Construction strategy for an internal amplification control for real-time diagnostic assays using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification: development and clinical application.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(12): 5832-5836.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:   http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/12/5832
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic assay techniques, DNA amplification, RNA amplification, internal amplification control (IAC), molecular beacon-based real time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays.  

Roy, Parimal; Edwin, Prabakher G.; Jayakumar, Vajiravel; Hemalatha, S; Purushothaman, V.  An outbreak of Johne's disease among sheep in an organized farm.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2004; 74(11): 1118-1119.  ISSN:  0367-8318.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne's disease, ovine paratuberculosis, epidemiology, diagnosis, etiology, chronic granulomatous enteritis, pathology, mortality, India.  

Secott, T.E.; Lin, T.L.; Wu, C.C.  Mycobactetium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fibronectin attachment protein facilitates M-cell targeting and invasion through a fibronectin bridge with host integrins.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(7): 3724-3732.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/7/3724
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  mice, rats, animal model, antibodies, experimental infections, fibronectins, intestines, pathogenesis, peptides Peyer patches, proteins, murine gut loops, formation fibronectin bridge formed between FAP-P of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and integrins on M cells.

Semret, M.; Alexander, D.; Yansouni, C.; Behr, M. Genomic regions unique to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genomics, polymorphisms, unique sequences, livestock pathogen, North America.

Semret, M.; Zhai, G.; Cleto, C.; Mostowy, S.; Alexander, D.; Cangelosi, G.; Cousins, D.; Collins, D.; van-Soolingen, D.; Behr, M. Genomic studies of the Mycobacterium avium reveal large sequence polymorphisms missing from M-avium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note; 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: humans, livestock, bacterial infections, molecular genetics, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum, genetic studies, polymorphisms, comparative study.

Semret, M.; Zhai, G.; Mostowy, S.; Cleto, C.; Alexander, D.; Cangelosi, G.; Cousins, D.; Collins, D.M.; van Soolingen, D.; Behr, M.A.  Extensive genomic polymorphism within Mycobacterium avium.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2004; 186(18): 6332-6334.  ISSN:  0021-9193.  
URL:  http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/186/18/6332
NAL Call No.:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, 14 large sequence polymorphisms, comparative genomic analysis, mycobactin biosynthesis operons, siderophores.

Shin, S.J.; Yoo HanSang; McDonough, S.P.; Chang, Y.F.  Comparative antibody response of five recombinant antigens in relation to bacterial shedding levels and development of serological diagnosis based on 35 kDa antigen for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Journal of Veterinary Science.  2004; 5(2): 111-117.  ISSN:  1229-845X.
URL:  http://www.vetsci.org/
NAL Call No.:  SF604.J68
Descriptors:  cows with different shedding rates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cloned eighty five complex (85A, 85B and 85C) 35 kDa antigen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), antigens in ELISA, serological reactivity, curve analysis, usefulness as a diagnostic agent.

Shin, S.J.; Chang, Y.F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, J.Q.; Huang, L.; Yoo HanSang; Shin, K.S.; Stehman, S.; Shin, S.J.; Torres, A.  Development of a polymerase chain reaction test to confirm Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in culture.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(2): 116-120.  ISSN:  1040-6387.   
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, detection assay, PCR, primer set from ISMav2, description of the primer, diagnostic value, no amplification of 494 bp DNA fragment detected in 11 bacterial species, Mycobacterium spp., Mycobacterium avium subsp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinobacillus pleruopneumonias, Lepsospira interrogans serovar Pomona, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Salmonella typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Staphylococcus aureus, Scedosporium sp.

Siguroardottir, Olof G.; Valheim, Mette; Press, Charles McL.  Establishment of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the intestine of ruminants.  Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews.  2004; 56(6): 819-834.  ISSN:  0169-409X.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=4953&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=e38c212aafd26b014558ba729b28a4f1 Descriptors:  ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infection, intestines, complement receptor 3.

Singh, B.B.; Gumber, S.; Randhawa, S.S.; Aradhana; Dhand, N.K.  Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in Punjab.  Indian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 81(11): 1195-1196.  ISSN:  0019-6479.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 IN2
Descriptors:  251 cows, 376 buffaloes, intradermal test, Johne’s, disease, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, incidence of disease, sex differences, species differences, Punjab, India.

Singh, B.B.; Sharma, S.; Kumar, H.; Dhand, N.K.  Surveillance of diseases in organized dairy farms of Punjab.  Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University.  2004; 41(4): 490-494.  ISSN:  0048-6019.
NAL Call No.:  S19.P8
Descriptors:  3 dairy cattle farms, animal health monitoring, repeat breeders, reproductive disorders, anestrus, cattle diseases, parasites, disease surveillance, epidemiology, disease prevention and control, abortion, etiology, babesiosis, bovine mastitis, brucellosis, paratuberculosis, theileriosis, trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, Babesia, bovine herpesvirus 1, Brucella, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Theileria, Trypanosoma, vaccination, Punjab, India.

Singh, S.V.; Vihan, V.S.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in goat milk.  Small Ruminant Research.  2004; 54(3): 231-235.  ISSN: 0921-4488.
NAL Call No.:  SF380.I52
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, goats, raw goat milk, goat diseases, disease detection, food pathogens, bacterial contamination, food contamination, foodborne infections, Uttar Pradesh, India. 

Sivakumar, P.; Nem Singh; Tripathi, B.N. Purification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosa of buffaloes showing lesions of natural paratuberculosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2004; 28(2): 97-101. ISSN: 0250-4758
Abstract: Two methods, namely density gradient centrifugation and xylene extraction, and a modified enzyme-digestion centrifugation method developed in this study were compared for purification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from the intestinal tissues of buffaloes showing lesions of natural paratuberculosis. Out of 12 animals examined by direct impression smears, only 4 animals showed acid-fast bacilli compatible to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, whereas smears from bacterial pellets purified from large amount of intestinal tissues by the three methods showed AFB in all 12 cases examined. Results of acid-fast smears and IS900 PCR confirmed the specificity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the bacterial pellets. On comparison of the efficacy, the first two methods resulted in lesser bacterial recovery with more cellular debris and contaminating bacteria (average wet weight of bacterial pellets ranged 50-90 mg/3 g of mucosal homogenate). The enzyme digestion-centrifugation (EDC) method yielded better results in terms of bacterial recovery (30-60 mg) and purity. It was concluded that enzyme digestion-centrifugation method expedited the disease diagnosis and molecular confirmation of isolates in less than 6 hours with simple procedures using cheaper and commonly available chemicals. It also increased the test sensitivity of smear examination and genome-based diagnostic tests..
Descriptors : buffaloes, Babalus, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis extraction, intestinal mucosa, centrifugation, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis, purification.

Sreedevi,B.; Krishnappa, G.  Standardization of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms from bovines.  Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.  2004; 74(11): 1120-1123.  ISSN:  0367-8318.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 IN22
Descriptors:  cattle, intradermal tuberculin test positive, biopsy of prescapular lymph nodes, culture of isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis complex, differential diagnosis, PCR IS6110, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, Mycobacterium phlei.

Stabel, J.R.; Bosworth, T.L.; Kirkbride, T.A.; Forde, R.L.; Whitlock, R.H.  A simple, rapid, and effective method for the extraction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA from fecal samples for polymerase chain reaction.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(1): 22-30.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  subclinical and clinically infected animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture single diagnostic test for both clinical states, DNA extraction from fecal samples and modification of PCR assay for optimal sensitivity, method can detect animals shedding less than 1 cfu/g.

Stabel, J.R.; Hurd, S.; Calvente, L.; Rosenbusch, R.F.  Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2004; 87(7): 2177-2183.  ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Abstract:  The 2002 NAHM's Dairy Survey indicated that 87.2% of dairy farms in the United States feed waste milk to their neonatal calves.  Although cost-effective, this practice can lead to increased calf morbidity and mortality due to ingestion of pathogenic agents.  In an effort to reduce the risk of infection, dairy producers are implementing on-farm pasteurization of the waste milk as a control procedure before feeding the milk to calves.  In the present study, the efficacy of a commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) on-farm pasteurizer unit to destroy Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk was evaluated.  Replicate experiments were run for 3 isolates of M. paratuberculosis, 3 serovars of Salmonella (derby, dublin, typhimurium); and 4 species of Mycoplasma (bovis, californicum, canadense, serogroup 7) at 2 different levels of experimental inoculation. In addition, HTST pasteurization experiments were performed on colostrum experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis.  After culture of the pasteurized milk samples, no viable M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, or Mycoplasma were recovered, regardless of species, strain, or isolate.  Pasteurization of colostrum was also effective in the destruction of M. paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin.  These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves.
Descriptors:  calves, neonates, safer calf feeding, feeds, cattle microbial diseases, disease transmission, efficacy of short time pasteurization, high temperature, raw milk treatment, cow colostrums, immunoglobulin G., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica, various Mycoplasma species, plate count, feed processing technology.  

Stabel, J.R.; Goff, J.P.  Efficacy of immunologic assays for the detection of Johne's disease in dairy cows fed additional energy during the periparturient period.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(5): 412-420.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  dairy cows, postparturient period, immunosuppression effect on diagnostic tests for Johne’s, detection, energy balance, experimental nutrition study, rumen cannulas, ad libitum goup and forced additional manual feeding, parturition effects on immunity, immunoassay, immunoglobulins, immunosuppression, effects on response to diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis.

Stabel, J.R.; Lambertz, A.  Efficacy of pasteurization conditions for the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Journal of Food Protection.  2004; 67(12): 2719-2726.  ISSN: 0362-028X.
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J824
Descriptors:  food preservation, raw milk, pasteurization, UHT treatment, UHT milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, risk reduction, Crohn’s disease.

Stanley , E.C.; Mole, R.; Rees, C. Rapid detection of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk using phage amplification. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 162. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: cattle, humans, zoonotic potential of milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial contaminant of milk, detection method, pasteurized milk.

Sternberg, S.; Lindberg, A.; Englund, S.  Paratuberkulos - ar det en zoonos?  [Paratuberculosis - is it a zoonosis?]  Svensk Veterinartidning.  2004; 56(6): 11-14.  ISSN:  0346-2250.  Note:  In Swedish with an English summary.  
NAL Call No.:  41.9 SV23
Descriptors:  beef cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, potential zoonotic disease, Crohn’s disease in humans, control program, animal and public health concerns, epidemiology, Sweden.

Stewart, D.J.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Noske, P.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.; Prowse, S.J.; Michalski, W.P.; Butler, K.L.; Jones, S.L.  A long-term study in Merino sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 104(3/4): 165-178.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Merino sheep, experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, long term study, clinical picture, fecal culture, immunological studies, antibodies, antibody formation, cell mediated immunity, interferon gamma test, absorbed ELISA, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques.

Stich, R.W.; Byrum, B.; Love, B.; Theus, N.; Barber, L.; Shulaw, W.P.  Evaluation of an automated system for non-radiometric detection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in bovine feces.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2004; 56(2): 267-275.  ISSN:  0167-7012.
Descriptors:  evaluation of a broth-based automated culture system, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine fecal testing, tested various dilutions of spiked bovine feces, Mycobacteria confirmed with IS900-based PCR assay, and acid fast staining, validated against Herrold’s egg yolk solid medium and defined test specimens.

Stratmann, J.; Strommenger, B.; Goethe, R.; Dohmann, K.; Gerlach, G.F.; Stevenson, K.; Li, L.L.; Zhang, Q.; Kapur, V.; Bull, T.J.  A 38-kilobase pathogenicity island specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis encodes cell surface proteins expressed in the host.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(3): 1265-1274.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/3/1265
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  functional genomics, pathogenicity, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, novel ABC transporter operon, gene expression, nucleotide sequences, open reading frames, Johne’s disease of cattle, paratuberculosis, surface proteins MptD, transposable elements.  

Sung, N.; Takayama, K.; Collins, M.TA.  Possible association of GroES and antigen 85 proteins with heat resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2004; 70(3): 1688-1697.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  Conflicting reports on the heat resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis prompted an examination of the effect of culture medium on this property of the organism.  M. paratuberculosis was cultured in three types of media (fatty acid-containing medium 7H9-OADC (oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase supplement) and glycerol-containing media WR-GD and 7H9-GD [glycerol-dextrose supplement]) at pH 6.0.  M. paratuberculosis grown under these three culture conditions was then tested for heat resistance in distilled water at 65+C.  Soluble proteins and mycolic acids of M. paratuberculosis were evaluated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), respectively.  The type of culture medium used significantly affected the heat resistance of M. paratuberculosis.  The decimal reduction times at 65+C (D(65+C) values; times required to reduce the concentration of bacteria by a factor of 10 at 65+C) for M. paratuberculosis strains grown in 7H9-OADC were significantly higher than those for the organisms grown in WR-GD medium (P < 0.01).  When the glycerol-dextrose supplement of WR was substituted for the fatty acid supplement (OADC) in 7H9 medium (resulting in 7H9-GD), the D(65+C) value was significantly lower than that for the organism grown in 7H9-OADC medium (P = 0.022) but higher than that when it was cultured in WR-GD medium (P = 0.005).  Proteomic analysis by 2-DE of soluble proteins extracted from M. paratuberculosis grown without heat stress in the three media (7H9-OADC, 7H9-GD, and WR-GD) revealed that seven proteins were more highly expressed in 7H9-OADC medium than in the other two media.  When the seven proteins were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric analysis, four of the seven protein spots were unidentifiable.  The other three proteins were identified as GroES heat shock protein, alpha antigen, and antigen 85 complex B (Ag85B; fibronectin-binding protein).  These proteins may be associated with the heat resistance of M. paratuberculosis.  Alpha antigen and Ag85B are both trehalose mycolyltransferases involved in mycobacterial cell wall assembly.  TLC revealed that 7H9-OADC medium supported production of more trehalose dimycolates and cell wall-bound mycolic acids than did WR-GD medium.  The present study shows that in vitro culture conditions significantly affect heat resistance, cell wall synthesis, and protein expression of M. paratuberculosis and emphasize the importance of culture conditions on in vitro and ex vivo studies to estimate heat resistance.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, bacterial antigens, bacterial proteins, heat shock proteins, organic acids and salts, heat tolerance, cell culture, 3 types of culture media, proteome, proteomics, protein content, lipids, cell walls, mycolic acid.

Sung, N.; Collins, M.T.  Variation in resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis to acid environments as a function of culture medium.  Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation.  2004; (392): 68.  ISSN:  0250-5118. 
NAL Call No.:  44.9 IN82B
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, in vitro growth medium either high fatty acid (7H9-OADC) or glycerol (WR-GD and 7H9-GD), acid resistance, pH levels 6.0 and 6.8, resistance to acetate buffer at pH 3, 4, and 6, bacterial proteins, culture media, fatty acids, food safety, glycerol, growth rate, heat resistance, morphology, radiometric culture method (BACTEC) and D values, soluable proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE, susceptibility.

Taddei, S.; Robbi, C.; Cesena, C.; Rossi, I.; Schiano, E.; Arrigoni, N.; Vicenzoni, G.; Cavirani, S. Detection of Mycobaterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine fecal samples: comparison of three polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic tests with a conventional culture method. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004; 16(6): 503-508. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease detection, feces, DNA, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, analytical kits, cell culture, diagnostic techniques, disease diagnosis.

Tasara, T.; Stephan, R. Development of a triplex PCR system for rapid detection and species level identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004; 104: 489. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, USA; May 23-27, 2004.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, livestock pathogen, triplex PCR, diagnosis, detection method.

Tavornpanich, S.; Gardner, I.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Shin, S.; Whitlock, R.H.; Fyock, T.; Adaska, J.M.; Walker, R.L.; Hietala, S.K.  Evaluation of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in large dairy herds.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2004; 65(8): 1061-1070.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, pooled fecal cultures, evaluation of the reliability of detection method.

Tooker, B.C.; Coussens, P.M.  Phagocytosis of M. paratuberculosis fails to activate expression of NADH dehydrogenase and nucleolin-related protein in bovine macrophages.  Immunology Letters.  2004; 93(2-3): 137-142.  ISSN:  0165-2478.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T75-4C56HGV-1&_user=10&_handle=B-WA-A-W-WU-MsSAYZA-UUA-AUEBEWCAUZ-AUEACUCEUZ-CVYUDDEBB-WU-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=05%2F15%2F2004&_rdoc=6&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%235049%232004%23999069997%23502730!&_cdi=5049&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5a4b860fb6e08b39c0067dc3fe211769 Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial diseases, Johne’s disease, gene expression, NADH dehydrogenase, pathogenesis, macrophages, phagocytosis.

Tremblay, Robert.  Emerging threats for public health associated with dairy cattle.  Medecin Veterinaire du Quebec.  2004; 34(1-2): 90-92.  ISSN:  0225-9591.  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, zoonotic diseases, Coxiella burnetii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease, dairy cattle, foodborne diseases, paratuberculosis, Q fever, reviews.  

Tryland, Morten; Olsen, Ingrid; Vikoren, Turid; Handeland Kjell; Arnemo, Jon M.; Tharaldsen, Jorun; Djonne, Berit; Josefsen, Terje D.; Reitan, Liv J. Serologic survey for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in free-ranging cervids from Norway.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2004; 40(1): 32-41.  ISSN:  0090-3558.
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/ 
NAL Call No.:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  red deer, Cervus elaphus, moose, Alces alces, roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus, antibodies, ELISA, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serological surveys, affinity between protein G and immunoglobulins, screening method, Norway.  

Valentin Weigand, P.  Intracellular invasion and persistence: survival strategies of Streptococcus suis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2004; 117(11/12): 459-463.  ISSN:  0005-9366.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  pigs, ruminants, Streptococcus suis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, comparison study, bacterial pathogens, host specificity, tissue tropism, differences in tissue preferences, differences in intracellular behaviors and persistence, persistence in macrophages.

Valheim, M.; Sigurdardottir, O.G.; Storset, A.K.; Aune, L.G.; Press, C. McL.  Characterization of macrophages and occurrence of T cells in intestinal lesions of subclinical paratuberculosis in goats.  Journal of Comparative Pathology.  2004; 131(2-3): 221-232.  ISSN:  0021-9975.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6861&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=6091bef4d15aae1adbceffba708c6eb8 NAL Call No.:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:  goats, intestines, lesions, latent infections, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, apoptosis, CD4+ lymphocytes, CD8+ lymphocytes, CD 68+, T lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, characterization, glycoproteins, macrophages, paratuberculosis, phenotypes, surface antigens.

Van Leeuwen, John.  Impacts and control of insidious infectious diseases - Beat them before they beat you and your clients Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy cattle.  Medecin Veterinaire du Quebec.  2004; 34(1-2): 53-54.  ISSN:  0225-9591.  Note:  In English with a French summary.
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, disease control and prevention.

Vansnick, E.; de Rijk, P.; Vercammen, F.; Geysen, D.; Rigouts, L.; Portaels, F.  Newly developed primers for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2004; 100(3/4): 197-204.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8 NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  cattle, red deer, Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 2 new PCR assays, IS900 using different primers, f57 sequence, analysis of 190 mycobacterial isolates, sensitivity tested at 1CFU per PCR, validation on large scale still needed.

Vesosky, B.; Turner, O.C.; Turner, J.; Orme, I.M.  Gamma interferon production by bovine gamma delta T cells following stimulation with mycobacterial mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan.  Infection and Immunity.  2004; 72(8): 4612-4618.  ISSN:  0019-9567.  
URL:  http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/8/4612
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  cattle, bovine gamma delta T lymphocytes, production of IFN-gamma, in vitro cell culture, exposed to Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific immunostimulation, immune response, interferon, interferon, interleukin-2, lipids, monocytes, peptidoglycans, lipoarabinomannan.

Villarino, M.A.; Jordan, E.  Effect of management related disease control methods on the development of Johne's disease in dairy cattle in Texas.  In:  Smith, R.A.  [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, September 23-25, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 266-267.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, management related disease control methods, Texas, United States.  

Walker, B.  Stock permitted into NSW BJD Protected Zones.  Agnote NSW Agriculture.  2004; (DAI-322 (1st Edition)): 6.  ISSN:  1034-6848.  
URL:  http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/reader/bjd-zoning/stock-into-bjd-prot-zones.htm
Descriptors:  beef cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease control, zoning program, protected zoning, exemptions from movement restriction, testing of exempted cows, steers and other cattle for slaughter, veterinary approved for movement, CHECKTEST herds,  Beef Cattle Trade Assurance Scheme, outline of long term goals of Australian cattle industry, Australia.

Walker, B; Jessep, T. Bovine Johne's 'Suspect' herds.Agnote NSW Agriculture. 2004; (DAI-49(Third Edition)): 3 pp. ISSN: 1034-6848
URL: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/cattle/bjd/control/bjd-suspect-herds
Descriptors: cattle, cattle herds, suspected of infection with Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, factors to consider, previous infections, asymptomatic infections, disease surveys, disease transmission, disease surveillance, Australia.

Wang, YiQin; Bao, YongGan; Hu, LieShan.  Rapid detection of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep by ELISA.  Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine.  2004; 21(11): 27-28.  ISSN:  1005-944X.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, blood serum sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection method, ELISA, antigen coated microplate, HRPO, color reaction, sensitive and accurate assay, absorbing sera with Mycobacterium phlei prior to test.

Ward, Michael P.; Perez, Andres M.  Association between soil type and paratuberculosis in cattle herds.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2004; 65(1): 10-14. ISSN:  0002-9645.  
URL:  http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  92 cattle herds, soil type at herd location, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ELISA, bacterial survival may be enhanced by silt or sand content in loamy soils, Indiana.

Waters, W.R.; Nonnecke, B.J.; Palmer, M.V.; Robbe-Austermann, S.; Bannantine, J.P.; Stabel, J.R.; Whipple, D.L.; Payeur, J.B.; Estes, D.M.; Pitzer, J.E.; Minion, F.C.  Use of recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2004; 11(4): 729-735.  ISSN:  1071-412X.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=84
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, bacterial antigens, cattle diseases, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, interferon, mycobacterial diseases, nitric oxide, recombinant proteins TNF, tumor necrosis factor, early secretory antigenic target 6 culture filtrate protein 10 fusin protein, invitro testing of blood leukocytes, IFN-gamma inducing antigens, diagnosis of infected animals.

Weber, M.F.; van Roermund, H.J.W.; Assink, H.B.J.; Stegeman, J.A.  Rate and structure of cattle transfers between cattle herds considered to be free of paratuberculosis.  In:  Reid, S.W.J.; Menzies, F.D.; Russell, A.M.  Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at the Martigny, Switzerland on March 24-26, 2004. Published by the Society, Roslin, UK.  2004; 216-225.  ISBN:  0948073640.  
Descriptors:  cattle, transport between 206 herds free of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, paratuberculosis, transport of animals, The Netherlands.

Weber, M.F.; Groenendaal, H.; van Roermund, H.J.W.; Nielen, M.  Simulation of alternatives for the Dutch Johne's disease certification-and-monitoring program.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2004; 62(1): 1-17.  ISSN:  0167-5877.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  disease free dairy herds, dairy cattle herd monitoring, a stochastic simulation model ("JohneSSim"), optimal methods for certification, monitoring schemes, disease surveillance, disease control, simulation models, disease transmission, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease detection, disease prevalence, animal pathogenic bacteria, cattle diseases, The Netherlands.  

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O.A.; Deng, M.; Abrahamsen, M.S.  Sequential patterns of gene expression by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages associated with ingestion of mycobacterial organisms.  Microbial Pathogenesis.  2004; 37(4): 215-224.  ISSN: 0882-4010
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6954&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=0ce0cc81f81ede9640040947d652abf1 NAL Call No.:  QR175.M53
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, paratuberculosis, microarray technology.

Whittington, R.J.; Marshall, D.J.; Nicholls, P.J.; Marsh, I.B.; Reddacliff, L.A.  Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2004; 70(5): 2989-3004.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5   The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes.  Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations.  Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival.  UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade.  The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade.  The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon.  A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, pathogen survival, dormancy in the environment, disease reservoirs, feces, sheep, animal manures, fecal contamination, grassland soils, pastures, soil pollution, soil pH, soil water, effects of ultraviolet radiation, solar radiation, shade, sandy loam soils, structural genes, DNA binding proteins, kinases, dormancy associated genes, Dps protein, GTP pyrophosphokinase, relA gene, dps gene, New South Wales.

Wilks, C.R. Another brick in the wall.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2004; 82(12): 762.  ISSN: 
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, cattle, horses, fish, pigs, animal pathogen, disease control.  

Wikse, S.E.  Preventive medicine procedures for cattle.  In:  Smith, R.A. [Editor]  Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25-September, 2004.  Published by the Association.  2004; 199-200, 265-266.  ISSN:  0743-0450.  Note:  In English and French.
NAL Call No.:  SF961.A5
Descriptors:  cattle, veterinary technicians, cattle preventive medicine, processing calves, processing replacement heifers and in collection of samples for herd biosecurity programs, disease monitoring for bovine diarrhea, Johne’s disease.

Wiszniewska, Agnieszka; Szteyn, Joanna; Fus, Maria Monika.  Porownanie wzrostu Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis na trzech podlozach mikrobiologicznych.  [Comparison of growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on three microbiological media.]  Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2004; 60(9): 982-984.  ISSN:  0025-8628.  Note:  In Polish.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 M463
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, comparison study, growth on 3 culture media, antibiotics, microbial contamination, milk testing, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease.

Worthington, R.W.  The diagnosis of Johne's disease.  Surveillance Wellington.  2004; 31(3): 8-13.  ISSN:  0112-4927.  
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis difficult in subclinical infections of livestock, combination of tests, cellular immune response, serology, bacterial culture, histopathology.

Yan, Si Tong; Lin, Zhi Xiong; Zhu, Dao Zhong; Yu, Hai Qiong; Cai, Zhi Ling.  Study of microcomplement fixation test for cattle paratuberculosis and sheep paratuberculosis. Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine.  2004; 21(11): 23-26.  ISSN:  1005-944x.  Note:  In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, microcomplement fixation test.


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Last update: October 24, 2011